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Phylum protozoa General characteristics: • ►unicellular. ►higher protests. ►Eukaryote. ►Binary fission replication. ►Cyst formation. ►motile.


I- Class Flagellata (mastigophora) ► Shape: Oval, Circle or Long ► Motion: by Flagella ► Blood flagelles of this class: ► Lieshmania, Trypanosome. ► Intestinal flagelles: ► Giardia, trichomonas intestinalis,chilomastix ► Vaginal flagelles: ► T. vaginalis


II- Class Sarcodina (Rhizopoda) • • • • •

Shape: Pleomorphic Movement : by pseudopodes. Replication: binary fission. Kyst formation. Pathogen parasite: Entamoeba histolytica.


III- Class Sporozoa ♣ Movement: unknown. ♣ Live in cell and tissue. ♣ Replication: sexual and asexual. ♣ Important genus: plasmodium, toxoplasma isospora, cryptosporidium.


IV- Class Ciliata    

Movement: by cilia. Replication: binary fission. Kyst formation. Human pathogen: Balantidium coli


Class flagellata  General -

characteristic: One or more flagella. Periplast membrane. Double nucleus. Replication: longitudinal fission.


Classification of Flagellates by habitat • • • •

Blood flagellates. Intestinal flagellates. Genital flagellates. Tissue flagellates.


Second classification     

Genus leishmania. Genus trypanosoma. Genus giardia. Genus chilomastix. Genus trichomonas.


Genus - leishmania Species - tropica • • • •

Cutaneous leishmaniasis . Forms: Moist form: L . Tropica var major. Dry form : L . Tropica var minor.


MORPHOLOGY Intracellular parasites. Shape: oval. Length: 2-6Âľ, wide 1-3Âľ. Amastigote and promastigote forms Staining method: Giemza Culture: growth on agar media with rabbit serum.


Promastigote and amastigote


Leishmania tropica


Sensitive animal  Dog,

rat, cat, rabbit and guinea pig.  Source of infection: human and above animals.  Transmission: direct and indirect.  Direct transmission: from ulcer and blood transfusion


Indirect transmission


Indirect transmission


Geographic distribution  Mediterranean,

Africa, Italia, central Asia and medal east (Afghanistan, Pakistan, Iran, Arabica‌..


PATHOGENICITY ► Incubation

period: 2-5 months. ► In moist form 2-7 months. ► Primary furuncle (hand, foot, face, neck) ► Progress to ulceration or health. ► Duration: 6 – 24 months. ► Complications: with other microbes produce permanence mark ( one or more )


Cutaneous leishmaniasis


Cutaneous leishmaniasis


Cutaneous leishmaniasis


Cutaneous leishmaniasis


Cutaneous leishmaniasis


DIAGNOSIS 

  

Direct diagnosis: Giemza or leishman stain of biopsy or fluid (amastigat form). Culture of pus or blood. Montenegro test ELISA method


Leishmania biopsy


Montenegro test


Intracellular parasites


IMMUNITY • Long term cell mediated immunity.


Systemic and Typical treatment     

Glucantime:10mg/kg w.b for 10-15 days Or typically 0.1-1ml tow days in a week Pentostam: 20mg/kgw.b for 10-15 days Typical antiseptics. mixture: Antibiotics


PREVENTION • • • •

Control of mosquito. Control of mosquito source. Hygiene. Vaccination.


LEISHMANIA BRAZILIENSIS ►Morphology:

♦ Amastigote and promastigote forms ♦ ♦ ♦

Shape: Oval Vector: mosquito (genus lutzomyia). Animal source: small rodent animals.


Pathogenesis Cases Muco Cutaneous Leishmaniasis or Espundia. ♦ Unknown incubation period. ♦ Cases skin ulcer and than mouth, nose and lips ♦ Duration: 2-3 years. 


IMMUNITY • After metastasis Cell Mediated Immunity will develop.


DIAGNOSIS 

 

Direct diagnosis: Giemza or leishman stain of biopsy or fluid (amastigate form). Culture of pus or blood. Subcutaneous leishman test with killed parasites.


Treatment • Similar to L. Tropica but use it for longer time for example. • Pentostam: 20mg/kgw.b for 30 days. •


Prevention • Woodland staff must protect him self from sand flies bite


Leishmania donovani 

Morphology: Similar to L. Tropica.


Geographical distribution 

Europe , Mediterranean , central America Africa , Asia ( India , China , Turkmenistan )


SOURCE OF INFECTION • • •

Mammal animals Humans Vector: mosquito (genus Phlebotomus) but in America genus lutzomyia • Habitat: after skin infection enter to blood circulation and infect RES.


LIFE CYCLE


PATHOGENESIS • Incubation period is 3-6 month. • Infect RES. • Symptoms: headache , fever , loss of Weight , Cough , anorexia anemia Splenomegaly , Hepatomegaly , diarrhea , lymphodenopathy , pain in L.H


DIAGNOSIS  Direct

diagnosis:  Giemza or leishman stain of RES biopsy ( amastigate form ).  Thick smear of blood sample.  Indirect diagnosis:  Culture in rabbit blood agar media.  Agglutination of patient serum and media


Treatment  Pentostam

20mg/kgw.b for 30 days.  Pentamidine 2-4mg/kgw.b or  Amphotracine – B 1mg/kgw.b for 12-24 days  Splenectomy.

protozoa & leishmania ppt