Page 1

Anatomy & Physiology

SIXTH EDITION

Chapter 19, part 1 Blood

PowerPoint® Lecture Slide Presentation prepared by

Dr. Kathleen A. Ireland, Biology Instructor, Seabury Hall, Maui, Hawaii Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Frederic H. Martini

Fundamentals of


Learning Objectives • List the components of the cardiovascular system and explain the major functions of this system. • Describe the important components and major functions of the blood • List the characteristics and functions of red blood cells. • Describe the structure of hemoglobin and indicate its functions. • Discuss red blood cell production and maturation. Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Learning Objectives

• Explain the importance of blood typing and the basis for ABO and Rh incompatibilities. • Categorize the various white blood cells on the basis of structure and function. • Describe the structure, function and production of platelets. • Describe the reaction sequences responsible for blood clotting.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


SECTION 19-1 The Cardiovascular System: An Introduction

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The cardiovascular system

• Provides a mechanism for rapid transport of nutrients, waste products, respiratory gases and cells

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


SECTION 19-2 Functions and Composition of Blood

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Blood • Fluid connective tissue • Functions include • Transporting dissolved gases, nutrients, hormones, and metabolic wastes • Regulating pH and ion composition of interstitial fluids • Restricting fluid loss at injury sites • Defending the body against toxins and pathogens • Regulating body temperature by absorbing and redistributing heat Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


The composition of blood

• Plasma and formed elements comprise whole blood • Red blood cells (RBC) • White blood cells (WBC) • Platelets • Can fractionate whole blood for analytical or clinical purposes

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.1a


Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.1b


Figure 19.1 The Composition of Whole Blood

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.1c


Hemopoiesis

• Process of blood cell formation • Hemocytoblasts are circulating stem cells that divide to form all types of blood cells • Whole blood from anywhere in the body has roughly the same temperature, pH and viscosity

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


SECTION 19-3 Plasma

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Plasma

• Accounts for 46-63% of blood volume • 92% of plasma is water • Higher concentration of dissolved oxygen and dissolved proteins than interstitial fluid

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Plasma proteins

• more than 90% are synthesized in the liver • Albumins • 60% of plasma proteins • Responsible for viscosity and osmotic pressure of blood

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Additional Plasma Proteins • Globulins • ~35% of plasma proteins • Include immunoglobins which attack foreign proteins and pathogens • Include transport globulins which bind ions, hormones and other compounds • Fibrinogen • Converted to fibrin during clotting • Removal of fibrinogen leaves serum Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


SECTION 19-4 Red Blood Cells

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Abundance of RBCs

• Erythrocytes account for slightly less than half the blood volume, and 99.9% of the formed elements • Hematocrit measures the percentage of whole blood occupied by formed elements • Commonly referred to as the volume of packed red cells

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Structure of RBCs

• Biconcave disc, providing a large surface to volume ration • Shape allows RBCs to stack, bend and flex • RBCs lack organelles • Typically degenerate in about 120 days.

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 19.2 The Anatomy of Red Blood Cells

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.2


Hemoglobin

• Molecules of hemoglobin account for 95% of the proteins in RBCs • Hemoglobin is a globular protein, formed from two pairs of polypeptide subunits • Each subunit contains a molecule of heme which reversibly binds an oxygen molecule • Damaged or dead RBCs are recycled by phagocytes

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 19.3 The Structure of Hemoglobin

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.3


Figure 19.4 “Sickling” in Red Blood Cells

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.4


RBC life span and circulation • Replaced at a rate of approximately 3 million new blood cells entering the circulation per second. • Replaced before they hemolyze • Components of hemoglobin individually recycled • Heme stripped of iron and converted to biliverdin, then bilirubin • Iron is recycled by being stored in phagocytes, or transported throughout the blood stream bound to transferrin Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 19.5 Red Blood Cell Turnover

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.5


RBC Production

• Erythropoeisis = the formation of new red blood cells • Occurs in red bone marrow • Process speeds up with in the presence of EPO (Erythropoeisis stimulating hormone) • RBCs pass through reticulocyte and erythroblast stages

Copyright © 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings


Figure 19.6 Stages of RBC Maturation

Copyright Š 2004 Pearson Education, Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings

Figure 19.6

haematology  

haematology