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ATLAS OF IMMUNOLOGY SECOND EDITION

Julius M. Cruse, B.A., B.S., D.Med.Sc., M.D., Ph.D., Dr. h.c., F.A.A.M., F.R.S.H., F.R.S.M. Professor of Pathology Director of Immunopathology and Transplantation Immunology Director of Graduate Studies in Pathology Department of Pathology Associate Professor of Medicine and Associate Professor of Microbiology Distinguished Professor of the History of Medicine University of Mississippi Medical Center Investigator of the Wilson Research Foundation Mississippi Methodist Rehabilitation Center Jackson, Mississippi

Robert E. Lewis, B.S., M.S., Ph.D., F.R.S.H., F.R.S.M. Professor of Pathology Director of Immunopathology and Transplantation Immunology Department of Pathology University of Mississippi Medical Center Investigator of the Wilson Research Foundation Mississippi Methodist Rehabilitation Center Jackson, Mississippi

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Cruse, Julius M., 1937Atlas of immunology / Julius M. Cruse, Robert E. Lewis.—2nd ed. p. cm. Includes index. ISBN 0-8493-1567-0 (alk. paper) 1. Immunology—Atlases. I. Lewis, R.E. (Robert Edwin), 1947-II. Title. QR182.C78 2003 616.07'9'0222—dc22

2003058464

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or for the consequences of their use. Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, microÞlming, and recording, or by any information storage or retrieval system, without prior permission in writing from the publisher. The consent of CRC Press LLC does not extend to copying for general distribution, for promotion, for creating new works, or for resale. SpeciÞc permission must be obtained in writing from CRC Press LLC for such copying. Direct all inquiries to CRC Press LLC, 2000 N.W. Corporate Blvd., Boca Raton, Florida 33431. Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identiÞcation and explanation, without intent to infringe.

Visit the CRC Press Web site at www.crcpress.com © 2004 by CRC Press LLC No claim to original U.S. Government works International Standard Book Number 0-8493-1567-0 Library of Congress Card Number 2003058464 Printed in the United States of America 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 Printed on acid-free paper

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Dedicated to

A. Wallace Conerly, M.D. on the occasion of his retirement as Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs and Dean of the School of Medicine at The University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi. Truly a person of vision, Dr. Conerly’s selfless dedication to medical education and research has inspired all of us who are beneficiaries of his generosity in creating a better community, state, and nation through medical research and improved patient care.

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Editorial Staff Julia C. Peteet Copy Editor and Principal Transcriptionist Huan Wang, M.D., Ph.D. Postdoctoral Fellow and Research Associate Contributing Editor Robert S. Morrison III, B.S., M.S. Coordinating Editor Silicon Graphics Molecular Models Smaroula Dilioglou, B.S., M.S., Ph.D. Contributing Editor G. Reid Bishop, B.S., Ph.D. Assistant Professor of Chemistry Mississippi College Silicon Graphics Molecular Models Illustrator Debra Small, B.S. Transcriptionist

Jean B. Henderson, B.A. Principal Graphics Illustrator William A. Buhner, B.S. Computer Graphics Michael Schenk, B.S., M.S.M.I. Director of Medical Illustration University of Mississippi Medical Center Michael Pang, B.S., M.D. Illustrator C. Courtney Covington, B.F.A. Illustrator Ricky Manning, B.A. Illustrator Alice S. Chen, B.A., M.Sc. (Oxon), M.D. Illustrator Diane F. Johnson, B.F.A. Illustrator

Samuel L. Pierce, B.S. Contributing Editor

CRC Press Editorial Staff Judith Spiegel, Ph.D. Acquiring Editor

Jonathan Pennell Art Director

Pat Roberson Production Manager

James Yanchak Prepress Manager

Amy Rodriguez Project Editor

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Authors Julius M. Cruse, B.A., B.S., D.Med.Sc., M.D., Ph.D., Dr.h.c., is Professor of Pathology, Director of Immunopathology and Transplantation Immunology, Director of Graduate Studies in Pathology, Associate Professor of Medicine, Associate Professor of Microbiology, and Distinguished Professor of the History of Medicine at the University of Mississippi Medical Center in Jackson. Formerly, Dr. Cruse was Professor of Immunology and of Biology in the University of Mississippi Graduate School. Dr. Cruse graduated in 1958, earning B.A. and B.S. degrees in chemistry with honors from the University of Mississippi. He was a Fulbright Fellow in the University of Graz (Austria) medical faculty, where he wrote a thesis on Russian tickborne encephalitis virus and received a D.Med.Sc. degree summa cum laude in 1960. On his return to the United States, he entered the M.D./Ph.D. program at the University of Tennessee College of Medicine, Memphis, completing his M.D. degree in 1964 and Ph.D. in pathology (immunopathology) in 1966. Dr. Cruse also trained in pathology at the University of Tennessee Center for the Health Sciences, Memphis. Dr. Cruse is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Association of Immunologists (Historian), the American Society for Investigative Pathology, the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (Historian; Member of Council, 1997–1999; formerly Chairman, Publications Committee [1987–1995]), the Societé Francaise d’Immunologie, the Transplantation Society, and the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, among many others. He is a Fellow of the American Academy of Microbiology, a Fellow of the Royal Society of Health (U.K.) and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (London). He received the Doctor of Divinity, honoris causa, in 1999 from The General Theological Seminary of the Episcopal Church, New York City. Dr. Cruse’s research has centered on transplantation and tumor immunology, autoimmunity, MHC genetics in the pathogenesis of AIDS, and neuroendocrine immune interactions. He has received many research grants during his career and is presently funded by the Wilson Research Foundation for neuroendocrine–immune system interactions in patients with spinal cord injuries. He is the author of more than 250 publications in scholarly journals and 38 books, and has directed dissertation and thesis research for more than 40 graduate students during his career. He is editor-in-chief of the international journals Immunologic Research, Experimental and Molecular Pathology, and Transgenics. He was chief editor of the journal Pathobiology from 1982 to 1998 and was founder of Immunologic Research, Transgenics, and Pathobiology. Robert E. Lewis, B.A., M.S., Ph.D., is Professor of Pathology and Director of Immunopathology and Transplantation Immunology in the Department of Pathology at the University of Mississippi Center in Jackson. Dr. Lewis received his B.A. and M.S. degrees in microbiology from the University of Mississippi and earned his Ph.D. in pathology (immunopathology) from the University of Mississippi Medical Center. Following specialty postdoctoral training at several medical institutions, Dr. Lewis has risen through the academic ranks from instructor to professor at the University of Mississippi Medical Center. Dr. Lewis is a member of numerous professional societies, including the American Association of Immunologists, the American Society for Investigative Pathology, the Society for Experimental Biology and Medicine, the American Society for Microbiology, the Canadian Society for Immunology, and the American Society for Histocompatibility and Immunogenetics (Chairman, Publications Committee; member of Board of Directors), among numerous others. He is a Fellow of the Royal Society of Health of Great Britain and a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (U.K.). Dr. Lewis has been the recipient of a number of research grants in his career and is currently funded by the Wilson Research Foundation for his research on neuroendocrine–immune system interaction in patients with spinal cord injuries. Dr. Lewis has authored or coauthored more than 120 papers and 150 abstracts and has made numerous scientific presentations at both the national and international levels. In addition to neuroendocrine–immune interactions, his current research also includes immunogenetic aspects of AIDS progression. Dr. Lewis is a founder, senior editor, and deputy editor-in-chief of Immunologic Research and Transgenics, and is senior editor and deputy editor-in-chief of Experimental and Molecular Pathology. He was senior editor and deputy editor-in-chief of Pathobiology from 1982 to 1998.

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Preface The splendid reception of the first edition of this book in 1999 convinced both the authors and the publisher to prepare a second edition. The 4 years since this atlas first appeared have witnessed an exponential increase in immunological information emanating from more than 130 journals devoted to the subject. The Journal of Immunology is published twice monthly in an effort to accommodate an ever-increasing demand for immunological information among researchers spanning all fields of biomedicine. Besides the unprecedented advances in knowledge of cell receptors and signal transduction pathways, an avalanche of new information has been gleaned from contemporary research concerning cytokines and chemokines, with special reference to their structure and function. This edition has not only been thoroughly updated but also contains five new chapters on comparative immunology, autoimmunity, vaccines and immunization, therapeutic immunology, and diagnostic immunology. The Atlas of Immunology is designed to provide a pictorial reference and serve as a primary resource as the most up-to-date and thorough, illustrated treatise available in the complex science of immunology. The book contains more than 1100 illustrations and depicts essentially every concept of importance in understanding the subject of immunology. It is addressed to immunologists and nonimmunologists alike, including students, researchers, practitioners, and basic biomedical scientists. Use of the book does not require prior expertise. Some of the diagrams illustrate basic concepts, while others are designed for the specialist interested in a more detailed treatment

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of the subject matter of immunology. The group of illustrations is relatively complete and eliminates the need to refer to another source. The subject matter ranges from photographs of historical figures to molecular structures of recently characterized cell receptors, chemokines, and cytokines, the major histocompatibility complex molecules, immunoglobulins, and molecules of related interest to immunologists. The subject matter is divided into chapters that follow an outline which correlates with a standard immunology textbook. This provides for a logical and sequential presentation and gives the reader ready access to each part of the subject matter as it relates to the other parts of the publication. These descriptive illustrations provide the reader with a concise and thorough understanding of basic immunological concepts that often intersect the purview of other basic and clinical scientific disciplines. A host of new illustrations, such as cellular adhesions molecules, is presented in a manner that facilitates better understanding of their role in intercellular and immune reactions. Figures that are pertinent to all of the immunological subspecialties, such as transplantation, autoimmunity, immunophysiology, immunopathology, antigen presentation, and the T cell receptor, to name a few, may be found in this publication. Those individuals with a need for ready access to a visual image of immunological information will want this book to be readily available on their bookshelf. No other publication provides the breadth or detail of illustrated immunological concepts as may be found in the Atlas of Immunology, Second Edition.


Acknowledgments Although many individuals have offered help or suggestions in the preparation of this book, several deserve special mention. We are very grateful to Dr. Michael Hughson, chairman, Department of Pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, for his support of our academic endeavors at this institution. Dr. Fredrick H. Shipkey, professor emeritus of pathology at the University of Mississippi Medical Center, provided valuable assistance in selecting and photographing appropriate surgical pathology specimens to illustrate immunological lesions. We express genuine appreciation to Dr. Edwin Eigenbrodt and Dr. Marsha Eigenbrodt for many photomicrographs. We thank Professor Albert Wahba for offering constructive criticism related to a number of the chemical structures, and express genuine appreciation to Dr. Virginia Lockard for providing the electron micrographs that appear in the book. We also thank Dr. Robert Peace for a case of Job’s syndrome, Dr. Ray Shenefelt for the photomicrograph of cytomegalovirus, Dr. Jonathan Fratkin for photomicrographs of eye and muscle pathology, Dr. C.J. Chen for VKH photographs, Dr. Howard Shulman for GVH photographs, Dr. David DeBauche for providing an illustration of the Philadelphia chromosome, and Dorothy Whitcomb for the history photographs. We thank Dr. G. Reid Bishop of Mississippi College for his generous contribution of molecular models of cytokines and other configurations critical to immunology. We express genuine appreciation to Julia Peteet, Dr. Huan Wang, Dr. Smaroula Dilioglou, Robert Morrison, Debra Small, Bill Buhner, and Sam Pierce for their dedicated efforts in helping us to complete this publication in a timely manner and making valuable editorial contributions. We also appreciate the constructive criticisms of Patsy Foley, B.S., M.T., C.H.T., C.H.S.; Jay Holliday, B.S., M.T., C.H.T.; Paula Hymel, B.S., M.T., C.H.T; Kevin

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Beason, B.S., M.T., C.H.T.; Maxine Crawford, B.S., C.H.T., Shawn Clinton, B.S., M.T., C.H.T.; and Susan Touchstone, B.S., M.T., S.B.B., C.H.T., C.H.S. We are most grateful to Joanna LaBresh of R&D Corp. for providing the artwork and for sharing with us a number of schematic diagrams of immunological molecules and concepts owned by R&D. It is a pleasure also to express our genuine gratitude to INOVA Diagnostics Inc., especially to Carol Peebles, for permitting us to use their photomicrographs of immunological concepts for the autoimmunity chapter and to Cell Marque Corp., especially to Michael Lacey, M.D., for providing figures for the chapter on diagnostic immunology. We would also like to commend the individuals at CRC Press — Judith Spiegel, Ph.D., Editor; Fequiere Vilsaint, former Editor; Pat Roberson, Production Manager; Amy Rodriguez, Project Editor; and all members of their staff — for their professionalism and unstinting efforts to bring this book to publication. To these individuals, we offer our grateful appreciation. Special thanks are expressed to Dr. Daniel W. Jones, Dean of Medicine and Vice Chancellor for Health Affairs, University of Mississippi Medical Center, and his predecessor, Dr. A. Wallace Conerly, for their unstinting support of our research and academic endeavors. Their wise and enthusiastic leadership has facilitated our task and made it enjoyable. We are also most grateful to Mark Adams, CEO of Mississippi Methodist Rehabilitation Center, for his unconditional allegiance and encouragement of clinical research on spinal cord injury patients. The authors’ cellular immunology research has been funded through the generous support of the Wilson Research Foundation, Mississippi Methodist Rehabilitation Center, Jackson.


Illustration Credits Structural image for the front cover, crystal structure of a cytokine/receptor complex: x-ray diffraction image of IL-6 (beta sign) chain provided through the courtesy of Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics, 2003. H.M. Berman, J. Westbrook, Z. Feng, G. Gilliland, T.N. Bhat, H. Weissing, I.N. Shindyalov, P.E. Bourne: The Protein Data Bank, Nucleic Acids Research 28 pp. 235–242 (2000). Photograph of Dr. A. Wallace Conerly on dedication page furnished through the courtesy of Jay Ferchaud, Department of Public Relations, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson. Figures 1.1, 1.5, 1.8, 1.11, 1.12, 1.14, 1.15, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.40, 1.41, 1.42, 1.46, and 1.49 reprinted from U.S. National Library of Medicine. Figures 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.6, 1.9, 1.10, 1.13, 1.16, 1.17, 1.22 through 1.30, 1.32 through 1.39, 1.43, 1.44, 1.45, 1.47, 1.48 and 1.50 through 1.54 reprinted from Whitcomb, D., Immunology to 1980. University of Wisconsin, Center of Health Sciences Library, Madison, 1985. Figure 1.8 courtesy of the Cruse collection; adapted from Hemmelweit, F., Collected Papers of Paul Ehrlich, Pergamon Press, Tarrytown, NY, 1956− 1960. Figure 1.55 reprinted with permission of Jerry Berndt. Figure 1.56 compliments of Professor Dr. Rolf Zinkernagel, Institute of Pathology, University of Zurich. Figure 2.4 adapted from Lachman, P.J., Keith, P.S., Rosen, F.S., and Walport, M.J., Clinical Aspects of Immunology, 5th ed., Vol. 1993, p. 203, Fig. 112. With permission. Figures 2.4, 7.85, and 11.18 redrawn from Lachmann, P.J., Clinical Aspects of Immunology. Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge, MA, 1993. Reprinted by permission of Blackwell Science, Inc. Figures 2.5, 2.6, 2.9, 2.19, 2.52, 4.4, 4.14, 4.17, 7.80, 7.83, 9.24, 9.25, 9.26, 9.29, 9.30, 9.37, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.10, 10.19, 10.24, 10.26, 10.30, 10.35, 10.37, 10.39, 10.40, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 20.16, 20.19, 20.22, 21.4, 21.5, 21.6, 21.7, 22.25, 23.25, 23.29, 23.40, and 23.41 reprinted from Protein Data Bank. Abola, E.E., Bernstein, F.C., Bryant, S.H., Koetzle, T.F., and Weng, J., In: Crystallographic Database:

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Information Content, Software Systems, Scientific Applications. Allen, F.H., Bergerhoff, G., and Wievers, R., Eds. Data Commission of the International Union of Crystallography, Bonn/Cambridge/Chester, 1987, pp. 107−132. Bernstein, F.C., Koetzle, T.F., Williams, G.J.B., Meyer, E.F. Jr., Bride, M.D., Rogers, J.R., Kennard, O., Simanouchi, T., and Tasumi, M., The protein data bank: a computer-based archival file for macromolecular structures, Journal of Molecular Biology, 112:535−542, 1977. These images are part of the Swiss-3D Image Collection. Manuel C. Peitsch, Geneva Biomedical Research Institute, Glaxo Wellcome R&D, Geneva, Switzerland. Figures 2.16, 2.39, 2.78, 2.85, 4.18, 4.19, 9.22, 9.23, 9.28, 9.38, and 9.39 redrawn from Barclay, A.N., Birkeland, M.L., Brown, M.H., Beyers, A.D., Davis, S.J., Somoza, C., and Williams, A.F., The Leucocyte Antigen Facts Book, Academic Press, Orlando, FL, 1993. Figures 2.30, 2.31, 2.41, 2.50, 2.68, 2.69, 2.71, 2.75, 2.76, 2.84, 2.85, 2.90, 2.94, 2.95, 2.98, 2.99, 2.103, 9.7, and 21.33 through 21.47 compliments of Marsha L. Eigenbrodt, MD, MPH, formerly assistant professor, Department of Medicine, and Edwin H. Eigenbrodt, MD, formerly professor of pathology, University of Mississippi Medical Center. Figure 2.33 reprinted from Deutsch, M. and Weinreb, A., Apparatus for high-precision repetitive sequential optical measurement of lifting cells, Cytometry 16:214–226, 1994. Adapted by permission of Wiley-Liss, Inc., a subsidiary of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., and Marder, O., et al., Effect of interleukin-1α, interleukin-1β, and tumor necrosis factor-α on the intercellular fluorescein fluorescence polarization of human lung fibroblasts, Pathobiology 64(3):123–130. Figure 2.44 redrawn from Ravetch, J.V. and Kinet, J.P., Fc receptors, Annual Review of Immunology 9:462, 1991. Figures 2.79, 7.23, 7.25, 7.28, 12.2, 12.18, 12.22, 12.28 and 15.9 redrawn from Murray, P.R., Medical Microbiology, Mosby-Yearbook, St. Louis, MO, 1994. Figure 2.86 redrawn from Tedder, T.F., Structure of the gene encoding the human B lymphocyte


differentiation antigen CD20(B1), Journal of Immunology 142(7):2567, 1989. Figures 3.2, 6.19, 21.20, and 22.5. Redrawn from Bellanti, J.A., Immunology II. W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1978. Figure 24.04 ©1997 by Facts and Comparisons. Adapted with permission from Immunofacts: Vaccines and Immunologic Drugs. Facts and Comparisons, St. Louis, MO, a Wolters Kluwer Company, 1996. Figure 4.12 reprinted from Janeway, C.A. Jr. and Travers, P., Immunobiology: The Immune System in Health and Disease. 3rd ed., pp. 4−5, 1997. Reprinted by permission of Routledge/Taylor & Francis Books, Inc. Figure 4.22 reprinted with permission from Nature. Bjorkmam, P.J., Saper, M.A., Samraoui, B., Bennet, W.A.S., Strominger, J.L., and Wiley, D.C., Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2, 329:506−512. ©1987 Macmillan Magazines, Ltd. Figures 6.6, 6.9, and 27.50 redrawn from Paul, W.E., Fundamental Immunology, 3rd ed., Raven Press, New York, 1993. Figure 7.1 redrawn from Hunkapiller, T. and Hood, L., Diversity of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily, Advances in Immunology 44:1−62, 1989. Figure 7.11 courtesy of Mike Clark, PhD, Division of Immunology, Cambridge University. Figure 7.12 reprinted with permission from Nature. Harris, L.F., Larson, S.E., Hasel, K.W., Day, J., Greenwood, A., and McPherson, A., The threedimensional structure of an intact monoclonal antibody for canine lymphoma, 360(6402):369− 372. ©1992 Macmillan Magazines Ltd. Figures 7.20, 7.22 through 7.25, 7.30 through 7.32, and 6.52 for immunoglobulins redrawn from Oppenheim, J., Rosenstreich, D.L., and Peter, M., Cellular Function Immunity and Inflammation, Elsevier Science, New York, 1984. Figure 7.35 redrawn from Capra, J.D. and Edmundson, A.B., The antibody combining site, Scientific American 236:50−54, 1977. ©George V. Kelvin/ Scientific American. Figure 7.43 courtesy of Dr. Leon Carayannopoulos, Department of Microbiology, University of Texas, Southwestern Medical School, Dallas. Figure 7.48 adapted from Kang, C. and Kohler, H., Immunoregulation and Autoimmunity, Vol. 3, Cruse, J.M. and Lewis, R.E. Eds., 226 S Karger, Basel, Switzerland, 1986. Figure 7.66 reprinted with permission from Raghavan, M., et al., Analysis of the pH dependence of the neonatal Fc receptor/immunoglobulin G interaction using antibody and receptor variants,

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Biochemistry 34:14,469–14,657. ©1995 American Chemical Society; and from Junghans, R.P., Finally, the Brambell receptor (FcRB), Immunologic Research 16:29−57. Figure 7.67 reprinted with permission from Nature. Brambel, F.W.R., Hemmings, W.A., and Morris, I.G., A theoretical model of gamma globulin catabolism, 203:1352−1355. © 1987 Macmillan Magazines, Ltd. Figure 7.68 reprinted from Brambell, F.W.R., The transmission of immunity from mother to young and the catabolism of immunoglobulins, The Lancet, ii:1087−1093, 1966. Figure 7.74 adapted from Haber, E., Quertermous, T., Matsueda, G.R., and Runge, M.S., Innovative approaches to plasminogen activator therapy, Science 243:52–56. ©1989 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Figure 7.84 redrawn from Conrad, D.H., Keegan, A.D., Kalli, K.R., Van Dusen, R., Rao, M., and Levine, A.D., Superinduction of low affinity IgE receptors on murine B lymphocytes by LPS and interleukin-4, Journal of Immunology 141:1091– 1097, 1988. Figures 8.7, 8.13, 8.16, 8.18, and 8.21 redrawn from Eisen, H., Immunology, Lippincott-Raven Publishers, New York, pp. 371, 373, 385–386, 1974. Figures 8.23 and 8.24 reprinted from Kabat, E.A., Structural Concepts in Immunology and Immunochemistry, Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, 1968. Figure 9.2 reprinted from Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 2nd Series, Fascicle 13, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Figures 9.3 and 9.8 reprinted from Atlas of Tumor Pathology, 3rd Series, Fascicle 21, Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. Figures 9.4, 9.5, and 9.6 reprinted from MullerHermelink, H.K., Marina, M., and Palestra, G., Pathology of thymic epithelial tumors. In: The Human Thymus. Current Topics in Pathology. Muller-Hermelink, H.K., Ed. 1986; 75:207− 268. Figure 9.10 reprinted from van Wijingaert, F.P., Kendall, M.D., Schuurmann, H.J., Rademakers, L.H., Kater, L., Heterogeneity of epithelial cells in the human thymus. An ultrastructural study, Cell and Tissue Research 227−237, 1984. Figure 9.13 reprinted from Lo, D., Reilly, C.R., DeKoning, J., Laufer, T.M., and Glimcher, L.H., Thymic stromal cell specialization of the T cell receptor repertoire, Immunologic Research 16(1):3−14, 1997. Figure 9.27 adapted from Werner, K. and Ferrara, J., Immunologic Research 15(1), 1996, p.52.


Figures 9.33 and 17.90 redrawn from Davis, M.M., T cell receptor gene diversity and selection, Annual Review of Biochemistry 59:477, 1990. Figure 10.28 redrawn from Ealick, S.E., Cook, W.J., and Vijay-Kumar, S., Three-dimensional structure of recombinant human interferon-γ, Science 252:698–702. ©1991 American Association for the Advancement of Science. Figure 10.39 adapted from Rifkin, D.B. et al., Thrombosis and Haemostasis 1993:70, 177–179. Figure 11.4 redrawn from Arlaud, G.J., Colomb, M.G., and Gagnon, J., A functional model of the human C1 complex. Immunology Today 8:107–109, 1987. Figures 11.9 and 11.11 redrawn from Podack, E.R., Molecular mechanisms of cytolysis by complement and cytolytic lymphocytes, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 30:133–70, 1986. Figure 11.12 redrawn from Rooney, I.A., Oglesby, T.J., and Atkinson, J.P., Complement in human reproduction: activation and control, Immunologic Research 12(3): 276−294, 1993. Figure 11.19 redrawn from Kinoshita, T., Complement Today. Cruse, J.M. and Lewis, R.E., Eds., 48 S. Karger, Basel Switzerland, 1993. Figure 12.26 reprinted from Shwartzman, G. Phenomenon of Local Tissue Reactivity and Its Immunological, Pathological, and Clinical Significance, Paul B. Hoeber, Publisher (LippincottRaven Publishers), New York, 1937, p. 275. Figures 14.2, 14.3, and 14.6 through 14.53 are furnished courtesy of INOVA Corp. and Ms. Carol Peebles, San Diego, CA. Figures 16.5 and 16.22 adapted from VengelenTyler, V., Ed., Technical Manual, 12th ed., American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, MD, 1996, pp. 231, 282. Figures 16.12, 16.24 and 16.26 reprinted from Daniels, G., Human Blood Groups, Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, UK, pp.13, 271, 432, 1995. Figures 16.33 and 16.11 adapted from Walker, R.H., Ed., Technical Manual, 11th ed., American Association of Blood Banks, Bethesda, MD, 1993, pp 242, 281. Figures 17.8 and 17.69 redrawn from Cotran, R.S., Kumar, V., and Robbins, S.L., Robbins Pathologic Basis of Disease, B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1989. Figures 17.23 and 17.87 reprinted from Valenzuela, R., Bergfeld, W.F., and Deodhar, S.D., Immunofluorescent Patterns in Skin Diseases, American Society of Clinical Pathologists Press, Chicago, IL, 1984. With permission of the ASCP Press. Figures 17.27 and 17.28 adapted from Edmundson, A.B., Ely, K.R., Abola, E.E., Schiffer, M., and Panagotopoulos, N., Rotational allomerism and

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divergent evolution of domains in immunoglobulin light chains, Biochemistry 14:3953–3961. ©1975 American Chemical Society. Figure 16.33 reprinted from Clemetson, K.J., Glycoproteins of the platelet plasma membrane, in Platelet Membrane Glycoproteins, George, J.N., Norden, A.T., and Philips, D.R., Eds., Plenum Press, New York, 1985, pp. 61-86, with permission. Figure 17.46 redrawn from Stites, D.P., Basic and Clinical Immunology, Appleton & Lange, East Norwalk, CT, 1991. Figure 17.112 redrawn from Dieppe, P.A., Bacon, P.A., Bamji, A.N., and Watt, I., Atlas of Clinical Rheumatology, Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, PA, 1986. Figure 21.17 adapted from Splits, Associated Antigens and Inclusions, PEL-FREEZE Clinical Systems, Brown Deer, WI, 1992. Figures 21.48 through 21.62 compliments of Howard M. Shulman, MD, professor of pathology, University of Washington, Member Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle. Figures 22.1 through 22.3 reprinted from Monoclonal Antiadhesion Molecules, Nov. 8, 1994. Seikagaku Corp. Figure 23.17 reproduced from Journal of Cell Biology. Tilney, L.G. and Portnoy, D.A., Actin filaments and the growth, movement, and spread of the intracellular bacterial parasite, Listeria monocytogenes, 1989, 109:1597−1608, with permission of the Rockefeller University Press. Figure 22.23 adapted from Immunoscintigraphy (nude mouse) with a 131I-labelled monoclonal antibody, photographs prepared by Hachmann, H. and Steinstraesser, A., Radiochemical Laboratory, Hrechst, Frankfort, Germany. With permission. Figures 22.31 and 23.32 reprinted from Seifer, M. and Standring, D.N., Assembly and antigenicity of hepatitis B virus core particles, Intervirology 38:47−62, 1995. Figure 23.36 courtesy of Farr-Jones, S., University of California at San Francisco. Figures 27.3 and 27.4 redrawn from Hudson, L. and Hay, F.C., Practical Immunology, Blackwell Scientific Publications, Cambridge, MA, 1989. Figure 27.10 redrawn from Miller, L.E., Manual of Laboratory Immunology, Lea & Febiger, Mal-vern, PA, 1991. Figure 27.19 redrawn from Elek, S.D., Staphyloccocus Pyogenes and its Relation to Disease, E&S Livingstone Ltd., Edinburgh and London, 1959. Figures 28.1 through 28.33 are furnished courtesy of Cell Marque Corp. and Dr. Michael Lacey, Hot Springs, AR.


Table of Contents Chapter 1 History of Immunology Chapter 2 Molecules, Cells, and Tissues of the Immune Response Chapter 3 Antigens and Immunogens Chapter 4 Major Histocompatibility Complex Chapter 5 Antigen Processing and Presentation Chapter 6 B Lymphocyte Development and Immunoglobulin Genes Chapter 7 Immunoglobulin Synthesis, Properties, Structure, and Function Chapter 8 Antigen–Antibody Interactions Chapter 9 The Thymus and T Lymphocytes Chapter 10 Cytokines and Chemokines Chapter 11 The Complement System Chapter 12 Types I, II, III, and IV Hypersensitivity Chapter 13 Immunoregulation and Immunologic Tolerance Chapter 14 Autoimmunity Chapter 15 Mucosal Immunity

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Chapter 16 Immunohematology Chapter 17 Immunological Diseases and Immunopathology Chapter 18 Immunodeficiencies: Congenital and Acquired Chapter 19 Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Chapter 20 Immunosuppression Chapter 21 Transplantation Immunology Chapter 22 Tumor Immunology Chapter 23 Immunity against Microorganisms Chapter 24 Vaccines and Immunization Chapter 25 Therapeutic Immunology Chapter 26 Comparative Immunology Chapter 27 Immunological Methods and Molecular Techniques Chapter 28 Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry

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