STUDENT JOURNAL ALYSSA MAREE SANTOMARTINO (585168) ABPL30048: STUDIO AIR
SEMESTER 1, 2014 UNIVERSITY OF MELBOURNE
TUTORS: Haslett Grounds and Brad Elias Studio #11
CONTENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 5 INTRODUCTION CONCEPTUALISATION Precedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 7-9 Energy Harvesting Research . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 10-11 Computational Design Precedents. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg14-17 Generative Design Precedents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 18-19 Conclusion. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 20 Learning Objectives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 20 Reading Response . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 21 Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 22-23 DESIGN CRITERIA Tesselation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 25-26 Matrix. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pg 27
INTRODUCTION My name is Alyssa and I am majoring in Architecture in Melbourne Universityâ€™s Bachelor of Environments. So far I am enjoying the course and all of the different aspects of learning and designing it involves. I enjoy spending time with friends and family, travelling, learning, reading and music along with design. Having travelled to different places in the world, I enjoy learning about different cultures and their design practices.
I enjoy the structured but creative process of architecture; going from the idea, to sketches, to the computer aided design and a model example. I am therefore excited to learn about using parametric modelling in rhino and grasshopper. I have had some experience with Rhino through Virtual Environments course. Through this we worked with panelling tools to create a fabricated model. I enjoyed learning about computer aided design as it is different
to what is taught in other studios. Computer aided design, I believe is prevalent in architectural design today, therefore this subject will be of great importance to me. Other than this I have had experience with Auto Cad due to my external internship. The basics of this program were learnt thought the subject Virtual Environments. Here I also learn to use some of the Adobe programs like Indesign, Photoshop and illustrator.
PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION
PRECEDENT PROJECT IDEAS
Project: Sky Domes Submitted: Iranian team consisting of Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar, Setareh Sedghi. Aims: to connect Manhattan with the Freshkills Park through a visual relationship as, from the high-rise buildings in the city the park can be clearly seen. The sky domes can land and take off from the ground depending on the wind. Envisage: a wind farm with a capacity of 100MW. The Sky Domes mimic kites however are built with approximately 20 wind turbine lenses. This is an example of innovative technological use. As they mimic something which everyone is familiar with, the idea doesn’t seem so farfetched.
I think that this is a creative idea that could potentially create the amount of energy which has been envisaged. Seeing that they ‘take off and land’, this could potentially dangerous for users of the site, depending on their weight and materiality. The idea depends on the use of many domes, should Manhattan expand, the wind farm could not continue at this scale and the design would not survive. The domes do fit the brief and are a creative design idea which could be seen not only within the park but also from the city, becoming a daily reminder of sustainability. When on the site, the domes are also extremely user friendly which also meets the brief.
Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar & Setareh Sedghi, Sky Domes, (2012, Iran: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/L053I31G/>
Project: Project Butterfly Submitted: Polish design team; Mirosław Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, and Tomasz Pultowicz Aims: for the butterfly concept tobecome symbolic of the change that was to happen at the park. “Like a metamorphosis in the life of an butterfly from the egg through unattractive larva to the beautiful adult, this project will change the landfill to colorful and full of attractions place to enjoy.” Envisiage: that New York as a multinational centre. The butterfly has symbolic meaning within many cultures communities therefore all can connect with it. They attempt to create a sculptural artistic design and combined that with new technology to create renewable energy.
The large butterfly outline is lined with smaller butterflies which are raised at angles. The wings of the butterflies are solar cells which aim to create a clean environment with fresh air. The larger butterfly outline is 500 by 620 metres. They aim to create a site where the public can be involved, I however don’t believe that they have fulfilled this. In the design outline the images show a number of paths leading around the butterflies, making public involvement minimal. As they light up at night this is could become an attraction for the area, bringing tourists, however this seems to be a waste of the energy which has been collected by the butterflies. Overall however I don’t think that the design is leading in its technology, rather it is a little immature and tacky. Usage of solar panels is not new and innovative. The designs should be inspiring of ways to renew energy which has not been seen before as this could influence new ideas within the community about energy renewal.
Mirosław Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, Ph.D & Tomasz Pultowicz, LAGI Butterfly Project, (2012, Poland: LAGI) < h t t p : / / l a n d a r t g e n e r a t o r. o r g / L A G I - 2 0 1 2 / M S 0 7 1 2 5 6 / >
Project: Aeolian Transport Submitted: Emma Froh, Olivia Waller from the USA Aims: Use wind turbine technology to transform wind into energy Envisage: a project which will transform Freshkills Park from a landfill to a community space. The design intent production and movement, the final pink form being made up of curved hill shaped lines to display this I think it is a comprehensive design. Landscape architecture has been considered;how the seed dispersal of plants will be characterised by the wind turbines.
During peak harvesting periods the archâ€™s glow bright, lighting up the night sky. I think this is a brilliant idea as it serves as a celebration of energy renewing. This would become a reminding force to the public which could become a changing factor in the way people think. It contributes practically and ideologically to renewable energy. This design stands out as the design team has considered how their project would last over time on the site. Whilst the vibrant hot pink arches are not that appealing to me in that location, nor are they extremely complex from a design point of view, the opportunities they present for the future are exciting and promising, therefore Iâ€™m inclined to like this proposal.
Emma Froh & Olivia Waller, Aeolian Transport, (2012, USA: LAGI), <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/TGV28B5J/>
ENERGY HARVESTING TECHNIQUES Geothermal
Geothermal energy harvesting refers to the residual heat under the earthâ€™s crust from the creation of the planet1. Once the heat is extracted, energy can be collected. The heat can then be reused for other purpose after extraction. Sktech: The geothermal process understood by me
Green Diesel uses naturally occurring oils, like canola and vegetable, to produce diesel. This is a modern issue due to the shortage of petrol. The process involves heating the oil to 600 degrees2 which could lead to problematic issues with public involvement.
Kinetic Energy Harvesting: Piezoletric Generators
Piezoelectric Generators convert kinetic energy from mechanical strain into electrical energy3. When exposed to vibrations from weight placed upon them power is produced. An example is a footstep. From walking on the plateâ€™s power can be produced4. Due to this some research is being taken to place them within footpaths. The energy collected would be used to power lights and
other small scale road connected objects5. The downfall however, it does not have a 24hour effect, only when in use will the energy e produced. Therefore, whilst it is an easy way for energy to be produced it may not collect as much energy as something over a 24 hour period. The bonus, however, is that such a technique could be easily incoperated into which ever design as today; it is available in many forms. Only small amounts of energy would be able to be collected according to the Piezoelectric website6. On the site, piezoelectric technology could be installed underneath the land everywhere. An outdoor training area could then be manufactured where people could come to not only train but also create energy.
Process of Energy Capture
Image: Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] 1.Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 2.Ibid, pp. 3.Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] 4.Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 5.Andriopoulou Symeoni, A review on Energy Harvesting from Roads, <http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:549685/FULLTEXT01.pdf> 6.Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14]
Photo Voltaic: Infrared and UV
Infrared and UV Photo Voltaic energy generators are essentially Solar energy panels, however the advancement leads to a 24hour capture potential. Normal Solar Panels collect the thermal energy from the sun, Infrared and UV, however, just collect the infrared and UV rays from the sun7. This allows all of the visible light spectrum to filter through. The technology developed has created a glass with this type of energy collection within. Potentially, this could be used on a house and it would permit natural light in and collect energy as well. The technology also reduces internal heat gain within the building 8. The
conversion efficiency is extremely high, up to 90%9, therefore maximum energy can be captured. Technology has been developed from solar panels, where “multiple thin films of varying absorption capabilities are required to catch the entire spectrum of light”10 and then store it. This technique could be used on site in a sculptural manner, seen in the sketch
Hydroelectricity (Hydrokinetic): Vortex Power Vortex power is a concept based on the idea that fish use water vortex energy to propel themselves through it . These vortices created by placing objects in flowing water creating obstacles for the water to move around. As it replicates nature, it is not ecologically damaging like some of the other hydroelectrically energy creators . Fins are placed in the water which in turn generates a current through vibration. This creates an efficient feedback loop . The idea originated at the University of Michigan where a VIVACE (Vortex Induced Vibration for Aquatic Clean Energy) was created. It “emulates the natural and destructive phenomenon of vortex induced vibration” known as VIV. This is
“motion which is induced on a body facing an external flow due to the periodic irregularities in the flow caused by boundary layer separation” . These vibrating bodies only need 1-2 knots of vibration. It is still in the stage of development. Due to the site context, water could be brought directly onto it and the public could be involved in the process of creating obstacles for the vortexes. An example of this could be through the creation of a water way for the public.
7.Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 8.Ibid, pp. 9.Ibid, pp. 10.Rick Martin, New PV Cell generates electricity from UV and IR light, April 2014, < http://www.gizmag.com/pv-cell-ultraviolet-infrared-light/14708/> [ accessed, 10/3/14] 11.Robert Ferry &Elizabeth Monoian, a Field guide to renewable energy technologies, LGIA 2012, pp. 12.Ibid, pp. 13.Ibid, pp. 14.Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, VIVACE: A NEW CONCEPT FOR HARVESTING HYDROKINETIC ENERGY, (publication date unknown) < http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/pswp/upload/87_vivace_a_new_concept_for_harnessing_hydrokenetic_energy.pdf> [ accessed 11/3/14] 15.Ibid
Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/ productCd-1119952867.html
Smithsonian Institute Roof In 2004 Foster and Partners won the design competition for the new roof and courtyard at the Smithsonian Institute in Washington. Computing was essential in the design process of the roof. Early design ideas involved a diagonal grid structure, undulating over the courtyard. It was supported in these early sketches by Norman Foster, by eight columns1.
Once inputted into the computation program the geometry created a complex surface which was able to be manipulated to fit the specifications of the current building. The design was able to be pushed to create a form free of columns within the central courtyard. This created an open space “that flood the upper floors with natural light”2.
Computation as a design process allows for change and flexibility within the design. The programs have the ability to allow architects to “generate and explore architectural spaces and concepts through the writing and modifying of algorithms that relate to element placement, element configuration, and the relationships between elements.”3 In the example of the Smithsonian roof, the use of computation allowed for independent development of the structure with precise control over it. Computation was beneficial in this design as it allowed for simpler modification and faster regeneration. Menges claims that 415 models of the roof were created in just a six month period4. Computation allows for many different ideas to be explored quickly. Especially where the brief is highly structured, the use of algorithmic design can allow simple ideas which fit to the brief to be explored and pushed to more creative limits.
The Smithsonian is a tradition building. Bustler claims that the courtyard become the connection between the modern roof and the traditional building. “The design balances a formal relationship between courtyard, building, and roof. [The courtyard] creates a contemporary complement to the new roof, while reflecting the character and spirit of the historic building”5. This design is interesting to me as I appreciate how the use of computer design allowed the initial sketch, which used load bear columns, to be transformed into an open courtyard. I think that computation can enhance a design rather than make it. From this roof design we can see how something modern can be incorporated into an older design. I like the clash of the different periods and how they are connected through the courtyard.
Dave, “Hydra Pier”, Contemporist, 9/2/08, from http://www.contemporist. com/2008/02/09/hydra-pier/
Hyrda Pier Pavilion The Hydra Pier Pavilion was the Winning entry for the international competition “acknowledging and celebrating the fast growing city of Haarlemmermeer”6 in Amsterdam. The pier was designed by Asymptote Architects. It uses computation to create a form which incorporated the site (the water it sits on becoming a major component of the design). The linear roof and curvilinear structure was obviously the product of computation. Such a form is modern in its design. Computation has redefined architecture as it “allows designers to extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations.”7 A more traditional design uses rectilinear geometric shapes due to the inability to construct buildings which were otherwise designed. Computation, however, has allowed these more abstractive designs to become realised.
The structure was inspired by “technologies of flight and hydra-engineering”10. It projects the design into the water surrounding and reflects the design as well. After implementing the ideas into computer programs, they were manipulated until they could become resolved. With computation, therefore the initial ideas and intents will shape the digitalisation stage.
However the use of computation does not stop at the design process. In fact with this building computation continued into the construction stage of it. Octatube Space Structures was tasked with the construction of the design which forced them to explore “innovative means of digital production”8. In order to create the modern design, new building technologies needed to be founded and/or advanced. The main challenge revolved around the roof due to the double panelled curved cladding. With the introduction of new technologies in design, this advancement needs to be replicated within the construction industry. “The company developed a combined process of digital production and explosive forming”9 to solve the problem.
construction methods. The design should not be I liked this example as it shows how a creative limited by the construction of it, as just like this and unique idea can become realised with the example, the construction process can be advanced incorporation of computation and advanced due to the complex nature of the design.
1.Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ ad.239/abstract 2.“Renovation of Historic Home for Two Smithsonian Museums—the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery”, Smithsonian Institute, 2011, from http://americanart.si.edu/pr/facts/renovation_overview.pdf 3.Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/ productCd-1119952867.html 4.Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ ad.239/abstract 5.“Gustafson Guthrie Nichol Wins Tucker Design Award For Smithsonian’s Kogod Courtyard”, Bustler, 3/2/10, from http://www.bustler.net/index. php/article/gustafson_guthrie_nichol_wins_tucker_design_award_for_smithsonians_kogod_co/ 6.“Hydra Pier”, archspace.com, 8/7/02, from http://www.arcspace.com/features/asymptote-architecture/hydra-pier/ 7.Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/ productCd-1119952867.html 8.Achim Menges, “ Manufacturing Diversity”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 70-77, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ ad.242/abstract 9.bid, pp. 10.“Hydra Pier Pavilion”, ArchiTravel, Accessed 20/3/14, from http://www.architravel.com/architravel/building/hydra-pier-pavilion/
COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN PRECEDENTS Other forms of Computational design are more generative in terms of their shape through computer. This form of design has become a “medium that supports a continuous logic of design thinking and making”11. To me this implies that the computer and designer work in tandem to create a form, an ever evolving form due to algorithmic design inputs. The form of the cloud[s]cape installation draws back to the ideas of circulation, flows and vortexes. A custom algorithm was created to define its curves and surface pattern. The pattern replicates itself due to this algorithm on the surface at different scales. This use of algorithmic design allowed them to achieve the initial design intents.
ADMIN, Cloudscape installation at the Royal Malta University, (2012, web: My Design Pick) <http://mydesignpick.com/2012/06/20/cloudscape-installation-at-the-royal-maltauniversity/>
Computational design is not limited to architecture. Modern Furniture design exhibits the use of panelling. Whilst the form of the chair is set by the need, the design itself seems quite random. I imagine this surface to come from the lofting of a few curves which has then been panelled for fabrication. Riccardo Bovo, Digital Morphologies Chair Design, (2012, UK: furninspiration.com) <http://www.furniii.com/ideas/digital-morphologies-chair/>
11. Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 12. Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553> 13. Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25
Other building forms are inspirational due to their use of computation to form the building shape and texture. Whilst the overall form may connect to an initial idea or sketch, it can be seen that computation has evolved the design to something that could not be sketched.
Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat, Al Bahar Towers, Abu Dhabi, (2013, web: Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat) <http://www.ctbuh. org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/ AlBaharTowersAbuDhabi/tabid/3845/ language/en-US/Default.aspx>
Agata Kycia, Museum of Contemportary art in Warsaw- the use of real-time simulation in the design process, (2010, Graduation project: Workshops factory) <http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com/category/ agata-kycia/>
Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.unistuttgart.de/?p=6553>
The bionic research pavilion is a great example of computational design. The panelled shape is a reference to sea urchin's plate skeleton morphology12 which as then replicated with computer software. The size of the panels and the patterns of them were completely controlled by the algorithm; the form of the building was then created by this. The complex geometry was further advanced by the use of computation in the construction process of the building. While it appears to have a curved form, all of the pieces are in fact straight puzzle pieces. This idea replicated the way of designing that Kalay talks about in his piece â€œArchitectures New Mediaâ€?13.
Prof Achim Menges, ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553>
GENERATIVE DESIGN PRECEDENTS Generative design in architecture uses algorithms to create the look and design of the concept from a few parameters inputted by the architect. This allows for further exploration of ideas, surpassing what is able to be designed by hand. According to Peters computation “has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer... through the generation of
unexpected results”1.The designer, however, does not become redundant, for their initiation of the algorithm and its inputs is vital. Peters continues to suggest that generative computation can be “fully integrated”2 within the design process.
This generative model from GenerativeDesign is a simple form, made of a number of geometrical shapes. These shapes underlie a surface which transforms these curves into a smooth and curved one. The transformation from geometrical to fluid shape is interesting to me. The surface is panelled into long strips which give the building a sense of unity. The downfall to the design is its practicality. I’m not sure that this building could be built. While it is quite easy to make a generative form, the actual process of turning the form into a design and then later construct it is a long process. A good design needs to have the ability to become reality, not simply stay as a generative Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http://www. form. generativedesign.co.uk/contact/>
The idea of cladding a surface with a panel that expresses the structure of the frame is interesting. The triangular like panels are of different sizes. It looks as if the size of these triangles is dependent on its position on the curve. This is due to an algorithmic formula which dictates the clustering of panels and their attraction to a specific point. This creates an interesting sculptural form which could be mimicked in my LGAI design. The use of generation has created an interesting facade to a structural member. Dietrich defines an algorithm as a recipe for getting computers to do something specific3. Other architectural designs use a box like truss system to create aesthetical appeal. They provide stability and a frame to hold the building up in this instance; however I question the need for such extravagance on the exterior of a building. The problematic issue with design generation is the point at which to stop. In the case of this building, even though I know little about its purpose and design, it looks as if the designer has generated the idea for too long, turning something simple into something complex.
Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http://www.generativedesign.co.uk/contact/>
Przemek Jaworski, Hello, ( 2009 web: Parametric Design) <http:// www.parametricdesign.net/?paged=2>
This principle however is not limited to architecture. In fact it has inspired many art pieces creating fluid free forms. These forms could inspire my creation of the LGIA form. Furthermore as it is a competition for a sculptural design, research into art forms is beneficial in inspiring my own design. Some of these inspirations come from hand drawn
art. This indicates that generation is not limited to computation itself. The artist designed it from lines which flowed “continuously, algorithmically, and randomly”4. In the initial stages of the design process this is what I will aim to do. Create flowing objects, curved and smooth.
RIght: Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http://golancourses.net/2012spring/02/29/ju-young-park-generative-art/> Above: Scholz & Volkmer, Montblanc Generative Artworks, ( 2011, Germany: onformative), <http://www.onformative.com/ work/montblanc-artworks/ >
From some research it seems like the ‘Nervous System’ has become inspiration in the generative design of jewellery, sculpture and furniture. The use of the random cellular pattern is generative as it is unpredictable. Below are some of the photos which interested me most and I took a particular liking to I feel that these patterns could help to inspire my
design at the inital stages, perhaps when generating panels. The use of this pattern, however I feel is not longer generative due to it’s high use. Part of being generative is the creation of new, never seen before designs. I will, therefore try to change this into something new. Left: Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, Nervous System Generative Design Studio, (Accessed 2014, Web: generactive.net), <http://generactive.net/nervous-system-generativedesign-studio/> Right: Tafline Laylin, Nervous System’s DIY App Lets Users Design Their Own Cellular Wooden Tables, ( 2013, Web: Inhabitat.com), <http://inhabitat.com/nervous-systems-diy-app-lets-users-designtheir-own-cellular-wooden-tables/>
1. Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/ productCd-1119952867.html 2. ibid 3. Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, Definition of ‘Algorithm’, 1999, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press) 4. Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http://golancourses. net/2012spring/02/29/ju-young-park-generative-art/>
CONCLUSION The research of precedent’s and research undertaken to learn about computation and generative design has been benefited in creating a starting point for my own designs. I have understood terms like ‘Generative’, ‘Computation’ and ‘Algorithm’ from completing the readings and then further developed this through the discovery of a number of precedents which use these concepts for their own designs. I would like to replicate this in my own work, not only because this must be done to meet the brief. I find the transition and transformations from my own inputs to something unpredictable and random intriguing. It is very different to other architectural experiences which I have had, where design intent is achieved early on and then the rest of the process becomes about achieving this intent. This is almost the opposite, where the whole
process becomes the creation of intent. I would like to use pattern as a major factor in my design approach. This is quite a broad statement; however I believe that the broadness will lead to initiative. The object of using generation is limitlessness. This adds to the significance of designing this way. However my approach is logical. Whilst I wish to explore these random and initiative forms, I want to design something which can be constructed. This perhaps is the innovative part of my approach. Many of the precedents I looked at were either not built, or the construction process became complex. From using algorithms to create a design output, the design can benefit in being different, innovative and unusual to what has been created.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES From Part A I feel that I have started to achieve a number of the objectives set out in the study guide. The first objective is one which has been looked at in the most detail. Through looking at precedents I have begun to consider how the brief can be tackled through the form of digital technologies. Furthermore I have been learning Rhino and Grasshopper to complete this in further weeks. I have research how other people have generated designs through the use of algorithms in preparation to generate my own set of design possibilities (objective two). Objective three involves the developing of skills in various 3D media, which I have been doing regularly
(please see the algorithmic sketchbook). All of this research and learning about the virtual programs has allowed me to begin to understand computational geometry. I have been able to competently analyse a number of modern design and design ideas and how these would inspire my own designs ( Objective 6).
READING RESPONSE In ‘Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice’1 , Fry argues that better designing is needed for the future. He says that without it, there mightn’t be a future at all2. Presently we are downing in a sea of un-sustainability. Nature cannot be relied upon as a sustaining method due to the large population of the Earth and the amount of ecological damage that has been done to it. Currently the renewable resources can not keep up, being used 25% faster than they renew3. Therefore the ethical and ecological implication must be understood when designing. There needs to be a change in the thought process of design. The problems need to be resolved; however after effects may still be around for years after due to the length of time atmospheric gases have been in the atmosphere. Should issues not be resolved this would lead to global population re- distribution on a massive scale 4
“In increasingly more unsustainable worlds, design intelligence would deliver the means to make crucial judgements about actions that could increase or decrease future potential.” 5 These actions however, also have to be considered over a lapse of time, as whilst they might provide some relief for the moment, they could worsen the situation in the future, something which Fry claims might be happening at the moment6. Design is the leading area which can provide change for sustainability.
1. Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp.1-16 2. Fry, Tony pp.2 3. Fry, Tony pp. 4 4. Fry, Tony pp. 5 5. Fry, Tony pp. 12 6. Fry, Tony pp. 13
Bibliography Achim Menges, “ Instrumental Geometry”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 42-53, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ad.239/abstract Achim Menges, “ Manufacturing Diversity”, Architectural Design, Vol. 76, Iss. 2, pp. 70-77, from http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ad.242/abstract Achim Menges ( prof), ICD/ITKE Research Pavilion, (2011, Stuttgart: Institute for Computational Design) <http://icd.uni-stuttgart.de/?p=6553> ADMIN, Cloudscape installation at the Royal Malta University, (2012, web: My Design Pick) <http:// mydesignpick.com/2012/06/20/cloudscape-installation-at-the-royal-malta-university/> Agata Kycia, Museum of Contemportary art in Warsaw- the use of real-time simulation in the design process, (2010, Graduation project: Workshops factory) <http://workshopsfactory.wordpress.com/category/ agata-kycia/> Andriopoulou Symeoni, A review on Energy Harvesting from Roads, <http://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/get/ diva2:549685/FULLTEXT01.pdf> Bentley, Generative Design,(2014, USA: Bentley Architecture), <http://www.bentley.com/fr-FR/Products/ GenerativeComponents/> Brady Peters, “Introduction” in Computation Works: Architectural Design, March 2013, pp.8-15, from http://au.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-1119952867.html Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat, Al Bahar Towers, Abu Dhabi, (2013, web: Council on Tall buildings and urban Habitat) <http://www.ctbuh.org/TallBuildings/FeaturedTallBuildings/AlBaharTowersAbuDhabi/tabid/3845/language/en-US/Default.aspx> Dave, “Hydra Pier”, Contemporist, 9/2/08, from
Emma Froh & Olivia Waller, Aeolian Transport, (2012, USA: LAGI), <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI2012/TGV28B5J/> “Hydra Pier”, archspace.com, 8/7/02, from http://www.arcspace.com/features/asymptote-architecture/ hydra-pier/ “Hydra Pier Pavilion”, ArchiTravel, Accessed 20/3/14, from http://www.architravel.com/architravel/building/ hydra-pier-pavilion/ Generative Design, Contact (2012, London: GenerativeDesign) , <http://www.generativedesign.co.uk/ contact/> “Gustafson Guthrie Nichol Wins Tucker Design Award For Smithsonian’s Kogod Courtyard”, Bustler, 3/2/10, from http://www.bustler.net/index.php/article/gustafson_guthrie_nichol_wins_tucker_design_ award_for_smithsonians_kogod_co/
Jessica Rosenkrantz and Jesse Louis-Rosenberg, Nervous System Generative Design Studio, (Accessed 2014, Web: generactive.net), <http://generactive.net/nervous-system-generative-design-studio/> Ju Young Park, Interactive art and Computational Design, Spring 2012, (2012 Carnegie: Carnegie Mellon University), <http://golancourses.net/2012spring/02/29/ju-young-park-generative-art/> Kalay, Yehuda E. (2004). Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, MA: MIT Press), pp. 5-25 Michael M. Bernitsas & James C. MacBain, VIVACE: A NEW CONCEPT FOR HARVESTING HYDROKINETIC ENERGY, (publication date unknown) < http://www.nist.gov/tip/wp/pswp/upload/87_vivace_a_ new_concept_for_harnessing_hydrokenetic_energy.pdf> [ accessed 11/3/14] Mirosław Struzik, Tadeusz Zdanowicz, Ph.D & Tomasz Pultowicz, LAGI Butterfly Project, (2012, Poland: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/MS071256/> Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 1–10 Piezotechnology, Energy Harvesting- The Piezo Effectt for generating Energy, (2013), <http://www.piceramic.com/energy_harvesting.php> [Accessed on 10/3/14] Pouyan Bizet, Iman Amini, Alireza Houbakht, Amin Amini, Delaram Zarnegar & Setareh Sedghi, Sky Domes, (2012, Iran: LAGI) <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/L053I31G/> Przemek Jaworski, Hello, ( 2009 web: Parametric Design) <http://www.parametricdesign.net/?paged=2> “Renovation of Historic Home for Two Smithsonian Museums—the Smithsonian American Art Museum and the National Portrait Gallery”, Smithsonian Institute, 2011, from http://americanart.si.edu/pr/facts/ renovation_overview.pdf Riccardo Bovo, Digital Morphologies Chair Design, (2012, UK: furninspiration.com) <http://www.furniii. com/ideas/digital-morphologies-chair/> Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, Definition of ‘Algorithm’, 1999, The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press) Rick Martin, New PV Cell generates electricity from UV and IR light, April 2014, < http://www.gizmag.com/ pv-cell-ultraviolet-infrared-light/14708/> [ accessed, 10/3/14] Scholz & Volkmer, Montblanc Generative Artworks, ( 2011, Germany: onformative), <http://www.onformative.com/work/montblanc-artworks/ > Tafline Laylin, Nervous System’s DIY App Lets Users Design Their Own Cellular Wooden Tables, ( 2013, Web: Inhabitat.com), <http://inhabitat.com/nervous-systems-diy-app-lets-users-design-their-own-cellularwooden-tables/> V. Lobo, N. Mainsah, A. Banerjee, J.W. Kimball , Design Feasibility of a Vortex Induced Vibration Based Hydro-Kinetic Energy Harvesting System, November 27 2012, < http://www.researchgate.net/publication/224231475_Design_Feasibility_of_a_Vortex_Induced_Vibration_Based_Hydro-Kinetic_Energy_Harvesting_System> [accessed, 11/3/14]
PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN
TESSELATION Tessellation by principle is about using the same or a few of the same shapes to create a pattern which fits together perfectly. There are no gaps or overlapping in a tessellation. Doing this on a
The VoltaDom by Skylar Tibbits attempts to reference the historic significance of vaulted barrels in architecture. It is constructed to celebrate MIT’s 150th anniversary1. It is made up of a number of repeated vaults which line the corridor and work together with light to create a spectrum. It uses tessellation in its panelling form; a number of strips were printed to make construction easier. Also, the vaults have been repeated to define the whole structure. The repetitions have been scaled and skewed, as seen in the image, however it can be noticed that the root shape it the same. It is made from a number of Curves within curves which are made possible by “an innovative fabrication technique that transforms complex double curved vault construction to that of simply rolling a sheet of material.”2
The Voussair Cloud project by IwamotoScott uses similar principles to the VoltaDom. It too is based upon a vaulted structure which incorporates light into the design. It is made of thin, light wooden panels which are scored by a laser cutter and then panelled into the curved shape. It “is a landscape of vaults and columns consisting of clusters of three dimensional petals”3. It uses a the repetitive element of the petal, some being removed in certain sections. It becomes complex because the petals are not the same size. They “migrate to form greater density at the edges”4. This creates interest within the tessellation. Over 2300 petals were scripted by Rhino.
surface, particularly a three-dimensional surface, allows for simple fabrication. The use of the folded tessellation can create curves without the paper curving at all.
“‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-burohappold/>
“Voussior Cloud” (2008: IwamotoScott Architecture) < http://www.iwamotoscott.com/ VOUSSOIR-CLOUD>
This example known as FERMID, uses kinetic energy to create a living sculpture. Use of parametric designing creates a number of curved shapes repeated. They move, making the sculpture look like it is breathing.5
“FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http:// designplaygrounds. com/deviants/ fermid-by-behnazbabazadeh/ >
Radial Clusters are used in this example to create a tessellation of panels around a point6. I’m not sure whether this would be considered true tessellation due to the fact that there are multiple gaps within the design. However the principle of repetition has allowed the breaking up of the surface to allow light to exit the lantern.
“Transformers by IMADE” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds. com/deviants/transformers-by-i-m-a-d-e/>
Examples from Hypo Surface show a moving tessellated television form. The use of tessellation here allows for the seemingly curved movement of the piece. This creates a dynamic surface from a
user interface program7. It is quite an amazing concept. Machines create it with moving arms. Amazing video’s can be found on their website.
A similar concept is explored in the Articulated Cloud by Ned Kahn. This is a cladding facade on a building made up of a number of different panels. As the wind rushes past the building the different panels flicker and create dynamic patterns on the surface. The optic qualities of the plastic panels change dependant on weather and time of day. I think this design is extremely innovative and has used a combination of Computation and design technology.
“ARTICULATED CLOUD” ( 2012: Ned Kahn Studio’s) <http://nedkahn. com/portfolio/articulated-cloud/ >
The curved panels connect to the others at the four vertices, however the material within changes shape from panel to panel. This creates a dynamic but still tessellated shape. It is created by softLAB and is used for a light display. This shows that tessellation might not have been the primary focus of this design but could still be easily incorporated.8
Tessellation, in a design sense therefore is the combination of a few different shapes and using them dynamically to create different shapes and form them into a pattern. Tessellation in design does not have to be defined as the traditional method; creating a pattern with no gaps or overlaps. Instead computation celebrates these gaps through the use of light usually. These gaps create the interest in the
“POLYP.lux by SOFTlab” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) designplaygrounds.com/deviants/polyp-lux-by-softlab/>
tessellation. A dynamic facade through a combination with tessellation and mechanics is extremely interesting and something which could be explored in the design as it is both functional and has sculptural appeal. The use of tessellation with fabrication is also interesting; by using a tessellation of shapes a curved object can be defines from 2D shapes.
1. “voltaDom: MIT 2011” ( accessed 31/3/14: SJET) <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> 2. “Skylar Tibbits: voltaDom” ( accessed 31/3/14: Arts at MIT) <http://arts.mit.edu/fast/fast-light/fast-installation-skylar-tibbits-vdom/> 3. “‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-withburo-happold/> 4. “Voussior Cloud” (2008: IwamotoScott Architecture) < http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> 5. “FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/fermid-by-behnaz-babazadeh/ > 6. “Transformers by IMADE” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/transformers-by-i-m-a-d-e/> 7. “Hypo Surface” ( accessed 31/3/14: Hyposurface) <http://hyposurface.org/> 8. “POLYP.lux by SOFTlab” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/polyp-lux-by-softlab/>
MATRIX: DESIGN GENERATION VOUSSOIR CLOUD: IWAMOTTO SCOTT
ADDITION OF X SLIDER
MESH SURFACE (X=.2=Z Y=1
SMOOTH MESH ITER-5 STR-2
SMOOTH MESH STRENGHT 2
TRANSFORM GEOMETRY +NUMBER SLIDER
ADDITION OF X + Y SLIDER
BOOLEAN TOGGLE ON WELD VERTICIES
SMOOTH MESH STRENGHT 7
BOOLEAN TOGGLEON KANGAROO= FALSE
PROXIMITY 3D MIN- .5 MAX- 4
BOOLEAN TOGGLEON KANGAROO= FALSE
KANGAROO WELD VERTICIES
3D OCT TREE
CHANGE SURFACE WHICH MESH CONNECTS TOO
Bibliography “ARTICULATED CLOUD” ( 2012: Ned Kahn Studio’s) <http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/articulated-cloud/ > “FERMID by Behnaz Babazadeh” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/ fermid-by-behnaz-babazadeh/ > “Hypo Surface” ( accessed 31/3/14: Hyposurface) <http://hyposurface.org/> “POLYP.lux by SOFTlab” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/polyp-luxby-softlab/> “Skylar Tibbits: voltaDom” ( accessed 31/3/14: Arts at MIT) <http://arts.mit.edu/fast/fast-light/fast-installationskylar-tibbits-vdom/> “Transformers by IMADE” (2014: Design PlayGrounds) <http://designplaygrounds.com/deviants/ transformers-by-i-m-a-d-e/> “voltaDom: MIT 2011” ( accessed 31/3/14: SJET) <http://www.sjet.us/MIT_VOLTADOM.html> “Voussior Cloud” (2008: IwamotoScott Architecture) < http://www.iwamotoscott.com/VOUSSOIR-CLOUD> “‘Voussoir Cloud’ by IwamotoScott with Buro Happold” (2009: Archivenue) <http://www.archivenue.com/ voussoir-cloud-by-iwamotoscott-with-buro-happold/>