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Designed by Alyssa Bastien. Class project for Professor Herstowski's Typography 02 at the University of Kansas, Spring 2011. Text for the book was compiled from the following sources: Elements of Typographic Style by Robert Bringhurst, Getting it Right with Type: the Do's and Don'ts of Typography by Victoria Square, and Mac is Not A Typewriter by Robin Williams. This book is not to be sold to the public and to only be used by the designer for their reference and student design portfolio.


contents CHAPTER 1

rules

CHAPTER 2 x-height

CHAPTER 3

hyphenation

CHAPTER 4

alignments

CHAPTER 5

justification

CHAPTER 6

combining fonts

CHAPTER 7

punctuation

CHAPTER 8 special characters

CHAPTER 9

bullets

CHAPTER 10

figures

CHAPTER 11

small caps

CHAPTER 12

paragraph breaks

CHAPTER 13

headers and subheads

CHAPTER 14

captions and notes

CHAPTER 15

font specs

3


CHAPTER

rules The following is a compendium of the rules established in this book. You might want to check through them each time you complete a publication.


4 Use only one space between sentences. 4 Use real quotation marks. 4 Use real apostrophes. 4 Make sure the apostrophes are where they belong. 4 Hang the punctuation off the aligned edge. 4 Use en or em dashes, use consistently. 4 Kern all headlines where necessary. 4 Never use the spacebar to align text, always set tabs and use the tab key. 4 Leave no widows or orphans. 4 Avoid more than 3 hyphenations in a row. 4 Avoid too many hyphenations in any paragraph. 4 Avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns. 4 Leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following. 4 Avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word. 4 Avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word. 4 Avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. 4 Never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout. 4 Never justify the text on a short line. 4 Keep the word spacing consistent. 4 Tighten up the leading in lines with all caps or with few ascenders and descenders. 4 Use a one-em first-line indent on all indented paragraphs. 4 Adjust the spacing between paragraphs. 4 Either indent the first line of paragraphs or add extra space between them – not both. 4 Use a decimal or right-aligned tab for the numbers in numbered paragraphs. 4 Never have one line in a paragraph in the colomn or following. 4 Never combine two serif fonts on one page. 4 Rarely combine two sans serif fonts on one page. 4 Rarely combine more than three typefaces on one page. 4 Use the special characters whenever necessary, including super- and subscript. 4 Spend the time to create nice fraction or chose a font that has fractions. 4 If a correctly spelled word needs an accent mark, use it.

RULES 7


CHAPTER

x-height Readability and legibility are two key elements of printed text that typographer strive to maximize. Readability extended amount of text – such as an article, book, or annual report – is easy to read. Legibility refers to whether an refers to whether a short burst of text – such as a headline catalog listing, or stop sign – is instantly recognizable. There are several factors that determine whether a text is readable. When deciding what typeface should be used for a job, consideration should be given to the typeface and its x-height. It is important to understand how a block of text can express a message through its texture/color, therefore suiting a particular design solution. Fonts set in the same size, same leading and column width will produce varying degrees of “color”.


readability Many studies show that serif type is more readable than sans serif. It’s not clear exactly why; suggestions are that the serifs tend to lead the eye along the horizontal line, or that the thick/thin variations in the strokes of most serif type eases reading, or perhaps simply the fact that we all grew up learning to read from books that used serif type. Whatever the reason, it has been well-established that serif type is easier to read in extended text.

legibility Sans serif type, on the other hand, has been shown to be more legible. Legibility refers more to character recognition than to reading large blocks of text: sans serif is easier to recognize at a glance for short little bursts of type, as in headlines on a page, in a signage system in corporate headquarters, or the freeway signs that need to be read quickly. A full page set in sans serif may initially appear to be easier to read, but in the long run it proves to be tedious.

large or small x-height An exceptionally large x-height decreases legibility. Some faces have such large x-heights that an “n” is hardly different from an “h.” And a very small x-height also decreases legibility. The body of the character is disproportionate to the cap height, and our eyes find this to be distracting–besides the fact that the letters appear too small.

10 X - H E I G H T


X - H E I G H T 11


X xhg Xxhg SWIFT GERARD UNGER

PL AT E LE T CONO R M A NG AT

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: DARK

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: NARROW COLOR: DARK

12 X - H E I G H T


X x h g X xhg

72 point

MEMPHIS RULDOPH WOLF

UNIVERS ADRIAN FRUTIGER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: WIDE COLOR: AVERAGE

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: NARROW COLOR: AVERAGE

X - H E I G H T 13


X x hg Xxhg WALBAUM JUSTUS ERICH

FRUTIGER ADRIAN FRUTIGER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: AVERAGE

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: AVERAGE

14 X - H E I G H T


X xh g X x hg

72 point

SABON JAN TSCHICHOLD

I NT E RSTAT E TOBIAS FRE RE-JONES

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: WIDE COLOR: LIGHT

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: DARK

X - H E I G H T 15


Xx h g

X xhg

FILOSOFIA ZUZANA LICKO

TRADE GOTH IC JACKSON BURKE

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: LIGHT

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: NARROW COLOR: AVERAGE

16 X - H E I G H T


X xh g

Xxhg

ADOBE CASLON WI LLIAM CASLON

AKZI DE NZ GROTE SK GUNTER GERHARD LANGE

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: DARK

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: AVERAGE

72 point

X - H E I G H T 17


X xhg Xxhg ITC BOOKMAN ALEXANDER PHEMISTER

H E LV E T I C A N E U E MAX MIEDINGER

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: WIDE COLOR: AVERAGE

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: LIGHT

18 X - H E I G H T


X xhg

Xxhg

MRS. EAVE S ZUZANA LICKO

M E TA ERIK SPIEKERMANN

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: LIGHT

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: NARROW COLOR: AVERAGE

72 point

X - H E I G H T 19


Xx h g Xxh g ITC NEW BASKERVILLE JOHN BASKERVILLE

CLICKER GREG THOMPSON

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: L ARGE CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: LIGHT

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: NARROW COLOR: DARK

20 X - H E I G H T


Xxhg Xxh g

72 point

BAUER BODONI G IA M BATT I STA BO DON I

N EWS GOTH IC MORRIS FULLE R BENTON

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

9/11 X-H E IG HT: SMALL CHARACTER WIDTH: AVERAGE COLOR: LIGHT

9/11 X-H E IG HT: AVE RAGE CHARACTER WIDTH: WIDE COLOR: LIGHT

X - H E I G H T 21


CHAPTER

hyphenation In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture – no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.


hyphenation rules: 4 how the text is read avoid widows (one word on the last line of a paragraph) 4 avoid hyphenating or line brakes of names and proper nouns 4 leave a least 2 characters on the line and 3 following 4 avoid beginning consecutive lines with the same word 4 avoid ending consecutive lines with the same word 4 avoid ending lines with the words: the, of, at, a, by.. 4 never hyphenate a words in a headline and avoid hyphenation in a callout

24 H Y P H E N A T I O N


hyphenations in headlines Don’t hyphenate headlines. That’s a law.

Don Quixote de la Mancha

Don’t laugh—I have actually seen this as a printed headline. Someone did it.

Also, watch where the first line of a two-line headline ends­—does it create a silly or misleading phrase? Fix it.

Professor and Therapist to Lecture

Don’t Lose Your Self Respect

Don’t leave widows (very short last lines) in headlines.

Man Walks Barefoot Across Bay Bridge

Fix it either way, or rewrite!

Man Walks barefoot across Bay Bridge Man walks barefoot across Bay Bridge

H Y P H E N AT I O N

25


b a d l i n e breaks throughout EVERY l i n e o f b o d y c o p y . o f course, d o only this o n F I N A L c o p y, a f t e r A L L editing h a s b e e n are several done! here example s o f t h e s o r t s of things to LOOK f o r : look

26 H Y P H E N AT I O N

for


Incorrect

Correct

Casing Adder Bat Heresy borsch-boil starry a boarder borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt-fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offer torn, butted hatter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off .526 (fife toe sex). Casing worse got lurking an furry poplar­–spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hard, any harpy cobble wandered toe gat merit, bought Casing worse toe pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Mutt-fill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect, day gut nosing atoll.) Butt less gat earn wetter starry.

1

2 3

4

5

6

7 8

9

Casing Adder Bat Heresy borsch-boil starry a boarder borsch boil gam plate lung, lung a gore inner ladle wan-hearse torn coiled Mutt-fill. Mutt-fill worsen mush offer torn, butted hatter putty gut borsch-boil tame, an off oiler pliers honor tame, door moist cerebrated worse Casing. Casing worsted sickened basement, any hatter betting orphanage off .526 (fife toe sex). Casing worse got lurking an furry poplar­–spatially wetter gull coiled Any-bally. Any-bally worse Casing’s sweat-hard, any harpy cobble wandered toe gat merit, bought Casing worse toe pore toe becalm Any-bally’s horsebarn. (Boil pliers honor Mutt-fill tame dint gat mush offer celery; infect, day gut nosing atoll.) Butt less gat earn wetter starry.

1 Justify the headline so it stays on one line.

6 Inappropriate widow – taken care of by 5.

2 Use a line break (Shift Return) to bump “a” down to the next line, where it fits very nicely.

7 There is plenty of room to squeeze “bought” on this line, perhaps by kerning the line a tiny bit.

3 Kern the line a tiny bit to bring the rest of the word up. 4 Type a dischy in front of the word to bring it down. 5 Never hyphenate a person’s name. Go up a few lines, bump off “down” which bumped the other line endings down.

8 “Horsebarn” is a good long word that could be hyphenated; type a dischy. Better yet, when “bought” moved up, it gave enough room to move “horsebarn” up. If not, try opening the text block or text box a wee bit. 9 Edit: to get rid of that terrible widow, exchange a short word for a long word.

H Y P H E N A T I O N 27


widows and orphans Never leave widows and orphans bereft on the page. Avoid both bereft on the page. Avoid both of these situations. If you have editing privileges, rewrite the copy, or at least add or delete a word or two. Sometimes you can remove spacing from the letters, words, or lines, depending on which programs you’re working in. Sometimes widening a margin just a hair will do it. But it must be done. Widows and orphans on a page are wrong.

widows When a paragraph ends and leaves fewer than seven characters (not words, characters) on the last line, that line is called a widow. Worse than leaving one word at the end of a line is leaving part of a word, the other part being paraphrased on the line above.

On each soft side– coincident with the parted swell, that but once leaving him, then flowed so wide away– on each bright side, the whale shed off enticings.

28 H Y P H E N A T I O N


orphans

When the last line of a paragraph, be it ever so long, won’t fit at the bottom of a column and must end itself at the top of the next column, that is an orphan. ALWAYS correct this.

...Moby Dick moved on, still withholding from sight the full terrors of his submerged trunk, entirely hiding the wrenched hideousness of his jaw. But soon the fore part of him slowly rose from the water; for an instant his whole marbleized body formed a high arch, like Virginia's Natural Bridge, and warningly waving his bannered flukes in the air, the grand god revealed himself, sounded, and went out of sight. Hoveringly halting, and dipping on the wing, the white sea-fowls longingly lingered over the agitated pool

that he left. With oars apeak, and paddles down, the sheets of their sails adrift, the three boats now stilly afloated, awaiting Moby Dick's appearance. In long Indian file, as when herons take wing, the white birds were now all flying towards Ahab's boat; and when within a few yards began fluttering over the water there, wheeling round and round, with joyous, expectant cries. Herman Melville, Moby Dick

rivers In typography, rivers, or rivers of white, are visually unattractive gaps appearing to run down a paragraph of text. They can occur with any spacing, though they are most noticeable with wide word spaces caused by either full text justification or monospaced fonts.

H Y P H E N A T I O N 29


CHAPTER

alignment In unjustified text, the text block is set with normal letter and word spacing. Because of the even word spacing the text will have an even texture – no large spaces between words. The lines will naturally vary in length. a ragged text block can integrate with the layout and add visual interest to the page. The difficulty is making the ragged edge have a pleasing silhouette. When the first line in the text is longer than the second, it becomes separate from the layout and creates a box-like shape. This destroys one of the advantages of unjustified text. The ragged edge needs to have a life, but a narrow column can be less active. Another advantage to ragged text is less hyphenation is needed. Therefore, names, dates or words which are normally read together can stay together.


“ RIGHT

exist there

and wrong do not i n graphic design. i s O N L Y effective and

non-effective

c o m m u n i c a t i o n .� peter Bllak illegibility

32 A L I G N M E N T


justified text Traditionally many books, newsletters, and newspapers use full-justification as a means of packing as much information onto the page as possible to cut down on the number of pages needed. While the alignment was chosen out of necessity, it has become so familiar to us that those same types of publications set in left-aligned text would look odd, even unpleasant. You may find that fully-justified text is a necessity either due to space constraints or expectations of the audience. If possible though, try to break up dense blocks of texts with ample subheadings, margins, or graphics.

4 Often considered more formal, less friendly than left-aligned text. 4 Usually allows for more characters per line, packing more into the same amount of space (than the same text set left-aligned). 4 May require extra attention to word and character spacing and hyphenation to avoid unsightly rivers of white space running through the text. 4 May be more familiar to readers in some types of publications, such as books and newspapers. 4 Some people are naturally drawn to the “neatness� of text that lines up perfectly on the left and right.

A L I G N M E N T 33


left-aligned, ragged right 4 Often considered more informal, friendlier than justified text. 4 The ragged right edge adds an element of white space. 4 May require extra attention to hyphenation to keep right margin from being too ragged. 4 Generally type set left-aligned is easier to work with (i.e. requires less time, attention, and tweaking from the designer to make it look good).

34 A L I G N M E N T


centered There is nothing inherently wrong with centered text. As with ragged right or fullyjustified text alignment, what works for one design might be totally inappropriate for another layout. There are simply fewer situations where centered text is appropriate. When in doubt, don't center it. As with all layouts, alignment depends on the purpose of the piece, the audience and its expectations, the fonts, the margins and white space, and other elements on the page. The most appropriate choice is the alignment that works for that particular design. No matter what alignment you use, remember to pay close attention to hyphenation and word/character spacing as well to insure that your text is as readable as possible. There will undoubtedly be well-meaning friends, business associates, clients, and others who will question your choices. Be prepared to explain why you chose the alignment you did and be prepared to change it (and make necessary adjustments to keep it looking good) if the person with final approval still insists on something different.

A L I G N M E N T 35


CHAPTER

justification The only time you can safely get away with justifying text is if your type is small enough and your line is long enough, as in books where the text goes all the way across the page. If your line is shorter, as in newsletter, or if you don’t have many words on the line, than as the type aligns to the margins the words space themselves to accommodate it. It usually looks awkward. You’ve seen newspaper columns where all text is justified, often with a word stretching all the way across the column, or a little word on either side of the column with a big gap in the middle. Gross. But that’s what can happen with justified type. When you do it, the effect might not be as radical as the newspaper column, but if your lines are relatively short, you will inevitably end up with uncomfortable gaps in some lines, while other lines will be all squished together.


When justifying text, it is important to adjust the settings of your computer to the minimum, maximum, and desired amounts of space between words. Word spacing values can range from 0% to 1000%; at 100%, no additional space is added between words.

minimum, desired, and maximum You can specify the minimum and maximum amount of space between words and characters in paragraphs that have justified alignment. You can also specify the optimum amount of space between words and characters. The minimum and maximum values define a range of acceptable spacing for justified paragraphs only. The Desired value defines the desired spacing for both justified and unjustified paragraphs.

38 J U S T I F I C A T I O N


MINIMUM 40% DESIRED 80% MAXIMUM 120% Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frutiger 9/12

Garamond 9/12

problems 4 words too close 4 unequal spacing between words

J U S T I F I C A T I O N 39


MINIMUM 20% DESIRED 45% MAXIMUM 60% Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frutiger 9/12

Garamond 9/12

problems 4 words too close 4 difficult to read

40 J U S T I F I C A T I O N


MINIMUM 85% DESIRED 110% MAXIMUM 120% Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frutiger 9/12

Garamond 9/12

problems 4 words too close 4 awkward hyphenations

J U S T I F I C A T I O N 41


MINIMUM 190% DESIRED 235% MAXIMUM 250% Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frutiger 9/12

Garamond 9/12

problems 4 large spaces between words 4 distracting rivers

42 J U S T I F I C A T I O N


MINIMUM 200% DESIRED 300% MAXIMUM 350% Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technology of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and conflict and called for the sweeping repudiation of traditional cultural, social, and political values and the destruction of such cultural institutions as museums and libraries.

Frutiger 9/12

Garamond 9/12

problems 4 large spaces between words 4 not enough words on a line

J U S T I F I C A T I O N 43


When your work comes out of the printer, turn it upside down and squint at it. The rivers will be very easy to spot. Get rid of them. Try squinting at the example on the bottom of the previous page. Here is a general guideline for determining if your line length is long enough to satisfactorily justify the text: the line length in picas should be about twice the point size of the type; that is, if the type you are using is 12 point, the line length should be at least 24 picas (24 picas is 4 inches-simply divide the number of picas by 6, as there are 6 picas per inch). Thus 9-point type should be on an 18-pica line (3 inches) before you try to justify it, and 18-point type should be on a 36-pica line (6 inches). The rulers in most programs can be changed to picas, if you like.

Keep your eyes open as you look at professionally printed work (magazines, newsletters, annual reports, journals) and you'll find there's a very strong trend to align type on the left and leave the right ragged.

44 J U S T I F I C A T I O N


w a s the s t y l e f o r many y e a r s – w e g r e w up o n it. B u t there h a s been G R E AT D E A L o f resea rch d o n e easy (how on readability something is t o READ) a n d t h a t those d i s r u p t i v e , i t shows inconsistent gaps b e t w e e n the w o r d s i n h i b i t t h e f l o w o f reading. Justified text


46


CHAPTER

combining typefaces Although there is not recipe there is a place to start: keep an eye on the characteristic shapes of the letterform. A well designed page contains no more than two different typefaces or four different type variations such as type size and bold or italic style. {Using 2 different serif fonts or 2 different sans serifs fonts in the same composition is never a good idea} When combining serif and sans serif text fonts, one should try and match the characteristics of form and type color: proportion, x-heights.


T h e r e i s n o binding r e c i p e a for t y p e combinations. I t i s m a t t e r of t y p o g r a p h i c s ens i t i v i t y E X P E R I E N C E . expert and as typographers as well careless amateurs permit themselves c o m b i n a t i o n s t h a t w o u l d horrify c o l l e a g u e s with m o r e T R A D I T I O N A L symp a thie s.

48


You can't go wrong if you keep it down to two typefaces in a document. A particularly good comination is to usse a sans serif for heading and a serif for thebody copy. Within each typeface, it's fine to make some of it bold or italic or pllaayful occasionally, but try to keep the style you choose consistent with the purpose of and meaning of the text.

combining two san serifs Just about never should you combine two sans serif typefaces on the same page, like Helvetica and Avant Garde. Without going into a lot of design theory, the basic principle is that there is not enough contrast between the faces–they are too similar to each other and set up a subtle conflict. The combination will make your page look tacky and unprofessional.

combining two serifs Combining two serif typefaces can be done more easily, but again, it takes some visual literacy to understand how to do it effectively.

combining serif and sans serif The very safe route is to stick to two typefaces, one serif and one sans serif. The key is in the contrast. If one face is light and airy, choose a dense black one to go with it. If one face is small, make the other one large. If you set one all caps, set the other lowercase. If one is roman (straight up and down), combine it with a script. Avoid weak contrasts, such as a semi-bold type with a bold type; avoid combining a script with an italic because they're both sort of curvy; don't combine large type with almost-as-large type.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 49


GARAMOND & SCALA SANS

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and

Garamond 16 pt Scala Sans 8.5/12 These fonts work well together. The x-heights are both average and the heavy bracketed serifs compliment the rounded geometric forms of Scala Sans.

50 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


SABON & ADZ I DE N Z G ROT E S K

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Sabon 16 pt Akzidenz Grotesk 9/12 Sabon combines very well with Akzidenz Grotesk. They are both light in typographic color. The simple form contrasts nicely with the bold serifs of Sabon.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 51


BASKE RVI LLE/GOTHAM

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Baskerville 12 pt Gotham 9/12 These fonts do not work well together, mostly because of the wide character widths of both typefaces. A typeface with a thinner character width would be a better combination for Gotham.

52 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


aa BB ee GG gg CASLON/GILL SANS

WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and

Caslon 16 pt Gill Sans 8.5/12 Caslon is a good match for Gill Sans.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 53


DI DOT/FUTU RA

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Didot 20 pt Futura Medium Italic 9/12 Didot’s thick and thin stroke weights and bracketed serifs are a good match for Futura. The thicks strokes are also a good match for the lighter strokes of Futura.

54 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


B O D O N I / H E LV E T I C A

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY

A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Bodoni 16 pt Helvetica Bold 9/12 The thick stroke weight of Helvetica Bold is not a good combination with the contrasting stroke weights of Bodoni.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 55


BOOKMAN/FUTURA

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Bookman 14 pt Futura Medium 9/12 Bookman combines decently with Futura Medium. The boldness is a nice addition with Futura’s geometric forms.

56 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


CE NTU RY SCHOOLBOOK/F RAN KLI N GOTH IC

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Century Schoolbook 16 pt Franklin Gothic 9/12 Both Century Schoolbook and Franklin Gothic have very light typographic color. By changing the title to Century Schoolbook Bold, the combination would be better.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 57


CLARENDON/FUTURA

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Clarendon 16 pt Futura Bold 9/12 The heavy weight of these typefaces compete with one another. The geometric letterforms of Futura clash with the wide character width of Clarendon.

58 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


ROCKWELL/FUTURA

aa BB ee GG gg WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism: Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society. Futurism refected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The works were characterized by the depiction of several successive actions of a subject at the same time. Marinetti’s manifesto glorified the new technoogy of the automobile and the beauty of its speed, power, and movement. He exalted violence and Rockwell 14 pt Futura Condensed Extra Bold 9/12 The condensed shape of Futura and dark typographic color is not horrible with Rockwell.

C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S 59


CHAPTER

punctuation When designing with words it is vitally important that the correct punctuation is used to demonstrate pauses, inflexions and emphases and to ensure clarity when reading. There will be times when you may be working with a writor or editor who will be focusing on the correct usage. However, when a client supplies the text you do need to pay attention to the details of the words and punctuation and understand them fully.


quotation marks Use real quotation marks – never those grotesque generic marks that actually symbolize ditto/inch or foot marks: use "and" – not “and”. Most software applications will convert the typewriter quotes to the real quotes for you automatically as you type. Check the preferences for your application – you’ll find a check box to tell your application to automatically set something like “typographer’s quotes,” “smart quotes,” or “curly quotes.” Then as you type using the standard ditto key (“), the software will set the correct quotation marks for you. But it is necessary to know how to set them yourself because sometimes the software doesn't do it or does it wrong.

Option + [

Opening double quote

Option + Shift + [

Closing double quote

Option + ]

Opening single quote

Option + Shift + ]

Closing single quote

Bridge Clearance: 16' 7" The young man stood 6' 2" The length of the wall is 153' 9'

rules regarding quotation marks 4 Commas and periods are always placed inside the quotation marks. 4 Colons and semicolons go outside the quotation marks. 4 Question marks and exclamation points go in or out, depending on whether they belong to the material inside the quote or not.

4 If more than one paragraph is quoted, the double quote is placed at the beginning of each paragraph, but only at the end of the last one.

62 P U N C T U A T I O N


apostrophes ‘

Option + Shift + ]

Apostrophe

As as aside, people often are confused about where the apostrophe belongs. There are a couple of rules that work very well. For possessives: Turn the phrase around. The apostrophe will be placed after whatever word you end up with. For example, in the phrase the boys’ camp, to know where to place the apostrophe say to yourself, “The camp belongs to the boys.” The phrase the boy’s camp says “The camp belongs to the boy.” “The big exception to this is “its.” “Its” used as a possessive never has an apostrophe! The word it only has an apostrophe as a contraction — “it’s” always means “it is” or “it has.” Always. It may be easier to remember if you recall that yours, hers, and his don’t use apostrophes — and neither should its. For contractions: The apostrophe replaces the missing letter. For example: your’re always means you are; the apostrophe is replacing the a from are. That’s an easy way to distinguish it from your as in your house and to make sure you don’t say: Your going to the store. As previously noted, it’s means “it is”; the apostrophe is indicating where the i is left out. Don’t means “do not”; the apostrophe is indicating where the o is left out. For omission of letters: In a phrase such as Rock ’n’ Roll, there should be an apostrophe before and after the n, because the a and the d are both left out. And don’t turn the first apostrophe around — just because it appears in front of the letter does not mean you need to use the opposite single quote. An apostrophe is still the appropriate mark (not ‘n’). In a phrase such as House o’ Fashion, the apostrophe takes the place of the f. There is not earthly reason for an apostrophe to be set before the o. In a phrase such as Gone Fishin’ the same pattern is followed — the g is missing. In a date when part of the year is left out, an apostrophe needs to indicate the missing year. In the 80s would mean the temperature; In the ’80s would mean the decade. (Notice there is no apostrophe before the s! Why would there be? It is not possessive, nor is it a contraction — it is simply plural.

P U N C T U A T I O N 63


dashes Never use two hyphens instead of a dash. Use hyphens, en dashes, and em dashes appropriately. Everyone knows what a hyphens is —that tiny little dash that belongs in some words, like mother-in-law, or in phone numbers. It’s also used to break a word at the end of a line, of course. You might have been taught to use a double hyphen to indicate a dash, like so : -- . This is a typewriter convention because typewriters didn’t have the real dash used in professional typesetting. On a Mac, no one needs to use the double hyphen—we have a professional em dash, the long one, such as you see in this sentence. We also have an en dash, which is a little shorter than the em dash.

hyphen en dash – em dash —

hyphens

A hyphen is one third of the em rule and is used to link words. It serves as a compound modifier where two words become one, such as x-height. A hyphen is also used to break works at syllables in text blocks.

64 P U N C T U A T I O N


en dashes –

Option + -

En dash

An en dash is half of the em rule (the width of a capital N) and is used between words that indicate a duration, such as time or months or years. Use it where you might otherwise use the word “to.” In a page layout application, the en dash can be used with a thin space on either side of it. If you want you can kern it so it is not a full space.

October – December 6:30 – 8:45 A.M. 4 – 6 years of age

em dashes —

Option + Shift + -

Em dash

The em dash is twice as long as the en dash—it’s about the size of a capital letter M in whatever size and typeface you’re using at the moment. This dash is often used in place of a colon or parentheses, or it might indicate an abrupt change in thought, or it’s used in a spot where a period is too strong and a comma is too weak. Our equivalent on the typewriter was the double hyphen, but now we have a real em dash. Using two hyphens (or worse, one) where there should be an em dash makes your look very unprofessional. When using an em dash, no space is used on either side.

P U N C T U A T I O N 65


CHAPTER

special characters There are a number of special characters you can use in your typography designs that add a level of polish and sophistication that is lacking from many designs. Incorporating these characters takes some extra time on the part of the designer, but the end result is almost always worth it.


special character list The following is a list of the most often-used special characters and accent marks. On the following pages are the key combinations for just about every accent you might need. (*you will need to recreate this an x is in place of the "real" character, ALSO use tabs to tab text over to align)

68 C O M B I N I N G T Y P E F A C E S


Option + [

Option + Shift + [

Closing double quote

Option + ]

Opening single quote

Option + Shift + ]

Closing single quote; apostrophe

Option + Hyphen

En dash

Option + Shift + Hyphen

Em dash

Option + ;

Ellipsis

Option + Shift + 5

Opening double quote

Ligature of f and i

Option + Shift + 6

Ligature of f and l

©

Option + g

Copyright symbol

Option + 2

Trademark symbol

®

Option + r

Registered trademark symbol

°

Option + Shift + 8

Degree symbol (e.g., 102°F)

¢

Option + $

Cent

Option + Shift + 2

Euro

Option + Shift + 1

Fraction bar

¡

Option + 1

Inverted exclamation

Option + Shift + ?

Less-than sign

£

Option + 3

Pound

ç

Option + c

Cedilla (small)

Ç

Option + Shift + c

Cedilla (large)

Remember, to set an accent mark over a letter, press the Option key and the letter, then press the letter you want under it. ´

Option + e

`

Option + ~

¨

Option + u

˜

Option + n

ˆ

Option + i

S P E C I A L C H A R A C T E R S 69


CHAPTER

bullets bullet, of course! This very useful typographic element can add emphasis, clarity and visual interest to all kinds of copy. Simply put, a bullet is a large dot used to draw attention to each item in a list or series. The items can be single words, phrases, sentences or paragraphs. Even if you use the bullet that is part of your font, don’t automatically assume it’s the right size: it might need to be altered in scale or position to make it look balanced next to the text.


bullet, of course! Bullets should be centered on either the cap height or x-height, depending on the nature of your copy. If all of your items begin with a cap, center the bullet on the cap, or a bit lower so it balances with the negative spaces created by the lowercase. If your items all begin with lowercase characters, center the bullets on the x-height. Insert some space after the bullet to avoid crowding. The preferred way to align bullets is with the left margin. You can also have the bullets overhang the margin, and keep all your text aligned with the left margin. Whichever style you choose, your listing will look best if items that run more than one line are indented so that the copy aligns with itself, and not with the bullet on the first line. To be more creative, substitute symbols or dingbats for the actual bullets. Try squares, triangles or check marks (just not all at once, as shown in the illustration!). Keep these simple and in proportion with the rest of your text.

72 B U L L E T S


Another occastion to take advantage of the baseline shift feature is when using dingbats or ornaments. Suppose you have a list of items and you really want to use a fancy dingbat from the Zapf Dingbats font, instead of using the boring ol’ round bullet (or–heaven forbid–a hyphen). But the Zapf Dingbat character is too big. If you reduce its size, the dingbat is too low because the character is still sitting on the baseline. So select the character and shift it up above the baseline.

Pick any three adjectives that describe yourself: l lovely

t lovely

l surly

,

l ghastly

_ ghastly

l womanly

4 womanly

l saintly

r saintly c ungodly

l ungodly l stately l sprightly

surly

n stately v sprightly

Choose a dingbat instead of the dumb ol’

You have lots of dingbats to choose from,

bullet (the bullet is option 8).

but they are usually too big. (Choose one dingbat.)

t lovely

t lovely

t surly

t surly

t ghastly

t ghastly

t womanly t saintly

t womanly

t ungodly t stately

t ungodly

t sprightly

t sprightly

You can decrease the point size of the

t saintly t stately

Raise the dingbat higher off the baseline.

bullet, but then it sits too low.

B U L L E T S 73


CHAPTER

numerals/ figures Oldstyle figures are a style of numeral which approximate lowercase letterforms by having an x-height and varying ascenders and descenders. They are considerably different from the more common “lining” (or “aligning”) figures which are all-cap height and typically monospaced in text faces so that they line up vertically on charts. Oldstyle figures have more of a traditional, classic look. They are only available for certain typefaces, sometimes as the regular numerals in a font, but more often within a supplementary or expert font. The figures are proportionately spaced, eliminating the white spaces that result from monospaced lining figures, especially around the numeral one.


M a n y p e o p l e prefer O l d S t y l e f i g u r e s f o r m o s t uses. I t ’ s w e l l wor t h t h e E X T R A effort to

track

down

and

obtain

typefaces w it h O l d S t y l e n u m e r a l s ; the f o n t s t h a t contain them might W E L L become y o u r FAVO R I T E S .


Oldstyle figures are very useful and quite beautiful when set within text. Unlike lining figures, they blend in without disturbing the color of the body copy. They also work well in headlines since they’re not as intrusive as lining figures. In fact, many people prefer them overall for most uses except charts and tables. It’s well worth the extra effort to track down and obtain typefaces with oldstyle numerals; the fonts that contain them might well become some of your favorites.

Notice how large and clunky these numbers appear.

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

Notice how beautifully these numbers blend into the text.

Dear John, please call me at 438-9762 at 3:00 to discuss marriage. Or write me at Route 916, zip code 87505.

N U M E R A L S / F I G U R E S 77


CHAPTER

small caps Small caps are uppercase (capital) letters that are about the size of normal lowercase letters in any given typeface. Small caps are less intrusive when all uppercase appears within normal text or can be used for special emphasis. Computer programs can generate small caps for a any typeface, but those are not the same as true small caps. True small caps have line weights that are proportionally correct for the typeface, which me and that they can be used within a body of copy without looking noticeably wrong.


rules regarding small caps 4 Use small caps for acronyms. Set acronyms such as NASA or NASDAQ in small caps when they appear in body text or headlines.

4 Use small caps for common abbreviations. Set common abbreviations such as AM or PM in small caps so they don't overpower the accompanying text. Use small caps for A.M. and P.M.; space once after the number, and use periods. (if the font does not have small caps reduce the font size slightly)

4 Use true small caps fonts. Avoid simply resizing capital letters or using the small caps feature in some programs. Instead use typefaces that have been specifically created as small caps.

where to use small caps If you set acronyms in regular all caps, their visual presence is unnecessarily overwhelming. One standard and practical place to use small caps is in acronyms such as FBI, NRC, CBS, or SIMM. Traditionally, “A.M.” and “P.M.” are set with small caps. If you were taught to type on a typewriter (or if you were taught on a keyboard by someone who has taught on a typewriter), you probably learned to set these abbreviations in all caps because there were no small caps on typewriters. But now that you have the capability, you can and should set them properly.

80 S M A L L C A P S


Incorrect

Harriet, an FBI agent, turned on CNN to get the dirt on the CIA before going to bed at 9:30 P.M. Correct

Harriet, an fbi agent, turned on cnn to get the dirt on the cia before going to bed at 9:30 p.m. The capital letters in the middle of the sentence call too much attention to themselves. Notice how the small caps blend in with the text. The capital letters for P.M. are much too large–the abbreviation is not that important.

The Wicked Are Very Weary The weight of the computer drawn small caps is thinner than the weight of the regular initial (first letter) caps.

true-drawn small caps There are quite a few font families that include “true-drawn” small caps–letterforms that have been redesigned to match the proportions and thicknesses of the uppercase. These families are often called “expert” sets or perhaps “small cap” sets. The result is a smooth, uniform, undisturbing tone throughout the text.

Incorrect

There is no rest For the Wicked. Correct

The Wicked Are Very Weary True-drawn small caps are specially drawn to match the weight of the capital letters in the same typeface.

S M A L L C A P S 81


CHAPTER

paragraph breaks Paragraph breaks set a rhythm for the reader. The breaks have a relationship with the column of text as well as the page margins. A break may be introduced as an indentation, as a space or both. The over all page feel will be influenced by your choice.


The space between paragraphs is an important issue. If you space your paragraphs poorly, your work belies you as an amateur. Either indent your paragraphs or put extra space between them. Don’t do both. The purpose of an indent is to tell the reader that this is a new paragraph. A small indent does that just fine. A small amount of space between the paragraphs does the same. Choose ONE method.

If you want space between the paragraphs, don’t hit a double Return. Learn to use your software to put an extra space after each paragraph, a space generally about half the amount of your linespace. If you hit two Returns you get a big gap, a gap that separates the very things that should be visually connected.

rules regarding paragraph breaks 4 First line at the beginning of an article should be flush left (do not indent first paragraph) 4 Block paragraphs are flush left and are separated by extra leading not a full return 4 The amount indent is = to the leading (sometimes needs a bit more) 4 Never hit two returns between paragraphs

84 P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S 85


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

86 P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Futurism was first announced on Febru ary 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper

Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemi cal stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S 87


F U T U R I S M was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. B U T it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. W H I L E Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

88 P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S 89


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

90 P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le figaro publisheda manifesto by the italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name futurism, coined by marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S 91


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

92 P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S


Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. B u t i t i s t h e m o v e m e n t s w h i c h s u r v i v e , o d d l y, h e r e w h e r e w e l i v e a n d w o r k a s p o e t s a n d a r t i s t s : o r, i f n o t t h e m o v e m e n t s , t h e n t h e i r s e n s e o f a r t a s a l i f e itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we w e r e l a t e r t o b e c o m e . While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

P A R A G R A P H B R E A K S 93


94


CHAPTER

headers and subheads Many texts are divided into sections such as chapters, which need headings, and divisions of interests within the text, subheadings. Headings and subheadings are carefully considered in relation to their importance to the reader.


The two largest type elements on the page are the heads and the subheads. The heads are the titles given to the main dividers of sections in the text. The subheads are the titles of the secondary areas of division in the text. Since headlines are the most important element on the page, typographically speaking, they should be given the greatest importance. This may mean size, but there are other ways to create emphasis. The subheads are of secondary importance; they should be set large enough to clearly differentiate from the text copy, but small enough to be less important than the headline. Heads and subheads are elements for which a designer can use type creatively. They should be the most dynamic element on the page.

96 H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S


headers The main header or “headline� is essential to be bold and leap out as the main title of the page or chapter start. If it does not the reader may be confused as to where the document actually starts.

subheads The purpose of a subheader is to split up body text so that a reader can find their way around the document with ease. it also makes the document more readable because the viewer is not faced with a page of block text. Each subheader needs to be linked with the corresponding body text underneath it.

H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S 97


WORDS IN LIBERTY

Futurism was first announced on Febru­ary 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM

Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemi cal stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

98

HEADERS AND SUBHEADS

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE


WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le figaro publisheda manifesto by the italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name futurism, coined by marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1. futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

Radical mix of art and life

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S 99


A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE

WORDS IN LIBERTY Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of awhich, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a firstprologue radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian to & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now futurism sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become radical“an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be mix cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other of forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative art and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like and Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and life gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

100 H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S


Words in Liberty a prologue to futurism

radical mix of art and life

Futurism was first announced on february 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor filippo tommaso marinetti. the name futurism, coined by marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. the manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S 101


WORDS IN LIBERTY A P R O L O G U E T O F U T U R I S M Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. R A D I C A L M I X O F A R T A N D L I F E but it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

102 H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S


Words in Liberty A

P R O L O G U E

T O

F U T U R I S M

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

R A D I C A L

M I X

O F

A R T

A N D

L I F E

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

H E A D E R S A N D S U B H E A D S 103


CHAPTER

footnotes Footnotes and endnotes are necessary components of scholarly and technical writing. They’re also frequently used by writers of fiction, from Herman Melville (Moby-Dick)

to

contemporary

novelists. Whether their intent is academic or artistic, footnotes present special typographic challenges. Specifically, a footnote is a text element at the bottom of a page of a book or manuscript that provides additional information about a point made in the main text. The footnote might provide deeper background, offer an alternate interpretation or provide a citation for the source of a quote, idea or statistic. Endnotes serve the same purpose but are grouped together at the end of a chapter, article or book, rather than at the bottom of each page.


These general guidelines will help you design footnotes and endnotes that are readable, legible and economical in space. (Note that academic presses and journals can be sticklers for format: before proceeding, check with your client or publisher to see if they have a specific stylesheet that must be followed.)

for numbers or symbols Footnotes are most often indicated by placing a superscript numeral immediately after the text to be referenced. The same superscript numeral then precedes the footnoted text at the bottom of the page. Numbering footnotes is essential when there are many of them, but if footnotes are few they can be marked with a dagger, asterisk, or other symbol instead. Endnotes should always use numerals to facilitate easy referencing.

106 F O O T N O T E S


e n d n o te s are set s m a l l e r t h a n b o d y text. T h e difference in s i z e is u s u a l l y ABOUT t w o p o i n t s , b u t t h i s c a n var y d e p e n d i n g o n t h e the s i z e , s t y l e , a n d legibility o f Footnotes

and

m a i n text. E V E N T H O U G H t h e y ’re s m a l l e r, footnotes a n d endnotes

s h o u l d s t i l l r e m a i n at a readable size.

F O O T N O T E S 107


WORDS IN LIBERTY

Futurism was first announced on Febru­ary 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper

Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become.

While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemi cal stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

108 F O O T N O T E S

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM 1 Philip Meggs, History of G raphic Design, Ban Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE 2 parole in libertà = words set free (liberty)

selbst = himself

3


WORDS IN LIBERTY A Prologue to Futurism Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le figaro publisheda manifesto by the italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name futurism, coined by marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celPhilip Meggs, History of ebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society1. futurism Graphic Design, Ban Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. 1

Radical mix of art and life

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which parole in libertà = words set free (liberty) poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of selbst = himself any value is theatrical.” 2

3

F O O T N O T E S 109


Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Ban

1

A PROLOGUE TO FUTURISM Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 RADICAL MIX OF ART AND LIFE parole in libertà = words set free (liberty) 2

selbst = himself

3

WORDS IN LIBERTY Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of awhich, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a firstprologue radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian to & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now futurism sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become radical“an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be mix cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other of forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative art and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like and Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and life gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

110 F O O T N O T E S


Words in Liberty a prologue to futurism

radical mix of art and life

Futurism was first announced on february 20, 1909, when the paris newspaper le figaro published a manifesto by the italian poet and editor filippo tommaso marinetti. the name futurism, coined by marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. the manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Ban Nostrand Reinhold, 1988 1

parole in libertà = words set free (liberty) 2

selbst = himself

3

F O O T N O T E S 111


WORDS IN LIBERTY A P R O L O G U E T O F U T U R I S M Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention. R A D I C A L M I X O F A R T A N D L I F E but it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.”

112 F O O T N O T E S

Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Ban Nostrand Reinhold, 1988

parole in libertà = words set free (liberty)

selbst = himself


Words in Liberty A

P R O L O G U E

T O

F U T U R I S M

Futurism was first announced on February 20, 1909, when the Paris newspaper Le Figaro published a manifesto by the Italian poet and editor Filippo Tommaso Marinetti. The name Futurism, coined by Marinetti, reflected his emphasis on discarding what he conceived to be the static and irrelevant art of the past and celebrating change, originality, and innovation in culture and society.1 Futurism rejected traditions and glorified contemporary life, mainly by emphasizing two dominant themes, the machine and motion. The manifesto's rhetoric was passionately bombastic; its tone was aggressive and inflammatory and was purposely intended to inspire public anger and amazement, to arouse controversy, and to attract widespread attention.

R A D I C A L

M I X

O F

A R T

A N D

L I F E

But it is the movements which survive, oddly, here where we live and work as poets and artists: or, if not the movements, then their sense of art as a life itself. All of which, as futurism, had come sharply into focus by the start of the world war: a first radical mix of art and life, the epitome in the poplar mind of an avant-garde. It was, on both its Russian & Italian sides, the first great “art” movement led by poets; and if its means now sometimes seem exaggerated or unripe in retrospect, they carry within them the seed of all that we were later to become. While Marinetti’s opening manifesto for Italian Futurism bristled with a polemical stance in favor of the transformed present (1909), the later manifestos of Futurist poets and artists offered formal, “technical” approaches to the works then getting under way. The key term–still resonant today­—was parole in libertà2, by which poetry was to become “an uninterrupted sequence of new images… (a) strict bet of images or analogies, to be cast into the mysterious sea of phenomena.” This freedom-of-the-world, while it resembled other forms of collage and of image juxtaposition, more fully explored the use of innovative and expressive typography in the visual presentation of language, as set in motion by forerunners like Mallarmè. Outrageous and aggressive, the Futurists’ performances mixed declamation and gesture, events and surroundings, indifference and engagement, to break the barriers between themselves and those who came to jeer or cheer. Wrote Marinetti selbst3 (circa 1915), “Everything of any value is theatrical.” Philip Meggs, History of Graphic Design, Ban Nostrand Reinhold, 19882 parole in libertà = words set free (liberty) selbst = himself

1

2 3

F O O T N O T E S 113


114


CHAPTER

font specs A font specimen sheet is about measurement specifics, display of the font – all characters and expressions, at differing point sizes, paragraph setting, leaded or tracked. Upper Case and Lower Case, title box, formal identification of the font - its name, classification, and a demonstrated showing of ‘font family’ characteristics – weights/shade in print.

115


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S L A B - S E R I F

ARCHER

MaxogGdQRst BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* HAIRLINE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * SEMI-BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

116 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *

B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { } ? ! @ & *


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G ROT E S Q U E S L A B - S E R I F

AKZI DENZ GROTE SK

MaxogGdQRst ROMAN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 117


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

BA SKERVILLE

MxaogGdQRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* I TA L I C

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

118 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S L A B S E R I F

BELIZIO

MxagGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* B L AC K I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* FONT SPECS

119


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T O L D S T Y LE S E R I F

BEMBO

MxnogGdQrRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

120 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : O L D S T Y LE S E R I F

BOOKMAN

MxaogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&* B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 121


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : M O D E R N ( D I D O N E ) S E R I F

BODONI

MxaogGdQrRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&*123456789 I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

122 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* ORNAMENTS

AaBbCcDdEeFfGgHhIiJjKkLlMm NnOoPpQqRrSsTtUuVvWwXxYyZz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

C A SLON

MxanogGdQRt REGULAR

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*

I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Z B O L D I TA L I C

A a Bb C c D d Ee F f G g H h Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr S s Tt Uu Vv Ww X xyZz123 4

FONT SPECS

123


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L SERIF

CENTURY SCHOOLBOOK

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*123456789 I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

124 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S E R I F

C H E LT E N H A M

MaxogGdQrRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 125


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S A N S S E R I F

CHOLLA

MaxnogGdQrRst UNICASE A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

126 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S L A B S E R I F

CLARENDON

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 127


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S A N S S E R I F

CLICKER

MaxnogGdQRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

128 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : M O D E R N ( D I D O N E ) S E R I F

DI DOT

MxaogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&*123456789 I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 129


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : R E A L I S T S A N S S E R I F

DIN

MaxnogGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789 REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1234567890{}?!@&*

MEDIUM A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

130 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & * BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 { ? ! @ & *


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : R E A L I S T S A N S S E R I F

DIN CONDENSED

MaxngdQHAMBURG LIGHT CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *123456789 REGULAR CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1234567890(){}?!@&*

BOLD CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 131


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S E R I F

DISTURBANCE

MxnatQbWFGdR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&*123456789

I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&*

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

132 F O N T S P E C S


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : B L AC K LE T T E R S E R I F

FETTE FRAKTUR

MxnaopQrRtf REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){} ?!@&* Idunt aliquam adignim velit utat. Etuer accum dunt ad magniam, vendiat lam verostrud essi tetum illa facipisl utet endre feu faccum dit praessi. Ing ea feuguer aessenim atisi.Delessi. Sectet, sit, ver si. Alit ipit esequis exer adigna adignit aliquat lam dunt utpat aut nisisi. Tate conse nim adionsecte feuis etum dolobore molore verit veniss F O N T S P E C S 133


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : M O D E R N ( D I D O N E ) S E R I F

FILOSOFIA

MxnaopQrRtfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* FRACTIONS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * UNICASE

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

134 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G ROT E S Q U E S A N S S E R I F

FRANKLI N GOTH IC

MaxodQRtfGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * DEMI

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 135


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

FRUTIGER

MaxodQRtfGg CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

136 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* U LT R A B L A C K

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G E O M E T R I C S A N S S E R I F

FUTURA

MxaopQRstGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 67890(){}?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

FONT SPECS

137


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

GILL SANS

MaxnbyogGQRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

138 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G E O M E T R I C S A N S S E R I F

GOTHAM

MayogGdQRt BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* LIGHT

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 139


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G ROT E S Q U E S A N S S E R I F

H E LV E T I C A

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK EXTENDED

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * U LT R A L I G H T

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 140 F O N T S P E C S


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : N E O - G ROT E S Q U E S A N S S E R I F

I N T E R S TAT E

MaoygGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ){}?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD CONDENSED

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 141


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : F O R M A L S C R I P T

KUENSTLER SCRIPT

xyogGdQrRst REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* Pat. San ea consectet ad duis dolorem eu facil dit am, summy nisim ipit, quat, velit pratismodo diat. Et lorperi liquat lor sequam zzrilit, velese facin ut verosti nciduis modit, qui erosto odit ut verit nos nos amet iure doluptatisl digna facin hendre ming ea feum incilla ad dunt dunt ipit vulput lorper sumsand ionsenit num ip erit la feu feumsan henis exerci esto etumsan hent am, velit, quisit nummy nosto dolutat irit veniam zzrilit, qui tincilit wis eum zzriustis ex eraestrud delit lamcon vero exercidunt aliscidui bla facip et veniam eum illan veros dignit alit vullandiat nis nisl dunt aliquam consent alit etuero odionsecte dunt nulla faci et in vulla feugait lore eum zzril ullamco nsequi bla autpatet nummodipisi. Ed etummodit vullamcon utat ulluptat delendit nonsenim inciliqui tio odoloreet ver sum velis aliquis del irit aut nosto consequam zzrit aut ipsum diamcon sequam num et wisi tio dolorem elesto dolobor iuscilisci et, quis endre te dolobor sum volenibh exerit utpat. Uptat, vel dolese molorem eraessis nit niamcorperos autat, venit in etum erilissit irit eui bla feum iurem nonsequi e

142 F O N T S P E C S


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

MELIOR

MayogGdQrRt REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 143


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G E O M E T R I C S L A B S E R I F

MEMPHIS

MxagGdQrRt LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* EXTRA BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

144 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

M E TA

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BLACK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

F O N T S P E C S 145


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

MRS EAVES

MaxogGdQrRst REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * 1 2 3 456789 I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * FRACTIONS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* 146 F O N T S P E C S


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : R E A L I S T S A N S S E R I F

NEWS GOTH IC

MaxogGdQrRs REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*123456789 I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 147


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : M O N O S PAC E D S A N S S E R I F

OCR A

MaopQRfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more historic characteristics.

148 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Ii Jj Qq Rr Yy Zz 9 0 (

Cc Dd Kk Ll Ss Tt 1 2 3 ) { }

Ee Ff Gg Hh Mm Nn Oo Pp Uu Vv Ww Xx 4 5 6 7 8 ? ! @ & *


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

OPTIMA

MxaopQRstGg BOOK A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 149


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : O L D S T Y LE S E R I F

PA L AT I N O

MxaopQRstGg LIGHT A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* OLD STYLE

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* MEDIUM

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

150 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

PERPETUA

MxaopQRstGgq REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt UuVvWw XxYy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

BOLD A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand.Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic.These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

F O N T S P E C S 151


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S A N S S E R I F

P L AT E LE T

MaxbyogGQrRt THIN A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & * REGULAR

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! &

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } * HEAVY

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twentyfirst centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

152 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Mm Nn Yy Zz ? ! @

Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } & *


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S A N S S E R I F

PRIORI SANS

MxanopdrRtSfGg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* A LT E R N AT E

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 153


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S E R I F

PRIORI SERIF

MxanodQrRtSfg REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* A LT E R N AT E

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 567890(){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

154 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G ROT E S Q U E

ROTIS

MxanopQrRtGg (55) SANS A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7890(){}?!@&* SERIF

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 155


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : O L D S T Y LE S E R I F

SABON

MxayogGQfR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* SMALL CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

156 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* B O L D I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

SCALA SANS

MxabyogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* CAPS

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! & * I TA L I C

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & *

F O N T S P E C S 157


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : E G Y P T I A N S L A B S E R I F

SE RI FA

MxaoygGdQR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) {}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

158 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0(){}?!@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : S C R I P T

SNELL ROUNDHAND

axogbGdQrRst REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&* Dolessecte ver sim er aut wismod mincilit loboreet praessed tat. Iquis eu feuis dolore faci ercil eriurer sisi tet, quamconse do odolor amcommodit vulla feugait luptatisl dolorer augait praessi. Lut vel iriuscil et luptat. Nullandre magna feugiam, quis aute conullu ptatincip ea alit wis et volore dip et, cortin henisi. Quis autet, veros accum ipit vel ute mod ting eumsandreet am, qui te faciniat nummod eu feugiat ex essim vent vendre tat venibh et pratuer ipsum volortio eniat praessed mincilit dolobortie tat. Lam dolut amcommy nos eraessed tin ulput ut vulputat, quat, volobor incip et essi.orper sum quamconsed magniam, quisit accum voloborem alit iuscipit la consequam dit nulput acing eu feum quat. Ut luptat at. F O N T S P E C S 159


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : T R A N S I T I O N A L S E R I F

SWIFT

MxaoygGdQrR BOLD CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ & * REGULAR

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &* I TA L I C

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

160 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&*

BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? ! @ &*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : H U M A N I S T S A N S S E R I F

S Y N TA X

MxaoygGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 123 4567890(){}?!@&* BOLD

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { }?!@&* BLACK

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* BLACK

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 90(){}?!@&* F O N T S P E C S 161


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : G OT H I C S A N S S E R I F

TRADE GOTH IC

MxanyogGdQrR CONDENSED A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* MEDIUM

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

162 F O N T S P E C S

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&* BOLD NO.2

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 ( ) { } ? !@&*


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : M O D E R N ( D I D O N E ) S E R I F

WALBAUM

MxyagGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* I TA L I C

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 (){}?!@&* BOLD

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 890(){}?!@&*

F O N T S P E C S 163


C L A S S I F I C AT I O N : N E W T R A N S I T I O N A L

V O LTA

MyogGdQrR REGULAR A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

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Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff Gg Hh Ii Jj Kk Ll Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr Ss Tt Uu Vv Ww Xx Yy Zz 1 2 3 4567890(){}?!@&* M E D I U M I TA L I C

A basic system for classifying typefaces was devised in the nineteenth century, when printers sought to identify a heritage for their own craft analogous to that of art history. Humanist letterforms are closely connected to calligraphy and the movement of the hand. Transitional and modern typefaces are more abstract and less organic. These three main groups correspond roughly to the Renaissance, Baroque, and Enlightenment periods in art and literature. Designers in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries have continued to create new typefaces based on historic characteristics.

164 F O N T S P E C S

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The Right Type, A Guide to Typography