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SAN FRANCISCO LOST & FOUND


LOST & FOUND O

SAN FRANCISCO


LOST & FOUND O

SAN FRANCISCO A LV I N A J . N G


This book is all about getting lost among

the architecture and people of San Francisco’s‌


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ARCHITECTURE Then History

8

Design

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Earthquake

32

Today

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Great things begin here

74

Now

PEOPLE They

We A place to interact

94

Bibliography

112

Index

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INTRODUCTION I come from Hong Kong where there are many skyscrapers. In most districts, new architectures have replaced historical monuments.

The buildings look identical with the absence of vitality. Therefore,

I found the mixture of modern and antique buildings surrounds the

Union Square is fascinating. A place itself will not be special without the footprints of human. Each story that happens in the Union Square attracts me to discover more.

We shape our buildings; thereafter they shape us. 窶標inston Churchill

I think we have to leave in order to really miss a place. I leave my hometown in order to pursue my dream as a graphic designer. In

these two years of my college life, I travel back and forth between

Hong Kong and San Francisco frequently. I found myself being able to find the beauty of my hometown. I can feel the essence of it now.

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introduction


A R C H I T


E C T U R E


1


1 THEN Union Square was originally a tall sand dune, and the square was later set aside to be made into a public park in 1850. Union Square got its name from the pro-Union rallies.


HISTORY

1840 1850 1860

The history of the Union Square goes back to the city’s very

beginnings. Early maps of San Francisco based on surveys by

Jean Vioget (1839) and Jasper O’Farrell (1847) show Washing-

1870

ton Square and Union Square, both then unnamed, reserved as

1880

and the square was later set aside to be made into a public park

1890

public squares. Union Square was originally a tall sand dune,

in 1850. Union Square got its name from the pro-Union rallies held there on the eve of the Civil War. The monument itself is also a tribute to the sailors of the United States Navy.

Union Square officially first became public property when Colonel John Geary deeded the land to the city in 1850 with the

stipulation it be held in perpetuity for park purposes. Colonel Geary had served in the Mexican War. He became the first

mayor of San Francisco under American rule, and later served as governor of both Kansas and Pennsylvania.

During the Gold Rush, a massive influx of prospectors swelled

San Francisco’s population. All open spaces in the city were used as camp-grounds, including the environs of Union Square then

an area of wind-swept sand dunes dotted with chaparral. In the

1850s, the present day square contained a large sand hill, and the land sloping from its base toward Market Street was known as

St. Anne’s Valley. Eventually the sand hill was levelled by steam paddies, and the excess dirt was used as landfill. Soon all four sides of the Square were in great demand for home sites, and

within the next few decades, Union Square became the centre of a fashionable residential district with churches plentifully

interspersed. Union Square has also come to describe not just the plaza itself, but the general shopping, dining, and theatre districts within the surrounding blocks. 8

architecture | history


1850s Throughout the 1850s, the Square, like all public squares in San Francisco, remained

undeveloped. It was used primarily for dumping, by occasional squatters, and for sand-lot baseball games. In fact, the term sand-lot

baseball is thought to have originated in San Francisco from the use of Union Square as a sandy baseball field.

But this lack of development was remedied with the passage of the Van Ness Ordi-

nance in 1855. Although the ordinance was

primarily directed at the squatter problem, it

also designated land for public park purposes. More importantly, the ordinance gave the

responsibility for squares, parks, and grounds of public buildings within the city to the

Park Commission, which was charged with remodeling these sites. One of the first to

receive attention was Union Square, although documentation as to the actual physical changes made around 1860 is lacking. 10

architecture | history


steam paddies did not level the site until after

have contained classrooms for apprentices in

the Civil War, Union Square took on its pres-

industrial fairs were held until 1871. After-

passage of the Van Ness Ordinance. During

ent name because of several pro-Union rallies held there to celebrate Union victories. Often these rallies were led by Unitarian minister

Thomas Starr King, whose church faced the

Square. Such gatherings came to an end with

the commemoration service for the late President Lincoln on April 20, 1865. Fourteen

the mechanical and industrial arts.5 Here,

wards, the pavilion was torn down and a new site was acquired elsewhere.6 When not in use for industrial fairs, the pavilions served

as social gathering halls for the elite. Dances and costume balls, music events, and public lectures were held.

thousand people marched through the streets

CIVIL WAR

black, to Union Square to hear a memorial

Union Square was built and dedicated by San

successor to minister King.looks reasonable.

in 1850 and is so named for the pro-Union

always free from repetition, injected humour,

the United States Civil War. Since then,

of San Francisco, past buildings draped in

address delivered by Horatio Stebbins, the

Francisco’s first American mayor John Geary

The generated Lorem Ipsum is therefore

rallies that happened there before and during

or non-characteristic words etc.

the plaza underwent many notable changes

THE MECHANICS’ PAVILION

1903 with the dedication of a 97 ft (30 m)

In 1854, the Mechanics’ Institute was

victory at the Battle of Manila Bay during the

founded in San Francisco, with the pur-

pose of advancing the mechanical arts and

sciences. Eventually, it became traditional for the Institute to hold yearly mechanics and manufacturing fairs. In 1864, the Institute

requested permission to build a pavilion in Union Square, and since the city needed a

large indoor gathering space, permission was granted. In 1864 and 1865, fairs were held

in this pavilion, a rambling wooden structure on the eastern side of Union Square at the corner of Geary and Stockton streets. In

1868 a new Mechanics’ Pavilion was built

in Union Square. Supposedly, 8,000 people could be seated in the pavilion. It also held a skating rink and an art gallery and may

with the most significant first happening in tall monument to Admiral George Dewey’s Spanish American War. It also commemo-

rates U.S. President William McKinley, who had been recently assassinated. Executed by Robert Aitken, the statue at the top of the

monument, “Victory”, was modeled after a

voluptuous Danish-American stenographer

and artist’s model, Alma de Bretteville, who eventually married one of San Francisco’s

richest citizens. The second major significant change happened between 1939-1941 when

a large underground parking garage was built under the square that relocated the plaza’s

lawns, shrubs and the Dewey monument to

the garage “roof.” It was the world’s first underground parking garage and was designed by Timothy Pflueger.

then | history

11


VICTORY MONUMENT At the centre of Union Square stands a tall Corinthian column

topped with a statue of Victoria, goddess of victory. The monument, also known as the Dewey Monument, commemorates the victory of admiral George Dewey in 1898 at the Manila Bay during the Spanish-American war.

Union Square was built and dedicated by San Francisco’s first American mayor John Geary in 1850 and is so named for the pro-Union

rallies that happened there before and during the United States Civil War. Since then, the plaza underwent many notable changes with

the most significant first happening in 1903 with the dedication of a 97 ft tall monument to Admiral George Dewey’s victory at the

Battle of Manila Bay during the Spanish American War. There are also several cases of redundancy among retailers. It also commemorates U.S. President William McKinley, who had been recently

assassinated. Executed by Robert Aitken, the statue at the top of

the monument, “Victory”, was modelled after a voluptuous Dan-

ish-American stenographer and artist’s model, Alma de Bretteville, who eventually married one of San Francisco’s richest citizens. The

second major significant change happened between 1939-1941 when a large underground parking garage was built under the square that

relocated the plaza’s lawns, shrubs and the Dewey monument to the

garage “roof.” It was the world’s first underground parking garage and was designed by Timothy Pflueger. The statue holds a trident that represents Dewey, and a wreath, representing McKinley.

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then | history

13


fig 1.1 Cletus M. Heicks reads the inscription on the Victory Monument in union square.

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fig 1.2 Hugo Zullig and Barney Lenhart in front of the Dewey Monument in Union Square.

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fig 1.3 Weekend activities mainly about art and music in the Union Square during the 1990s.

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PUBLIC ART San Francisco is known for its growing and ever-changing art

scene. Union Square boasts a large variety of art galleries featuring

traditional art, fine art photography, paintings, prints, sculpture, glass, vintage art and more.

Beginning in the 1900s, painted heart sculptures from the Hearts in San Francisco public art installation have been installed in each of

the four corners of the square. Each year, the sculptures are auctioned off to benefit the San Francisco General Hospital Foundation and

new sculptures painted by various artists are installed in their place. Many of the sculptures are permanently relocated to various other locations throughout the city.

Each year, uniform heart sculptures are painted by different artists

and installed at locations throughout San Francisco, including Union Square. The heart sculptures are auctioned off at the end of each

year’s installation with the proceeds going to the foundation. Many of the previous years’ sculptures are exhibited in various locations,

including San Francisco City Hall, San Francisco General Hospital, AT&T Park (inside the Public House pub), the Lyon Street Steps, the Cartoon Art Museum, and several Wells Fargo branches. The

project is inspired by the international Cow Parade exhibit, in which cow sculptures are painted by various artists and installed in various cities throughout the world. The choice of hearts is inspired by the Tony Bennett song “I Left My Heart in San Francisco.”

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DESIGN

1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890

The first park design have a significant change sometime after the removal of the Mechanics’ Pavilion in 1871, but before

1880 (the date of the first photo-documentation of the Square),

Union Square was first formally designed as a park. Photographs show dirt or gravel paths running diagonally from street corner

to street corner and other paths at cardinal points, in the manner of the Union Jack on the British flag. All pathways intersected at a small, circular paved area in the park’s centre where a

flagpole stood. Along the Square’s periphery ran a picket fence

with openings to the sidewalk and street. Inside this fence was a small strip of planted beds and secondary pathway system along the park’s periphery. Several benches were placed along the pe-

ripheral pathway in front of a strip of land planted with a variety of trees, but benches were absent from the centre of the Square. The design was virtually identical to that of Portsmouth Square

at the time, including the idea of placing a flagpole at the centre of the Square. In the swathes of land left between the park’s intersecting pathways were informal plantings of grass and

several exotic species of plants. Among these were Dracaena palms, New Zealand flax, Norfolk Island pine trees, century

plants, pine trees, and others. Diagonal walks were lined with

rows of false cypress. This collection of exotic, non-native plants was characteristic of landscaping in Victorian times. The use of grass in public squares was new in California, with its Spanish

and Mexican heritage of gardening. The Americans had brought with them the tradition of English landscaping large lawn areas with scattered trees. The contrast between the formal pathway system and the informal plantings was unusual, but remained characteristic of each succeeding design of Union Square.

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fig 1.4 The St. Francis Hotel Union Square —1940

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THE ST. FRANCIS HOTEL The Westin St. Francis is a historic luxury

shopping and dining options, our iconic

Union Square in San Francisco, California.

location with modern luxury, innovation, and

hotel located on Powell and Geary Streets on The two twelve-story south wings of the

hotel were built 1904, and the double-width

north wing was completed in 1913, initially as apartments for permanent guests.

The St. Francis Hotel was begun by the

trustees of the estate of Charles Crocker, one

building combines a rich history and top

design. Known as the “Grand Dame” of Union Square, we’ve been the city’s preeminent

choice for events for over a century. A legacy of meticulous service and a setting rich in

history make us ideal for any function, from small meetings to elegant galas.

of “The Big Four” railroad magnates who had

After its re-opening, the St. Francis hosted

nental railway. It was built as an investment

cisco to see the Panama-Pacific Exposition of

built the western portion of the transconti-

for Crocker’s two young children, Templeton Crocker and Jenny Crocker. It was originally

meant to be called The Crocker Hotel, but at the same time alternatively it took the name of one of the earliest San Francisco Gold Rush hotels, the St. Francis.

One of the major additions to the Square was the construction of the first two wings of the St. Francis Hotel in 1903. By March 2, 1904

the hotel had opened. It was, and remains, the tallest structure (13 stories) facing the Square, forming an also impressive backdrop for the

dozens of celebrities who came to San Fran1915, ranging from Helen Keller, three-time Presidential candidate and orator William

Jennings Bryan, who came to San Francisco

to speak against American involvement in the First World War, and former baseball player and evangelist Billy Sunday, who came to

San Francisco to denounce sin and the theory of evolution. Former President Theodore

Roosevelt stayed at the hotel in July 1915,

and used the occasion to denounce his bitter enemy, President Woodrow Wilson, and to call for American entry into the War.

Dewey Monument. The St. Francis became a

major contributor to the vitality of the Square. Throughout the years, the hotel has been

host to hundreds of dances, débutante balls,

and society and fashion luncheons. It became

world famous, and as well has served as lodging for royalty, dignitaries, and celebrities.

Opened in 1904, The Westin St. Francis San Francisco on Union Square is a landmark among the city’s hotels. Near upscale

then | design

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In 1997 the San Francisco Prize Coalition

and the City of San Francisco announced an open competition for the redesign of Union Square Park. Called Toward a More

Perfect Union: An International Design

Competition for the Future of Union Square, the competition received 309 entries from 10 countries and 20 states. The winning entry entitled “All the Square is a Stage” sought to transform the Park from an imposing, THE FIRST PARK DESIGN

seldom used urban space into an inviting

In 1847, the City of San Francisco commis-

surrounding the area. The contrast between

sioned Jasper O’ Farrell to lay out a design for

streets and parks for the city. He chose Union Square for one of two public squares. These

squares were later deeded to the city by Colonel John Geary to be held in perpetuity for

oasis that would be used by all the inhabitants the formal pathway system and the informal

plantings was unusual, but remained characteristic of each succeeding design of Union Square, despite the sloping topography.

park purposes. Early maps of San Francisco

In addition, the Union Square Baptist and the

as the two then unnamed spaces reserved

and Post Streets. Paradoxically, on adjacent

on the eve of the Civil War (1861-5) as a

the City’s first red light district flourished.9

show Union Square and Washington Square

First Congregational churches close to Powell

for public parks. Union Square was named

Maiden Lane, then known as Morton Street,

demonstration of support for the Union.

At Stockton and Geary streets was the old

By the 1880’s, the Square had become the

large structure of galvanized sheet iron that

center of a fashionable residential district. Three prominent churches faced into the

square – Calvary Presbyterian, Congrega-

tional and Trinity Churches. The imposing

90 foot high Corinthian granite column was

raised in the center of Union Square in 1903 and dedicated by President Roosevelt that same year. The monument memorializes

Admiral Dewey’s naval victory in the Bay of

Manila during the Spanish-American War of 1898. It is crowned with a bronze goddess of Victory, sculpted by Robert Aitken.

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architecture | design

City College, and in 1884, the Wigwam, a served as the Republican Party’s presiden-

tial campaign headquarters that year. Later the Wigwam was leased out and run as a

vaudeville theater.10 The Cosmos Club and the Pacific Club, the Academy of Sciences,

and the Armory all at one time were located at Union Square.


SHOPS Before 1900, land use immediately around the Square was mixed, with churches, residences, and shops. By 1870, churches were the most notable structures. At the corner of Powell

and Geary streets was Calvary Presbyterian

Church, built in the classical style, where the St. Francis Hotel now stands. The church

replaced a small house and stable on the site.

At the corner of Post and Powell streets stood Trinity Episcopal Church, in the Gothic Re-

Market Street; the shopping center is an-

Geary streets was the First Unitarian Church,

stores. Old Navy, Forever 21, Anthropologie,

dedicated in 1864.

ban Outfitters, Abercrombie & Fitch, Puma,

Over the years, Union Square became a

located along Market Street, just 2-3 blocks

vival style. And at the corner of Stockton and

chored by the Bloomingdale’s and Nordstrom

also in the Gothic Revival style, which was

Apple Store, United Colors of Benetton, Ur-

popular shopping destination. It boasts six major department stores: Macy’s, Bloomingdale’s, Barneys New York, Nordstrom, Saks Fifth Avenue, and Neiman Marcus.

Union Square is also home to several famous upscale boutiques like Louis Vuitton, Gucci,

Gap and American Eagle Outfitters are also south of Union Square respectively. Two

venerable San Francisco institutions, jeweler, Shreve & Co., and also a bit of clothier

Wilkes Bashford, are also located within one block of the square.

Chanel, Bottega Veneta, Stuart Weitzman,

Located on the North side of Union Square

Hugo Boss, Tiffany & Co., Piaget, De Beers,

flagship store, along with a branch of the

Paris, Polo Ralph Lauren, Lacoste, Salvatore

There are also several cases of redundancy

Hermès. It is also home to the country’s

gin Megastore) and Forever 21 a block from

of Powell and also a block from the Square

Square. Galleria at the far eastern end of the

Burberry, Prada, Giorgio Armani, Boucheron,

(on Post St.) is Williams-Sonoma, Inc.

Bulgari, Alexander McQueen, Saint Laurent

Academy of Art University located nearby.

Ferragamo, Cartier, Bijan, Marc Jacobs, and

among retailers. XXI Forever (in the old Vir-

first Goyard boutique (located on the corner

each other. H&M has four stores in Union

(located near Post and Kearny) is one of San

area bordering the Financial District.

Francisco’s oldest home and lifestyle retailers, Gump’s. There are more stores located inside the newly renovated Westfield San Francisco Centre, just south of Union Square along

then | design

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CARS AND PARKING With the population explosion in San Francisco in the 1903’s and the vast number of automobiles coming into the downtown area,

parking in this fashionable shopping district became increasingly

difficult. Businesses surrounding the Square worried that they would lose customers due to the lack of parking. The Union Square Garage

Corporation was formed and lobbied for years for permission to build the world’s first underground parking structure. After going all the

way to the California Supreme Court for a decision as to whether the

City could lease the land under a public space to a private corporation, permission was finally granted. Three years of research and design followed, and on May 31, 1941, ground was finally broken for the

garage and the square as it existed until recently. Over the years, the park was redesigned many times.

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MAIDEN LANE Charming and intimate, Maiden Lane sits quietly between Geary and Post streets, running east to west from Stockton to Kearny.

Home to the city’s largest concentration of luxury retail, Maiden

Lane is the place to shop for the latest fashions or the perfect gift

for a friend. Maiden Lane is now home to high-end boutiques and

art galleries. The street also serves as the location of San Francisco’s

only Frank Lloyd Wright designed building. The Maiden Lane gates are closed daily from 11 a.m. to 6 p.m., closing the Lane to cars and allowing the cafés to transform the bustling business district into a

quiet pedestrian oasis. Relaxing in one of the outdoor cafés, it is easy to feel transported to another place and time.

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NEW DESIGN In the actual redesign of the Square, the Monument replaced the old flagpole at the centre of the park. The new design eliminated

the pathways going in the cardinal directions and the old perimeter

walkway. The four diagonal pathways now branched around elliptical beds of shrubbery converging at the central ellipse containing the

Dewey Monument. Photographs taken about 1905 reveal the central ellipse and pathways, up to the four secondary ellipses, to be lined

continuously with benches, a marked change from the former design. It was at this time that the Canary Island palms, now so characteristic of Union Square, first appeared. A row of palms was planted continuously along Post Street, and other perimeter areas were

planted with miscellaneous shrubs and small trees. Shrubbery was also planted at the corners of intersecting paths and inside ellip-

tical beds, leaving wide, uninterrupted stretches of grass between pathways and giving the park a much neater appearance. Exotic

plants were replaced with more uniform plant material. As for the

surrounding area, by the turn of the century, a major retail shopping

area had come to be centred around Union Square and along Market Street from Third to Eighth streets. This retail district consisted of a number of hotels, stores, restaurants, and motion picture houses, most of which were to be devastated in the earthquake and fire of

1906. In addition, Union Square is served by numerous trolley and

bus lines and the F Market heritage street car. Directly northeast is Chinatown, with its famous dragon gate at Grant Avenue.

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then | design

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EARTHQUAKE

1940 1950 1960

The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake

that struck San Francisco and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 a.m. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906. Devastating fires

1970

broke out in the city that lasted for several days. As a result of

1980

San Francisco was destroyed. The earthquake and resulting fire

1990

the quake and fires, about 3,000 people died and over 80% of are remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the

history of the United States alongside the Galveston Hurricane of 1900 and Hurricane Katrina in 2005. The death from the

earthquake and resulting fire is the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California’s history.

The California earthquake of April 18, 1906 ranks as one of the most significant earthquakes of all time. Today, its importance comes more from the wealth of scientific knowledge derived

from it than from its sheer size. Rupturing the northernmost

296 miles (477 kilometers) of the San Andreas fault from northwest of San Juan Bautista to the triple junction at Cape Mendocino, the earthquake confounded contemporary geologists

with its large, horizontal displacements and great rupture length. Indeed, the significance of the fault and recognition of its large

cumulative offset would not be fully appreciated until the advent of plate tectonics more than half a century later. Analysis of

the 1906 displacements and strain in the surrounding crust led

Reid to formulate his elastic-rebound theory of the earthquake source, which remains today the principal model of the earth-

quake cycle. Separating the calamity into two lesser calamities is one way for people to take it in stride. In this case, both the

public and the authorities did their best to downplay, deny and refuse to learn from the earthquake back afterward.

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architecture | earthquake


fig 1.5 Panoramic view of earthquake and fire damage from Stanford Mansion site, April 18–21, 1906.

IMP ACT y At the time, 375 deaths were reported. Partl because hundreds of fatalities in Chinatown went ignored and unrecorded, the total and number of deaths is still uncertain today, . mum mini is estimated to be roughly 3,000 at Most of the deaths occurred in San Francisco

the itself, but 189 were reported elsewhere in Bay Area; nearby cities, such as Santa Rosa In and San Jose, also suffered severe damage. tly Monterey County, the earthquake permanen

its shifted the course of the Salinas River near into mouth. Where previously the river emptied Watand ing Monterey Bay between Moss Land new sonville, it was diverted 6 miles south to a outlet in Marina. left Between 227,000 and 300,000 people were 00; 410,0 t homeless out of a population of abou s the half of the people who evacuated fled acros the at rs spape bay to Oakland and Berkeley. New dio, the time described Golden Gate Park, the Presi and side Ingle een Panhandle and the beaches betw

34

architecture | earthquake


the beaches between Ingleside and North

Beach as being covered with makeshift tents.

century became the largest and most

refugee camps were still in full operation.

of the city’s leading poets and writers

The earthquake and fire left long-standing

“The Barness”, they established the arts

More than two years later, many of these

and significant pressures on the development of California. At the time of the disaster,

important urban area in the West. Many retreated to Carmel-by-the-Sea where, as colony reputation that continues today.

San Francisco had been the ninth-largest

The 1908 Lawson Report, a study of the

the West Coast, with a population of about

Andrew Lawson of the University of

had become the financial, trade and cultural

Andreas Fault which had caused the

on the West Coast; and was the “gateway to

Angeles as well.

city in the United States and the largest on

1906 quake led and edited by Professor

410,000. Over a period of 60 years, the city

California, showed that the same San

center of the West; operated the busiest port

disaster in San Francisco ran close to Los

the Pacific”, through which growing U.S. economic and military power was projected into

the Pacific and Asia. Over 80% of the city was destroyed by the earthquake and fire. Though San Francisco rebuilt quickly, the disaster diverted trade, industry and population growth

south to Los Angeles, which during the 20th then | earthquake

35


SUBS EQU ENT FIRE S As damaging as the earthquake and its aftershocks were, the fires that burned out of control afterward were even more de-

structive. It has been estimated that up to 90% of the total destruction was the result of the subsequent fires. Within three days

over 30 fires, caused by ruptured gas mains, destroyed approximately 25,000 buildings on 490 city blocks. One of the largest of

these fires was accidentally started in a house on Hayes Street by a woman making breakfast for her family. This came to be known as the “Ham and Eggs Fire”. Some were started

when fire-fighters, untrained in the use of dynamite, attempted to demolish buildings to create fire-breaks. The dynamited buildings

themselves often caught fire. The city’s fire chief, Dennis T. Sullivan, who would have been responsible, had died from injuries sustained in the initial quake. In all, most of the fires burned for four days and nights.

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architecture | earthquake


As water mains were also broken, the city

Some of the greatest losses from fire were in

which to fight the fires. Several fires in the

curator of botany at the California Academy

fire department had few resources with

downtown area merged to become one giant

inferno. Brigadier General Frederick Funston, commander of the Presidio of San Francisco

and a resident of San Francisco, tried to bring the fire under control by detonating blocks of buildings around the fire to create firebreaks with all sorts of means, ranging from black

powder and dynamite to even artillery barrages. Often the explosions set the ruins on fire or helped spread it.

One landmark building lost in the fire was

the Palace Hotel, subsequently rebuilt, which had many famous visitors, including royalty

and celebrated performers. It was construct-

scientific laboratories. Alice Eastwood, the

of Sciences in San Francisco, is credited with saving nearly 1,500 specimens, including the entire type specimen collection for a

newly discovered and extremely rare species,

before the remainder of the largest botanical collection in the western United States was

consumed by fire. The entire laboratory and

all the records of Benjamin R. Jacobs, a bio-

chemist who was researching the nutrition of

everyday foods, was lost. Another treasure lost in the fires was the original California flag

used in the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt at Sonoma, which at the time was being stored in a state building in San Francisco.

ed in 1875 primarily financed by Bank of

The city’s fire chief, Dennis T. Sullivan, was

“man who built San Francisco”. In April 1906,

struck and later died from his injuries. The

California co-founder William Ralston, the

the tenor Enrico Caruso and members of the Metropolitan Opera Company came to San Francisco to give a series of performances

at the Grand Opera House. The night after

Caruso’s performance in Carmen, the tenor was awakened in the early morning in his

Palace Hotel suite by a strong jolt. Clutching an autographed photo of President Theodore Roosevelt, Caruso made an effort to get out

of the city, first by boat and then by train, and

vowed never to return to San Francisco. Caruso died in 1921, having remained true to his

seriously injured when the earthquake first interim fire chief sent an urgent request to

the Presidio, an army post on the edge of the stricken city, for dynamite. General Funston

had already decided the situation required the use of troops. Collaring a policeman, he sent word to Mayor Eugene Schmitz of his decision to assist, and then ordered army troops from nearby Angel Island to mobilize and

come into the city. Explosives were ferried

across the bay from the California Powder Works in what is now Hercules.

word. The Metropolitan Opera Company lost all of its traveling sets and costumes in the earthquake and ensuing fires.

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AFTERMATH AND RECONSTRUCTION Property losses from the disaster have been estimated to be more than $400 million. An insurance industry source tallies insured

losses at $235 million, the equivalent to $6.17 billion in 2013 dollars Political and business leaders strongly downplayed the effects of

the earthquake, fearing loss of outside investment in the city which

was badly needed to rebuild. In his first public statement, California

governor George C. Pardee emphasized the need to rebuild quickly: “This is not the first time that San Francisco has been destroyed by

fire, I have not the slightest doubt that the City by the Golden Gate will be speedily rebuilt, and will, almost before we know it, resume her former great activity�. The earthquake itself is not even men-

tioned in the statement. Fatality and monetary damage estimates

were manipulated. The grander of citywide reconstruction schemes

required investment from Eastern monetary sources, hence the spin and de-emphasis of the earthquake, the promulgation of the tough

new building codes, and subsequent reputation sensitive actions such as the official low death toll.

Almost immediately after the quake (and even during the disaster), planning and reconstruction plans were hatched to quickly rebuild

the city. Rebuilding funds were immediately tied up by the fact that virtually all the major banks had been sites of the conflagration,

requiring a lengthy wait of seven-to-ten days before their fire-proof vaults could cool sufficiently to be safely opened. The Bank of Italy,

however, had evacuated its funds and was able to provide liquidity in

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the immediate aftermath. Its president also immediately chartered and financed the sending of two ships to return with shiploads of lumber from Washington and Oregon mills which provided the

initial reconstruction materials and surge. The earthquake was also responsible for the development of the Pacific Heights neighbor-

hood. The immense power of the earthquake had destroyed almost all of the mansions on Nob Hill except for the Flood Mansion. Others that hadn’t been destroyed were dynamited by the Army forces

aiding the firefighting efforts in attempts to create firebreaks. As

one indirect result, the wealthy looked westward where the land was

cheap and relatively undeveloped, and where there were better views and a consistently warmer climate.

Constructing new mansions without reclaiming and clearing old

rubble simply sped attaining new homes in the tent city during the

reconstruction. In the years after the first world war, the “money” on Nob Hill migrated to Pacific Heights, where it has remained to this

day. Reconstruction was swift, and largely completed by 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition which celebrated the reconstruction of the city and its “rise from the ashes”. Since 1915, the city

has officially commemorated the disaster each year by gathering the remaining survivors at Lotta’s Fountain, a fountain in the city’s fi-

nancial district that served as a meeting point during the disaster for

people to look for loved ones and exchange information. H. G. Wells had just arrived in New York on his first visit to America.

then | earthquake

39


fig 1.6 View from the Ferry Building tower, looking southwest on Market Street during the reconstruction in Union Square.

then | earthquake

41


42

architecture | earthquake


then | earthquake

43


2


2 NOW Union Square today has become the heart of San Francisco - a vibrant, diverse collection of shops, restaurants, hotels, theaters, galleries, bars and other surprises!


TODAY

2009 2010 2011

The history of the Union Square goes back to the city’s very

beginnings. Early maps of San Francisco based on surveys by

Jean Vioget (1839) and Jasper O’Farrell (1847) show Washing-

2012

ton Square and Union Square, both then unnamed, reserved as

2013

and the square was later set aside to be made into a public park

2014

public squares. Union Square was originally a tall sand dune,

in 1850. Union Square got its name from the pro-Union rallies held there on the eve of the Civil War. The monument itself is also a tribute to the sailors of the United States Navy.

Union Square officially first became public property when Colonel John Geary deeded the land to the city in 1850 with the

stipulation it be held in perpetuity for park purposes. Colonel Geary had served in the Mexican War. He became the first

mayor of San Francisco under American rule, and later served as governor of both Kansas and Pennsylvania.

During the Gold Rush, a massive influx of prospectors swelled

San Francisco’s population. All open spaces in the city were used as camp-grounds, including the environs of Union Square then

an area of wind-swept sand dunes dotted with chaparral. In the 1850s, the present day square contained a large sand hill, and

the land sloping from its base toward Market Street was known as St. Anne’s Valley. Eventually the sand hill was again levelled

by steam paddies, and the excess dirt was used as landfill. Soon all four sides of the Square were in great demand for home

sites, and within the next few decades, Union Square became

the centre of a fashionable residential district at the same time

with churches plentifully interspersed. During the first few days, soldiers provided valuable services like patrolling streets to discourage looting and guarding buildings such as the U.S. Mint. 46

architecture | today


48

architecture | today


fig 2.1 View from the Union Square with the reflection of a marble staircase.

now | today

49


50

architecture | today


ENTERTAINMENT Union Square, the historic heart of San Fran-

But the square itself will close before New

reconstruction that planners hope will turn

Hanukkah menorah are removed, so some-

cisco, will close this week for a $25 million the plaza into an international show place. With the hectic holiday shopping sea-

son behind the booming downtown area’s

merchants, Mayor Willie Brown will break ground on the project tomorrow.

Year’s Eve, after the huge Christmas tree and times-rowdy revealers who have gathered

in the square in past years will have to find someplace else to go.

We hope the new square will be more actively used by those who want to

That will set off 18 months of construction

relax and want to bring entertainment

square by adding amenities such as a cafe and

―Linda Mjellem of US Association

designed to invite people to use the 2.6-acre

a stage large enough to hold a symphony or-

chestra. Borrowing an idea from the restored Bryant Park in midtown Manhattan, folding

chairs will be available for people who want to enjoy the sun, eat a snack or read a book.

and art shows.

The half-price theatre ticket booth now on

the square’s Stockton Street side will move to the Powell Street side, closer to theatre

row. The project has attracted international attention. A design competition sponsored

The four-level underground garage, with more

by the city, the association, Macy’s and the

finally getting elevators, better ventilation,

Association drew more than 300 entries from

will be the best. It will stay open during the

in the Union Square. At the same time, they

than 1,000 spaces, will also be renovated,

San Francisco Planning and Urban Research

other new equipment and better rest rooms

20 states and 10 countries. It is well facilitated

construction and it is a place for many people

became the attractions.

to express themselves.

now | today

51


fig 2.2 The St. Francis Hotel Union Square —2014

52

architecture | today


THE LANDMARK OF UNION SQUARE More than just a hotel, The Westin St. Francis

and was formerly the Compass Rose and

destination since 1904. The historic Magneta

by Timothy L. Pflueger. The hotel displays a

on Union Square has been a celebrated

Grandfather Clock located in our landmark lobby has been a popular gathering spot for generations of travelers, while marble col-

umns, ornate balconies and intricate woodwork transport guests back to the elegance

of yesteryear. Discover the allure of the city’s

most charismatic and vital setting offering the grandeur of the past, coupled with contemporary luxury and style.

Featuring classic accommodations, with

amenities including the revolutionary Heavenly Beds® and Heavenly Baths®. Offering

attentive service and amenities, with a commitment to guest renewal and relaxation.

One of the major additions to the Square was the construction of the first two wings of the St. Francis Hotel in 1903. By March 2, 1904 the hotel had opened. It was, and also re-

mains, the tallest structure (13 stories) facing the Square, forming an impressive backdrop for the Dewey Monument.

The St. Francis became a major contributor

before that the Patent Leather Bar, designed small collection of photographic prints produced by Ansel Adams to advertise the for-

mer Patent Leather Bar, and keeps some old traditions such as an official hotel historian

and the industry only remaining coin cleaning service for guests.

A collection of hotel memorabilia is on

display in the lobby, arranged by decade and featuring items such as vintage keys, dining

ware, room service bills, photographs, media articles, and more. Beginning in November

2009 Unite Here Local 2, representing San Francisco hotel workers, asked the public to boycott the Westin St. Francis Hotel

because the hotel’s owner, Starwood Hotels and Resorts Worldwide had not renewed

a previously settled contract with workers

with respect to wages, benefits, and working

conditions. The hotel was one of eight in San Francisco being boycotted, and was scene to

many protests including picketing and even as a flash mob.

to the vitality of the Square. Throughout the

years, the hotel has been host to hundreds of

dances, débutante balls, and society and fashion luncheons. It became world famous, and has served as lodging for royalty, dignitaries, and celebrities. The hotel is distinctive for a historic lobby master clock, the first in the

Western United States, and celebrity chef Michael Mina’s Bourbon Steakhouse restaurant, which replaced his self-named restaurant

now | today

53


REDESIGN The reconstruction plan includes coloured

As retailing and offices flourished around

wheelchair-accessible entrances, some new

during World War II and the square itself was

stripes of stone paving, new stairways and

trees and gardened terraces and the big stage

in the middle, near the 97-year-old statue that commemorates President William McKinley, who was assassinated in 1901, and Admiral

George Dewey’s victory over the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay during the Spanish- American

War. The 97-foot-tall tower, topped by bronze of a woman symbolizing the U.S. republic,

will remain in place during the construction, as will the palm trees at the four corners. The model for the woman was Alma de

Bretteville “Big Alma” Spreckels, one of San Francisco’s most colourful characters. She

was an early bohemian who married into the

Spreckels sugar family, and among her accomplishments was giving the city the California

the square, the underground garage was built reconfigured according to a design by noted architect Timothy Pfleuger. Over the years,

the square was neglected, with the Recreation and Park Department assigning a single gardener to maintain things. The Union Square Association and others have tried to spruce

things up by getting events held in the square, including art shows and programs honouring just about every holiday and ethnic group. In the end, it’ll be a better design for

programs, with a larger stage, and at

the same time with more open space for people to enjoy. ―Rich Hillis

In the mid-1990s, hedges that provided a

Palace of the Legion of Honour.

haven for the homeless or for muggers were

The monument, raised in a public subscrip-

theory is that a renovated square, with lots

tion campaign spearheaded by The Chronicle, locked in Union Square’s place at the city’s

heart. The square itself is as old as the state of

California, since the land was given to the city in 1850 by Mayor John Geary. But it got its

name just before the Civil War in 1860, when supporters of the Union rallied in the square in what was then an upscale residential area.

It wasn’t until 1896 that the first department store opened. The City of Paris, on the site of the current Nieman Marcus store, was

destroyed in the 1906 earthquake and fire,

as was the then 2-year-old St. Francis Hotel across the square. Both were quickly rebuilt. 54

architecture | today

removed to provide a more open feeling. The of activities and people, will keep away petty criminals and prevent the area from becom-

ing a homeless encampment. The non-profit Uptown Garage Corp. , a city corporation

established to run the garage, will issue reve-

nue bonds and will help maintain the grounds after the reopening. Mjellem said the associa-

tion and the Recreation and Park Department are already brainstorming about increasing the number of events held in the square.


BEST TIME TO VISIT There’s nothing quite like battling thousands

of other shoppers for space on the sidewalk, in the dressing room or at a café. If that sounds

appealing, then Saturday afternoon would be the perfect time to visit. But if sanity is more your style, hit the stores when most of working SF is tucked safely away in its cubicles,

especially weekday mornings. Keep an eye out for wealthy “ladies who lunch.” Their job is to shop, and they go to work before noon.

Most stores are open until 8 pm, and some

even later. Although it has nightlife options, the area is not exactly saturated with bars. It is, however, a safe and vibrant area to walk around at night, as hordes of tourists and

locals shuffle from restaurant to theater to

cab. Take note that many galleries are closed Mondays, and some are shut on Sundays.

Some small boutiques are also closed Sundays, though most of the stores are open

including Rodin originals. For more contemporary, emerging and Bay Area artists, the

galleries at 49 Geary and 77 Geary are prime buildings for art show hopping. The former

houses the Robert Koch Gallery and Fraenkel Gallery, both known for their photography,

the Catharine Clark Gallery and the Haines Gallery, among others. The latter is home to the Graystone Gallery, known for its Jasper

Johns, Roy Lichtenstein and Robert Moth-

erwell artworks, as well as the Rena Bransten Gallery and Marx & Zavattero. THEATRES The Geary Theatre is home to the prestigious American Conservatory Theatre. The build-

ing’s beautiful 1909 facade — encrusted with colourful foliage — is worth a look.

Other theatres in the area include the Curran Theatre, which hosts many traveling Broad-

way shows; the Lorraine Hansberry Theatre,

GALLERIES

which features productions written by black

You’ll find most of the galleries on the store

tre, which was designed by Gustav Albert

fronts of Geary, Post and Sutter. A hand-

ful, including Christopher-Clark Fine Art,

Weinstein, Pasquale Iannetti and Meyerovich, display works by old and modern masters, such as Picasso, Renoir, Matisse, Chagall,

Rembrandt, Warhol, Lichtenstein and Dali.

playwrights; and the Golden Gate Thea-

Lansburgh and presents Broadway shows like

“Billy Elliot” and “Chicago.” To buy half-price day-of tickets to various shows, head over to

the TIX Bay Area booth at the Geary-Powell corner of Union Square.

Martin Lawrence boasts the largest collection of Chagall works for sale in the world and a large collection of Keith Haring pieces and

Warhol exclusives. Though Weinstein deals

heavily in original prints, it does also display a large selection of oil paintings and sculpture,

now | today

55


INSTANT MOMENTS IN UNION SQUARE A “new” Union Square opened to the public on July 2, 2002. De-

signed by MD Fotheringham, Landscape Architects in partnership

with April Philips Design Works, the $25 million project successfully improved visibility into the Square, making it more inviting and

accessible. The redesign included a large central plaza, stage lawn

terraces to Geary Street, terraced steps aligned with Maiden Lane, four grand corner entrance plazas, new public art by R.M. Fischer, a ticketing pavilion, and a café with open air seating. The historic

Dewey Monument was retained, as were signature palms at the four corner entrances to the Square.

Originally a park surrounded by churches and residences, the Square is now the commercial retail center of the city. It continues to serve

as a stage for gatherings of all types, including musical performances, dance, art exhibitions, rallies and spontaneous outbursts of theater, speech, and song.

Today, Union Square retains its role as the ceremonial “heart” of San Francisco, serving as the site of many public concerts & events, art

shows, impromptu protests. Public views of the square can be seen

from surrounding high places as the Sir Francis Drake Hotel, Macy’s top floor, and the Grand Hyatt hotel. With such a diverse and re-

nowned collection of businesses, the neighbourhood needed a central organization to help supplement city services and create custom programs to meet the needs of the community.

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architecture | today


DISCOVER THE CITY Although the Financial District, Union Square, and Fisherman’s Wharf are well-known around the world, San Francisco is also

characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use neighborhoods anchored around central commercial

corridors to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because

of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second “most

walkable” city in the U.S. by Walkscore.com.[143] Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many

visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafes and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow, 24th Street

in Noe Valley, Valencia Street in the Mission, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.

The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by Market Street and the waterfront. It is here that

the Financial District is centered, with Union Square, the principal shopping and hotel district, nearby. Cable cars carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of Nob Hill, once the home of the city’s

business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of Fisherman’s Wharf, and Pier 39, where many restaurants feature Dungeness crab from a still-active fishing industry.

now | today

63


NEIGHBOURHOOD West of downtown, across Van Ness Avenue, lies the large Western

Addition neighbourhood, which became established with a large African American population after World War II. The Western Addi-

tion is usually divided into smaller neighbourhoods including Hayes Valley, the Fillmore, and Japantown, which was once the largest

Japantown in North America but suffered when its Japanese American residents were forcibly removed and interned during World

War II. The Western Addition survived the 1906 earthquake with

its Victorians largely intact, including the famous “Painted Ladies”,

standing alongside Alamo Square. To the south, near the geographic

centre of the city is Haight-Ashbury, famously associated with 1960s hippie culture The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques

and a few controversial chain stores, although it still retains some bohemian character. North of the Western Addition is Pacific Heights, a wealthy neighbourhood that features the mansions built by the San Francisco business elite in the wake of the 1906 earthquake.

Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the Marina, a neighbourhood popular with young professionals that was largely

built on reclaimed land from the Bay. In the south-east quadrant of the city is the Mission District—populated in the 19th century by

Californians and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland,

Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from Mexico began to predominate.

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architecture | today


SAFE AND DANGEROUS San Francisco is an odd city. The worst parts of the town are just

blocks away from the most touristy parts. Most tourists have a problem telling the neighbourhoods apart, and the seedier areas are not

exactly marked on a map. Furthermore, the character of a neighbourhood can change from day to night. There are some areas you should avoid in San Francisco. Here are the five safest and the five most

dangerous areas in San Francisco, from a local resident to help you get the best out of your time in the “City by the Bay.”

Union Square is center of the “downtown” area, surrounded by

shops, restaurants, and hotels catering to tourists. The Powell street cable-car line runs from Market Street all the way to Fisherman’s

Wharf. This area has a lot of people, so violent crimes are rare. Park inside a public garage (the rates can be high) and you should have no problem other than encountering pickpockets. It’s just a bit...

touristy, and it is right next to Tenderloin, one of the seediest parts of

town. Don’t go past Taylor Street, and don’t veer off Geary street, and you should be fine.

Another touristy-spot of San Francisco Fisherman’s Wharf is

crowded enough well into dusk to be safe enough to walk about, and there are plenty of public transit and shops and whatnot to keep you busy. It also has attractions like museums, rides, and the famous Bay Cruise and ferries to Alcatraz. However, it also attracts pickpockets and occasional auto break-ins. Lock up the GPS in the glove box.

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architecture | today


The Tenderloin is named because the police who were assigned to patrol this area gets an extra stipend, allowing them to buy better

meat (tenderloin) for their meals. It is one of the seediest parts of

town, mere blocks from the downtown Union Square area. Consider the Hilton Hotel on O’Farrell as the western boundary; do not go

past Taylor Street. The area is relatively harmless during the day, but gets downright scary at night.

Market Street is a major thoroughfare, but the area between Fifth

and 10th streets is much seedier than the downtown section (Em-

barcadero to Fifth Street). There are quite a few closed shops (full of graffiti), adult movie places, and more. Also, United Nations Plaza and some nooks and crannies around the area are full of homeless

folks who may be panhandling (begging) for spare change. Most are harmless, but some may be more aggressive / persistent. This area is somewhat intimidating for tourists during the day, and downright

scary at night due to bad lighting. You might definitely want to avoid this area in San Francisco. There is no “San Francisco Style.” People here wear just about anything, from T-shirts to dress shirts.

now | today

69


P E O


P L E


3


3 THEY Union Square is the perfect venue for people to perform. There is always audiences looking for something exciting. Performers can express themselves freely.


GREAT THINGS BEGIN HERE People coming to visit San Francisco often ask “Where is the

best area to stay?” Although there are many great places in the city to stay, the most commonly recommended locations are Fisherman’s Wharf and Union Square.

Union Square is a premier designer and name-brand shopping area of San Francisco. The Wharf is a fine place to spend a

couple of hours, but to some Union Square is the City. There is a

wide variety of hotels, cafes, bars, restaurants, shops, etc., that are unique to San Francisco. In Union Square you will have a mix of locals, business travelers and vacationers.

Union Square is also a center for transit and all other areas are easily traveled to via bus, cable car, BART, metro or taxi. With

regard to safety, there is a difference especially at night. There is

more activity at Union Square into the night with the cable cars

stop running at 1 AM or so, the theatres and the bars are letting out. This means there are more people out and about. Most

people feel safer in active areas. Fisherman’s Wharf gets quieter

at night and there are not as many people on the streets around the hotels and things mainly because the attractions are closed,

transit is limited and families are putting their little ones to bed. If you have the physical stamina of a marathoner, with enough time, you can walk from Union Square to: Yerba Buena Gardens, MOMA, Metreon, San Francisco Center, Chinatown,

the Theater District, and Nob Hill. You can walk a little further to North Beach, the Ferry Building, the Embarcadero and

Fisherman’s Wharf. Or they are easily accessible by Street Car,

Cable Car or taxi. In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino.

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people | great things begin here


There’s something going on every day of the year in Union Square, whether it’s a hit show at one of our many theatres, a live band in

Union Square Park or a big festival or parade, we have it all. Founded in 2005, Union Square Live brings free music, dance, circus, theatre, outdoor movies and other entertainment to Union Square Park for everyone’s enjoyment. Showcasing established and upcoming Bay Area artists, April through October, most programs are held on

Wednesdays at 12:30pm and 6pm and on Sundays at 2pm. Un-

ion Square Live proudly thanks our sponsors, MJM Management Group, Union Square BID and the San Francisco Recreation and

Parks Department. Union Square Live is fiscally sponsored through the Park Partner program of the San Francisco Parks Alliance.

It’s a challenge to break through all the marketing and media clutter that bombards consumers night and day. But there’s something

gripping about live performing arts, up close and personal, that turns “been there/done that” into a passionate engagement that calls for

encores. Since 2005, Union Square Live! has been showcasing San Francisco’s established and emerging talents in beautiful Union

Square Park ringed by enticing shops, hotels, restaurants and other attractions. Located near the city’s southern border, the Excelsior

District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighbourhoods in San Francisco. The predominately African American Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighbourhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime.

they | great things begin here

77


CHARITY PERFORMANCES We know how important it is for donors to

Women needed a hand up to build business-

be sure that their money is being used as ef-

es. We developed the Family Empowerment

trative and fundraising costs to an impressive

loan program we’ve developed via the Family

most needed, giving over 300 children a safe

pool their resources, create micro-finance

Ugandan women break he cycle of poverty.

The women in the program have developed

directly from listening to Ugandan communi-

to run this program. Social workers from

were struggling to support their families,

counsel them and oversee the program. This

in children who have lost their parents and

65 people, including 16 women and their

fectively as possible. We’ve kept our adminis-

Program to do exactly that. The savings and

8% of costs. Your money is going where it’s

Empowerment Program allows women to

place to live, food and schooling, and helping

programs and support each other’s businesses.

Our Family Empowerment Program evolved

their own working group with elected officials

ties where we work. They told us that women

Children of Uganda attend these meetings to

especially when so many families have taken

powerful pilot program has already helped

their home.

children and family.

they | great things begin here

79


One of Save the Children’s primary goals is to improve the nutritional status of all children under age 5. Though a community-based

Growth Monitoring Program (GMP), we

identify malnourished children and encourage their families use our supplementary feeding program to help children regain weight.

We also provide children’s caretakers with

nutritional education and counselling on good feeding practices, as well as on preventing and controlling diarrhoea and malaria and seeking treatment promptly when their children are

sick. Parents also learn about the importance

of immunizations, hygiene and sanitation and appropriate breastfeeding and weaning.

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people | great things begin here


Through child protection activities, Save

the Children works to ensure that former

child-soldiers, young mothers, child-headed

households and other orphans and vulnerable children are successfully reintegrated into

their communities and have access to basic

services. By educating community members,

we help raise awareness of children’s vulnerabilities and their rights. Children also receive

training in vocational skills and income-gen-

erating activities. Through work with mentors, these children have positive role models and

someone to help support them as they establish their livelihoods.

they | great things begin here

81


82

people | great things begin here


fig 3.1 Audiences gather around in Union Square for the outstanding performance from the children of Uganda on a Saturday afternoon. they | great things begin here

83


PERFORMER & STUDIO MUSICIAN Justin Ward was born and raised in Glenview, Illinois, a suburb just

outside of Chicago. He is based out of Santa Barbara, CA, Sidewalk Affair is a fast rising R&B band, with regular shows up and down California. His interest in music began at a very early age when

he was introduced to the piano and violin at the age of 4. Already

having a strong background in music, when he enrolled in band to

play the saxophone, he quickly excelled, winning outstanding soloist

awards each year at all the local jazz festivals and was nominated for the best soloist award in Downbeat Magazine. He was first chair in both the IMEA concert and jazz bands throughout middle school and high school, eventually going on to study at The DePaul Uni-

versity School of Music. Now, a resident of San Francisco, Justin has quickly become a highly sought after sax player all over the California coast, with regular gigs in Los Angeles, Santa Barbara, Montecito, and San Francisco.

Being trained in both classical and jazz gives Justin the versatility to

play just about anything. He is currently playing alongside many DJs at some of the biggest nightclubs in California. Justin opened for

The Dream Foundation’s 2012 Celebration of Dreams Gala, sharing

the stage with Katy Perry, The Canadian Tenors, Casey Abrams, and many other big names. Most recently, he was personally invited to play for a private event featuring Earth, Wind & Fire. In addition

to his solo career, Justin is currently involved in numerous projects, some of which include Smartguyz and Sidewalk Affair.

they | great things begin here

85


MUSIC The saxophone is a family of woodwind

instruments. Saxophones are usually made of brass and played with a single-reed mouthpiece similar to that of the clarinet. The

saxophone family was invented by the Belgian instrument maker Adolphe Sax in 1840. Sax wanted to create a group or series of instru-

ments that would be the most powerful and

vocal of the woodwinds, and the most adaptive of the brass—that would fill the vacant middle ground between the two sections. . The saxophone has proved very popular in

military band music, and is commonly used

in jazz and classical music. Saxophone players are called saxophonists.

86

people | great things begin here


they | great things begin here

87


A PLACE OF REAL BEAUTY Weddings are our specialty at Marines’ Memorial Club and Hotel. Our elegant ballrooms are perfect for your San Francisco wedding reception, and we have several venues that can serve as a stunning

backdrop for your ceremony as well. We also offer venues and servic-

es for special events, making Marines’ Memorial Club the best choice for all your Union Square wedding and event needs.

There are many things going around in Union Square. We offer an

array of wedding venues for your ceremony and reception, including

ballrooms on the tenth and eleventh floors and the historic Marines’

Memorial Theatre. Our event planners can help you coordinate every detail, from seating arrangements to flowers to entertainment. No

matter what the occasion or the size of your group, Marines’ Memorial Club is committed to making your special event or wedding in Union Square simply unforgettable. Have your fairy-tale wedding (with up to 150 guests for a seated dinner with dancing) in the

breathtaking Beaux Arts Great Room. It features dramatic architecture with 23-foot ceilings and grand windows overlooking the

treetops of Union Square. Hop in the elevator to the sprawling sixthfloor bar The Ides and sip dark and stormies, while taking in majestic Manhattan across the river. Hangover Cure: Nosh on sticky buns or

bialys and whitefish with your guests before they hit the road. Keep it classy at The Bar with martinis or a round of its single malts. ell your

wedding party you’ll meet them on one of the two dance floors at the XL Nightclub, whose D.J. roster includes heavyweights like Tracy.

they | great things begin here

89


90

people | great things begin here


We know how important it is for

Women needed a hand up to build business-

donors to be sure that their money is being

es. We developed the Family Empowerment

our administrative and fundraising costs to

loan program we’ve developed via the Family

used as effectively as possible. We’ve kept an impressive 8% of costs. Your money is

going where it’s most needed, giving over 300 children a safe place to live, food and schooling, and helping Ugandan women break he

cycle of poverty. Our Family Empowerment Program evolved directly from listening to

Ugandan communities where we work. They told us that women were struggling to sup-

port their families, especially when so many

families have taken in children who have lost their parents and their home.

Program to do exactly that. The savings and Empowerment Program allows women to pool their resources, create micro-finance

programs and support each other’s businesses. The women in the program have developed

their own working group with elected officials to run this program. Social workers from

Children of Uganda attend these meetings to counsel them and oversee the program. This powerful pilot program has already helped 65 people, including 16 women and their children and family.

they | great things begin here

91


4


4

WE

People coming to visit San Francisco often ask “Where is the best area to stay?� Union Square is a place that worth visiting because it is a place for people to interact.


A PLACE TO INTERACT People coming to visit San Francisco often ask “Where is the

best area to stay?” Although there are many great places in the city to stay, the most commonly recommended locations are Fisherman’s Wharf and Union Square.

Union Square is a premier designer and name-brand shopping area of San Francisco. The Wharf is a fine place to spend a

couple of hours, but to some Union Square is the City. There is a

wide variety of hotels, cafes, bars, restaurants, shops, etc., that are unique to San Francisco. In Union Square you will have a mix of locals, business travelers and vacationers.

Union Square is also a center for transit and all other areas are easily traveled to via bus, cable car, BART, metro or taxi. With

regard to safety, there is a difference especially at night. There is

more activity at Union Square into the night with the cable cars

stop running at 1 AM or so, the theatres and the bars are letting out. This means there are more people out and about. Most

people feel safer in active areas. Fisherman’s Wharf gets quieter

at night and there are not as many people on the streets around the hotels and things mainly because the attractions are closed,

transit is limited and families are putting their little ones to bed. If you have the physical stamina of a marathoner, with enough time, you can walk from Union Square to: Yerba Buena Gardens, MOMA, Metreon, San Francisco Center, Chinatown,

the Theater District, and Nob Hill. You can walk a little further to North Beach, the Ferry Building, the Embarcadero and

Fisherman’s Wharf. Or they are easily accessible by Street Car,

Cable Car or taxi. In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino.

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INTERACTIVE MOMENTS While you take in the wonderful sights of San Francisco, one of our experienced guides will provide you with

an entertaining commentary, pointing out various landmarks and explaining significance to the San Francisco. Whether it is your first time to San Francisco or you have lived here all your life, you are guaranteed to

discover something new and interesting about the city.

The tour guides will do their best to give you an insight into the city’s culture and are also happy to provide you

with advice on places to visit, where to eat and drink, or anything else you wish to know about San Francisco.

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fig 4.1 A group of tourists gather around at the Union Square. They are ready to explore the beauty of San Francisco.

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fig 4.2 City Sightseeing is the original Open-Top Double-Decker bus company in San Francisco. San Francisco Tours and the Hop-On Hop-Off stops are the most comprehensive coverage in San Francisco.

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fig 4.3 A father and his daughter waving at the camera. They are waiting to start their journey in San Francisco on a beatiful Sunday.

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fig 4.4 An artist is drawing the statue of the Victory Monument in the Union Square. She is very determined to finish her paintings even it is rainning.

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fig 4.5 The artist captured the essence of the statue in Union Square with only a few brush strokes and colours.

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fig 4.6 People come and go in the Union Square, yet there are many warm and touching moments which become part of our memories.

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PEOPLE WHO LIVE IN SAN FRANCISCO ARE HAPPIER Our Living Well, On Location series explores cities and countries from around the world. How do other people pursue health and

happiness? We’re going coast to coast, country to country to find out. Rudyard Kipling once said that the only drawback to San Francisco is how hard it is to leave. Many San Franciscans would agree with Kipling: Bay Area natives and transplants alike tend to be fiercely

loyal to their city, and most of the SFers would always tell you that

they could never imagine living anywhere else. With sweeping vistas on every hill.

Not to mention some of the best food, music and art in the country -- it’s easy to see why so many have been lured by the siren song of the San Francisco Bay. Besides being one of the most visually

stunning seven-by-seven square miles on earth, San Francisco has

also topped rankings of the happiest, healthiest and fittest cities in

America, and Bloomberg Businessweek called San Francisco the best city in America in 2012. Here are 12 reasons that San Francisco is

one of the happiest and healthiest places in the U.S. -- and lessons

that it can teach the rest of America about living well. The personal recorded commentary is available in your choice of 10 languag-

es. Considered one of the most “veg-friendly” cities in the US by

PETA, San Francisco is not only an oasis of vegetarian and vegan

restaurants, according to VegSF, but also has myriad vegetarian and

vegan-friendly menus, even at restaurants with meat dishes. You can even eat the fruit that grows on the trees in certain public parks in

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San Francisco. And with the vegan paradise that is Berkeley right

across the bay, herbivores will never run out of dining options. It’s

veggie-friendly. Meditation, yoga and Eastern philosophy are a part

of the city’s DNA, thanks to a long history of Eastern religious studies at its cultural centers.

I love to bring the happiness to people around me.

Union Square is a place where I can see how people interact with each other. ―Boston Globe

The Buddhist philosopher and writer Alan Watts, a transplant to San Francisco from England, introduced thousands to Eastern philoso-

phy in the late 1950s and early 1960s. Located near the city’s south-

ern border, the Excelsior District is one of the most ethnically diverse neighbourhoods in San Francisco. The predominately African American Bayview-Hunters Point in the far southeast corner of the city

is one of the poorest neighbourhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial urban renewal projects. But no matter your faith, an

emphasis on spiritual belief systems has been found to reduce stress levels and increase well-being, making it a likely contributor to its San Franciscans’ a better and good health.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Gilbert, Grove Karl; Richard Lewis Humphrey, John Stephen Sewell and Frank Soule (1907). The San Francisco Earthquake And Fire of April 18th, 1906 And Their Effects On

Structures And Structural Materials. Washington: Government Printing Office. Retrieved August 15, 2009.

Peter Booth Wiley, National Trust Guide—San Francisco: America’s Guide for Architecture and History Travelers (John Wiley, 2000), pages 377-379)

Double Cone Quarterly, Fall Equinox, volume VII, Number 3 (2004). Tyler, Sydney; Harry Fielding Reid (1908, 1910). The California Earthquake of April 18,

1906: Report Of The State Earthquake Investigation Commission, Volumes I and II. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Winchester, Simon, A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California

Earthquake of 1906. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, 2005. ISBN 0-06-057199-3 Bronson, William (1959). The Earth Shook, the Sky Burned. Doubleday. Tyler, Sydney; Harry Fielding Reid (1908, 1910). The California Earthquake of April 18,

1906: Report Of The State Earthquake Investigation Commission, Volumes I and II. Washington, D.C.: The Carnegie Institution of Washington.

Greely, Adolphus W. (1906). Earthquake In California, April 18, 1906. Special Report On The Relief Operations Conducted By The Military Authorities. Washington: Government Printing Office. Retrieved August 15, 2009.

Gibson, Campbell ( June 1998). Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990. U.S. Census Bureau.

Cote, John (2010). San Francisco selected to host America’s Cup. San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications). Retrieved September 11, 2013.

“About Us – History”. ING Bay to Breakers. ING Group. March 11, 2008. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

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Osborn, Liz. Coolest US Cities in Summer. Weather Extremes. Current Results Nexus. Archived from the original on July 26, 2010. Retrieved July 25, 2010.

David, Simson. The City. UnknownWW2InColor. UnknownWW2InColor (Ramano-Archives). 1939. Retrieved June 5, 2009.

Nolte, Carl (August 19, 2005). Fog Heaven: The sun will come out tomorrow. Or maybe not. It’s summer in the city, and that means gray skies. San Francisco Chronicle (Hearst Communications). p. A-1. Retrieved June 13, 2008.

Chow, Andrew (March 22, 2002). Dismal APA Turnout at First Redistricting Meetings. Asian Week.

Bishop, Katherine (October 13, 1988). Haight-Ashbury Journal; Love and Hate Linger In Ex-Hippie District. New York Times. Retrieved August 3, 2009.

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INDEX A

G

M

afternoon 19, 54

gable 78

major 20, 59, 95

autumn 3, 30 12

genesis 95, 101

method 14, 24, 29

authorise 90

majority 33, 49

B

gutter 43, 46, 93

balcony 5, 69

H

misinterpret 84

batter 44, 98, 111

hat 54, 60, 90, 103

N

bays 54, 67

head 29

natural 103

basilica 7, 96 boss 118

nation 32, 55, 93

hide 104

near 4

I

capital 87, 89

income 32, 93, 88

corbel 29

individual 34, 53

column 34, 78, 120 cupola 37, 55, 48

methodical 43, 65

hammer 30, 94

C cells 34, 50

indicate 19

neighbour 33, 43, 85 network 60, 103 news 23, 44

normal 68, 74

interpret 56

O over 12, 33

invoke 26, 64

D

isolating 10

occur 4

diastole 32, 64, 100

J

overestimation 98

jewel 14, 37

P

journey 41, 69, 84

produce 12, 30, 49, 53

dormer 56 E

entertainment 25, 59 ephemera 7

eponymous 11, 13

job 8, 92

policy 43

judgement 33, 74

proceed 23, 84

junior 13, 34

process 53

estrange 19, 99

K

Q

keen 47, 83

quality 50

F

kingdom 15, 42, 43 knowledge 84, 93

R

eustyle 4

fancy 99, 115

fanlight 39, 66, 69

L

flusher 49, 67, 78

legal 46

ferreter 104

labour 25, 39, 73

flying 9, 43

legislation 12, 19

footage 30, 46

forefeet 12, 33 fun 55, 97 114

gambler 35, 57, 90

index

quantitative 103 recreate 32, 63 redefine 53

reform 104, 115 reoccur 54, 88


S

Y

safe 9, 30

yard 78

scheme 57

Z

sale 25, 34 slight 103, 104

street 33, 62, 73 social 91

yellow 34, 63 zero 82, 97 zone 102

square 83, 84 T thread 42, 75

tight 53, 61, 79 tilt 94

today 61, 74

tomorrow 99, 105 train 78

total 20, 59 trace 102 U underground 52, 40 understand 73

union 5, 37, 54, 93 universal 62, 81 V vacation 63, 90 version 77

victory 43, 84 W wage 14, 36, 94, 98 walk 23, 75 wealth 16 X xanthan 47

index

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COLOPHON The main text of this book was set in Adobe Caslon Pro. The Caslon types are a class of Old Style Serif face named for typefounder

William Caslon in 1722. In 1990, the Adobe Calson was re-designed by Carol Twombly. It is then characterized by short ascenders and

descenders, bracketed serifs, moderately high contrast. It is also the right choice for magazines, journals, book publishing.

The main headings was set in DIN. The DIN types are a class of

Geometric and Sans Serif faces designed by Albert-Jan Pool in 1995. FF Din is based on DIN-Mittelschrift and DIN-Engschrift, as

defined in the German standard DIN 1451. The shape of the new FF DIN differs from the original mostly by thinner horizontal strokes and by more fluent curves.

The sub-headings was set in Scala Sans. The Scala Sans types are a class of Humanist Sans Serif faces designed by Dutch designer

Martin Majoor in 1993 for the Vredenburg Music Center in Utrecht, the Netherlands. It was designed as a companion to Majoor’s earlier serif old style typeface FF Scala, designed in 1990.

Photographs of the history of the Union Square are from the San

Francisco Public Library. They are mosly in black and white. Other-

wise all photographs and polaroids are taken by Alvina J. Ng. Thanks to Brian McMullen. Special thanks to Angie Wang.


Copyright Š 2014 by Alvina J. Ng All rights reserved. This book or any portion thereof may not be reproduced or used in any manner whatsoever without the express written permission of the publisher except for the use of brief quotations in a book review. Printed in the United States of America First Printing, 2014 ISBN 0-9111393-1-9 Imaginary Publishing 113 Mesa Street Scottsdale, AZ 94820 www.ImaginaryPublishing.com



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