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MARCH 9 TO 15, 2014

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International Women’s Day

Women in Enterprise unpacks policies that affects them The Zimbabwe National Chamber of Commerce (ZNCC) in conjunction with the Women Alliance Business Association of Zimbabwe (WABAZ) hosted a Women in Enterprise workshop on February 27. This event mainly focused on economic policies that affect women either negatively or positively after the realisation that most business women were unaware of the policies. The National Gender Policy, Indigenisation and Empowerment Act, Zim Asset, and Procurement Act were some of the policies discussed during the meeting. Charity Manyeruke, who was the main speaker encouraged women to read and research widely about the economic policies as they have a great impact on their businesses. She went into each of the policies to try and highlight where women could derive opportunities from. Honourable Deputy Minister of Industry and Commerce Chiratidzo Mabuwa, highlighted the need of a booklet or a newsletter that simplifies and keep women informed of these policies. She also said it was high time government implemented its promises to the women. “Now is the time to deliver on our promises. Campaigning is over, talking is over. It’s time to take action. Women are the pillars of the economy in this modern day. It is time we now should see women who invest in partnerships at higher levels,” said Hon Mabuwa. She decried the porosity of our borders that has brought down local products thereby rendering local manufacturing unviable There was consensus at the workshop for women to pull their resources together, even a dollar a day to enable women to come up with a substantial fund to get into some of the projects that require huge capital outlays. The participants challenged the Women in Enterprise (WECA) platform committee to try to put something together in that endeavour. Speaking at the same workshop, Divine Ndhlukula ZNCC Vice-President and Chairperson of the Women’s Desk, emphasized the need for women to work together and try and support each other’s businesses as women form a large portion of the buying power. Doing so will almost guarantee the success of women’s enterprises. In particular, she highlighted the need to support local products as that is key for job creation for our children who are coming out of colleges. Speaking on behalf of the Minister of Women Affairs, Gender and Community Dev Tecla Madziva informed the meeting of the review of the Gender Policy which will be launched soon and gave insights of the policy that women can take advantage. The New National Gender Policy will focus on economic empowerment, education, law, politics, gender equality, health, media and ICT and violence.


The Zimbabwe Peace Project (ZPP) joins the rest of the world in commemorating the International Women's Day. March the 8th, since 1911, is marked by celebrating the economic, political and social achievements of women past, present and future. ZPP acknowledges that Women's equality has made positive gains worldwide and applauds Zimbabwe for making strides in enshrining women's rights its new constitution up and above its ratifications to international and regional instruments on promoting women's rights. However, ZPP echoes sentiments that the world is still unequal and thus more is yet to be done to empower women and the girl child. As ZPP continues to monitor and document Human Rights violations in Zimbabwe, it has been noted that women and girls have had their rights violated either directly or indirectly through harassment, torture, rape or discrimination. Direct abuses came as punishment for expressing their political aspirations while indirectly they are punished on behalf their family members' political aspirations or even for non-affiliation to political parties. In some instances women and girls are abused by their family members for expressing their political affiliation or interests. ZPP has also noted that the rural woman or girl child of Zimbabwe continues to suffer at the hands of politicians, traditional leaders and ordinary men in their quest to fend for their families. In drought prone areas like Masvingo and Matabeleland regions where most families depend on food relief and other forms of aid, women and girls, as custodians of their families' livelihood, are exposed to verbal and sexual harassment in the process of accessing aid. It is sad that women are denied access to food and other forms of aid either on political grounds or for refusing to offer sexual favours in exchange. While, positive gains in Women's equality are appreciated, ZPP is concerned about the vice of gender based violence in Zimbabwe. ZPP thus appeals to the government to immediately address politically motivated and other forms of human rights violations against women. ZPP reiterates the recommendation made by the Convention for the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW) committee in February 2012 that the Zimbabwean government “put in place measures to prevent and address politically motivated violence against women. “



MARCH 9 TO 15, 2014


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International Women’s Day

CELEBRATING INTERNATIONAL WOMEN RIGHTS DAY: CELEBRATING 50:50 WITH MEN: AS YOU REVISE LAWS AND POLICIES Zimbabwe Women Lawyers Association joins the rest of the world in celebrating International Women's day under the global theme “Inspiring Change”. We celebrate the advancement of women's human rights in Zimbabwe through the creation of a gender sensitive supreme law that is the Constitution. In particular the Constitution: · Honours the women and men who toiled and continue toiling for the progress of Zimbabwe. · It values gender equality and the need to ensure there is equal access to resources and opportunities by both men and women. · It clearly states the commitment of ensuring that there is Gender balance within Commissions, boards and institutions established by the Constitution. We are however dismayed the continued lack of political will to ensure that we achieve gender equality and gender balance. We still have not forgotten the few examples: · The appointment of three women out of twenty-six cabinet ministers, · The lack of gender balance in the Judicial Services Commission · The lack of gender balance in the Zimbabwe Broadcasting Corporation We therefore call for: · The Government to ensure we build a culture that's respects the Constitution. This starts with them abiding by the letter of the Constitution · Parliament to diligently play its role in terms of the Constitution that is for them to protect the Constitution and promote democratic governance in Zimbabwe · Expedience in the establishment of the Gender Commission whose main mandate is to monitor issues concerning gender equality to ensure gender equality as provided in the Constitution.

Defending Women Defending Rights 17 Fife Avenue134 P.O Box 473, Causeway Harare, Zimbabwe Telephone: 706676, 703 766, 708491T Fax: 706 820 Hotlines: 04 0776 736 873, 0782 900 900 Email:

J. Tongogara Street Cnr 14th Avenue Bulawayo, Zimbabwe Telephone 09 887186, 887 187 Telefax: 09 888001


Women politicians inspiring change Women political actors in Zimbabwe have been inspiring change through their actions and through their ability to navigate the political landscape of Zimbabwe. Without the contributions of current politicians and those that have gone before them, young women would have no role models on whom to fashion their ambitions. Young women would not be able to aspire to be Presidents, Ministers, Members of Parliament, Ambassadors and councilors. As we commemorate International Women’s day we are cognizant of the work that still needs to be done but acknowledge the work that has and continues to be done in advancing women’s equality and ensuring that it translates to real change in the lives of Zimbabwean women. We also take the moment to celebrate the many women who strived to put forward their candidature in the 2013 elections. We also celebrate the women from the Political Parties and the 7th Government for successes in the Constitutional Reform process that gave birth to the 2013 Constitution of Zimbabwe. It is also important that we acknowledge the women who have since exited the everyday political space like Margaret Dongo, Fay Yung, Trudy Stevenson and Lynette Karenyi. Since we commemorated this day in 2013 we have seen an increase in the number of women elected into office. We currently have 124 women in Parliament and 327 women in Local Government Councils around the country. Women currently make up 16% in Local Government and 35% in Parliament. In the 6 months since the elections women in the current government have begun work. In February of 2014, Senators Mathuthu and Mahofa introduced a motion in the Senate that called for the use of indigenous languages, particularly in schools. 14 Indigenous languages have been recognised as official languages in the Constitution of Zimbabwe. Gender Based Violence continues to be a priority issue for women in Parliament. They have over the years

efforts towards decreasing incidents of gender based violence in Zimbabwe. The most comprehensive tool to date has been the Domestic Violence Act. In February of 2014, in the National Assembly, the women representatives tabled a motion for discussion on Gender Based Violence. The motion was initially tabled by Hon Jessie Majome, was seconded by Hon Lucia Matibenga, and echoed by Minister Oppah Muchinguri. As highlighted by the Minister, it is the debate generated around the issue in parliament that will continue to inform the Ministry’s policy on gender based violence. A key deliverable that the women in Parliament were calling for was a 30-year mandatory minimum sentence for rape and stiffer sentences for other forms of gender-based violence. This is reflective of the anger and anguish that gender based violence causes. The women in local government continue to be the first port of call for citizens in regards to service delivery. They continue to be faced with the task of ensuring that local council law and bi laws translate to gender sensitive service delivery. During the 5-year-term the women councillors together with their male counter parts, will be seized with providing policy direction to local authorities that sees the delivery of basic services to citizens. Women in Politics Support Unit continues to call for qualitative and quantitative participation of women in all spheres of politics. As we join women around the world in commemorating International Women’s Day, it is our hope that the diverse efforts of women will continue to ignite change in the everyday lives of women.

International women’s day — Inspiring change BY HLALELENI KARANDA

On March 8, Zimbabwean women join women throughout the world to celebrate International women’s day under different themes. From the various themes running this year, I have selected “Inspiring Change” because it is pertinent to the situation currently prevailing in Zimbabwe. International women’s day was first celebrated in 1911 since then the achievements of women have been acknowledged and encouraged over the years. Change is a fundamental principle of life that happens whether planned or unplanned, welcome or unwelcome, knowingly or unknowingly. Change can be positive or negative. As the old adage goes “change is the only

constant in life”. We change in appearance, we change as we mature, we change in educational achievements, and we change in perception of the world. There are many forms of change which happen in our lives sometimes we are aware of them sometimes we are not even aware that we have changed. Nonetheless, no one can stop change. One of the themes for this year, Inspiring Change, has motivated me to write this article. The article aims to encourage women from all walks of life particularly women from Zimbabwe to aspire for change in all aspects of life. The change should focus towards resource management, politics, economy and the general direction of our country.

As women, we are involved in politics nearly every day without realising that the decisions we take are political. However, when it comes to us taking mainstream politics, we often shy away thinking we are not capable of handling the pressure which comes with the high office. In Zimbabwe we find it normal to wear attires with male faces on them as campaign regalia. We promote the very same man who will oppress us by not delivering the promises they made when we danced and ululated for them to take up positions of power. I am calling upon women of Zimbabwe to inspire each other to demand more from our politicians and to take up main stream politics. CONTINUED ON PAGE 17

march 9 to 15, 2014

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International Women’s Day

To be the women or to be humans By Rumbidzai Kaseke

What good could possibly come out of a message that holds women ransom to the ideals of being victimised by their male counterparts? Of what benefit is a message that makes a woman feel worthless? What do we hope to achieve by leading a young girl to believe that they are always the victim and they are half of what they could have been if given the right platform? This year’s theme of Interna-

tional Womens Day is Equality for women is progress for all. The theme silently acknowledges that women are not being given equal opportunities as their male counterparts; it also highlights how responsible women are, as they are able to share their success with all. In the case of Zimbabwe, one may ask if women are not being given enough opportunities to be who they want to be. The education sector has gone to extremes of having different entry points for University and yet this has not changed

International women’s day – Inspiring change

much on how women view themselves. Women do not need the special favours to prove themselves because these favours only make them seem as the weaker ones, and put them on the receiving end, exposing them to all forms of abuse. Women have always proved themselves to be stronger than what they have been tagged, from being mothers in their communities, teachers to their families and leaders in various sectors. The solution is not for women to stop doing what they are doing but to change the attitudes and how they do what they do. The solution is in making our communities places that accept women for being human and not women. The solution is not to ignore the harassment that women are sub-

jected to in the name of equality, but to take action. The solution is not to stop going to work, but to make our workplaces spaces where we can be comfortable to prove that we can progress to become leaders. Although many may put the blame on women for their own inadequacies, the question is, have these women been given a platform to prove that they can do what they want to do and be a success? In some cases women have been sexually abused and of late men too, but in cases where women are abused, the blame is put on how they dress, yet most of the harassment cases I witness have nothing to do with a woman’s style. As women, we are not asking to wear skimpy outfits to work under the name of

freedom or equality. We are not asking to be placed in positions of high places in the name of equality but because we have earned our way to the top. We just want to feel comfortable being human without any one tagging us the weaker sex. As people continue to celebrate International Women’s Day, the solution is not for women to stop doing what we do. The solution is that we make our communities places that accept us for being ourselves. The solution is not to ignore the harassment, but to take action. The solution is not to stop going to work, but to make our workplaces spaces where we can be comfortable and work even harder to be what we want to be.

continued from page 16 I urge women who have made it into high positions of power not to kick away the ladder for the other women who are also trying to climb up the ladder. (There is enough room for all of us). I also recommend that women lead differently from their male counterparts by not engaging in demonising other women or treat corruption as a way of life. I ask you to inspire all women and embrace them and mentor them to rise and demand accountability from the government of the day. Pluralism managed properly brings prosperity to a country. We can inspire our own change as women of Zimbabwe and bring our country to be accountably managed and rise above all the problems we currently face. We can walk along our men and demand more from those who purport to lead us. Zimbabwe has produced high calibre women who are just waiting for that inspiration to motivate them to make the change they want in their country. In rural Zimbabwe, women work very hard, at sometimes with children on their back to fend for their families and the rewards are very little. My call is upon all stakeholders in the country to spare a moment and think about the struggles women go through every day. Women die giving birth due to poorly manned hospitals, children mortality is affected due to lack of basic equipment such as incubators. Zimbabwean women are as intelligent as any other women in the world and we have what it takes to change our country and move it to a first world if we inspire each other. I yearn for the day when all women work collaboratively across our political divide and bring our knowledge and skills together and challenge the injustice which has become synonymous with our country. I look forward to a time when high profile political leaders mentor young women in their constituencies regardless of party affiliation. This will not only inspire women to make informed choices about politics, economy and empowerment. Recently we have seen horrible injustices committed against women such as rape, sexual assaults, manipulation, and financial abuse being perpetrated by church leaders. The suffering of one woman has a domino effect on her children and other women around her. The task of reporting often exposes her to the risk of humiliation and bullying. In Zimbabwe other forms of gender-based violence are prevalent during elections. However, after elections, there is a semblance of calm and stability in the country but the scars left by the election campaigns continue to rage in women’s hearts. Women are left to cope with beyond belief traumas which in some cases lead to early death. These deaths are not documented as politically-occasioned as they happen after the elections. In many cases perpetrators are well known and may indeed reside near their victims. This exacerbates the trauma already experienced through humiliation and shame which is beyond measure. To make history of these kinds of injustices, I recommend women to inspire each other at different levels. As we celebrate International Women’s Day, let’s remember those who have stood up for women’s rights and those who have scars which they are finding hard to mask. Women of Zimbabwe stand up, be counted for being the change you want. There are many unsung heroines in Zimbabwe. l Hlaleleni Karanda, a Zimbabwean human rights activist living in Northern Ireland, is ZUNDE’s Regional Representative for Ireland. She can be contacted on hlaleleni@yahoo. or You can also

ZIMBABWE TEACHERS’ ASSOCIATION (ZIMTA) ZIMTA House, 190 Herbert Chitepo Avenue, PO Box 1440, Harare, Zimbabwe. Tel. +263.4.795.931 762.033 Fax. 791.042


INTERNATIONAL WOMEN’S DAY 8 MARCH 2014 Press Statement from Zimbabwe Teachers’ Association (ZIMTA)

“Women Empowerment Promotes Quality Education” Zimbabwe Teachers' Association (ZIMTA), as an Education International (E.I.), affiliate member, is part of the global campaign that is focusing on mobilizing and demanding for governments and policymakers to act to raise the quality of education in Zimbabwe, guarantee its availability and accessibility to all. As the women teachers' of Zimbabwe celebrate Women's Day 2014, under the national theme, Linking Women to Markets, Changing the face of development through ZIM-ASSET, it will also be important to consider that women teachers have come a long way, as they have travelled through a hard, thorny road to achieve recognition in their profession and also to be accorded the same respect, status and equal salaries as the male counterparts. Women of the teaching fraternity today, celebrate the equal access to leadership and promotion opportunities at the workplace, although, more can still be done to upgrade and recognize women's roles and their contribution and delivery of quality education. Women are mostly celebrated for the role that they play in delivering quality education, which is not only the teaching of how to excel in examinations and get good grades, but are mainly responsible for producing the whole being, who combines high academic achievements with Unhu or Ubuntu in order to become a responsible, global citizen. “An educated woman is in a stronger position to bargain with her family and negotiate with her husband who may enable her to secure more resources for her children,” says United Nations Population Fund Report (UNFPA) 2013. This is the woman that teachers of Zimbabwe want to nurture. In its quest to promote quality, ZIMTA is in the process of facilitating local, regional and international trips for women who are in need of exploring new markets and looking for business opportunities and income generating projects, as a way of enhancing their incomes and therefore improving their living conditions. Access to income generating projects, should be increased for women teachers in the rural areas so as to have better results for ZIM-ASSET. For almost a decade, Zimbabwean teachers have remained as underpaid professionals, and empirical evidence has shown that women teachers are hardest hit as they have to rely on the low salaries to feed families or run the homes. They deserve to be paid quality salaries that should transform their lives and enable them to survive above the poverty datum line. Girls have not been spared from the call to have governments work on policies that improve access to public quality education. Education of the girl child remains crucial and the world needs to rise above cultural and religious beliefs that create barriers to the advancement of the girl child's education. In Zimbabwe, we applaud the Affirmative Action policy that creates opportunities for girls to advance to higher education. As the theme suggests, when more women are empowered to venture into businesses and when they have access and links to markets, poverty levels amongst professional teachers can be reduced, as they can find avenues and means of supplementing meager incomes. Women teachers must be accorded opportunities of enhancing their incomes through venturing into business ventures that enable them to better their living conditions and supplement their incomes. For, women in the labour movement, ZIMTA believes that the quality education cause can be better advanced by women teachers who understand quality education and its three pillars which include, quality teaching; modern quality tools for teaching and learning; and quality teaching and learning environments. ZIMTA aspires to have more women taking up leadership posts both in education and ZIMTA administration and fight for the betterment of the teachers' living and working conditions. Indeed ZIMTA joins the rest of the world in inspiring change for the betterment of teachers' living conditions and the attainment of quality education. Yours in the Struggle JOHN MLILO ZIMTA SECRETARY GENERAL


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march 9 to 15, 2014

Women celebrate their day amid gloom BY PHYLLIS MBANJE

Women’s Affairs, Gender and Community Development minister Oppah Muchinguri

Yesterday was the International Women’s Day. Celebrations were held in honour of women’s social, political and economic achievements. Speeches were read about gallant members of the fairer gender and glitzy events overflowed with champagne in Western capitals. Running under different themes like Inspiring Change, Equality for Women is Progress for All, this year’s International Women’s Day (IWD) celebrations were no different from the previous ones. However, the situation for most women in developing countries remained dire. In Zimbabwe, women’s organisations, activists and sympathisers also gathered in different areas and circles to mark the event which however was all lost on the very people it was honouring.

Press Statement 8 March 2014

ON INTERNATIONAL WOMEN'S DAY, EQUALITY FOR WOMEN MEANS PROGRESS FOR ALL IN OBSERVANCE of International Women's Day, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights (ZLHR) joins the women's movement around the world and reaffirm our commitment to the equality, freedom from discrimination, dignity and advancement of women's rights. Celebrated under the theme "Equality for women is progress for all", International Women's Day is an opportunity to celebrate the economic, political and social achievements of women, also highlighting the plight of women in the private and public spheres. On this day we also celebrate acts of courage and determination by the extraordinary women in Zimbabwe and around the world who have labored to transform their own societies creating the foundation of a more peaceful and prosperous world for all of us. We hold these long suffering women who have achieved substantial advances politically, socially and economically as examples of hope, strength and compassion. With or without awards or acknowledgement, women have taught us about hope, perseverance, courage, leadership and determination. ZLHR notes with concern that in Zimbabwe women continue to suffer social and economic injustices perpetuated by acts of omission or commission of state and non state actors. Women have been deprived of their shelter after callous demolitions of their houses leaving their children exposed to the harsh elements of weather, deprived of education, health and sanitation. Overzealous police officers have also continued to disregard fundamental rights and freedoms by arresting, and detaining women together with their babies on flimsy charges and without any reasonable suspicion of commission of an offence. Peaceful members of Women of Zimbabwe Arise have been at the receiving end of this brutality, and being targeted for simply expressing themselves through peaceful protest marches against the growing scourge of corruption, and continued disregards of social and economic rights of citizens. In broad daylight, police have breached the nation's new Constitution by breaking up peaceful demonstrations although the Constitution guarantees freedoms to demonstrate and gather. In Hwange, some women are still nursing the scars of police assault after they were bludgeoned for peacefully demonstrating against their spouses' employer's failure to pay them their wages. There has been continued disregard of the right to maternal health with evidence of some hospitals taking the law into their

hands by detaining female patients for failing to settle their medical bills and thereby violating their right to personal liberty. In the rural areas, women continue to bear the brunt of human rights violations; they are continuously discriminated against especially by the cultural and traditional practices that hinder them from enjoying and asserting their rights. Development is crippled if women are deprived of economic opportunities. Without education women and girls cannot pass knowledge to their children and the next generation. We remind the government that women are vital to any solution to the myriad problems that Zimbabwe is encountering and as a country we will not sow the seeds for a brighter future or reap the benefits of the change we need without the full and active participation of women and girls. The enfranchisement of women can no longer be a simple aspiration. We believe that women are essential agents in bringing about change and are often overlooked as a resource in the preservation of human security, managing threats arising from oppression as well as alleviating diseases, hunger and poverty. We remind the government that realising human rights and equality should not be just an aspiration; but an obligation that government must fulfill. ZLHR demands for legislative reforms that will advance the rights of women as enshrined in the new constitution to create an environment that recognizes the genuine advancement of women's rights in Zimbabwe. The government should have the political will to advance principles of equality and non-discrimination. ZLHR urges men and boys to play their part, shun patriarchy by protecting and upholding the rights of women as all of us profit when women and girls are assisted to realise their full potential. Equality for women means progress for all. Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights 6th Floor, Beverley Court 100 Nelson Mandela Avenue Harare, Zimbabwe Phone+263 4 764085/705370/708118 Email: CROWNED THE HUMAN RIGHTS ORGANISATION OF THE YEAR 2013 FOLLOW US:@ZLHRLAWYERS ON TWITTER | ZIMBABWE LAWYERS FOR HUMAN RIGHTS ON FACEBOOK

Zimbabwe’s theme this year, Celebrating Women’s Day through Constitutional Provisions rang empty in the face of abject poverty, suffering, domestic violence and social structures that do not recognise women’s rights. Women at the Chingwizi transit camp in Masvingo were grappling for mere survival. The women at this camp of despair who along with their children and husbands were displaced in their thousands by the Tokwe-Mukosi floods, are struggling for basic needs like sanitary ware, food to feed their families and water to drink and bathe. Their voices are drowned; their plight paled and dimmed in the bright lights of the world class events that were held in hotels and resorts. Today, Zimbabwe has the highest maternal death rate of over 900 per 100 000 live births and since the beginning of the year, 42 women have died while giving birth. March 8 was also just another ordinary day for many more women in rural areas of Zimbabwe. Most of them have no idea there is such a day that purports to honour and celebrate them and their situation remains the same year after year despite the global celebrations. The Zimbabwe Gender Equality index indicates that there is a large gap between men and women’s development. Although several pieces of legislation have been put in place to address some of the disparities, these are barely implemented. Msasa Project director, Netty Musanhu said the challenge was on the implementation of the existing laws. She challenged women to demand their rights, a move she said would help release them from bondage. “Women need to critically examine the Constitution and the provisions that apply to them,” she said. “They need to demand the implementation of those laws.” Musanhu, however, blamed her kith for not taking the initiative of empowering themselves through reading. “The first step in empowering oneself is getting information and this is done through reading. Many women do not bother to read even a newspaper. How then will they be able to know about these laws that can actually change their circumstances if they are not interested in reading?” She added: “Women should be celebrated every day and not on March 8 only.” Minister of Women’s Affairs, Gender and Community Development Oppah Muchinguri last week said her ministry had several projects lined up that would benefit women. “Poverty is still a challenge and many women have no access to means of production. That has to change,” she said. Speaking on the eve of the IWD, United Nations Under-Secretary-General and executive director of UN Women, Phumzile Mlambo-Ngcuka said progress had been slow and women and girls still faced complex challenges. UN secretary-general Ban Ki-moon said countries with more gender equality have better economic growth and companies with more women leaders perform better. The first IWD was held in 1911 in honour of 1908 garment workers’ strike in New York, USA where women protested against poor working conditions. It has been marked by the UN every year since 1975. The day has been declared a public holiday in countries like Russia and Ukraine.

sa expels rwandan diplomats South Africa expelled three Rwandan diplomats it linked to a raid on an exiled Rwandan general’s Johannesburg home, and Rwanda has retaliated by ordering out six South African envoys, officials said on Friday. The row strained ties between two African states involved in efforts to bring peace to eastern Democratic Republic of Congo, where South Africa has troops in a UN brigade that fought last year against rebels whom UN experts said received support from Rwanda. Kigali denied backing the Congolese rebels. Late on Monday, armed men broke into the Johannesburg home of former Rwandan army chief General Faustin Kayumba Nyamwasa, an exiled critic of Rwandan President Paul Kagame. Nyamwasa, who survived an assassination attempt in Johannesburg in 2010, was not in the house at the time. — Reuters

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