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Alpine CONVENTIOn Reference Guide

Alpine signals 1 • 2nd edition


Alpine signals 1 • 2nd edition


Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention www.alpconv.org info@alpconv.org Office: Herzog-Friedrich-StraĂ&#x;e 15 A-6020 Innsbruck Austria Branch office: Viale Druso - Drususallee 1 I-39100 Bolzano - Bozen Italy

Imprint Editor: Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention Responsible for the publication series: Marco Onida - Secretary General of the Alpine Convention Editing: Marcella Morandini Igor Roblek Graphic Design: Werbeagentur Ingenhaeff-Beerenkamp, 6067 Absam (www.i-b.at) Print: Pinxit Druckerei GmbH, 6067 Absam (www.pinxit.at)

Š Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention, Innsbruck/Bolzano-Bozen, 2010


Alpine Convention Reference Guide

Alpine signals 1 • 2nd edition


Preface

Preface The Alpine Convention and its protocols constitute a range of means and measures for the facilitation of cooperation among the states of the Alpine Space and for the support of common policies ensuring a balance of economic growth and social welfare. It furthermore represents a commitment to the protection of special areas and the environment in general. Thus, the Alpine Convention, with a view to future generations, contributes significantly to the appreciation and cultivation of the special qualities and specific characteristics of the Alpine regions, which are situated in the centre of Europe. Alpine Convention – Reference Guide was the first publication by the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention, which was established in 2002. This guide, published in 2003, though not in the English language, contained in a single volume all significant acts of law of the Convention along with general information on the territory of the Alpine Convention and its population. The reason for the present new issue of the volume is the fact that the first edition is by now out of print; moreover, some major developments have made necessary an update: in 2006 (at the IX Alpine Conference) two declarations, on climate change and on the topic of population and culture in the Alps, were adopted. In 2009 (at the X Alpine Conference) an Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps was adopted. This 2nd edition is also the occasion to publish this Reference Guide in English. The present publication is intended to make the Alpine Convention and its goals more widely known. It aims at being a useful aid to all who, out of professional or personal interest, concern themselves with the principles of the Alpine Convention. However, it cannot replace the most comprehensive source of information on the Alpine Convention, which is the website www.alpconv.org. Among other things, all documents and surveys, which are the products of the intensive Working Groups and Platforms activities of the Alpine Convention, along with the comprehensive editions of the Report on the State of the Alps are available from there.

Marco Onida Secretary General of the Alpine Convention Innsbruck/Bolzano-Bozen January 2011

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Index

6

Index

Page

Imprint

2

Preface 

5

List of maps

7

Glossary 

9

Contracting Parties

11

Overview of the Presidencies of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee 

13

Overview about the ratification of the Framework Convention, the Monaco Protocol and the Implementation Protocols (chronological tables)

15

Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention

21

General information about the scope of application of the Alpine Convention

41

Framework Convention 

55

Protocols Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development Mountain Farming Conservation of Nature and Landscape Protection Mountain Forests Tourism Soil Conservation Energy Transport Solution of Litigations

65 77 89 103 113 125 137 149 163

Declaration on Population and Culture 

169

Declaration on Climate Change 

179

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps 

183

Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols 

203

Rules of Procedure of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (Alpine Conference) 

211

Rules of Procedure of the Permanent Committee of the Conference of the Contracting Parties 

217

Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention – Statute

223

Official seat agreement with Austria

231

Official seat agreement with Italy

243

International Mountain Partnerships

253

Use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention 

265

Adresses

267

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List of maps

List of maps

Page

Map 1 The Alps – Perimeter of the Alpine Convention

42

Map 2 The Convention Territory – Administrative areas with a share in the Convention Territory

43

Map 3 Population distribution – Population density in the Alpine municipalities

44

Map 4 Population development – Population development in the municipalities

46

Map 5 Age structure – Age index of the municipalities

49

Map 6 Agricultural development – Development of agricultural enterprises with more than 1 ha of production land throughout 1980-2000

51

Map 7 Transport – Major transalpine transit corridors – 5 year development with modal split

53

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7


Glossary

Glossary

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Alpine Convention

An International treaty consisting of a Framework Convention which sets out the general objectives for the protection and sustainable development of the Alps and the operating rules for the decision-making bodies of the Convention, together with various implementation protocols which contain specific provisions regarding the following issues: Mountain farming, Tourism, Spatial planning and sustainable development, Transport, Conservation of nature and the countryside, Mountain forests, Soil conservation and Energy.

Contracting parties to the Alpine Convention

Austria, France, Germany, Italy, Liechtenstein, Principality of Monaco, Slovenia, Switzerland and the European Union.

Ratification

Deed through which a Contracting Party undertakes to comply with and implement an international treaty, which will become legally valid under national law.

Conference of the Contracting Parties (Alpine Conference, Articles 5-7 of the Framework Convention)

The Alpine Conference, consisting of Ministers from Alpine countries, acts as the decisionmaking body of the Alpine Convention and generally meets once every two years. The Chairmanship of the Alpine Conference is on a rotational basis with one of the Contracting Parties taking the Chair for a two-year period.

Permanent Committee (Article 8 of the Framework Convention)

Consisting of the delegations of the senior officials of the Contracting Parties, this is the executive body of the Convention. Normally it meets twice a year.

Permanent Secretariat (Article 9 of the Framework Convention and Decision VII/2 of the Alpine Conference)

Established in 2002, this supports the operations of the bodies in the Convention, coordinates Alpine research and performs public re-

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lations activities. Its main base is in Innsbruck, with an operational annex at Bolzano.

Observers (Article 5(5) of the Framework Convention)

Governmental and nongovernmental international organisations participating in the meetings of the bodies of the Alpine Convention without voting rights.

Multiyear work schedule of the Alpine Conference

Document for the Contracting Parties and the bodies of the Convention containing the guidelines and specific priorities on which to concentrate their actions over a certain period of time.

Working groups of the Alpine Convention (Article 6 (e) of the Framework Convention)

Working groups established for coordinating activities by the Contracting Parties and to develop measures in areas of specific interest to the Convention.

Compliance Committee (Decision VII/4 of the Alpine Conference)

Established in 2002 to monitor that the provisions of the Convention and its protocols are correctly implemented.

SOIA (Article 3 of the Framework Convention)

System for the Observation and Information on the Alps: consisting of a database and network for coordination of research on Alpine issues.

Report on the State of the Alps

A scientific report prepared by the Permanent Secretariat on issues of particular interest to the Convention.


Contracting Parties

Contracting Parties

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Republic of Austria French Republic Federal Republic of Germany Italian Republic Principality of Liechtenstein Principality of Monaco Republic of Slovenia Swiss Confederation European Union

12

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Overview of the Presidencies

Overview of the Presidencies of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee

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14

Period

Country

Alpine Conference

1989 – 1991

Austria

Salzburg, 7.11.1991

1991 – 1994

France

Chambéry, 20.12.1994

1994 – 1996

Slovenia

Brdo, 27.2.1996

1996 – 1998

Slovenia

Bled, 16.10.1998

1998 – 2000

Switzerland

Lucerne, 31.10.2000

2000 – 2002

Italy

Merano / Meran, 19-20.11.2002

2002 – 2004

Germany

Garmisch-Partenkirchen, 16.11.2004

2004 – 2006

Austria

Alpbach, 9.11.2006

2006 – 2009

France

Evian, 12.3.2009

2009-2011

Slovenia

Brdo pri Kranju, 8-9.3.2011

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Overview: Ratification

Overview about the ratification of the Framework Convention, the Monaco Protocol and the Implementation Protocols

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07.11.1991

07.11.1991

FL

I

29.03.1993

07.11.1991

SLO

EU

20.12.1994

07.11.1991

F

MC

07.11.1991

D

07.11.1991

CH

Liechtensteinisches Landesgesetzblatt 1995/Nr.186

Journal officiel Nr. 95 1270 vom 7.12.1995

Bundesgesetzblatt Teil II Nr. 46/1994 vom 8.10.1994

Bundesblatt B  Bl 1997 IV 657 (d) FF 1997 IV 581 (f)

26.02.1996 Official Journal of the European Union Nr. L61/31-36 - 12.3.1996

Uradni list Republike Slovenije (Mednarodne pogodbe) Nr. 19/Beilage Nr. 5 vom 31.3.1995

22.03.1995

Ordonnance Souveraine n. 14.082 en date du 21 juillet 1999 publiée au journal de Monaco le 30 juillet 1999

22.12.1998

Legge n. 403 vom 14.10.1999; 14.10.1999 Gazzetta Ufficiale n. 262 dell’8 novembre 1999 – Supplemento Ordinario n. 194

21.04.1994

30.11.1995

29.09.1994

16.12.1998

Bundesgesetzblatt Nr. 477/1995 vom 21.07.1995

04.03.1996

22.05.1995

22.12.1998

27.12.1999

28.07.1994

15.01.1996

05.12.1994

28.01.1999

14.04.98

22.08.95

22.03.99

27.03.00

06.03.95

15.04.96

06.03.95

28.04.99

06.03.95

08.02.1994

08.02.1994

A

07.11.1991

Deposit of the Entry into force instrument of ratification

Country Signature Ratification Document publication

Overview about the ratification

Framework Convention


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20.12.94

I

20.12.94

20.12.94

FL

EU

20.12.94

F

20.12.94

20.12.94

D

SLO

20.12.94

CH

20.12.94

20.12.94

A

MC

Signature Unterzeichnung Signature Firma Podpis

Country Staat Etat Stato Država

Alpine Convention Alpenkonvention Convention alpine Convenzione delle Alpi Alpska konvencija

14.01.98

22.05.95

26.01.95

16.03.95

13.04.95

22.12.98

18.01.99

08.07.97

Ratification Ratifizierung Ratification Ratifica Ratifikacija

Protokol Monaco

22.03.99

22.03.99

22.03.99

22.03.99

22.03.99

22.03.99

28.04.99

22.03.99

Entry into force In-Kraft-Treten Entrée en application Entrata in applicazione Začetek veljave

Overview: Ratification

Monaco Protocol Monacoprotokoll Protocole de Monaco Protocollo di Monaco


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Protocol Protokoll Protocole Protocollo Protokol Environmental protection and landscape management Raumplanung und nachhaltige Entwicklung AmĂŠnagement du territoire et dĂŠveloppement durable Pianificazione territoriale e sviluppo sostenibile Urejanje prostora in trajnostni razvoj Mountain farming Berglandwirtschaft Agriculture de montagne Agricoltura di montagna Hribovsko kmetijstvo Land use planning and sustainable development Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege Protection de la nature et entretien des paysages Protezione della natura e tutela del paesaggio Varstvo narave in urejanje krajine 31.10.00 16.10.98 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02 31.10.00 16.10.98 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02

S R D E S R D E

CH

31.10.00 16.10.98 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02

A

S R D E

Country

(November 2010)

20.12.94 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

F

20.12.94 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

20.12.94 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

20.12.94 20.12.94 12.07.02 18.09.02 15.11.02 18.12.02 15.02.03

20.12.94 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

D

I

MC

16.10.98 20.12.94 18.04.02 11.06.02 18.12.02

20.12.94 25.10.04 08.11.04 08.02.05

16.10.98 20.12.94 20.12.94 18.04.02 11.06.02 18.12.02

16.10.98 20.12.94 20.12.94 18.04.02 11.06.02 27.01.03 18.12.02 27.04.03

FL

Overview about the ratifications of the implementation protocols

Alpine Convention

EU

20.12.94 27.06.06 06.07.06 06.10.06 20.12.94 20.12.94 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

20.12.94 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

20.12.94 20.12.94 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

SLO


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S = Signature R = Ratification D = Deposit of the ratification document

Mountain forests Bergwald Forêts de montagne Foreste montane Gorski gozd Tourism Tourismus Tourisme Turismo Turizem Soil conservation Bodenschutz Protection des sols Difesa del suolo Varstvo tal Energy Energie Energie Energia Energija Transport Verkehr Transports Trasporti Promet Solution of litigations Beilegung von Streitigkeiten Règlement des différends Composizione delle controversie Reˇsevanje sporov

E A CH D

16.10.98 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

31.10.00 16.10.98 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02 31.10.00 31.10.00 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02 31.10.00 31.10.00 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02 31.10.00 31.10.00 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02

S R D E S R D E S R D E S R D E = Entry into force = Austria = Switzerland = Germany

16.10.98 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

S 31.10.00 16.10.98 R 10.07.02 H 14.08.02 E 18.12.02

31.10.00 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

02.12.98 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

02.12.98 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

02.12.98 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

27.02.96 12.05.05 11.07.05 11.10.05

F = France FL = Liechtenstein I = Italy MC = Monaco

31.10.00 31.10.00 12.07.02 18.09.02 15.11.02 18.12.02 15.02.03

31.10.00 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

16.10.98 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

27.02.96 12.07.02 18.09.02 18.12.02

31.10.00 16.10.98 10.07.02 14.08.02 18.12.02

S R D E

09.01.06 27.06.06 06.07.06 06.10.06

09.01.06 27.06.06 06.07.06 06.10.06

09.01.06 27.06.06 06.07.06 06.10.06

06.08.02 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

06.08.02 12.10.06 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

16.10.98 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

16.10.98 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

16.10.98 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

27.02.96 28.11.03 28.01.04 28.04.04

Overview: Ratification

SLO = Slovenia EU = European Union

31.10.00 31.10.00 31.10.00 18.04.02 11.06.02 27.01.03 18.12.02 27.04.03

31.10.00 31.10.00 31.10.00 18.04.02 11.06.02 18.12.02

08.04.02 08.02.01 18.04.02 11.06.02 18.12.02

16.10.98 31.10.00 16.10.98 18.04.02 11.06.02 27.01.03 18.12.02 27.04.03

16.10.98 08.02.01 16.10.98 18.04.02 11.06.02 27.01.03 18.12.02 27.04.03

16.10.98 27.02.96 27.02.96 18.04.02 11.06.02 18.12.02


Administrative Units

Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention

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Scope of application of the Alpine Convention


Administrative Units


List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in According to the Federal Official Journal (of the Republic of Austria) the Republic of Austria III vol. 18/1999 from 01.28.1999. 1)

Federal state of VORARLBERG

Strobl Thalgau Wals-Siezenheim

Federal state of TYROL

District of Sankt Johann im Pongau Altenmarkt im Pongau Bad Hofgastein Badgastein Bischofshofen Dorfgastein Eben im Pongau Filzmoos Flachau Forstau Goldegg Großarl Hüttau Hüttschlag Kleinarl Mühlbach am Hochkönig Pfarrwerfen Radstadt Sankt Johann im Pongau Sankt Martin am Tennen­ gebirge Sankt Veit im Pongau Schwarzach im Pongau Untertauern Wagrain Werfen Werfenweng

all municipalities all municipalities

Federal state of CARINTHIA all municipalities

Federal state of SALZBURG Salzburg (town area) District of Hallein Abtenau Adnet Annaberg im Lammertal Golling an der Salzach Hallein Krispl Kuchl Oberalm Puch bei Hallein Rußbach am Paß Gschütt Sankt Koloman Scheffau am Tennengebirge Vigaun District Salzburg/Surrounding Area Anif Ebenau Elsbethen Eugendorf Faistenau Fuschl am See Grödig Großgmain Hallwang Henndorf am Wallersee Hintersee Hof bei Salzburg Koppl Neumarkt am Wallersee Plainfeld Sankt Gilgen

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District of Tamsweg Göriach Lessach Mariapfarr Mauterndorf Muhr Ramingstein Sankt Andrä im Lungau Sankt Margarethen im Lungau Sankt Michael im Lungau Tamsweg Thomatal Tweng Unternberg

Weißpriach Zederhaus District of Zell am See Bramberg am Wildkogel Bruck an der Großglocknerstraße Dienten am Hochkönig Fusch an der Großglocknerstraße Hollersbach im Pinzgau Kaprun Krimml Lend Leogang Lofer Maishofen Maria Alm am Steinernen Meer Mittersill Neukirchen am Großvene­ diger Niedernsill Piesendorf Rauris Saalbach-Hinterglemm Saalfelden am Steinernen Meer Sankt Martin bei Lofer Stuhlfelden Taxenbach Unken Uttendorf Viehhofen Wald im Pinzgau Weißbach bei Lofer Zell am See

Federal state of UPPER AUSTRIA District of Gmunden Altmünster Bad Goisern Bad Ischl Ebensee Gmunden


Oberwang Sankt Georgen im Attergau Sankt Lorenz Schörfling am Attersee Seewalchen am Attersee Steinbach am Attersee Straß im Attergau Tiefgraben Unterach am Attersee Weißenkichen im Attergau Weyregg am Attersee Zell am Moos

District of Kirchdorf an der Krems

Federal state of LOWER AUSTIRA

Edlbach Grünburg Hinterstoder Inzersdorf im Kremstal Micheldorf in Oberösterreich Molln Oberschlierbach Rosenau am Hengstpaß Roßleithen Sankt Pankraz Spital am Pyhrn Steinbach am Ziehbach Steinbach an der Steyr Vorderstoder Windischgarsten District of Steyr-Land Gaflenz Garsten Großraming Laussa Losenstein Maria Neustift Reichraming Sankt Ulrich bei Steyr Ternberg Weyer Land Weyer Markt District of Vöcklabruck Attersee Aurach am Hongar Innerschwand Mondsee Nußdorf am Attersee Oberhofen am Irrsee

Waidhofen an der Ybbs (town area) District of Amstetten Allhartsberg Ertl Hollenstein an der Ybbs Opponitz Sankt Georgen am Reith Sankt Peter in der Au Seitenstetten Sonntagberg Ybbsitz District of Baden Alland Altenmarkt an der Triesting Bad Vöslau Baden Berndorf Enzesfeld-Lindabrunn Furth an der Triesting Heiligenkreuz Hernstein Hirtenberg Klausen-Leopoldsdorf Pfaffstätten Pottenstein Sooß Weissenbach an der Triesting District of Lilienfeld Annaberg Eschenau Hainfeld Hohenberg

Kaumberg Kleinzell Lilienfeld Mitterbach am Erlaufsee Ramsau Rohrbach an der Gölsen Sankt Aegyd am Neuwalde Sankt Veit an der Gölsen Traisen Türnitz District of Melk Texingtal

Administrative Units

Gosau Grünau im Almtal Gschwandt Hallstatt Kirchham Obertraun Pinsdorf Sankt Konrad Sankt Wolfgang im Salzkammergut Traunkirchen Scharnstein

District of Mödling Breitenfurt bei Wien Gaaden Gießhübl Gumpoldskirchen Hinterbrühl Kaltenleutgeben Laab im Walde Mödling Perchtoldsdorf Wienerwald District of Neunkirchen Altendorf Aspang-Markt Aspangberg-Sankt Peter Breitenstein Buchbach Edlitz Enzenreith Feistritz am Wechsel Gloggnitz Grafenbach-Sankt Valentin Grimmenstein Grünbach am Schneeberg Kirchberg am Wechsel Mönichkirchen Natschbach-Loipersbach Otterthal Payerbach Pitten Prigglitz Puchberg am Schneeberg Raach am Hochgebirge Reichenau an der Rax Sankt Corona am Wechsel Scheiblingkirchen-Thernberg Schottwien Alpine signals 1

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Schrattenbach Schwarzau im Gebirge Seebenstein Semmering Ternitz Thomasberg Trattenbach Vöstenhof Warth Wartmannstetten Willendorf Wimpassing im Schwarzatale Würflach Zöbern District of Sankt Pölten (surroundings) Altlengbach Asperhofen Brand-Laaben Eichgraben Frankenfels Grünau Kasten bei Böheimkirchen Kirchberg an der Pielach Loich Maria-Anzbach Michelbach Neulengbach Neustift-Innermanzing Pyhra Rabenstein an der Pielach Schwarzenbach an der ­Pielach Stössing Wilhelmsburg District of Scheibbs Gaming Göstling an der Ybbs Gresten Gresten-Land Lunz am See Puchenstuben Randegg Reinsberg Sankt Anton an der Jeßnitz Sankt Georgen an der Leys Scheibbs Steinakirchen am Forst Wang

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District of Tulln Königstetten Sieghartskirchen Tulbing Zeiselmauer Sankt Andrä-Wördern District of Wiener Neustadt (surroundings) Bad Fischau-Brunn Bad Schönau Ebenfurth Erlach Gutenstein Hochneukirchen-Gschaidt Hochwolkersdorf Hohe Wand Hollenthon Katzelsdorf Kirchschlag in der Buckligen Welt Krumbach Lanzenkirchen Lichtenegg Markt Piesting Matzendorf-Hölles Miesenbach Muggendorf Pernitz Rohr im Gebirge Bromberg Schwarzenbach Waidmannsfeld Waldegg Walpersbach Wiesmath Winzendorf-Muthmannsdorf Wöllersdorf-Steinabrückl District of Wien-Umgebung Gablitz Klosterneuburg Mauerbach Pressbaum Purkersdorf Tullnerbach Wolfsgraben

Federal state of STYRIA District of Bruck an der Mur Aflenz Kurort Aflenz Land Breitenau am Hochlantsch Bruck an der Mur Etmißl Frauenberg Gußwerk Halltal Kapfenberg Mariazell Oberaich Parschlug Pernegg an der Mur Sankt Ilgen Sankt Katharein an der ­Laming Sankt Lorenzen im Mürztal Sankt Marein im Mürztal Sankt Sebastian Thörl Tragöß Turnau District of Deutschlandsberg Aibl Freiland bei Deutschlandsberg Bad Gams Garanas Greisdorf Gressenberg Großradl Kloster Marhof Osterwitz Sankt Oswald ob Eibiswald Schwanberg Soboth Trahütten Wernersdorf Wielfresen District of Graz-Umgebung Attendorf Deutschfeistritz Eisbach Frohnleiten Gratkorn


District of Hartberg Dechantskirchen Friedberg Grafendorf bei Hartberg Greinbach Kleinschlag Mönichwald Pinggau Pöllau Pöllauberg Puchegg Rabenwald Riegersberg Rohrbach an der Lafnitz Saifen-Boden Sankt Jakob im Walde Sankt Lorenzen am Wechsel Schachen bei Vorau Schäffern Schlag bei Thalberg Schönegg bei Pöllau Sonnhofen Stambach Stubenberg Vorau Vornholz Waldbach Wenigzell

District of Judenburg Amering Bretstein Eppenstein Fohnsdorf Hohentauern Judenburg Sankt Wolfgang-Kienberg Sankt Anna am Lavantegg Maria Buch-Feistritz Obdach Oberkurzheim Oberweg Oberzeiring Pöls Pusterwald Reifling Reisstraße Sankt Georgen ob Judenburg Sankt Johann am Tauern Sankt Oswald-Möderbrugg Sankt Peter ob Judenburg Unzmarkt-Frauenburg Weißkirchen in Steiermark Zeltweg District of Knittelfeld Apfelberg Feistritz bei Knittelfeld Flatschach Gaal Großlobming Kleinlobming Knittelfeld Kobenz Rachau Sankt Lorenzen bei Knittelfeld Sankt Marein bei Knittelfeld Sankt Margarethen bei ­Knittelfeld Seckau Spielberg bei Knittelfeld District of Leibnitz Oberhaag Schloßberg District of Leoben Eisenerz Gai Hafning bei Trofaiach

Hieflau Kalwang Kammern im Liesingtal Kraubath an der Mut Leoben Mautern in der Steiermark Niklasdorf Proleb Radmer Sankt Michael in Obersteiermark Sankt Peter-Freienstein Sankt Stefan ob Leoben Traboch Trofaiach Vordernberg Wald am Schoberpaß

Administrative Units

Gratwein Großstübing Gschnaidt Hitzendorf Judendorf-Straßengel Peggau Röthelstein Rohrbach-Steinberg Rothleiten Sankt Bartholomä Sankt Oswald bei Plankenwarth Sankt Radegund bei Graz Schrems bei Frohnleiten Semriach Stattegg Stiwoll Thal Tulwitz Tyrnau Übelbach Weinitzen

District of Liezen Admont Aich Aigen im Ennstal Altaussee Altenmarkt bei Sankt Gallen Ardning Bad Aussee Donnersbach Donnersbachwald Gaishorn am See Gams bei Hieflau Gössenberg Gröbming Großsölk Grundlsee Hall Haus Irdning Johnsbach Kleinsölk Landl Lassing Liezen Michaelerberg Mitterberg Bad Mitterndorf Niederöblarn Öblarn Oppenberg Palfau Pichl-Preunegg Pichl-Kainisch Pruggern Alpine signals 1

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Pürgg-Trautenfels Ramsau am Dachstein Rohrmoos-Untertal Rottenmann Sankt Gallen Sankt Martin am Grimming Sankt Nikolai im Sölktal Schladming Selzthal Stainach Tauplitz Treglwang Trieben Weißenbach an der Enns Weißenbach bei Liezen Weng bei Admont Wildalpen Wörschach District of Mürzzuschlag Allerheiligen im Mürztal Altenberg an der Rax Ganz Kapellen Kindberg Krieglach Langenwang Mitterdorf im Mürztal Mürzhofen Mürzsteg Mürzzuschlag Neuberg an der Mürz Spital am Semmering Stanz im Mürztal Veitsch Wartberg im Mürztal District of Murau Dürnstein in der Steiermark Falkendorf Frojach-Katsch Krakaudorf Krakauhintermühlen Krakauschatten Kulm am Zirbitz Laßnitz bei Murau Mariahof Mühlen Murau Neumarkt in Steiermark Niederwölz Oberwölz Stadt

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Alpine signals 1

Oberwölz Umgebung Perchau am Sattel Predlitz-Turrach Ranten Rinegg Sankt Blasen Sankt Georgen ob Murau Sankt Lambrecht Sankt Lorenzen bei Scheifling Sankt Marein bei Neumarkt Sankt Peter am Kammersberg Sankt Ruprecht ob Murau Scheifling Schöder Schönberg-Lachtal Stadl an der Mur Stolzalpe Teufenbach Triebendorf Winklern bei Oberwölz Zeutschach District of Voitsberg Bärnbach Edelschrott Gallmannsegg Geistthal Gößnitz Graden Hirschegg Kainach bei Voitsberg Köflach Kohlschwarz Krottendorf-Gaisfeld Ligist Maria Lankowitz Modriach Pack Piberegg Rosental an der Kainach Salla Sankt Johann-Köppling Sankt Martin am Wölimißberg Södingberg Stallhofen Voitsberg District of Weiz Anger Arzberg Baierdorf bei Anger Birkfeld

Feistritz bei Anger Fischbach Fladnitz an der Teichaem Floing Gasen Gschaid bei Birkfeld Gutenberg an der Raabklamm Haslau bei Birkfeld Hohenau an der Raab Koglhof Mortantsch Naas Naintsch Neudorf bei Passail Passail Puch bei Weiz Ratten Sankt Kathrein am Hauenstein Sankt Kathrein am Offenegg Stenzengreith Strallegg Thannhausen Waisenegg

Federal state of BURGENALND District of Mattersburg Forchtenstein Marz Mattersburg Sieggraben Wiesen District of Oberpullendorf Kobersdorf Lockenhaus Markt Sankt Martin Pilgersdorf District of Oberwart Bernstein Mariasdorf Markt Neuhodis Stadtschlaining Unterkohlstätten Weiden bei Rechnitz Wiesfleck


According to Decree No. 85-997 from 20 September 1985, with regard to the Southern Alps the Alpine Convention encompasses:

According to Decree No. 85-996 from 20 September 1985, with regard to the Northern Alps the Alpine Convention encompasses:

- the département of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence,

- the département of Savoie,

- the département of Hautes-Alpes, - those cantons whose territories within the département of Alpes Maritimes have completely or in part been classified as mountain areas, except for the municipalities of Menton and Roquebrune-Cap-Martin, and the départements of Var and Vaucluse, - the district of Barjois in the département of Var, and the canton of Cadenet in the département of Vaucluse

- the département of Haute-Savoie, - the district of Grenoble in the département of Isére, the canton of Saint-Geoire-en-Valdaine, and those municipalities of the cantons of Pont-de-Beauvoisin and Virieur-sur-Bourbre which have completely or in part been classified as mountain areas

Administrative Units

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the French Republic

- in the département of Drôme, the district of Die and those cantons of the districts of Nyons and Valence with areas completely or in part classified as mountain areas, except for the cantons of Crest-Nord and Sud, Bourgde-Péage and Chabeuil, in which the mountains are restricted to municipalities completely or in part classified as mountain areas.

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the Federal Republic of Germany The following towns and counties directly subordinate to a region as opposed to a district are part of the Bavarian Alps:

Towns

Kempten (Allgäu) Kaufbeuren Rosenheim

Counties

Lindau (Bodensee) Oberallgäu Ostallgäu Weilheim-Schongau Garmisch-Partenkirchen Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen Miesbach Rosenheim Traunstein Berchtesgadener Land

Alpine signals 1

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List of Administrative Units (Municipalities) of the Alpine Convention in the Italian Republic Liguria Province of Imperia Airole Apricale Aquila di Arroscia Armo Aurigo Badalucco Bajardo Borghetto d'Arroscia Borgomaro Caravonica Carpasio Castel Vittorio Ceriana Cesio Chiusanico Chiusavecchia Cosio di Arroscia Diano Arentino Diano San Pietro Dolceacqua Dolcedo Isolabona Lucinasco Mendatica Molini di Triora Montalto Ligure Montegrosso Pian Latte Olivetta San Michele Perinaldo Pietrabruna Pieve di Teco Pigna Pontedassio Pornassio PrelĂ  Ranzo Rezzo Rocchetta Nervina Triora Vasia Vessalico Villa Faraldi

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Alpine signals 1

Province of Savona Altare Arnasco Balestrino Bardineto Boissano Bormida Calice Ligure Calizzano Casanova Lerrone Castelbianco Castelvecchio di Rocca Barbena Cengio Cisano sul Neva Erli Garlenda Giustenice Magliolo Mallare Massimino Millesimo Murialdo Nasino Onzo Orco Feglino Ortovero Osiglia Pallare Plodio Quiliano Rialto Roccavignale Stellanello Testico Toirano Tovo San Giacomo Vendone Vezzi Portio Villanova d'Albenga Zuccarello

Piemonte Province of Biella Ailoche Andorno Micca Biella

Bioglio Callabiana Camandona Camburzano Campiglia Cervo Caprile Casapinta Cerreto Castello Coggiola Cossato Crevacuore Crosa Curino Donato Graglia Lessona Magnano Mezzana Mortigliengo Mosso Miagliano Mongrando Muzzano Netro Occhieppo Inferiore Occhieppo Superiore Pettinengo Piatto Piedicavallo Pollone Portula Pralungo Pray Quaregna Quittengo Ronco Biellese Rosazza Sagliano Micca Sala Biellese San Paolo Cervo Selve Marcone Soprana Sordevolo Sostegno Strona Tavigliano Ternengo Tollegno Torrazzo Trivero Valdengo Vallanzengo Valle Mosso Valle San Nicolao


Province of Cuneo Acceglio Aisone Albaretto della Torre Alto Argentera Arguello Bagnasco Bagnolo Piemonte Barge Battifollo Bellino Belvedere Langhe Benevello Bergolo Bernezzo Bonvicino Borgomale Borgo San Dalmazzo Bosia Bossolasco Boves Briaglia Briga Alta Brondello Brossasco Busca Camerana Canosio Caprauna Caraglio Cartignano Casteldelfino Castellar Castelletto Uzzone Castellino Tanaro Castelmagno Castelnuovo di Ceva Castino Celle di Macra Cerreto Langhe Cervasca Ceva Chiusa di Pesio Cigliè Cissone Cortemilia Cossano Belbo Costigliole Saluzzo Cravanzana

Crissolo Demonte Dronero Elva Entracque Envie Feisoglio Frabosa Soprana Frabosa Sottana Frassino Gaiola Gambasca Garessio Gorzegno Gottasecca Igliano Isasca Lequio Berria Lesegno Levice Limone Piemonte Lisio Macra Magliano Alpi Mango Marmora Marsaglia Martiniana Po Melle Moiola Mombarcaro Mombasiglio Monastero di Vasco Monasterolo Casotto Monesiglio Montaldo di Mondovì Montemale di Cuneo Monterosso Grana Montezemolo Murazzano Niella Belbo Niella Tanaro Nucetto Oncino Ormea Ostana Paesana Pagno Pamparato Paroldo Perletto Perlo Peveragno Pezzolo Valle Uzzone Pianfei Piasco

Pietraporzio Pontechianale Pradleves Prazzo Priero Priola Prunetto Revello Rifreddo Rittana Roaschia Roascio Robilante Roburent Roccabruna Rocca Cigliè Roccaforte Mondovì Roccasparvera Roccavione Rocchetta Belbo Rossana Sale delle Langhe Sale San Giovanni Saliceto Sambuco Sampeyre San Benedetto Belbo San Damiano Macra Sanfront San Michele Mondovì Scagnello Serravalle Langhe Somano Stroppo Torre Bormida Torre Mondovì Torresina Trezzo Tinella Valdieri Valgrana Valloriate Valmala Venasca Vernante Verzuolo Vicoforte Vignolo Villanova Mondovì Villar San Costanzo Vinadio Viola Alpine signals 1

Administrative Units

Veglio Vigliano Biellese Zimone Zubiena Zumaglia

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Province of Novara Ameno Armeno Colazza Massino Visconti Miasino Nebbiuno Pella Pettenasco Pisano Pogno San Maurizio d'Opaglio Province of Torino Ala di Stura Alice Superiore Almese Alpette Andrate Angrogna Avigliana Balangero Balme Bardonecchia Bibiana Bobbio Pellice Borgiallo Borgone Susa Bricherasio Brosso Bruzolo Bussoleno Cafasse Canischio Cantalupa Cantoira Caprie Carema Caselette Castellamonte Castelnuovo Nigra Ceres Ceresole Reale Cesana Torinese Chialamberto Chianocco Chiesanuova Chiomonte Chiusa di San Michele Cintano Claviere Coassolo Torinese

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Alpine signals 1

Coazze Colleretto Castelnuovo Condove Corio Cumiana Cuorgnè Exilles Fenestrelle Fiorano Canavese Forno Canavese Frassinetto Frossasco Germagnano Giaglione Giaveno Givoletto Gravere Groscavallo Ingria Inverso Pinasca Issiglio La Cassa Lanzo Torinese Lemie Levone Locana Lugnacco Luserna San Giovanni Lusernetta Massello Mattie Meana di Susa Meugliano Mezzenile Mompantero Monastero di Lanzo Moncenisio Noasca Nomaglio Novalesa Oulx Pecco Perosa Argentina Perrero Pertusio Pessinetto Pinasca Pinerolo Piossasco Pomaretto Pont-Canavese Porte Pragelato

Prali Pramollo Prarostino Prascorsano Pratiglione Quassolo Quincinetto Reano Ribordone Rivara Roletto Ronco Canavese RorĂ  Roure Rubiana Rueglio Salbertrand Salza di Pinerolo San Colombano Belmonte San Didero San Germano Chisone San Giorio di Susa San Pietro Val Lemina San Secondo di Pinerolo Sangano Sant'Ambrogio di Torino Sant'Antonino di Susa Sauze di Cesana Sauze d'Oulx Sestriere Settimo Vittone Sparone Susa Tavagnasco Torre Pellice Trana Trausella Traversella Traves Usseaux Usseglio Vaie Val della Torre Valgioie Vallo Torinese Valperga Valprato Soana Varisella Venaus Vico Canavese Vidracco Villar Dora Villar Focchiardo


Province of Verbano Cusio Ossola Antrona Schieranco Anzola d'Ossola Arizzano Arola Aurano Baceno Bannio Anzino Baveno Bee Beura-Cardezza Bognanco Brovello-Carpugnino Calasca-Castiglione Cambiasca Cannero Riviera Cannobio Caprezzo Casale Corte Cerro Cavaglio-Spoccia Ceppo Morelli Cesara Cossogno Craveggia Crevoladossola Crodo Cursolo-Orasso Domodossola Druogno Falmenta Formazza Germagno Ghiffa Gignese Gravellona Toce Gurro Intragna Loreglia Macugnaga Madonna del Sasso Malesco Masera Massiola Mergozzo Miazzina Montecrestese

Montescheno Nonio Oggebbio Omegna Ornavasso Pallanzeno Piedimulera Pieve Vergonte Premeno Premia Premosello-Chiovenda Quarna Sopra Quarna Sotto Re San Bernardino Verbano Santa Maria Maggiore Seppiana Stresa Toceno Trarego Viggiona Trasquera Trontano Valstrona Vanzone con San Carlo Varzo Viganella Vignone Villadossola Villette Vogogna Province of Vercelli Alagna Valsesia Balmuccia Boccioleto Borgosesia Breia Campertogno Carcoforo Cellio Cervatto Civiasco Cravagliana Fobello Guardabosone Mollia Pila Piode Postua Quarona Rassa Rima San Giuseppe

Rimasco Rimella Riva Valdobbia Rossa Sabbia Scopa Scopello Serravalle Sesia Valduggia Varallo Vocca

Administrative Units

Villar Pellice Villar Perosa Vistrorio Vi첫

Autonomous Region Valle d'Aosta Province of Aosta all municipalities

LOMBARDY Province of Bergamo Adrara San Martino Adrara San Rocco Albino Algua Almenno San Bartolomeo Almenno San Salvatore Alzano Lombardo Ardesio Averara Aviatico Azzone Bedulita Berbenno Berzo San Fermo Bianzano Blello Borgo di Terzo Bossico Bracca Branzi Brembilla Brumano Camerata Cornello Capizzone Caprino Bergamasco Carona Alpine signals 1

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Casazza Casnigo Cassiglio Castione della Presolana Castro Cazzano Sant'Andrea Cenate Sopra Cene Cerete Cisano Bergamasco Clusone Colere Colzate Corna Imagna Cornalba Costa di Serina Costa Valle Imagna Costa Volpino Credaro Cusio Dossena Endine Gaiano Entratico Fino del Monte Fiorano al Serio Fonteno Foppolo Foresto Sparso Fuipiano Valle Imagna Gandellino Gandino Gandosso Gaverina Terme Gazzaniga Gerosa Gorno Gromo Grone Isola di Fondra Leffe Lenna Locatello Lovere Luzzana Mezzoldo Moio de' Calvi Monasterolo del Castello Nembro Olmo al Brembo Oltre il Colle Oltressenda Alta Oneta Onore

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Alpine signals 1

Ornica Palazzago Parre Parzanica Peia Pianico Piario Piazza Brembana Piazzatorre Piazzolo Ponte Nossa Ponteranica Pontida Pradalunga Predore Premolo Ranica Ranzanico Riva di Solto Rogno Roncobello Roncola Rota d'Imagna Rovetta San Giovanni Bianco San Pellegrino Terme Santa Brigida Sant'Omobono Imagna Sarnico Schilpario Sedrina Selvino Serina Solto Collina Songavazzo Sorisole Sovere Spinone al Lago Strozza Taleggio Tavernola Bergamasca Trescore Balneario Ubiale Clanezzo Valbondione Valgoglio Valleve Valnegra Valsecca Valtorta Vedeseta Vertova Viadanica Vigano San Martino

Vigolo Villa d'Almè Villa di Serio Villa d'Ogna Villongo Vilminore di Scalve Zandobbio Zogno Province of Brescia Agnosine Anfo Angolo Terme Artogne Bagolino Barghe Berzo Demo Berzo Inferiore Bienno Bione Borno Botticino Bovegno Bovezzo Braone Breno Brione Caino Capo di Ponte Capovalle Casto Cedegolo Cerveno Ceto Cevo Cimbergo Cividate Camuno Collio Concesio Corteno Golgi Darfo Boario Terme Edolo Esine Gardone Riviera Gardone Val Trompia Gargnano Gavardo Gianico Gussago Idro Incudine Irma Iseo


Valvestino Vestone Vezza d'Oglio Villa Carcina Villanuova sul Clisi Vione Vobarno Zone Province of Como Albavilla Albese con Cassano Argegno Asso Barni Bellagio Bene Lario Blessagno Blevio Brienno Brunate Caglio Campione d'Italia Canzo Carate Urio Carlazzo Casasco d'Intelvi Caslino d'Erba Castelmarte Castiglione d'Intelvi Cavargna Cerano d'Intelvi Cernobbio Civenna Claino con Osteno Colonno Consiglio di Rumo Corrido Cremia Cusino Dizzasco Domaso Dongo Dosso del Liro Erba Eupilio Faggeto Lario Garzeno Gera Lario Germasino Grandola ed Uniti Gravedona Griante

Laglio Laino Lanzo d'Intelvi Lasnigo Lenno Lezzeno Livo Longone al Segrino Magreglio Menaggio Mezzegra Moltrasio Montemezzo Musso Nesso Ossuccio Peglio Pellio Intelvi Pianello del Lario Pigra Plesio Pognana Lario Ponna Ponte Lambro Porlezza Proserpio Pusiano Ramponio Verna Rezzago Sala Comacina San Bartolomeo Val Cavargna San Fedele Intelvi San Nazzaro Val Cavargna Santa Maria Rezzonico Sant'Abbondio Schignano Sorico Sormano Stazzona Tavernerio Torno Tremezzo Trezzone Val Rezzo Alpine signals 1

Administrative Units

Lavenone Limone sul Garda Lodrino Losine Lozio Lumezzane Magasa Malegno Malonno Marcheno Marmentino Marone Monno Monte Isola Monticelli Brusati Mura Nave Niardo Odolo Ome Ono San Pietro Ossimo Paisco Loveno Paitone Paspardo Pertica Alta Pertica Bassa Pezzaze Pian Camuno Piancogno Pisogne Polaveno Ponte di Legno Preseglie Prestine Provaglio Val Sabbia Roè Volciano Sabbio Chiese Sale Marasino Salò Sarezzo Saviore dell'Adamello Sellero Serle Sonico Sulzano Tavernole sul Mella Temù Tignale Toscolano-Maderno Tremosine Treviso Bresciano Vallio Terme

35


Valbrona Valsolda Veleso Vercana Zelbio Province of Lecco Abbadia Lariana Ballabio Barzio Bellano Carenno Casargo Cassina Valsassina Cesana Brianza Civate Colico Colle Brianza Cortenova Crandola Valsassina Cremeno Dervio Dorio Ello Erve Esino Lario Galbiate Garlate Introbio Introzzo Lierna Malgrate Mandello del Lario Margno Moggio Morterone Oliveto Lario Pagnona Parlasco Pasturo Perledo Pescate Premana Primaluna Sueglio Suello Taceno Torre de' Busi Tremenico Valmadrera Varenna Vendrogno Vestreno

36

Alpine signals 1

Province of Sondrio all municipalities Province of Varese Agra Arcisate Azzio Barasso Bedero Valcuvia Besano Bisuschio Brenta Brezzo di Bedero Brinzio Brissago-Valtravaglia Brusimpiano Cadegliano-Viconago Cantello Casalzuigno Cassano Valcuvia Castello Cabiaglio Castelveccana Cittiglio Clivio Cocquio-Trevisago Comerio Cremenaga Cuasso al Monte Cugliate-Fabiasco Cunardo Curiglia con Monteviasco Cuveglio Cuvio Dumenza Duno Ferrera di Varese Gavirate Gemonio Germignaga Grantola Induno Olona Lavena Ponte Tresa Laveno-Mombello Luino Luvinate Maccagno Marchirolo Marzio Masciago Primo Mesenzana Montegrino Valtravaglia Orino

Pino sulla Sponda del Lago Maggiore Porto Ceresio Porto Valtravaglia Rancio Valcuvia Saltrio Tronzano Lago Maggiore Valganna Veddasca ViggiĂš

Autonomous Region Friuli Venezia Giulia Province of Gorizia Doberdò del Lago Dolegna del Collio Gorizia Sagrado San Floriano del Collio Savogna d'Isonzo Province of Pordenone Andreis Arba Aviano Barcis Budoia Caneva Castelnovo del Friuli Cavasso Nuovo Cimolais Claut Clauzetto Erto e Casso Fanna Frisanco Maniago Meduno Montereale Valcellina Pinzano al Tagliamento Polcenigo Sequals Tramonti di Sopra Tramonti di Sotto Travesio Vajont Vito d'Asio Province of Udine Amaro Ampezzo Arta Terme


Treppo Carnico Venzone Verzegnis Villa Santina Zuglio

Autonomous Region Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol Autonomous Province of Bolzano/Bozen all municipalities Autonomous Province of Trento all municipalities

Veneto Province of Belluno all municipalities Province of Treviso Borso del Grappa Cappella Maggiore Castelcucco Cavaso del Tomba Cison di Valmarino Cordignano Crespano del Grappa Farra di Soligo Follina Fregona Miane Monfumo Paderno del Grappa Pederobba Pieve di Soligo Possagno Refrontolo Revine Lago Sarmede Segusino Tarzo Valdobbiadene Vidor Vittorio Veneto Province of Verona Badia Calavena Bosco Chiesanuova Brentino Belluno

Brenzone Caprino Veronese Cerro Veronese Costermano Dolcè Erbezzo Ferrara di Monte Baldo Fumane Grezzana Malcesine Marano di Valpolicella Negrar Rivoli Veronese Roverè Veronese San Giovanni Ilarione San Mauro di Saline San Zeno di Montagna Sant'Ambrogio di Valpolicella Sant'Anna d'Alfaedo Selva di Progno Torri del Benaco Tregnago Velo Veronese Vestenanova

Administrative Units

Artegna Attimis Bordano Cavazzo Carnico Cercivento Chiusaforte Cividale del Friuli Comeglians Dogna Drenchia Enemonzo Faedis Forgaria nel Friuli Forni Avoltri Forni di Sopra Forni di Sotto Gemona del Friuli Grimacco Lauco Ligosullo Lusevera Magnano in Riviera Malborghetto Valbruna Moggio Udinese Montenars Nimis Ovaro Paluzza Paularo Pontebba Povoletto Prato Carnico Preone Prepotto Pulfero Ravascletto Raveo Resia Resiutta Rigolato San Leonardo San Pietro al Natisone Sauris Savogna Socchieve Stregna Sutrio Taipana Tarcento Tarvisio Tolmezzo Torreano Trasaghis

Province of Vicenza Altissimo Arsiero Asiago Bassano del Grappa Breganze Brogliano Caltrano Calvene Campolongo sul Brenta Chiampo Cismon del Grappa Cogollo del Cengio Conco Cornedo Vicentino Crespadoro Enego Fara Vicentino Foza Gallio Laghi Lastebasse Lugo di Vicenza Lusiana Alpine signals 1

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Marostica Mason Vicentino Molvena Monte di Malo Nogarole Vicentino Pedemonte Pianezze Piovene Rocchette Posina Pove del Grappa Recoaro Terme

Roana Romano d'Ezzelino Rotzo Salcedo San Nazario San Pietro Mussolino Santorso Schio Solagna Tonezza del Cimone Torrebelvicino

Trissino Valdagno Valdastico Valli del Pasubio Valstagna Velo d'Astico

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the Principality of Liechtenstein The whole of the Principality of Liechtenstein

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the Principality of Monaco The whole of the Prinicipality of Monaco

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the Republic of Slovenia List of municipalities Dravograd Idrija Jesenice Mozirje Radlje ob Dravi Radovljica Ravne na Koroškem Slovenj Gradec Škofja Loka Tolmin Tržič Ruše List of local communities in parts of the municipalities

Ajdovščina Adjovščina

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Budanje Col Črnice Dolga Poljana Gojače Gradišče pri Vipavi Kamnje - Potoče Lokavec Ložice Otlica - Kovk Podkraj Podnanos Predmeja Škrilje Štomaž Vipava Vrhpolje Vrtovin Žapuže

Kamnik

Črna pri Kamniku Godic Kamniška Bistrica Mekinje Motnik Nevlje Sela pri Kamniku Srednja vas pri Kamniku Šmartno v Tuhinju Špitalič Tuhinj

Kranj

Bela Golnik Goriče Grad Jezersko Kokra


Ljubljana - Vič Rudnik Črni Vrh Polhov Gradec

Logatec

Hotedrščica Rovte Tabor Logatec Trate Vrh nad Rovtami

Slovenske Konjice

Lokovec Lokve Medana Osek - Vitovlje Ozeljan Ravnica Ročinj Solkan Trnovo

Gorenje pri Zrečah Resnik Skomarje

Slovenske Konjice Stranice Vitanje Zreče

Postojna

Bukovje Landol Planina Razdrto Studeno Šmihel pod Nanosom Veliko Ubeljsko

Nova Gorica

Avče Banjšice Čepovan Deskle - Anhovo Dobrovo v Brdih

Slovenska Bistrica Alfonz Šarh Impol Kebelj Oplotnica Pohorski Odred Preloge Šmartno na Pohorju Tinje Zgornja Ložnica Zgornja Polskava

Nova Gorica

Grgar Grgarske Ravne Kal nad Kanalom Kambreško Kanal ob Soči Kojsko Levpa Lig

Velenje Bele Vode Ravne Topolšica Zavodnje

Administrative Units

Olševek - Hotemaže Preddvor Trstenik

Maribor Fram Hoče Limbuš Pekre Radvanje Razvanje Reka Pohorje Slivnica

List of Administrative Units of the Alpine Convention in the Swiss Confederation Canton

APPENZELL AUSSERRHODEN whole Canton APPENZELL INNERRHODEN whole Canton BERN Administrative Districts Frutigen Interlaken Niedersimmental Oberhasli

Obersimmental Saanen Schwarzenburg only municipalities Guggisberg, Rüschegg Signau only municipalities Schangnau, Röthenbach Thun FREIBURG - Fribourg Districts La Gruyère Sense only municipalities Plaffeien

Alpine signals 1

39


GLARIS - GLARUS whole Canton GRAUBÜNDEN - Grigioni - Grischun whole Canton LUZERN - LUCERNE Administrative Districts Luzern Entlebuch NIDWALDEN whole Canton OBWALDEN whole Canton URI whole Canton ST. GALLEN Districts Unterrheintal

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Oberrheintal Werdenberg Sargans Gaster Obertoggenburg SCHWYZ whole Canton Ticino whole Canton WAADT - Vaud Districts Aigle Pays-d'Enhaut Vevey only municipalities Montreux, Veytaux WALLIS - Valais whole Canton


General information

General information about the scope of application of the Alpine Convention

Alpine signals 1

41


General informations about the scope of application of the Alpine Convention Map 1: The Alps – Perimeter of the Alpine Convention

The Alps are the highest mountain range in western Europe. They are made up of geologically young fold mountains which emerged as a result of the collision of the European and African continental plates. Until little less than 200 million years ago southern Europe was covered by a primordial ocean (Tethys). Over millions of years, debris drifting in from the continent (Pangaea) and dead marine organisms were deposited on the seabed. Under the pressure of the mass of water this gradually solidified into stone. Roughly 130 million years ago the African and European continental plates collided with each other. The two plates acted like a vice; the released forces slowly lifted the layers deposited

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Alpine signals 1

on the seabed from the primordial ocean and pushed them towards a vertical position. The rock layers were folded perpendicularly and partly stacked up on top of each other like blankets. Over time they rose higher and higher. Though the major deformation processes occurred millions of years ago, the compression process is still ongoing. Thus, the growth of the Alps is not complete yet. The longstanding mountain building phenomena are countered by continuous erosion processes. These move countless tons of material downhill and, along the rivers, far into the great plains. As the folding increased, these erosion phenomena intensified.


The Alps show a height distribution decreasing from west to east. Mont Blanc is the highest peak of the Alps at 4,810m and there are about 127 other four-thousanders in the Western Alps. The highest peak in the eastern Alps is the Ortler - Ortles at 3,905m.

Map 2: The Convention Territory – Administrative areas with a share in the Convention Territory

The territory of the Alpine Convention covers an area of 190,959 km2 and encompasses 5,868 municipalities (as of January 2008). It spans 1,200 km and eight Alpine states from the Ligurian coast to the gates of Vienna. This is where the Alps merge into the Vienna Basin. At its widest part between Rosenheim, Germany, and Affi, north of Verona, Italy, the Convention Territory has a width of 300 km. The Convention Territory spans parts of France, Italy, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and

General information

Over time, the erosive effects of water, wind, differences in temperature, and glaciers lead to the present geologically and scenically diverse appearance of the Alps. Both processes are still ongoing. Scientists have calculated that the Alps are growing one millimetre per year.

Slovenia as well as the entire national territories of the microstates of Liechtenstein and Monaco. At 54,759 and 51,995 km2 respectively, in terms of area Austria and Italy have the largest share in the Convention Territory (see table 1). Three quarters of the Convention area spread over Austria, Italy, and France. As of 2007, the territory of the Alpine Convention was inhabited by approximately 14 million people, the majority of whom were resident in the Italian Alps (see table 2). Alpine signals 1

43


Area in km2

Country

Percent of Convention Territory

Administrative units in the territory of the Alpine Convention

Austria

54,759

28.7

8

LAU 1 (provinces, cantons, districts, counties) 29

France

40,801

21.4

2

9

Germany

11,160

5.8

2

13

285

Italy

51,995

27.2

7

24

1,756

Liechtenstein

160

11

Monaco

2

Slovenia

6,871

NUTS 2 (regions, Länder)

LAU 2 (municipalities)

1,749

1,147

0.1

1

1

< 0.01

1

1

1

3.6

1

7

62

Switzerland

25,211

13.2

5

15

856

Alps total

190,959

100.0

27

99

5,867

Tab. 1: Shares of area and administrative units in the signatory states (as of 2008).

Map 3: Population distribution – Population density in the Alpine municipalities In the municipalities of the Alpine Convention there is an average of 147 inhabitants per km2. The figures range from 0.1 inhabitants/km2 in the smallest municipality of Rochefourchat in the Rhône Alpes region to 16,010 inhabitants/km2 in the most densely populated municipality of Monaco. The Alpine population concentrates in the areas with ample infrastructure provision, which are the large inneralpine valleys (Aosta, Rhône, Etschtal/ Val d’Adige, the valley of the river Inn, the Rhine Valley, the Valtelline) and basin areas (Klagenfurt Basin) as well the margins of the Alps. In these areas geomorphologic conditions allow for a larger percentage of the land to be used for housing and economic purposes. Moreover, higher population densities are to be found in the tourist centres. Population density in the municipalities, however, does not reflect the real conditions existent in the

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Alpine Arch. Due to the steepness and height of the terrain only a small portion of the whole of the Alps’ area is suitable for permanent settlement. In a typical Alpine region such as South Tyrol only as little as eight percent of the area can be populated permanently. In Vorarlberg, Austria, the figure reaches 24 percent. If one related the number of inhabitants to the area that can be populated, the result would be much higher density figures for most of the municipalities. It is on this permanent settlement area that use claims concentrate, asserted by players from housing development and economy through to transport and tourism. Conflicts are the logical consequence. It is exactly in these areas that they emerge with high intensity, and require an especially consequent and sustainable development strategy.


General information

Map 3: Population distribution â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Population density in the Alpine municipalities

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Map 4: Population development â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Population development in the municipalities Currently 14.01 million people live in the territory of the Alpine Convention. Never before have so many people lived in the Alps. Most of the Alpsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; inhabitants reside in the Italian and Austrian Alpine territories (see table 2). The years from 1990 to 2007 saw a population growth of roughly eight percent. This makes development in the Alpine arc more dynamic than the EU average (plus five percent; Eurostat 2007). This has not always been so. Only since the 1970s has population growth in the Alpine arc been higher than that in the rest of Europe. Only Austria and Slovenia have a national rate that is higher than that of the whole of the Convention Territory. Population development is not equally distributed among the regions. More than two thirds of the Alpine municipalities have seen positive development (see table 3). Positive development is to be found especially in municipalities showing prosperous economic growth and located in lower and easily accessible regions. Moreover, regions towards the margins of the Alps,

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in proximity to the great metropolises, are marked by positive population dynamics. Corresponding to the overall European tendency (periurbanisation), the population of municipalities in the surroundings of Alpine centres (Bozen/Bolzano, Innsbruck, Lugano, Trento, Grenoble) is growing. Stagnation or decrease in population, on the other hand, can be found in peripheral spaces or in regions experiencing economic depression. In the years from 1990 to 2004, 24 percent of the municipalities in Convention Territory saw declining population figures (see table 3). Despite the large number of small municipalities, there is a certain concentration process noticeable in the Alpine Arc. More than 73 percent of the population is concentrated in the 23.7 percent of municipalities that have more than 2,500 inhabitants. By contrast, as few as 8.8 percent of the Alpsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; inhabitants live in the approximately 50 percent of municipalities that have less than 1,000 inhabitants. Only 14 municipalities have more than 50,000 inhabitants.


General information

Map 4: Population development â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Population development in the municipalities

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Country

Population in thousands

Percent of the Alps’ total population

1870*

1990

2000

2007

Austria

1,565.90

3,143.40

3,293.50

3,306.31

23.6

France

1,456.50

2,246.80

2,453.60

2,453.60

17.5**

Germany

396.60

1,262.30

1,375.30

1,484.98

10.6

3,153.90

3,984.40

4,096.00

4,274.64

30.5

Liechtenstein

7.50

29.00

32.90

35.37

0.3

Monaco

3.40

30.00

32.02

32.02

0.2**

Slovenia

269.40

653.20

642.60

592.85

4.2

Switzerland

972.40

1,616.60

1,743.00

1,830.50

13.1

7,825.60

12,967.70

13,662.60

14,010.27

100.0

Italy

Alps total

Tab. 2: Population development from 1870 to 2007 in the territory of the Alpine Convention. *Sources: Bätzing, W. (1999b): L’attuale andamento demografico nell’arco alpino. Montagna oggi – Rivista dell’Unione Nazionale Comuni, Comunitá ed Enti Montani. vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 35-41; Statistics offices of the Alpine states: 1990, 2000/2001 population censuses and 2006/2007 updates. **Due to lack of current figures, for France and Monaco data from the year 2000 was used.

Inhabitant class

Percent of Alps’ total population

Percent of total municipalities

Percent of which are municipalities with population decline of more than 1 %

Percent of which are stagnating municipalities (growth/decline below %)

Percent of which are municipalities with growth of more than 1 %

< 500

3.19

31.5

34.0

3.0

63.0

501-1,000

5.70

18.4

24.6

4.7

70.7

1,001-2,500

18.16

26.4

17.2

10.1

72.7

2,501-5,000

20.10

13.7

13.2

4.7

82.1

5,001-10,000

17.70

6.2

13.1

6.2

80.7

10,001-25,000

18.03

3.0

12.0

9.1

78.9

25,001-50,000

8.34

0.6

22.9

17.1

60.0

> 50,000

8.78

0.2

21.4

7.2

71.4

Total

100.0

100.0

24.0

4.9

71.1

Tab. 3: Overview of demographic development in the municipalities of the Alpine Convention, organised by classes of size (as of 2004). Sources: Statistik Austria (2005); INSEE: Recensement de la population de 1999; Bayerisches Landesamt für Statistik und Datenverarbeitung (2004); Istat (2004); Amt für Volkswirtschaft (2000); Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, Regional Statistics (2004).

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With the help of an age index, the age distribution of a population can be represented. The figure denotes how many people over 65 years there are per 100 inhabitants under 15. A balanced ratio has a value around 100. Higher values indicate municipalities with a disproportionate number of old people. The map shows a marked difference between the northern and the southern Alps. Among the six regions with the highest age index, five are in the Italian part of the Alpine Arc. At 241 Liguria on the south-western margin of the Alps shows the highest value. Among the regions with the youngest

population average are Lichtenstein and Vorarlberg (>60). Throughout the Alps values range from under 10 in the municipalities of Chamrousse (Isère) and Honau (Lucerne) to above 1,000 in municipalities in Piedmont and the Provence-Alpes-Côte d‘Azur. A change in the age structure is not without consequences for affected municipalities. As a population ages, their needs and requirements concerning primary care change too. Coping with this issue presents large parts of the Alpine Arc with a major challenge.

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General information

Map 5: Age structure – Age index of the municipalities

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Map 5: Age structure â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Age index of the municipalities

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General information

Map 6: Agricultural development â&#x20AC;&#x201C; Development of agricultural enterprises with more than 1 ha of production land throughout 1980-2000.

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Map 6: Agricultural development – Development of agricultural enterprises with more than 1 ha of production land throughout 1980-2000. Although in the year 2000 as many as 287,000 agricultural enterprises were still operating in the territory of the Alpine Convention, 160,000 enterprises (-35.8%) discontinued their agricultural activities between 1980 and 2000. Random sampling does not predict very bright prospects for the next few years: the rate of farm closures remains high. Over the same time period, the area of land in agricultural production declined by approximately 500,000 ha (8.8%). This decline, however, is considerably smaller than might be expected given the number of enterprises that have closed. This indicates primarily small and very small enterprises discontinuing their agricultural activities, and the land becoming available being taken over by existing enterprises. This trend leads to enterprises continuing their operations that are “growing” on average. The average area of agricultural production land per enterprise increased from 12.9 ha in 1990 to 18.5 ha in 2000. All over the Alps it is primarily marginal lands with rather difficult production conditions that are being left to lie fallow. The decline is spread throughout the whole of the Convention Territory, with considerable regional differences. Areas that are strongly affected are the southwest and southeast of the Alpine Space (France, Italy, Slovenia). In the German-speaking regions of the Alps (Austria, Germany, Switzerland) the process had a more moderate effect. Agriculture in the Alpine arc is often equated with mountain agriculture. However, this picture is not entirely accurate. Almost all existing forms of agricultural use are practised within the Alpine arc. They range from intensive pomiculture in the Etschtal/Val d’Adige to areas used for grassland production in the Bernese Oberland. The Alpine Convention tries to give due consideration to all of these different types of production. To this end,

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for instance, in a special thematic Protocol, specific measures aimed at an environmentally compatible form of agricultural development in the Alpine space have been laid down.

Leisure and Tourism The Alps are a recreational space on a global scale. Every year more than 60 million visitors travel to the Alps. They are complemented by a similar number of weekenders. Some 370 million overnight stays and a bed space of 6.5 million highlight the significance of the Alps as a tourist destination (Siegrist 1998). Add to this the holiday apartments and the number of overnight stays increases to 545 million. In terms of overnight stays, among the 30 most important destinations are Oberstdorf (2.4m), Sölden (2.02m), Davos (2.1m, including holiday apartments), Chamonix (5.3m, including second homes), and Val d’Isere (more than 2m, including second homes). (Bartaletti 2008). Tourism is accompanied by significant synergy effects with other branches. The direct and indirect economic effects of tourism generate secure and decentralised jobs. Noteworthy, too, are the possibilities of positive networking of the value-added chain with agriculture, crafts, and various (other) services. Such networking, however, does not exist by itself but must be developed and secured by means of selective strategies and measures. Tourism is not found in the same intensity everywhere in the Alps. All over the Alps as few as one in 10 municipalities show high tourism density. The vast majority of the Alpine regions exhibit either only low or no tourism density at all. In the form of the Tourism Protocol the Alpine Convention has created an instrument and laid down measures for the contribution of this sector to a development that is as a whole sustainable.


The Alps play a major role in the conservation of biodiversity in Europe. The various environmental conditions (dry valleys and orographic barriers, height distribution, complex geological conditions, natural and cultivated state of landscape) create an extensive variety of habitats. These enable the different animal and plant species to exist. The Alps alone contain an estimated total of 5,000 species of vascular plants or 3/7 of Europe’s flora (Ozenda 1988). One major role in their sustainable conservation is played by reserves. A look on the map shows

the distribution of nature reserves in the Alpine Arc. What should be noted, however, is the fact that these areas are mainly concentrated at in higher altitudes r with reduced land use conflicts (Broggi et al. 1999). Yet, in terms of the sustainable development of biodiversity in the Alpine Arc, areas outside of reserves have also to be taken into account. According to Art.12 of the ‘Conservation of Nature and Landscape Protection' Protocol the signatory states will take crossborder measures for the implementation of a transnational ecological network in the Alpine arc.

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Conservation

Map 7: Transport – Major transalpine transit corridors – 5 year development with modal split

The history of Alpine crossings is closely connected to economic development north and south of the Alps. The commodity flows through

these crossings have shaped the living conditions of the population. Localities along these trade routes have benefitted from this traffic and Alpine signals 1

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have partially based their economic success upon it. They have derived benefits especially from the fact that road users have to stop from time to time, which makes possible an exchange of goods and services. The importance of these corridors for the competitiveness of the Alpine regions continues beyond all question up to the present day. However, the form and impact of transalpine transport has changed considerably over time. While formerly the exchange of services, goods and persons spread over various trade routes all over the Alpine Space, nowadays it is concentrated increasingly on a small number of transit corridors. What has increased too is the impacts resulting from the movement of goods. The negative effects of transport are made more serious by the specific climatic and topographic conditions in the Alpine Space. Congestions, accidents, land consumption, landscape fragmentation, noise and air pollution negatively affect the health and quality of life of the people living along the corridors.

Growth seems unstoppable. From 1984 transalpine goods traffic (transit, domestic, source and destination traffic) between Ventimiglia and Tarviso increased from 68.2 million tons to 165.1 million tons in 2007 (+142.1 %). This increase has taken place mainly on the road, leading to a shift in the modal split, away from the rail. The road share of transalpine goods traffic is 61.5 percent today, with figures varying between countries (road: CH 36.0%, A 76.6%, F 73.3%). Almost all prognoses predict further growth in the future. In the Alpine Space the discussion mainly concentrates on transalpine goods traffic. As a result, however, it is often forgotten that motorised individual transport in the valleys as well as centres is a major problem, too. The Traffic Protocol contains measures for a sustainable management of all forms of transport in the Alpine arc.

The Permanent Secretariat thanks F.V. Ruffini, K. Renner & T. Streifeneder - Institute for Regional Development and Location Management, EURAC-Research - for texts and maps.

References: BARTALETTI, F. (2008): What Role Do the Alps Play within World Tourism? In: CIPRA (Ed.): Alps Know How A curriculum for the sustainable development of the Alps. CD, Vaduz. • BÄTZING, W. (1999): L’attuale andamento demografico nell’arco alpino. Montagna oggi – Rivista dell’unione Nazionale Comuni, Comunitá ed Enti Montani, Jg. 45, Nr. 1 S. 35-41 • BROGGI, M. F. et al. (1999): Großflächige Schutzgebiete im Alpenraum. Daten, Fakten, Hintergründe. Blackwell-Wiss.-Verlag, Berlin. • EUROSTAT: Online database: http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu, 2007. • SIEGRIST, D. (1998): Daten zu Tourismus und Freizeit. In: CIPRA (Hrsg.): Alpenreport 1. Daten-Fakten-Probleme-Lösungsansätze. Bern. • OZENDA, P. (1988): Die Vegetation der Alpen im europäischen Gebirgsraum. G. Fischer Verlag, Stuttgart New York

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Framework Convention

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Framework Convention

Alpine Convention

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community - AWARE that the Alps are one of the largest continuous unspoilt natural areas in Europe, which, with their outstanding unique and diverse natural habitat, culture and history, constitute an economic, cultural, recreational and living environment in the heart of Europe, shared by numerous peoples and countries, - RECOGNIZING that the Alps constitute the living and economic environment for the indigenous population and are also vitally important for extraAlpine regions, being the site of important transport routes, for example, - RECOGNIZING the fact that the Alps constitute an essential habitat and last refuge for many endangered species of plants and animals - AWARE of the substantial differences existing between national legal systems, natural conditions, population distribution, agriculture and forestry, the state and development of the economy, the volume of traffic and the nature and intensity of tourism,

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- AWARE that the evergrowing pressures caused by man are increasingly threatening the Alpine region and its ecological functions, and that the damage is either irreparable or rectifiable only with great effort, at considerable cost and, as a rule, over a long period of time, - CONVINCED of the need for economic interests to be reconciled with ecological requirements, - FOLLOWING the outcome of the first Alpine Conference of Environment Ministers held in Berchtesgaden from 9 to It October 1989, have agreed as follows:

Article 1 Scope 1. The Convention shall cover the Alpine region, as described and depicted in the Annex. 2. Each Contracting Party may, when depositing its instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval or at any time thereafter, extend the application of this Convention to additional parts of its national territory by making a declaration to the depositary, the Republic of Austria, provided that this is necessary to implement the provisions of the Convention. 3. Any declaration made under paragraph 2 may, in respect of any national territory specified in such declaration, be withdrawn by a notification addressed to the depositary. The withdrawal shall become effective on the


Article 2 General obligations  1. The Contracting Parties shall pursue a comprehensive policy for the preservation and protection of the Alps by applying the principles of prevention, payment by the polluter (the 'polluter pays' principle) and cooperation, after careful consideration of the interests of all the Alpine States, their Alpine regions and the European Economic Community, and through the prudent and sustained use of resources. Transborder cooperation in the Alpine region shall be intensified and extended both in terms of the territory and the number of subjects covered. 2. In order to achieve the objective referred to in paragraph 1, the Contracting Parties shall take appropriate measures in particular in the following areas: a. population and culture the objective is to respect, preserve and promote the cultural and social independence of the indigenous population and to guarantee the basis for their living standards, in particular environmentally sound settlement and economic development, and promote mutual understanding and cooperation between

Alpine and extraAlpine populations; b. spatial planning the objective is to ensure the economic and rational use of land and the sound, harmonious development of the whole region, particular emphasis being placed on natural hazards, the avoidance of under and overuse and the conservation or rehabilitation of natural habitats by means of a thorough clarification and evaluation of landuse requirements, foresighted integral planning and coordination of the measures taken; c. prevention of air pollution the objective is to drastically reduce the emission of pollutants and pollution problems in the Alpine region, together with inputs of harmful substances from outside the region, to a level which is not harmful to man, animals and plants; d. soil conservation the objective is to reduce quantitative and qualitative soil damage, in particular by applying agricultural and forestry methods which do not harm the soil, through minimum interference with soil and land, control of erosion and the restriction of soil sealing, e. water management the objective is to preserve or reestablish healthy water systems, in particular by keeping lakes and rivers free of pollution, by applying natural hydraulic engineering techniques and by using water power, which serves the interests of both the indigenous population and the environment alike; Alpine signals 1

Framework Convention

first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of such notification by the depositary.

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f. conservation of nature and the countryside the objective is to protect, conserve and, where necessary, rehabilitate and natural environment and the countryside, so that ecosystems are able to function, animal and plants species, including their habitats, are preserved, nature's capacity for regeneration and sustained productivity is maintained, and the variety, uniqueness and beauty of nature and the countryside as a whole are preserved on a permanent basis; g. mountain farming the objective is, in the public interest, to maintain the management of land traditionally cultivated by man and to preserve and promote a system of farming which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible, taking into account the less favourable economic conditions; h. mountain forests the objective is to preserve, reinforce and restore the role of forests, in particular their protective role, by improving the resistance of forest ecosystems mainly by applying natural forestry techniques and preventing any utilization detrimental to forests, taking into account the less favourable economic conditions in the Alpine region; i. tourism and recreation the objective is, by restricting activities harmful to the environment, to harmonize tourism and recreational activities which ecological and social requirements, in particular by setting aside quiet areas;

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j. transport the objective is to reduce the volume and dangers of interAlpine and transAlpine traffic to a level which is not harmful to humans, animals and plants and their habitats, by switching more traffic, in particular freight traffic, to the railways in particular by providing appropriate infrastructure and incentives complying which market principles, without discrimination on grounds of nationality, k. energy the objective is to introduce methods for the production, distribution and use of energy which preserve the countryside and are environmentally compatible, and to promote energysaving measures; l. waste management the objective is to develop a system of waste collection, utilization and disposal which meets the special topographic, geological and climatic requirements of the Alpine region, paying particular attention to waste avoidance.    3. The Contracting Parties shall agree upon Protocols laying down details for the implementation of this Convention.

Article 3 Research and systematic monitoring In the areas specified in Article 2, the Contracting Parties shall agree to:


5. The Contracting Parties' obligations under this Convention with regard to the provision of information shall be subject to compliance with national laws on confidentiality. Information designated confidential shall be treated as such.

Article 4

Article 5

Legal, scientific, economic and technical cooperation   1. The Contracting Parties shall facilitate and promote the exchange of legal, scientific, economic and technical information relevant to this Convention.

Conference of Contracting Parties (Alpine Conference)

2. The Contracting Parties shall inform each other of planned legal or economic measures which are expected to have particular effects on the Alpine region or parts thereof, in order to give the utmost consideration to cross-border and regional requirements. 3. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate with international governmental and nongovernmental organizations, where necessary, to ensure the effective implementation of the Convention and the Protocols to which they are a Contracting Party. 4. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the public are regularly kept informed in an appropriate manner about the results of research, monitoring and action taken.

Framework Convention

a. cooperate in the carrying out of research activities and scientific assessments; b. develop joint or complementary systematic monitoring programmer; c. harmonize research, monitoring and related data-acquisition activities.

1. Regular meetings of the Conference of Contracting Parties shall he held to discuss the common concerns of and cooperation between the Contracting Parties. The first meeting of the Alpine Conference shall be convened a year after the entry into force of this Convention at the latest by a Contracting Party to be determined by agreement. 2. Subsequently, ordinary meetings of the Conference shall normally be convened every two years by the Contracting Party holding the chair. The chairmanship and location shall change after each ordinary meeting of the Conference. Both shall be determined by the Alpine Conference. 3. The Contracting Party holding the chair shall propose the agenda for the meeting of the Conference. Each Contracting Party shall have the right to have other items included on the agenda. 4. The Contracting Parties shall forward to the Conference information on the Alpine signals 1

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measures which they have taken in implementation of the Convention and the Protocols to which they are a Contracting Party, subject to national laws on confidentiality. 5. The United Nations, its specialized agencies, the Council of Europe and all European countries may take part in the meetings of the Conference as observers. The same applies to crossborder associations of Alpine territorial authorities. In addition, relevant international nongovernmental organizations may be admitted to the Conference as observers. 6. Extraordinary meetings of the Conference shall be held by consensus or if a written application has been made to the presiding Contracting Party by one third of the Contracting Parties between two ordinary meetings.  

Article 6 Functions of the Conference At its meetings, the Conference shall examine the implementation of the Convention and Protocols, together with Annexes, and, in particular, shall carry out the following functions at its meetings: a. it shall adopt amendments to the Convention under the procedure laid down in Article 10; b. it shall adopt Protocols and their Annexes and amendments thereto under the procedure laid down in Article I 1; c. it shall adopt its Rules of Procedure;

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d. it shall make the necessary financial decisions; e. it shall approve the creation of Working Groups deemed necessary for the implementation of the Convention; f. it shall take note of assessments of scientific information; g. it shall decide or recommend measures to achieve the objectives laid down in Articles 3 and 4, shall determine the nature, subject and date of submission of the information to be submitted in accordance with Article S (4), and shall take note of this information, together with the reports submitted by the Working Groups; h. it shall be responsible for carrying out essential secretariat functions.

Article 7 Decision making within the Conference 1. The Conference shall reach its decisions unanimously unless otherwise determined below. If all efforts to achieve unanimity with regard to the functions referred to in Article 6 (c), (0 and (g) have failed and the chairman specifically establishes this fact, the decision shall be reached by a threequarters majority of the Contracting Parties present and voting at the meeting. 2. Each Contracting Party shall have a vote at the Conference. Within the areas of its competence, the European Community exercises its right to vote with a number of votes equal to the number of its Member States


Article 8 Permanent Committee   1. A Conference Permanent Committee consisting of delegates of the Contracting Parties shall be set up as an executive body. 2. Signatory States which have not yet ratified the Convention shall have observer status at Permanent Committee meetings. In addition, any Alpine State which has not yet signed this Convention may be given this status on demand. 3. The Permanent Committee shall adopt its Rules of Procedure.  4. In addition, the Standing Committee shall decide on the procedures for any participation of representatives of governmental and/or non­ governmental organizations at its meetings. 5. The Contracting Party presiding over the Conference shall appoint the chairman of the Permanent Committee. 6. The Permanent Committee shall carry out the following functions in particular:  

a. it shall analyse the information submitted by the Contracting Parties in accordance with Article s (4) and report to the Alpine Conference; b. it shall collect and assess documents with regard to the implementation of the Convention and Protocols, together with Annexes, and shall submit them to the Conference for examination in accordance with Article 6; c. it shall inform the Alpine Conference about the implementation of the Conference's decisions; d. it shall prepare programmes for meetings of the Conference and may propose items for the agenda as well as other measures relating to the implementation of the Convention and is Protocols; e.  it shall appoint Working Groups to formulate Protocols and recommendations, in accordance with Article 6 (e) and coordinate their activities; f. it shall examine and harmonize the contents of draft Protocols from an overall point of view and propose them to the Conference; g. it shall propose measures and recommendations for the achievement of the objectives contained in the Convention and its Protocols to the Conference.

Framework Convention

which are Contracting Parties to this Convention; the European Economic Community shall not exercise is right to vote in cases where the Member States exercise theirs.

7. Decisionmaking within the Permanent Committee shall take place in accordance with the provisions laid down in Article 7.

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Article 9 Secretariat The Conference may decide unanimously to set up a permanent secretariat.

Article 10 Amendments to the Convention Any Contracting Party may submit proposals for amendments to this Convention to the Contracting Party presiding over the Conference. Such proposals shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties and signatory States by the Contracting Party presiding over the Conference at least six months before the Conference meeting at which they are to be considered. Amendments to the Convention shall come into force in accordance with Article 12 (2), (3) and (4).

Article 11 Protocols and amendments thereto  1. Draft Protocols within the meaning of Article 2 (3) shall be communicated to the Contracting Parties and signatory States by the Contracting Party presiding over the Conference at least six months before the Conference meeting at which they are to be considered. 2. The Protocols adopted by the Conference shall be signed at the Conference meetings or subsequently at

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the depositary. They shall be applicable to those Contracting Parties which have ratified, accepted or approved them. In order for a Protocol to come into force at least three ratifications, acceptances or approvals shall be necessary. The relevant documents shall be deposited with the depositary, the Republic of Austria. 3. Unless otherwise provided for in the Protocol, the entry into force and denunciation of a Protocol shall be governed by Articles 10, 13 and 14. 4. In the case of amendments to Protocols, paragraphs I to 3 shall apply mutatis mutandis.

Article 12 Signature and ratification   1. This Convention shall be open for signature from 7 November 1991 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary. 2. The Convention shall be subject to ratification, acceptance or approval. The instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval shall be deposited with the depositary. 3. The Convention shall enter into force three months after date on which three States have expressed their consent to be bound by the Convention, in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2. 4. In the case of any signatory State which subsequently expresses its


Article 13 Denunciation  

In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorized thereto, have signed this Convention. Done at Salzburg on 7 November 1991 in the German, French, Italian and Slovene languages, each text being equally binding, the original text shall be deposited in the Austrian State archives The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

1. Any of the Contracting Parties may at any time denounce this Convention by means of a notification addressed to the depositary.

Framework Convention

consent to be bound by the Convention in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 2, the Convention shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

2. Such denunciation shall become effective on the first day of the month following the expiration of a period of six months after the date of receipt of notification by the depositary.  

Article 14 Notifications The depositary shall notify each of the Contracting Parties and signatory States of: - any signature; - the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval; - any date of entry into force of the Convention, in accordance with Article 12; - any declaration made in accordance with Article I (V and (3); - any notification made under Article 13 and the date on which denunciation becomes effective.

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Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development

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Protocol Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development

Protocol

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Preamble - The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community - in accordance with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine region, - in compliance with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention, - aware that Alps make up an area of Europe-wide importance which constitutes a specific and diversified heritage in its geo-morphological formation, climate, waters, plant and animal life, landscape and culture, and that the upper mountains, the Alpine valleys and the pre-Alpine areas form an environmental whole, whose conservation should be of interest not just to the Alpine States, - aware that the Alps form an area in which the local population lives and develops, - convinced that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its imple-

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-

-

-

-

mentation in the existing institutional framework, aware that the Alpine territory also has various other functions of general interest, particularly for tourism and recreation, as well as containing important European transport arteries considering that the natural limits of the territory and the sensitivity of the ecosystems imply problems of compatibility with the increase in the population, both local and otherwise, and alsowith the significant increase in land area required for these functions, resulting in harm or risks to the ecological balance of the Alpine territory, aware that this need is not evenly spread but is concentrated in single areas while others, instead, have a lack of opportunities and are subject to rural exodus, considering that, due to these risks, it has become necessary to pay special attention to the close interrelations between human activities â&#x20AC;&#x201C; particularly in the areas of agriculture and forestry â&#x20AC;&#x201C; and the safeguarding of the ecosystems, which make the Alpine territory extremely sensitive to the changes in the conditions in which the social and economic activities take place, and require appropriate and diversified measures, in accord with the local population, the political representatives and with businesses and associations, considering that the spatial planning policies, already practiced in order to reduce the disparities and increase cohesion, must be continued and adapted so that they can fully fulfil their preventive function, further taking environmental needs into account,


have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 Objectives The objectives of spatial planning and sustainable development in the Alpine territory are to: a) recognise the specific needs of the Alpine territory in the framework of national and European policies, b) harmonise the use of the territory with the ecological needs and objectives, c) use the resources and the territory sparingly and compatibly with the environment, d) recognise the specific interests of the Alpine population by a commitment to ensure the foundations for the development of such interests over time, e) support both economic development and a balanced distribution of the population in the Alpine territory, f) show respect for regional identities and specific cultural features, g) facilitate equal opportunities for the local population in its social, cultural and economic development, in accordance with territorial competences, h) take into account the natural disadvantages, the services of general interest, the limitations of use of resources and the price for using them, corresponding to their real value.

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Protocol Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development

- aware that protection of the environment, social and cultural promotion and economic development of the Alpine territory are all objectives of equal importance, and that therefore it is necessary to find an appropriate, durable balance among them, - convinced that many problems of the Alpine territory can be best resolved by the local and regional authorities directly concerned, - convinced that it is necessary to promote cross-border cooperation between the local and regional bodies directly concerned in order to produce harmonious development, - convinced that the disadvantaged natural conditions of production, particularly in agriculture and forestry, can undermine the livelihood of the local population and can be damaging to the Alpine territory as a place for living and recreation, - convinced that making the Alpine territory available as an area with functions of general interest, especially functions of protection and those connected to ecological balance, and as an area of tourism and recreation, can justify the appropriate support measures, - convinced that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States,

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Article 2

Article 3

Fundamental commitments

Consideration of the criteria for environmental protection in the policies for spatial planning and sustainable development

In accordance with the objectives of spatial planning and sustainable development of the Alpine territory, as in article 1, the Contracting Parties shall agree to create general conditions making it possible to: a) strengthen the ability of local and regional authorities to act in compliance with the principle of subsidiarity, b) implement specific regional strategies and the corresponding structures, c) ensure solidarity between the local and regional authorities, in terms of each of the Contracting Parties, by means of effective measures d) in cases of usage limitation on natural resources and where the conditions in the economic activities of the Alpine territory are recognised as disadvantaged, adopt the measures necessary for maintaining those activities, to the extent that such measures are compatible with the environment, e) encourage harmonisation in policies for territorial planning, development and protection, by means of international cooperation. The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the measures necessary for achieving the objectives stated at article 1, in compliance with the principle of subsidiarity.

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The spatial planning and sustainable development policies aim to achieve swift harmonisation of the economic interests with the needs for protecting the environment, with particular attention to: a) safeguarding and restoring the ecological balance and the biodiversity of the Alpine region, b) safeguarding and managing the diversity of the natural and rural sites and landscapes, and also the urban locations of value, c) the prudent use, compatible with the environment, of the natural resources â&#x20AC;&#x201C; soil, air, water, plants and animals, energy, d) the protection of ecosystems, the species and rare landscape elements e) restoring deteriorated natural and urban environments, f) protecting against natural hazards, g) compatibly building structures and facilities necessary for development with the environment and the landscape, h) respect for the specific cultural features of the Alpine regions.


International cooperation 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to eliminate any obstacles to international cooperation between the local and regional Alpine authorities, and to promote the solution to mutual problems by means of the best collaboration at territorial level. 2. The Contracting Parties shall pursue greater international cooperation between the respective competent institutions, particularly when drawing up territorial plans and/or programmes and for sustainable development in accordance with article 8, at a national and regional level, and also when defining sector plans of territorial relevance. In the border areas, this cooperation should primarily aim a coordinating territorial planning with economic development and environmental requirements. 3. When the local and regional authorities cannot adopt such measures, since they are of national or international competence, it will be necessary to ensure that they have the possibility to effectively represent the interests of the population.

Article 5 Taking account of the objectives in other policies The Contracting Parties undertake to also consider the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies, particularly in the area of regional development, urban

planning, transport, tourism, farming and forestry, protection of the environment, and as regards supplies, especially of water and energy, also with the aim to reduce any negative or contradictory impacts.

Article 6 Coordination of the sector policies The Contracting Parties shall set up the instruments for coordinating sector policies, where these do not already exist, in order to promote the sustainable development of the Alpine territory and its regions, making an effort to find solutions compatible with the protection of the environment and the sustainable management of the natural resources, and to prevent the risks connected to singlesector economies, promoting diversification of activities and guiding partners towards mutual objectives.

Article 7

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Article 4

Participation of the regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional frame work, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop potential synergies when applying spatial planning and sustainable development poli-

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cies and implementing measures under them. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures, within their competence and within the existing institutional framework.

Chapter II Specific Measures Article 8 Spatial plans and/or programmes and sustainable development 1. The objectives of spatial and sustainable development planning shall be achieved, in the framework of current laws and regulations of the Contracting Parties, by preparing spatial and sustainable development plans and/ or programmes. 2. These plans and/or programmes will be defined for the entire Alpine territory by the competent local and regional authorities. 3. They are to be prepared by or with the participation of the competent territorial authorities, and in coordination with bordering territorial authorities, possibly at a cross-border level, and shall be coordinated between the various territorial levels. 4. They shall establish the directions for sustainable development and spatial planning of continuous areas and are

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regularly reviewed and, when necessary, modified. Their preparation and implementation is based on surveys and preliminary studies, by which the characteristics of the territory in question are defined.

Article 9 Contents of spatial and sustainable development plans and/or programmes The spatial and sustainable development plans and/or programmes include, at the most appropriate territorial level and taking account of the specific territorial conditions: 1. Regional economic development a) measures for ensuring that there is a sufficient level of employment for the local population and that there are the means and services necessary for economic, social and cultural development and to ensure equal opportunities, b) measuresforencouragingeconomicdiversificationinordertoremovestructuralfailingsand the risk of a single-sector economies, c) measures for reinforcing the cooperation between farming and forestry economies, tourism and manufacturing, particularly through the combination of work creation activities. 2. Rural areas a) reserving lands for agriculture, forestry and pasture farming,


3. Urbanised areas a) proper and contained delimiting of the areas for urbanising, and also measures for ensuring that the areas so defined are actually built upon, b) reservingthelandsnecessaryforec onomicandculturalactivities,forsu pplyservices,and also for leisure activities, c) determining the areas subject to natural hazards, where building of structures and installations should be avoided as much as possible. d) conservationandcreationofgreenareasinthetowncentresandsuburbanareasforleisure time, e) limiting of holiday homes, f) urbanisation directed and concentrated along the routes served by transport infrastructures and/or continuing on from the existing constructions, g) conservation of the characteristic urban sites, h) conservation and restoration of the characteristic architectural heritage.

4. Protection of nature and the landscape a) delimiting of the areas for protecting nature and the landscape, and also for safeguarding the water courses and other vital natural resources, b) delimiting of tranquil areas and areas in which construction of buildings and infrastructures is restrained or prohibited, as are other damaging activities.

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b) definingmeasuresforthemaintenanceanddevelopmentofmountainagricultureand forestry, c) conservation and reclaiming of territories of major ecological and cultural value, d) determiningtheareasandinstallationsnecessaryforleisureactivities,c omplyingwithother uses of the ground, e) determining the areas subject to natural hazards, where building of structures and installations should be avoided as much as possible.

5. Transport a) measures for improving regional and super-regional connections, b) measuresforencouragingtheuseofmeansoftransportcompatiblewiththeenvironment, c) measures for reinforcing the coordination and cooperation between the various means of transport, d) measuresforlimitingtraffic,whichm ayalsoincludelimitationstomotorisedtraffic, e) measures for improving the offer of public transport for the local population and visitors.

Article 10 Compatibility of the projects 1. The Contracting Parties shall create the conditions necessary for examining the direct and indirect impacts of both public and private projects that could significantly and lastingly undermine nature, the landscape, the architectural heritage and the territory. This examination is to take account of the living conditions of the local population, particularly of its inAlpine signals 1

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terests in relation to economic, social and cultural development. The result of this examination will be taken into account when deciding on authorising or implementing projects. 2. When a project has repercussions on spatial planning, sustainable development and on the environmental conditions of a neighbouring Contracting Party, the competent authorities must be promptly informed. The information must be sent in reasonable time to permit examination and an integrated viewpoint in the decision-making process.

Article 11 Use of resources, services of general interest, natural obstacles to production and limitations on the use of resources The Contracting Parties shall examine to what extent it is possible, in compliance with their respective national laws, to: a) ascribe market prices to the users of Alpine resources that include in their economic value the cost of making these resources available, b) recompensetheservicesprovidedinthegeneralinterest, c) provide a fair compensation for the economic activities, particularly in the areas of agriculture and forestry that are disadvantaged by the natural difficulties of production, d) ensureafairremuneration,definedbym eansoflegalregulationsorcontracts,fo rthefurther limitations compatible with obtaining an economic exploitation

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commensurate with the environment of the potential natural territory.

Article 12 Economic and financial measures 1. The Contracting Parties shall examine the possibility of support to the sustainable development of the Alpine territory â&#x20AC;&#x201C; objective pursued by this Protocol â&#x20AC;&#x201C; by means of economic and financial measures. 2. The following measures are to be considered supplementary to those in article 11: a) measures for compensation between the most appropriate level of territorial authorities, b) re-directingofthepoliciesfortraditio nalsectors,andrationalusageofthe existing incentives, c) support to cross-border projects. 3. The Contracting Parties shall examine the impact on the environment and the territory of the economic and financial provisions, whether currently in place or to be adopted, giving priority to the measures compatible with the environment and with the objectives of sustainable development.

Article 13 Further Measures The Contracting Parties may take additional measures to those stated in this Protocol for territorial planning and sustainable development.


Chapter IV

Research, Education and Information

Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation

Article 14

Article 16

Research and monitoring

Implementation

1. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate closely to promote and harmonise research and systematic monitoring programmes for improved knowledge of the interactions between the territory, economy and environment of the Alps, and an analysis of their future developments. 2. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework.

The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

Article 15 Education and information The Contracting Parties shall promote education and further training as well as keeping the public informed about objectives, measures and the implementation of this Protocol.

Article 17 Monitoring of compliance with obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted. 2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources. 3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference. Alpine signals 1

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4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

Article 18

to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol. 3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions

Article 20

1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives. 2. The regional and local authorities shall take part in this evaluation within the institutional framework. Non-governmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final Provisions Article 19 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party

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Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 20 December 1994 and from 15 January 1995 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.


Notifications The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of:

Done at ChambĂŠry on 20 December 1994 in the French, Italian, Slovene and German languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State Archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

a) each signature, b) the deposit of each instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, c) each date of entry into force d) each declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory, e) each denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective. In witness where of the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

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Article 21

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Mountain Farming

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community - IN ACCORDANCE WITH their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and the sustainable development of the Alpine region, - IN COMPLIANCE WITH their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention, - AWARE that it is incumbent upon them, in the general interest, to preserve and promote the management of traditional countryside and farming which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible, taking into account the more difficult economic conditions, - RECOGNISING that, by virtue of its wealth of natural resources, water resources, agricultural potential, historical and cultural heritage, value for quality of life and for economic and leisure activities in Europe and the transport routes crossing it, the Alpine region will continue to be of vital importance, particularly for the local population but also for the population of other regions,

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- CONVINCED that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework, - CONVINCED that it is necessary to balance the economic interests and the environmental requirements, taking account of the specific features of each region and of the central role of farming, - CONSIDERING the importance which farming has always had in the Alpine region and the indispensable contribution which this branch of the economy makes, and will continue to make, particularly in mountain regions, as an essential resource for maintaining an adequate population density, food supply for the population, production of typical highquality produce, conservation and maintenance of the countryside, particularly for tourism, and, finally, protection of the soil against erosion, avalanches and floods, - RECOGNISING that farming methods and intensity exert a decisive influence on nature and landscapes and that extensively farmed countryside must fulfil an essential function as a habitat for Alpine flora and fauna, - RECOGNISING the fact that the geomorphology and climate of mountain regions create more difficult living and production conditions for farming activity, - CONVINCED that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States and, in particular, that economic and social adjustment and accompanying measu-


Article 2 Taking account of the objectives in other policies

Have Agreed As Follows:

The Contracting Parties undertake to take account of the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies as well.

Chapter I

Article 3

General Provisions

Fundamental obligations in the general economic context

Article 1 Objectives 1. This Protocol lays down international measures to preserve and promote mountain farming which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible; it aims at recognising and securing the continuity of its essential contribution to maintaining the population and safeguarding sustainable economic activities, particularly by means of producing typical high-quality produce, safeguarding the natural environment, preventing natural risks and conserving the beauty and recreational value of nature and the countryside and of cultural life in the Alpine region. 2. In implementing this Protocol, the Contracting Parties shall seek to optimise all the functions of mountain farming.

The Contracting Parties agree on the need to adapt agricultural policy at all levels, in accordance with general economic policy, to the requirements for balanced, sustainable development in order to make it possible, within the framework of the given financial policy conditions:

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res should be put in place, at national and European level, so that the future of farmers and their farms in mountain regions is not called into question by the application of exclusively economic parameters,

(a) to encourage, particularly in mountain regions, environmentally compatible farming and its functions in the general interest, as provided for in Article 7 of this Protocol; (b) to take significant action against abandonment of mountain regions and to ensure adequate living conditions there, by means of social and structural policy measures accompanied by a series of agricultural and environment policy measures.

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Article 4

Article 6

Role of farmers

International cooperation

The Contracting Parties agree that, in mountain regions in particular farming has, over the centuries, shaped the countryside, giving it its historical character and cultural value. The essential role played by farmers in conservation of nature and the countryside, today and tomorrow, by virtue of their multiple functions, must therefore be recognised and farmers must be associated in the decisions and measures taken for mountain regions.

The Contracting Parties agree:

Article 5 Participation of regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop synergies when applying mountain farming policies and implementing measures under them. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures, within their competence and within the existing institutional framework.

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(a) to proceed with joint evaluations of the development of agricultural policy and to guarantee reciprocal consultation before adopting any major decision on agricultural policy, for the purposes of implementation of this Protocol; (b) to secure implementation of the objectives and measures laid down by this Protocol, by means of transfrontier cooperation between all the competent authorities, particularly regional administrations and local authorities; (c) to encourage exchanges of knowledge and experience and joint initiatives, by means of international cooperation between research and training institutes, agricultural and environmental organisations and the media.

Chapter II Specific Measures Article 7 Encouragement of mountain farming 1. The Contracting Parties shall seek to differentiate agricultural policy


2. The contribution which mountain farming makes to the conservation and maintenance of nature and the countryside and to the prevention of natural risks, in the general interest, shall give rise to appropriate compensation, in the framework of contractual agreements linked to identified projects and services going beyond the general obligations.

Article 8 Land use and countryside 1. The Contracting Parties undertake, respecting nature and the countryside, to take account of the particular conditions in mountain areas in the context of planning, zoning, reorganising and improving land use. 2. In order to accomplish its multiple tasks, first, mountain farming must have the land necessary for farming which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible. 3. In this context, it is necessary to ensure conservation, restoration and use of the traditional components of the countryside (woodland, wooded boundaries, hedges, thickets, wet,

dry or low-yield pasture and Alpine pastures). 4. Special measures shall be taken for the conservation of traditional farm buildings and rural architecture and for further use of traditional building materials and methods.

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measures at all levels, in accordance with the different local conditions, and to encourage mountain farming, taking account of the local natural handicaps. Support shall be given, in particular, to farms ensuring a minimum of agricultural activity in extreme locations.

Article 9 Nature-friendly farming methods â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Typical produce The Contracting Parties undertake to adopt all necessary measures with a view to applying common criteria to promote employment and wider use, in mountain areas, of nature-friendly extensive farming methods characteristic of the area and to protect and promote typical farm produce, with distinctive, unique, nature-friendly production methods limited to the locality.

Article 10 Livestock farming suited to local conditions and genetic diversity 1. The Contracting Parties agree that livestock farming suited to local conditions and to the available land is an essential component of mountain farming, both as a source of revenue and as a decisive part of the identity of the countryside and culture. Consequently, livestock farming, including traditional domestic animal husbandry, must be maintained, with its characteristic variety of species and typical produce; such husbandry Alpine signals 1

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must be suited to local conditions and to the available land and compatible with the environment. 2. To this end, the necessary farming, pasture and forestry facilities shall be maintained, keeping a balance between pasture and livestock which suits local conditions, in the context of suitable, extensive grassland farming. 3. Measures shall also be adopted to maintain the genetic diversity of livestock and crops, particularly in the field of agricultural research and advisory services.

Article 13 Complementary nature of farming and forestry The Contracting Parties agree that the complementary nature and partial interdependence of farming and forestry in mountain areas necessitate an integrated approach. Consequently, they shall encourage:

Promotion and marketing

(a) forestry compatible with nature both as an additional source of revenue for farms and as a sideline activity for farm workers;

1. The Contracting Parties shall seek to create conditions conducive to the marketing of mountain farm produce, with a view to increasing sales on the spot and making such produce more competitive on national and international markets.

(b) consideration of the protective, productive and recreational as well as the environmental and biogenetic functions of forests, in relation to farmland, taking account of the specific local conditions and in harmony with the countryside;

2. Promotion shall take the form, inter alia, of guarantees of origin and of quality, allowing protection of producers and consumers alike.

(c) regulation of grassland farming and of the game population, to avoid any intolerable damage to forests and crops.

Article 12

Article 14

Limitation of production

Additional sources of income

In case of limitation of agricultural production, the Contracting Parties shall seek to take account of the specific re-

Recognising the traditional importance of family farms in mountain farming, in order to support family farms as an eco-

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quirements, in mountain areas, for farming which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible.

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Article 15 Improvement of living and working conditions The Contracting Parties shall encourage reinforcement and improvement of the quality of the services indispensable in order to overcome the unfavourable conditions faced by farm and forestry workers in mountain areas in order to link improvement of their living and working conditions to economic and social development in other fields and in other parts of the Alpine region. To this end, the decision-making criteria must not be purely economic. This shall apply principally to links, to construction and restructuring of housing and farm buildings, and to purchase and maintenance of technical installations and equipment.

Article 16 Further measures The Contracting Parties may take further measures on mountain farming than the measures provided for in this Protocol.

Chapter III Research, Training and Information Article 17 Research and observation 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage and harmonise, in close cooperation, research and systematic observation which are conducive to achieving the objectives of this Protocol. 2. In particular, they shall encourage agricultural research specially targeted on mountain farming which shall be conducted in a manner corresponding as closely as possible to the specific local conditions and shall be taken into account in the process of setting and checking agricultural policy objectives and measures, applying the results obtained to training and technical assistance activities for agriculture. 3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework. 4. As regards the different mountain areas and taking account of the objectives and measures laid down by this Protocol, the Contracting Parties shall, in particular, establish a comparison of the economic and social situation of mountain farming. Alpine signals 1

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nomic activity, whether principal, secondary or sideline, the Contracting Parties shall encourage the creation and development of additional sources of income in mountain areas, particularly on the initiative and in favour of the local population itself, notably in sectors linked to agriculture, such as forestry, tourism and crafts, in harmony with conservation of nature and the countryside.

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5. The comparison shall be updated periodically and shall contain indications of the issues and the locations posing particular problems, of the effectiveness of the measures put in place and of the measures to be adopted. Priority shall be given to data on demographic, social and economic development, in conjunction with the different geographical, environmental and infrastructure indicators for the areas and definition of criteria corresponding to sustainable, balanced development, as provided for in the Alpine Convention and in this Protocol. 6. In addition, the subjects listed in the Annex shall be considered priorities.

alternative or complementary activities in sectors linked to farming; (b) ample and objective information not restricted to the persons and administrations directly concerned but reaching, via the media in particular, the broadest public inside and outside the Alpine region to raise awareness of and interest in the functions of mountain farming. 3. In addition, the subjects listed in the Annex shall be considered priorities.

Chapter Iv Article 18 Training and information 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage basic and further training and the provision of information to the public about the objectives, measures and implementation of this Protocol. 2. The Contracting Parties shall encourage, in particular: (a) further development of basic and further training, technical assistance concerning farming, assistance with business and commercial management, without losing sight of protection of nature and the environment. In general, the training offered shall be structured to favour orientation towards and preparation for other

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Implementation, Monitoring And Evaluation Article 19 Implementation The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

Article 20 Monitoring of compliance with obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Proto-


Article 21 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives. 2. The regional and local authorities shall be associated with this evaluation within the existing institutional framework. Non-governmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final Provisions Article 22 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol.

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col. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted. 2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources. 3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference. 4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Article 23 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 20 December 1994 and in the Republic of Austria, as the depositary, from 15 January 1995. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three Alpine signals 1

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months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

Article 24 Notifications The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the preamble and the European Community of:

Annex Research and Training Priorities Pursuant to Articles 17 and 18 Research Definition and classification of mountain areas on the basis of their altitude and of the climate, geomorphologic, economic and infrastructure conditions at different locations. Verification of the effects of the measures adopted on mountain farming at different political decision-making levels (EU/CAP, States, regions, local authorities) and of the ecological functions (social and environmental compatibility).

(a) any signature; (b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval; (c) any date of entry into force; (d) any declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory; (e) any denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective.

Evaluation of the economic, ecological, social and cultural functions of farming and forestry and of their development prospects, in the context of the specific local conditions in different mountain areas.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

Genetic research and technical assistance for differentiated conservation of the diversity of the species of livestock reared and crops grown which suits local conditions and is environmentally compatible.

Done at ChambĂŠry on 20 December 1994 in the French, German, Italian and

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Slovene languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

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Methods of production and manufacture, criteria for improvement and quality in farm produce in mountain areas.


Technical, scientific and socio-economic assistance and training for farms and for food companies processing their produce. Technical and economic business management aiming, in particular, at diversification of the supply of products and alternative production and income inside and outside farming. Technical and financial conditions and effects of application of natural farming and production methods compatible with the environment. Media, presentation and dissemination of information in line with the direction of public opinion, policy and the economy, inside and outside the Alpine region.

Declarations on Behalf of the European Community Declaration by the European Community Regarding Articles 8 and 9 of the Protocol On Mountain Farming The European Community recognises the principle of coexistence as the ability of farmers to choose between conventional, organic and genetically modified crop production, in compliance with the legal obligations for GMO labelling and/ or purity standards. The relevant articles of the Protocol on Mountain Farming should be interpreted in this light.

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Training

Declaration by the European Community Regarding Articles 7, 9 to 11, 13, 14 and 16 of the Protocol on Mountain Farming The European Community considers that public support measures in favour of certain enterprises must be in conformity with its rules on competition as established on the basis of Articles 36 and 87 to 89 EC, and not distort or threaten to distort competition and affect trade between contracting parties.

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Conservation of Nature and Landscape Protection

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community - in accordance with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine region, - in compliance with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention, - aware that Alps are one of the largest continual natural spaces in Europe, set apart for its unique beauty, ecological diversity and extremely sensitive ecosystems, while also being home to and a living for the local population that has a culture of rich tradition, - convinced that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework, - considering the territorial structure of the Alps which is worked in many, often competing, ways in concentrated areas of narrow valleys, helping to undermine an ecologically important environment,

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- aware that, in huge areas, the ways and intensity of using the Alpine territory in recent decades have caused, and will continue to cause if perpetuated, irrecoverable losses of elements of the landscape, biotopes and species worth preserving, - knowing that in certain areas of the Alpine territory there has been or may be an excessive compromising of nature and the landscape, particularly due to the concentration of traffic, tourism, sport, urbanisation, economic development, intensifying of agriculture and forestry, - aware of the eminent importance held particularly by glaciers, Alpine meadows, mountain forests and the waterways of the Alpine territory, which form the habitat of the wide variety of fauna and flora species, - aware of the great importance of agriculture and forestry conducted extensively for conserving and caring for the rural landscape and the connected natural elements, - convinced that economic interests must be reconciled with ecological needs, - convinced that, in deciding between ecological tolerance and economic interests, priority should be given to ecological needs if this were necessary for maintaining the fundamentals of natural life, - aware that the limited tolerance of the Alpine territory requires regulations and measures of a specific character for conservation and the restoring of the correct natural balance, - convinced that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border


have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 Objectives The objective of this Protocol is to lay down International laws, implementing the Alpine Convention and also taking the interests of the local population into account, in order to protect, care for and, to the extent necessary, restore nature and the countryside, in such a way as to ensure the lasting and widespread functional efficiency of the ecosystems, the conservation of countryside elements and wild animal and plant species together with their habitat, the regenerative ability and lasting productivity of natural resources, and also the diversity, specificity and beauty of the natural and rural landscape; and also, in order to encourage cooperation between the Contracting Parties for these purposes.

Article 2 Fundamental commitments In accordance with this Protocol, each Contracting Party undertakes to adopt the measures necessary to ensure the

protection, care and, to the extent necessary, the restoring of nature and the landscape of the Alpine territory, together with the wild animal and plant species, their diversity and their habitat, while also considering the possibility of their ecologically tolerable usage.

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framework and require joint measures by the Alpine States,

Article 3 International cooperation 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to cooperate particularly for: map surveying, drawing the boundaries and then managing and controlling protected areas and other natural and rural elements of the landscape worthy of protection, interconnecting a network of biotopes, defining landscape models, programmes and/or plans, preventing and rebalancing damage to nature and the landscape, systematically monitoring nature and the countryside, scientific research, and any other measure for protecting wild animal and plant species, their diversity and their habitat, and for defining the relevant comparable criteria to the extent that this is necessary and functional. 2. They undertake to encourage crossborder cooperation relating to conservation of nature and the countryside, at a regional and local level, to the extent necessary for achieving the objectives of this Protocol. 3. They will aim to combine the framework conditions for adopting limitations to the uses for the purposes of this Protocolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s objectives.

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Article 4

Chapter II

Taking account of the objectives in other policies

Specific Measures

The Contracting Parties undertake to also consider the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies, particularly in the area of: territorial and urban planning, safeguarding the air quality, defence of the soil, protecting the water balance and the quality of the water, tourism, agricultural and forestry economy, transport and energy policies, industry and manufacturing, management of waste; and also in the area of training, education, research and information, as well as in the area of crossborder coordination of the measures.

Article 6

Article 5 Participation of the regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop potential synergies when applying nature and countryside conservation policies and implementing measures under them. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures, within their competence and within the existing institutional framework.

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Inventories The Contracting Parties undertake to present, three years after this Protocol comes into force, a report on the current situation of the conservation of nature and the countryside, in relation to the matters listed in Annex I. These presentations are to be updated regularly, at least once every ten years.

Article 7 Landscape planning 1. Within five years of this Protocol coming into effect, the Contracting Parties will set out models, programmes and/or plans by which will be defined the requirements and the measures for achieving the objectives of nature and countryside conservation in the Alpine territory. 2. In the models, programmes and/or plans, as at point 1 above, there are to be presented: a) the current situation of nature and the countryside and its evaluation, b) theconditionofnatureandthecountr ysidebeingaimedfor,aswellasthem easures necessary for its achievement, specifically:


Article 8 Planning The Contracting Parties shall adopt the measures necessary so that the preservation and development of the natural or near-natural habitats of wild animal and plant species and of other structural elements of the natural and rural landscape are pursued on the basis of landscape planning aligned with the territorial planning.

Article 9 Actions on nature and the countryside 1. The Contracting Parties shall create the prerequisites to ensure that, in the cases of measures and projects, whether private or public, that could significantly and lastingly undermine nature and the countryside, the direct and indirect effects on the natural balance and the landscape structure are assessed. The result of the assessment is to be considered when authorising and/or constructing such projects, particularly assuring that

any avoidable impairments do not occur. 2. In accordance with national law, unavoidable impairments must be offset by measures for conservation of nature and the countryside, while the impairments that cannot be compensated may only be allowed on condition that, having evaluated all the interests, the needs for nature and countryside conservation are not dominant. However, even in these cases, measures must still be taken to conserve nature and the countryside.

Article 10 Basic protection 1. The Contracting Parties shall aim to reduce the environmental impact and impairments undermining nature and the countryside in the entire Alpine territory, while also taking account of the interests of the local population. They shall take steps to ensure that all the significant uses of the territory are with due care for nature and the countryside. They shall also adopt all the measures necessary for preserving and, to the extent necessary, restoring special structural, natural and near-natural elements of the landscapes, biotopes, ecosystems and traditional rural landscapes. 2. In view of the decisive role of agriculture and forestry economy when producing measures for the conservation of nature and the countryside, protecting, preserving and managing near- natural biotopes worthy of proAlpine signals 1

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- the general measures for protection, management and development, - the measures for protecting, managing and developing certain parts of nature and the countryside, and - the measures for protecting and managing the wild animals and plants.

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tection should be undertaken by the correct and appropriate agricultural and forestry exploitation, on the basis of agreements with the owners or managers of the land, wherever appropriate. In this respect, control instruments borrowed from the market economy, such as incentives and financial compensation, are particularly opportune. 3. To augment the means available for protecting nature, it will be necessary that the use of incentives and measures for supporting the agricultural and forestry economy, as well as other types of exploitation of the territory, is further applied to achieve these objectives.

Article 11 Protected areas 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to preserve, manage and, where necessary, to extend the existing protected areas, in keeping with their protective function, and also to define, where possible, new protected areas. They shall take all appropriate measures to avoid impairing or destroying these areas. 2. They shall also promote the instituting and management of national parks. 3. They shall set aside areas of respect and tranquillity that ensure giving priority to the wild animal and plant species over other interests. They shall ensure that, in these areas, there is the peace necessary for the ecological process typical of the spe-

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cies to take place undisturbed, and shall reduce or prohibit any form of use incompatible with the ecological processes of these areas. 4. The Contracting Parties shall examine the compensation terms of the special services provided by the local population, in compliance with national law.

Article 12 Ecological network The Contracting Parties shall pursue the measures appropriate for creating a national and cross- border network of protected areas, biotopes and other environmental assets protected or acknowledge as worthy of protection. They shall undertake to harmonise the objectives and measures with the cross-border protected areas.

Article 13 Protection of types of biotopes 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to adopt the measures necessary to ensure the lasting preservation of the natural or near-natural biotopes of a sufficient size and with territorial distribution according with their functions. They shall also promote the re-naturalisation of the impaired habitats. 2. For the purposes of preparing the valid lists for the entire Alpine territory, the Contracting Parties undertake to indicate, within two years of this Protocol coming into effect, the types


Article 14 Protection of the species 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to pursue the measures appropriate for preserving the indigenous animal and plant species with their specific diversity and in sufficient populations, particularly ensuring that they have sufficiently large habitats 2. For preparing the valid lists for the entire Alpine territory, the Contracting Parties shall indicate, within two years from this Protocol coming into effect, the species that require special protection measures since they are specifically threatened.

Article 15 Prohibition on removal or trading 1. The Contracting Parties shall prohibit the capture, possession, injuring and killing of certain animal species, and disturbing them particularly during their periods of reproduction, growth and wintering, and also any destruction, removal or collecting of eggs coming from nature, and the possession, offer, purchase or sale of specimens of the same, or parts of them, taken from nature. 2. For certain vegetal species, the Contracting Parties shall prohibit the gathering, collecting, cutting, disin-

terring or uprooting of the relevant plants or parts thereof from their natural position, and the possession, offer, purchase and sale of specimens of the same varieties taken from their natural habitat. This prohibition does not apply to the use and care of the plant conservation areas. 3. The Contracting Parties shall indicate within two years of this Protocol coming into effect the animal and plant species protected by the measures as at points 1 and 2. 4. The Contracting Parties can apply exceptions to the above provisions, as required by needs of: a. a scientific nature b. protecting the fauna, the wild plants or the natural environment c. public health and safety d. preventing significant economic damage, particularly for crops, breeding, forests, fishing and waters. These exceptions are allowed on condition that there are no other suitable solutions and the actions are not such as to threaten the natural balance of the complex of the species concerned. These exception must be accompanied by control measures and, if necessary, means of compensation.

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of biotopes requiring the adopting of measures in accordance with paragraph 1.

5. Regardless of when this Protocol comes into effect, the Contracting Parties undertake to specify and define, as early as possible and by means of technical supplements, the periods of reproduction, growth and wintering, as stated in point 1, and any other definition that may be difficult to interpret scientifically. Alpine signals 1

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Article 16

Article 18

Reintroduction of indigenous species

Release of Genetically Modified Organisms

1. The Contracting Parties shall undertake to promote the reintroducing and distribution of wild, indigenous animal and plant species and also subspecies, breeds and ecotypes, on condition that there are the necessary prerequisites and, by doing this, there is a contribution to the preservation and strengthening of those species and that no effects unsustainable to nature and the landscape, or to human activities, are caused. 2. Scientific knowledge is to be applied for reintroducing and distributing these species. The Contracting Parties shall agree on common directives in this respect. Following the reintroduction, it will be necessary to control and, if required, regulate the development of these animal and plant species.

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The Contracting Parties shall ensure that genetically modified organisms are only released into the environment when, on the basis of a formal evaluation, such release will not lead to any risk for man and the environment.

Article 19 Further Measures The Contracting Parties may take additional measures to those stated in this Protocol for the conservation of nature and the countryside.

Chapter III Research, Education and Information

Prohibition on introducing species

Article 20

The Contracting Parties shall assure that no wild animal or plant species are introduced into a region that were not previously present naturally for a verifiable historic period. Exceptions can be made in cases in which such introducing is necessary for certain uses and will not lead to negative effects on nature and the landscape.

Research and monitoring

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1. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate closely to promote and harmonise research and systematic monitoring programmes for nature and countryside conservation as well as their animal and plant species, with particular attention to the research subjects set forth in Annex II. 2. The Contracting Parties shall develop joint or coordinated programmes for


Article 21 Education and information The Contracting Parties shall promote education and further training as well as keeping the public informed about objectives, measures and the implementation of this Protocol.

Chapter IV Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Article 22

Article 23 Monitoring of compliance with obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted. 2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources. 3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference. 4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

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analysing and assessing ecosystems with the aim of extending scientifically validated knowledge to help achieve the measures as describe in this Protocol. 3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework.

Article 24

Implementation

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions

The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to

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this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives. 2. The regional and local authorities shall take part in this evaluation within the institutional framework. Non-governmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final Provisions Article 25 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol. 3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Article 26 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European

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Community on 20 December 1994 and from 15 January 1995 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

Article 27 Notifications The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of: a) each signature, b) the deposit of each instrument of ratification, acceptance orapproval, c) each date of entry into force d) each declaration made by a Contracting Party orsignatory, e) each denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective.


Done at ChambĂŠry on 20 December 1994 in the French, Italian, Slovene and German languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State Archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

Annex I List of materials inventoried in accordance with article 6 1. Condition of the wild plant and animal species and their biotopes 1.1. Status of surveys of wild plant species and the phytocoenosis 1.1.0. General indications 1.1.1. Red lists 1.1.2. Lists of species protected by law 1.1.3. Atlases of distribution 1.2. Status of surveys of wild animal species 1.2.0. General indications 1.2.1. Red lists 1.2.2. Lists of species protected by law 1.2.3. Atlases of distribution 1.3. Survey status of biotopes 1.3.0. General indications 1.3.1. Red lists of biotope types 1.3.2. Lists of biotopes of ecological value, including waterways 1.4. Survey status of landscapes 1.4.0. General indications 1.4.1. Inventories, lists, types of natural landscapes and countryside worthy of protection

1.4.2. Plans and other measures for protecting particular landscapes and types of landscapes and/or singles elements of the natural landscape and countryside 1.4.3. Areas to reclaim 1.5. Use of wild animal and plant species and/or biotopes 1.5.1. Agriculture and pasture farming (for instance: problems/risks from the intensification of uses and the neglect of lands, losses and gains) 1.5.2. Forestry 1.5.3. Hunting 1.5.4. Fishing 2. Protected areas (area sizes, percentage of the total territory, protective aim, protective functions, uses, structure of uses, ownership conditions) 2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 2.6.

National parts Nature protection areas Landscape protection areas Wildlife reserves Areas of respect and tranquillity Components of the landscape protected 2.7. Protected biotopes 2.8. Other protected areas (for instance: areas protected by private right, voluntary agreements, and private contracts for extensive management)

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In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

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3. Organising the conservation of nature and the countryside (structure, remits/actions, staff and financial resources) 3.1. Competent administrations for nature conservation 3.2. Other administrations in sectors with functions for nature conservation, other institutions under public and private law (e.g.: bodies, foundations) 3.3. Advisory bodies for nature conservation 3.4. Supervisory bodies for nature conservation 3.5. Associations for nature conservation 3.6. Associations for safeguarding the landscape 3.7. Others 4. Legal bases (for the respective levels of authority) 4.1. Constitutional law 4.2. Sources of law (laws, orders, directives, including the representation of specific contents for protecting the Alps). 4.3. Participation of associations, legal proceedings initiated by the associations 4.4. Indications on the procedures 4.5. Cooperation from the administrations in charge of nature conservation with administrations from other sectors 4.6. Catalogues of fines, etc. 4.7. Funds for the conservation of nature and the countryside 4.8. Current or planned revising of the law

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5. Actions for nature conservation (general overview) 5.1. Models, programmes, directives for nature conservation in the Alpine territory 5.2. Plans (for instance, landscape plans, plans for care and development) 5.3. Measures for promoting species and other measures for care, safeguarding and management 5.3.1. General indications 5.3.2. Programmes for promoting species 5.3.3. Breeding and release points 5.4. Strategies, models, programmes, forms of cooperation with those in charge of uses, whether individuals or organisations (for instance, programmes for extensive management and in favour of mountain farmers) 5.5. Scientific support, long-term observation of areas/species 5.6. Independent actions for protecting areas and species by the nature protection associations 5.7. Funding programmes (total of funds, objectives, areas of action)

6. Education and public information (institutions/voluntary work) 6.0. General indications 6.1. Training centres focused on nature protection 6.2. Information centres focused on nature protection 6.3. Publications 6.4. Other


E. Research for the improvement of methods, procedures and specific plans.

Annex II

Note: Red lists, maps of biotopes, protected areas, landscape planning, actions on nature and the landscape, information systems

Priority subjects for research referred to in article 20 A. Long-term observing of the development of ecosystems (habitat, biocoenesis, populations, species) for research into development trends and changes caused by environmental influxes. Note: bioindication, biomonitoring, cause-effect analysis, documentation

F. Development of strategies and models for the conservation of nature and the countryside. Note: Strategic objectives and possibilities of success, models of protection, extensive management, market economy instruments, acceptance by public opinion.

B. Research into the efficiency of protected areas. Note: representativeness, efficiency, regeneration, management, systemic analysis C. Research into the species and populating. Note: genetics, dynamics, distribution, biological diversity

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7. Conclusions, recommendations for measures

D. Research into the aspects of extended territorial importance of protection and of agricultural and forestry uses. Note: productions caring for nature, ecological rebalancing, biotope networks, extensive management, containing of the populating of game animals Alpine signals 1

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Mountain Forests

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community, - in accordance with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine region, - in compliance with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention, - convinced that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework, - aware that the mountain forests are a form of vegetation that can provide to a territory often far more extensive than just the mountainous areas the most effective and economical protection appropriate for the landscape against natural hazards, particularly erosion, flooding, avalanches, landslips and falling rocks, - considering that forests absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and, for very long periods, trap the carbon in

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the woody material in a way that favourably influences the climate, - aware that mountain forests are indispensable for the regional balance of the climate, for ensuring the quality of the air, and also for providing a water balance, - bearing in mind the increasing importance of the recreational function of mountain forests for all people, - considering that mountain forests are a source of renewable raw materials, whose importance is particularly acute in a world of growing consumption of resources, and that they are also of vital significance for employment and income, particularly in the rural areas, - aware that the mountain forest ecosystems are an important habitat for a variety of plant and animal species, - convinced that, above all, compliance with the principle of sustainability, traditionally pursued and developed in European forestry systems, assures all the important functions of the forests also to future generations, - convinced that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States, have agreed as follows:


General Provisions Article 1 Objectives 1. The purpose of this Protocol is to preserve the mountain forests as an near-natural habitat and, whenever necessary, to develop them or increase their extent and improve their stability. The necessary prerequisite for the effectiveness of the functions stated in the preamble consist of a mountain forest system that is managed in a careful, sustainable fashion, compliant with nature. 2. Specifically, the Contracting Parties undertake to ensure, above all, that: - methods of natural reforestation are adopted, - the forests are well-structured and graduated, with tree types suited to their location, - the forest reproduction material used is indigenous, - erosion and compacting of the soil is avoided by ensuring methods of use and collection that comply with the needs of nature.

Article 2 Taking account of the objectives in other policies The Contracting Parties undertake to also consider the objectives of this Proto-

col in their other policies. This primarily applies to the following areas: a) Air pollution. Air pollution is to be gradually reduced to a level that is not harmful to the forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems. This also relates to pollution occurring from cross-border transference of air pollutants. b) Populations of hoofed animals. The hoofed animals are to be contained within limits permitting the natural reforestation of the mountains by indigenous trees, without having to take recourse to special protective measures. In the border areas, the Contracting Parties undertake to harmonise their measures for regulating the game animals. To restore a system of natural selection on the hoofed species, and also in the interest of protecting nature, the Contracting Parties shall encourage the reintroduction of predators, to an extent appropriate for the general needs of the region. c) Forestry pasture farming. The safeguarding of mountain forests so that they fulfil their functions is to have priority over forest pastures. Forest pastures are therefore to be limited or, if necessary, entirely eliminated, so as to permit the renewal of forests suited to the locations, the prevention of damage to the soil and, above all, the continuation of the forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s protective function. d) Recreational usage. The use of mountain forests for recreation is to be managed and, wherever necessary, limited so as to not undermine the conservation and renewal of the forests, taking the needs of the forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystems into account. Alpine signals 1

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e) Forestry usage. The Contracting Parties shall promote increasing the use wood from forest plantations in a sustainable fashion, considering the importance of sustainably using the wood for the national economy and for looking after the forests. f) Risk of forest fires. The Contracting Parties shall deal with the risk of forest fires by appropriate preventive measures and an efficient fire-fighting system. g) Qualified staff. Since it is not possible to apply natural methods to the conservation of the forests aimed at ensuring all the forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s functions without the help of suitably qualified staff, the Contracting Parties undertake to ensure that their staff employed for the purpose is sufficient in number and qualified.

Article 3 Participation of the regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional frame work, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop potential synergies when applying forestry policies and implementing measures under them.

implementing these policies and measures, within their competence and within the existing institutional framework.

Article 4 International cooperation The Contracting Parties undertake: a) to conduct joint assessments of the development of the forestry policies, and also to guarantee reciprocal consultation before taking important decisions for implementing this Protocol, b) to ensure the achievement of the aims and measures set forth by this Protocol by means of cross-border cooperation between all the competent authorities, particularly between the regional and local authorities, c) to promote the exchange of knowledge and experience and embark on joint projects by means of international cooperation between research and education institutes, between the forestry and environment organisations, and also among the media.

Chapter II Specific Measures Article 5 Foundations of plans

2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and

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To achieve the objectives set out by this Protocol, the Contracting Parties shall


Article 6 Protective functions of the mountain forests 1. For the mountain forests that have a highly protective function for their locations and, especially, for the inhabited areas, for the transport infrastructures, for the farmed lands, etc., the Contracting Parties undertake to give priority to that protective function, focusing the forestâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s management to that purpose. These forests must be conserved on site. 2. The measures necessary must be planned and implemented with technical expertise with respect to management plans and improvement plans of the forests that provide protective functions, taking into account the objectives of conserving nature and the landscape.

Article 7 Economic function of mountain forests 1. For mountain forests, where the economic function prevails and the regional economic situation makes it necessary, the Contracting Parties

undertake to ensure that the mountain forest economy can continue its role as a source of employment and income for the local community. 2. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that reforestation is applied using tree types suited to the sites and that the economic use of the forests is done with care and attention to the soil and the forestry resource.

Article 8 Considering that mountain forests have to provide important functions of a social and ecological nature, the Contracting Parties undertake to adopt measures that ensure:

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ensure that all groundwork necessary is done for planning. These include a thorough reconnoitring of the sites and surveys on the functions of the forests, with particular attention to protective functions.

- their effectiveness for water resources, climate balance, cleaning the air and noise protection, - their biological diversity, - the enjoyment of nature and the recreational functions.

Article 9 Access to the forests The Contracting Parties shall agree that, for the purposes of preventing damage to the forests and for their management and care with natural methods, it will be necessary to take carefully planned and produced actions to ensure access to them, taking account of the needs for the conservation of nature and the landscape.

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Article 10 Natural forest reserves 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to mark off natural forest reserves in a sufficient number and size, and also to keep them in a way that protects their natural dynamics for the purpose of research, with the intention of generally suspending any form of exploitation or to adapt it to the purposes of the reserve. The areas are to be selected so as to obtain a representative sample of, if possible, all the mountain forest ecosystems. The indispensable protective function of these forest formations must in any case be maintained. 2. The marking off of natural forest reserves should normally be accompanied by protection secured by longterm contract. 3. The Contracting Parties shall assure the necessary collaboration for planning and defining the cross-border natural forest reserves.

Article 11 Incentives and compensation 1. Considering the unfavourable economic conditions of the Alpine territory and bearing in mind the services of the mountain forest economy, the Contracting Parties shall undertake, within the framework of the existing political and financial conditions and for the period necessary to ensure such services, to provide sufficient incentives to the forestry activities,

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especially the measures stated in articles 6 to 10. 2. If the services requested on the mountain forest economy exceed those of the obligations of current laws, and their necessity is motivated on the basis of projects, the owner of the forest has the right to compensation commensurate to the services provided. 3. The Contracting Parties undertake to create the instruments necessary for financing the incentive and compensation measures and, when calculating the funds, taking account not just of the economic-political benefits for the entire population, but also the benefits to individuals.

Article 12 Further Measures The Contracting Parties may take additional measures to those stated in this Protocol for mountain forests.

Chapter III Research, Education and Information Article 13 Research and monitoring 1. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate closely to promote and harmonise research and systematic moni-


2. They shall particularly promote research projects for creating, caring for, protecting and also the services of the mountain forest ecosystem and their functions, as well as scientific projects that enable the international comparison between inventories and surveys of the individual States. 3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework. 4. They shall conduct surveys that are comparable for the objectives and measures in this Protocol. These surveys must be periodically updated.

Article 14

Chapter IV Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Article 15 Implementation The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

Article 16

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toring programmes which are conducive to achieving the objectives of this Protocol.

Monitoring of compliance with obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted.

Education and information 1. The Contracting Parties shall promote education and further training as well as keeping the public informed about objectives, measures and the implementation of this Protocol. 2. They shall provide for discussions and updating of forest owners, in accordance with the contents of this Protocol.

2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources. 3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligatiAlpine signals 1

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ons arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference.

other relevant articles of the Convention.

4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol.

Article 17

3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives. 2. The regional and local authorities shall take part in this evaluation within the institutional framework. Non-governmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final provisions Article 18 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any

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Article 19 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 27 February 1996 and from 29 February 1996 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Con-


Article 20 Notifications The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of:

In witness where of the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol. Done at Brdo on 27 February 1996 in the French, Italian, Slovene and German languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State Archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

a) each signature, b) the deposit of each instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, c) each date of entry into force, d) each declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory, e) each denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective.

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tracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

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Preamble

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The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community,

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- IN ACCORDANCE with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and the sustainable development of the Alpine region; - IN COMPLIANCE with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention; - DESIRING to harmonise economic interests and ecological requirements, and establish sustainable development; - AWARE that the Alps are the living and economic environment for the local population; - CONVINCED that the local population must be able to develop their own social, cultural and economic development plan, and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework; - CONSIDERING that in our urban civilisation, there is an ever-growing need for varied tourism and leisure activities that are appropriate to todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s way of life; - CONSIDERING that the Alps remain one of the most important areas for tourism and leisure in Europe due to the extensive range of leisure activities on offer, the rich variety of landscapes and the diver-

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sity of its ecosystems, and that protection of the Alpine region should go beyond national frameworks; CONSIDERING that for certain Contracting Parties, a significant proportion of their population live in the Alps, and that tourism in the Alpine region is of public interest given that it helps to maintain a permanent population; CONSIDERING that mountain tourism is facing competition in an increasingly globalised context and contributes significantly to the economic performance of the Alpine region; CONSIDERING that recent trends seem to be moving towards greater harmony between tourism and the environment; for customers, an increasing interest in attractive natural surroundings that are protected summer and winter alike, and for local decision makers, concern for making tourist destinations more environmentally-friendly; CONSIDERING that in the Alpine region, individual attention must be given to limitations to the ability of each locationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ecosystem to adapt, and each ecosystem must be appreciated for its specific features; CONSIDERING that natural and cultural heritage as well as the countryside constitute an essential part of tourism in the Alps; AWARE that the Alpine States are characterised by natural, cultural, economic and institutional differences which have caused them to develop independently, giving rise to very varied tourist facilities which, far from becoming more standardised at international level should be a source of diverse but complementary tourist activities;


Have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General provisions Article 1 Objective The objective of this Protocol is to contribute to sustainable development in the Alpine region within the existing institutional framework, by encouraging environmentally-friendly tourism through specific measures and recommendations which take the interests of both the local population and tourists into account.

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- AWARE of the need for sustainable development in the tourist industry to be based on developing natural heritage and providing high-quality services, given that the majority of Alpine regions are dependent on tourism which also provides a livelihood for the local population; - AWARE that it is appropriate to encourage holidaymakers to respect nature, to give them a greater understanding of the people living and working in tourist destinations and to create the best conditions possible for them to truly discover the diversity of nature in the Alpine region; - AWARE that it is the responsibility of professional tourist organisations and regional and local authorities to put into place, within a defined framework for the Alpine region, means of improving production structures and their efficiency; - DESIRING to contribute to sustainable development in the Alps by encouraging environmentally-friendly tourism, which is also an essential basis for the standard of living and economy of the local people; - CONVINCED that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States,

Article 2 International cooperation 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to eliminate barriers to international cooperation between regional and local authorities in the Alpine region, and to promote collaboration at the appropriate territorial level in order to solve common problems. 2. The Contracting Parties shall encourage stronger international cooperation between the relevant competent bodies. They shall ensure, in particular, the development of cross-border areas by coordinating environmentally-friendly tourist and leisure activities. 3. When local and regional authorities are unable to implement measures Alpine signals 1

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because they are a matter of national or international competence, they must be given the opportunity to effectively represent the interests of the population.

Article 3 Taking account of the objectives in other policies The Contracting Parties undertake to take account of the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies as well, in particular in the fields of regional planning, transport, agriculture, forestry, protection of the environment and nature, and water and energy supplies, with a view to reducing any negative or contradictory effects.

Article 4 Participation of regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop synergies when applying tourism policies and implementing measures under them. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and

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measures, within the framework of their competence, within the existing institutional framework.

Chapter II Specific measures Article 5 Managing tourism 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to combine sustainable development with environmentally-friendly tourism. To this end, they shall support the preparation and implementation of guidelines, development programmes and sectoral plans which take the objectives of this Protocol into account and which are initiated by the competent bodies at the most appropriate level. 2. These measures will allow the advantages and disadvantages of planned developments to be evaluated and compared, in particular in terms of: (a) the socioeconomic consequences for the local population; (b) the consequences for soil, water, the air, natural balances and the countryside, taking into account specific ecological data, natural resources and limitations to the ability of ecosystems to adapt; (c) the consequences for public finances.


Article 6

the promotion of the natural and cultural heritage of tourist areas.

Guidelines for developing tourism

2. They shall adopt a sustainable policy to make environmentally- friendly tourism in the Alps more competitive, and by doing so shall make an important contribution to the socioeconomic development of the Alpine region. Priority shall be given to measures promoting innovation and diversity in tourism. 3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that in areas attracting high numbers of tourists, a balance is struck between intensive and extensive forms of tourism. 4. When incentives are established, the following requirements should be met: (a) for intensive tourism, the adaptation of existing tourist facilities and equipment to meet ecological requirements, and the development of new facilities conforming to the objectives of this Protocol, (b) for extensive tourism, the continuation or development of environmentally-friendly tourism, and

Article 7 Research on quality 1. The Contracting Parties shall adopt a policy of permanent and systematic research on the quality of tourism across the whole of the Alpine region, taking ecological requirements into account.

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1. The Contracting Parties shall, when developing tourism, take account of issues such as the conservation of nature and the countryside. They undertake to promote, as far as possible, projects which enhance the countryside and are environmentally acceptable.

2. They shall encourage the exchange of experiences and the implementation of joint action plans, pursuing qualitative improvements particularly in: (a) the development of amenities in the countryside and natural areas; (b) urban development and architecture (new buildings and village restoration); (c) accommodation and range of tourist services; (d) diversity in tourism for the Alpine region, promoting cultural activities in the various areas concerned.

Article 8 Controlling tourists flows The Contracting Parties shall encourage the control of tourist flows, particularly in protected areas, organising a way to evenly disperse and accommodate tourists in order to guarantee the sustainability of these areas. Alpine signals 1

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Article 9

Article 12

Natural limitations to development

Ski lifts

The Contracting Parties shall ensure that tourism development is adapted to the specific environment and available resources of the area or region concerned. It is appropriate to establish prior assessment for projects likely to have a marked impact on the environment, within the existing institutional framework, which will be taken into account when decisions are made.

1. The Contracting Parties undertake, within the framework of national authorisation procedures for ski lifts, to implement a policy that goes beyond economic and safety needs, responding to ecological requirements and the countryside.

Article 10 Quiet areas The Contracting Parties undertake, in accordance with their laws and ecological criteria, to establish designated quiet areas where no tourist facilities will be developed.

Article 11

2. Both new authorisations to operate ski lifts and concessions will be subject to disused ski lifts being dismantled and removed, and areas no longer in use being returned to nature, giving priority to plant species native to the area.

Article 13 Tourist traffic and transport 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage measures to reduce dependence on motorised vehicles in tourist resorts.

Accommodation policy The Contracting Parties shall develop accommodation policies, taking account of how little space is available and giving priority to commercial accommodation, restoring and using existing buildings, and modernising and improving the quality of existing accommodation.

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2. Furthermore, they shall promote both private and public initiatives to improve access by public transport to resorts and tourist areas, and shall encourage tourists to use these services.


Specific development techniques 1. Ski slopes 1. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the development, maintenance and use of ski slopes blend into the natural surroundings as much as possible, taking account of natural balances and biotope sensitivity. 2. Developments affecting the landscape shall be avoided as much as possible and, when natural conditions allow, developed areas should be replanted, giving priority to plant species native to the area. 2. Artificial snow machines National legislation may authorise the use of artificial snow during cold seasons specific to each location, particularly to make exposed areas safer and if the locationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s hydrological, climatic and ecological conditions allow.

Article 15 Sporting activities

cessary prohibit, sporting activities using motorised vehicles outside areas designated by competent bodies.

Article 16 Landing by air The Contracting Parties undertake to limit as much as possible, and if necessary prohibit, landing by air outside of airfields for the purpose of sporting activities.

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Article 14

Article 17 Developing economically weak regions and local and regional authorities It is recommended that the Contracting Parties examine solutions adapted to the appropriate territorial level to promote the balanced development of economically weak regions and local and regional authorities.

Article 18 Staggering holidays

1. The Contracting Parties undertake to define a policy for controlling outdoor sporting activities, especially in protected areas, in order to avoid causing damage to the environment. This control may mean prohibiting a particular activity, if necessary. 2. The Contracting Parties undertake to limit as much as possible, and if ne-

1. The Contracting Parties shall endeavour to spread out the demand for tourist resorts more effectively, in terms of time and location. 2. To this end, it is appropriate to support cooperation between States on staggering holidays and experimenting with extending holiday seasons. Alpine signals 1

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Article 19

Chapter III

Encouraging innovation

Research, Education and Information

It is recommended that the Contracting Parties develop incentives to encourage the implementation of the objectives of this Protocol. To this end they will examine, in particular, the implementation of an Alpine competition with a view to rewarding innovative tourist initiatives and products which respect the objectives of this Protocol.

Article 20 Cooperation between tourism, agriculture, forestry and handicrafts The Contracting Parties shall support cooperation between tourism, agriculture, forestry and handicrafts. They shall particularly encourage combinations of activities which generate employment in the context of sustainable development.

Article 21 Further measures The Contracting Parties may take further measures to promote sustainable tourism than the measures provided for in this Protocol.

Article 22 Research and observation 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage and harmonise, in close cooperation, research and systematic observation relevant to improving understanding of the relationship between tourism and the environment in the Alps, and analysing future developments. 2. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are included in a common permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework. 3. The Contracting Parties undertake to share information about their own experiences relevant to implementing the measures and recommendations in this Protocol and to gathering valuable information in terms of qualitative tourism development.

Article 23 Training and information 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage basic and further training and

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2. It is recommended that the Contracting Parties include knowledge of nature and the environment in vocational training for jobs directly involving or linked to tourism. New types of training bringing tourism and the environment together could then be introduced. For example: - ‘nature activity leaders’, - ‘resort quality assurance officers’, - ‘tourism assistants for the disabled’.

Chapter IV Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Article 24

Article 25 Monitoring compliance with obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted. 2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources.

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the provision of information to the public about the objectives, measures and implementation of this Protocol.

3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference.

Implementation The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

Article 26 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Alpine signals 1

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Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives. 2. The regional and local authorities shall be associated with this evaluation within the existing institutional framework. Nongovernmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final Provisions Article 27 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol. 3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Article 28 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 16 October 1998 and in the Republic of Austria, as the depositary, from 16 November 1998. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

Article 29 Notification The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of:

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Done at Bled, on 16 October 1998 in German, French, Italian and Slovene, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.

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(a) any signature; (b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval; (c) any date of entry into force; (d) any declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory; (e) any denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective. In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, has signed this Protocol.

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Soil Conservation

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community, - IN ACCORDANCE with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and the sustainable development of the Alpine region; - IN COMPLIANCE with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention; - AIMING to reduce quantitative and qualitative soil impairments, in particular by applying agricultural and silvicultural production processes which have a minimal detrimental impact on the soil, by using land economically, controlling erosion and restricting soil sealing; - AWARE of the fact that the protection of the Alpine soils, their sustainable management and the restoration of their natural functions in impaired locations are matters of general interest; - RECOGNISING that the Alps, constituting one of the largest continuous natural areas in Europe, are characterised by an ecological diversity and by highly sensitive ecosystems whose functionality must be preserved;

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- CONVINCED that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework; - AWARE that, on the one hand, the Alps are an important living and economic environment for the resident populations and a recreational environment for the populations of other regions and that, on the other hand, the preservation of soil functions is jeopardised by diverging claims on soil utilisation which clash within the narrow confines of the Alpine region; and that for this reason, economic interests must be reconciled with ecological requirements; - RECOGNISING that the soil occupies a special position within ecosystems, that its formation as well as the regeneration of impaired soils happen very slowly, that increased soil erosion is to be expected owing to topographical conditions in the Alpine region, and that the soil constitutes a sink for harmful substances while contaminated soils can be a source of inputs of those substances into neighbouring ecosystems, thus putting at risk humans, animals and plants; - AWARE that soil utilisation, especially for the purposes of human settlement, the development of trade and industry, infrastructures, the extraction of mineral resources, tourism, agriculture, forestry and transport can lead to quantitative or qualitative soil impairments and that accordingly, adequate integrated measures should be proposed to prevent, control and repair damage to the soil; - CONSIDERING that soil conservation has manifold implications for other policies in the Alpine region and should


Have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General Obligations Article 1 Objectives 1. This Protocol serves to implement the obligations in the field of soil conservation entered into by the Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention. 2. The Alpine soil shall be preserved in a sustainable manner to allow it to perform: 1. its natural functions as (a) a livelihood resource and a living environment for humans, animals, plants and micro-organisms, (b) a characteristic element of nature and the landscape, (c) an integral part of the ecological balance, especially with regard to its water and nutrient cycles, (d) a conversion and compensating medium to offset inputs of substances, especially due to its filte-

ring, buffering and storage qualities, in particular for the protection of groundwater, (e) a genetic reservoir, 2. its function as an archive of natural history and the history of civilisation, as well as 3. its functions as (a) a location for agricultural use including pasture farming and forestry, (b) a space for human settlement and tourism activities, (c) a location for other commercial usages, for transport, supply and distribution, and water and waste disposal, (d) a source of raw materials. In particular, the ecological functions of soil, which are essential elements of the ecological balance, shall be safeguarded and preserved both qualitatively and quantitatively on a long-term basis. The restoration of impaired soils shall be promoted.

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therefore be coordinated in a cross-disciplinary and cross-sectoral fashion; - CONVINCED that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States, to be implemented by the Signatories in accordance with the available means,

3. The measures to be taken are aimed specifically at soil utilisation which suits its location, at the economical use of land resources, at the avoidance of erosion and detrimental changes to the soil structure, and at minimising the input of substances harmful to the soil. In particular, the ecological functions of soil, which are essential elements of the ecological balance, shall be safeguarded and preserved both qualitatively and quantitatively on a long-term basis. The restoration of impaired soils shall be promoted.

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4. The diversity of soils, which is typical of the Alpine region, and its characteristic locations shall be preserved and promoted in particular. 5. In this endeavour the principle of prevention, which comprises the safeguarding of the functionality of soils and the possibility to use them for various purposes as well as their availability to future generations with a view to sustainable development, is of particular significance.

Article 2 Fundamental obligations 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to initiate the requisite legal and administrative measures for ensuring the conservation of soils in the Alpine region. The respective national authorities shall be responsible for monitoring those measures. 2. If there is a risk of serious and sustained damage to the functionality of soils, protection shall, as a matter of principle, be given priority over utilisation. 3. The Contracting Parties shall explore the possibilities of supporting, through fiscal and/or financial measures, the actions for soil conservation in the Alpine region targeted by this Protocol. Measures compatible with soil conservation and with the objectives of a prudent and environmentally sound utilisation of soils shall be specially supported.

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Article 3 Taking account of the objectives in other policies The Contracting Parties undertake to take account of the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies as well. In the Alpine region, this applies specifically to regional planning, settlement and transport, energy management, agriculture and forestry, raw material extraction, trade and industry, tourism, nature conservation and landscape upkeep, water and waste management, and clean air.

Article 4 Participation of regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its existing institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage shared responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop synergies when implementing soil conservation policies and the resulting measures in the Alpine region. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be involved in the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures, within their sphere of competence and within the existing institutional framework.


Article 5

Chapter II

International cooperation

Specific Measures

2. The Contracting Parties undertake to remove obstacles to international cooperation between territorial authorities in the Alpine region, and to encourage solutions to shared problems at the most suitable level. 3. If the definition of measures relating to soil conservation falls within the sphere of national or international competence, the territorial authorities shall be given possibilities to efficiently represent the interests of the population.

Article 6 Designation of protected areas The Contracting Parties shall see to it that soils worthy of protection are included in the designation of protected areas. Specifically, soil and rock formations which have particularly characteristic features or a particular significance for the documentation of earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s history, shall be preserved.

Article 7

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1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage stronger international cooperation among the competent institutions, especially with regard to the drawing up of soil registers, soil monitoring, the designation and monitoring of protected and impaired areas and danger zones, the provision and harmonisation of databases, the coordination of Alpine-specific soil conservation research, and mutual reporting.

Economical and prudent use of soils 1. In drawing up and implementing plans and/or programmes according to Article 9(3) of the Protocol on Spatial Planning and Sustainable Development, matters regarding soil conservation, especially the economical use of soil and land, shall be taken into consideration. 2. In order to limit soil sealing and soil consumption, the Contracting Parties shall provide for space-saving construction and an economical use of soil resources. They shall preferably seek to keep the development of human settlements within existing boundaries and to limit settlement growth outside these boundaries.

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3. When assessing the spatial and environmental compatibility of large-scale projects in the fields of trade and industry, construction and infrastructure, especially in the transport, energy and tourism sectors, soil conservation and the scarcity of space in the Alpine region shall be taken into account within the framework of the national procedures.

Article 9

4. Where natural conditions allow it, disused or impaired soils, especially landfills, slag heaps, infrastructures or ski runs, shall be restored to their original state or shall be recultivated.

2. Drainage schemes in wetlands and moors shall be limited to the upkeep of existing networks unless there are sound reasons for exceptions. Remedial measures shall be promoted to minimise the environmental impact of existing drainage systems.

Article 8

3. On principle, moor soils shall not be utilised or, when used for agricultural purposes, shall be managed so that their characteristic features remain intact.

Economical use and prudent extraction of mineral resources 1. The Contracting Parties shall see to it that mineral resources are used economically. They shall work towards ensuring that preference is given to the utilisation of substitute materials and that recycling options are fully used or their development is encouraged. 2. When extracting, processing and utilising mineral resources, impairments of other soil functions shall be reduced to a minimum. In those areas which are particularly important for the protection of soil functions and in areas specifically designated as drinking water resources, the extraction of mineral resources shall be foregone.

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Conservation of soils in wetlands and moors 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to preserve high moors and lowland moors. To achieve this objective, the use of peat shall be discontinued completely in the medium term.

Article 10 Designation and management of endangered areas 1. The Contracting Parties agree to draw up maps of Alpine areas which are endangered by geological, hydrogeological and hydrological risks, in particular by land movement (mass slides, mudslides, landslides), avalanches and floods, to register those areas and to designate danger zones when necessary. If applicable, seismic risks shall also be considered.


Article 11 Designation and management of Alpine areas threatened by erosion 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to map Alpine areas threatened by extensive erosion on the basis of comparable criteria for quantifying soil erosion, and to register those areas in as far as this is necessary for the protection of material goods. 2. Soil erosion shall be limited to the inevitable minimum. Areas damaged by erosion and land movement shall be rehabilitated in as far as this is necessary for the protection of human beings and material goods. 3. To protect human beings and material goods, measures to control water erosion as well as measures to reduce surface runoff shall preferably comprise hydraulic, engineering and silvicultural techniques with minimal environmental impact.

Article 12 Agriculture, pasture farming and forestry 1. To ensure protection against erosion and harmful soil compaction, the Contracting Parties undertake to use sound practices in agriculture, pasture farming and forestry which are adapted to suit local conditions. 2. As regards the input of substances through the use of fertilisers, herbicides and pesticides, the Contracting Parties shall strive to elaborate and implement shared standards for sound expert practices. The type, quantity and time of fertilisation shall be suited to the needs of the plants, taking into account the nutrients available in the soil, the organic substance as well as the location of the plants and the conditions in which they are cultivated. This is achieved by using ecological/biological and integrated methods of cultivation, as well as by matching livestock to natural local growth conditions.

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2. The Contracting Parties shall make sure that engineering techniques are used in endangered areas which are as compatible with nature as possible, and that local and traditional building materials which suit the local countryside are used. These measures shall be supported by appropriate silvicultural measures.

3. In Alpine pasture areas, the usage of mineral fertilisers and synthetic herbicides and pesticides in particular shall be minimised. The use of sewage sludges shall be foregone.

Article 13 Silvicultural and other measures 1. With regard to mountain forests which offer a high degree of protecAlpine signals 1

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tion to their own location, or above all to human settlements, transport infrastructures, croplands and similar areas, the Contracting Parties undertake to give priority to the protective function of these forests and to gear their silvicultural management towards preserving this function. Such mountain forests shall be preserved in their original locations. 2. Specifically, forests shall be used and maintained in such a way that soil erosion and harmful soil compaction are avoided. To achieve this, silvicultural measures adapted to local conditions as well as natural forest rejuvenation shall be promoted.

Article 14 Effects of tourism infrastructures 1. The Contracting Parties shall use their influence in the most appropriate manner to ensure that: - detrimental effects of tourism activities on Alpine soils are avoided, - soils impaired by intensive tourism are stabilised, especially and whenever possible by restoring the vegetation cover and applying environmentally sound engineering techniques. Further utilisation of the soils shall seek to prevent such damage from recurring, - permits for the construction and levelling of ski runs in forests with a protective function are granted only in exceptional cases and

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with the proviso that compensatory action is taken, and that such permits are not granted for fragile areas. 2. Chemical and biological additives for the grooming of ski runs are permissible only if proof of their ecological harmlessness has been furnished. 3. Where significant damage to soils and vegetation is found to exist, the Contracting Parties shall take the necessary remedial action at the earliest possible point in time.

Article 15 Limiting inputs of harmful substances 1. The Contracting Parties shall do everything in their power to minimise, through preventive action, inputs of harmful substances into the soils through water, air, waste and other substances harmful to the environment. Preference shall be given to measures limiting emissions at their sources. 2. To avoid soil contamination when using dangerous substances, the Contracting parties shall issue technical regulations, provide for checks, carry out research programmes and engage in educational work.


Article 16

Chapter III

Environmentally compatible utilisation of gritting materials

Research, Education and Information

Article 17 Contaminated soils, environmental liabilities, waste management concepts 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to survey and document their environmental liabilities and suspicious landfills (environmental liabilities register), to analyse the condition of those areas and to assess their hazard potential using comparable methods.

Article 19 Research and monitoring 1. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate closely to promote and harmonise research projects and systematic monitoring programmes which are conducive to achieving the objectives of this Protocol. 2. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework.

2. To avoid soil contamination and to ensure the environmentally compatible pretreatment, treatment and disposal of waste and residual materials, waste management concepts shall be drawn up and implemented.

3. The Contracting Parties agree to coordinate their Alpinespecific research projects on soil conservation while taking into account other national and international research developments, and to envisage joint research activities.

Article 18

4. Special attention shall be given to evaluations of soil sensitivity regarding diverse human activities, to assessments of the regenerative capacity of soils, and to the examination of the most suitable pertinent technologies.

Further measures The Contracting Parties may take measures regarding soil conservation which go beyond the measures provided for in this Protocol.

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Protocol Soil Conservation

The Contracting Parties undertake to minimise the use of gritting salt and, wherever possible, to use slippage-preventing and less contaminating materials such as gravel and sand.

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Article 20 Establishment of harmonised databases 1. The Contracting Parties agree to create comparable databases (soil parameters, sampling, analysis, evaluation) within the framework of the Alpine monitoring and information system, and to establish possibilities for data exchange.

monitoring programmes for air, water, flora and fauna. 3. Within the framework of their monitoring programmes, the Contracting Parties shall establish soil sample databases according to comparable parameters.

Article 22 Education and information

2. The Contracting Parties shall reach agreement about soilendangering substances which require priority treatment, and they shall strive for comparable evaluation parameters. 3. The Contracting Parties shall strive to establish representative records of the condition of Alpine soils taking into account the geological and hydrogeological situation, on the basis of identical evaluation systems and harmonised methods.

Chapter IV

Article 21

Article 23

Establishment of permanent monitoring areas and coordination of environmental monitoring

Implementation

1. The Contracting Parties undertake to establish permanent monitoring areas in the Alpine region and to integrate them in an Alpine-wide soil monitoring network. 2. The Contracting Parties agree to coordinate their national soil monitoring programmes with the environmental

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The Contracting Parties shall promote the education and further training as well as the information of the public regarding the objectives, measures and implementation of this Protocol.

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Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation

The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.


Monitoring of compliance with obligations

Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives.

1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted.

2. The regional and local authorities shall be associated with this evaluation within the existing institutional framework. Nongovernmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources.

Chapter V

3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference. 4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

Article 25 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions

Final Provisions Article 26

Protocol Soil Conservation

Article 24

Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol. 3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Alpine signals 1

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Article 27

Article 28

Signature and ratification

Notifications

1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 16 October 1998 and from 16 November 1998 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary.

The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of

2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. 3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

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(a) any signature, (b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, (c) any date of entry into force, (d) any declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory, (e) any denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective. In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol. Done at Bled on 16 October 1998 in the French, German, Italian and Slovene languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.


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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community, - IN ACCORDANCE with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and the sustainable development of the Alpine region; - IN COMPLIANCE with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention; - CONSCIOUS of the importance of establishing forms of energy production, distribution and use which are not harmful to nature and the countryside, which are environmentally friendly and compatible with the promotion of energy-saving measures; - TAKING account of the need to reduce greenhouse gases in the Alpine region and thereby comply with commitments under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change; - CONVINCED of the need to harmonise economic interests and ecological requirements;

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- CONSCIOUS that the Alpine region is of particular importance in Europe and that, in terms of geomorphology, its climate, water, vegetation, fauna, countryside and culture, this is a heritage as unique as it is diverse, and that the regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s high mountains, valleys and the Pre-Alps are environmental entities which all States, not just Alpine ones, have a duty to protect; - CONSCIOUS that the Alps are more than where the local population live and work but are also very important to extra- Alpine regions, in particular because it is a transit region with a high level of trans-European traffic of people and goods, but also international energy distribution networks; - TAKING ACCOUNT of the environmental sensitivity of the Alpine region, particularly concerning production, transport and energy-use activities which interact with the key aspects of nature protection, town and country planning and land use; - TAKING ACCOUNT of the fact that, faced with risks to environmental protection, in particular due to possible climate change caused by humans, it has become necessary to pay particular attention to the close links between mankindâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social and economic activities and the conservation of ecosystems which require, especially in the Alpine region, appropriate and diversified measures to be adopted in agreement with the local population, political institutions and economic and social organisations; - CONVINCED that the local population must be able to define its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework;


Have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 Objectives The Contracting Parties shall commit themselves to creating framework conditions and adopting measures for energy saving, production, transport, distribution and utilisation within the territorial scope of the Alpine Convention in order to establish sustainable development in the energy sector which is compatible with the Alpine regionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s specific tolerance limits. In so doing the Contracting Parties will make an important contribution to protecting local communities and the environment and to safeguarding resources and the climate.

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- CONVINCED that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States and the local communities directly concerned; - CONVINCED that meeting energy needs is an important factor in economic and social development, both within and outside the Alpine region; - CONSCIOUS of the extent of the use and further development of economic instruments which could enable the actual costs to be better taken into account when calculating energy prices; - CONVINCED that the Alpine region will make a long-term contribution to meeting Europeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s energy needs and that it must itself have, apart from sufficient drinking water, sufficient energy resources to improve local living conditions and economic productivity; - CONVINCED that the Alpine region plays a particularly important role in the interconnection of European countriesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; energy systems; - CONVINCED that, in the Alpine region, measures aimed at rational energy use and sustainable use of water and wood resources contribute towards meeting national energy needs and that it is increasingly important to make use of biomass and solar energy;

Article 2 Basic commitments 1. In accordance with this Protocol, the Contracting Parties shall: (a) harmonise their energy-saving plans with their plans for the general development of the Alpine region; (b) adapt production, transport and energy distribution systems in order to make optimal overall use of the infrastructure system in the Alpine region, taking account of the need for environmental protection;

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(c) limit the impact of energy on the environment by optimising the provision of services to energy end-users through, amongst other things and as far as possible, adopting the following measures: - reducing energy needs through the use of more efficient technologies; - making wider use of renewable energy sources to meet remaining energy needs; - optimising existing plants which produce energy from non-renewable sources; (d) limit the negative effects of power plants on the environment and the landscape, including those concerning the management of waste produced by them, by adopting preventive measures for the new plants and, if necessary, improving existing ones; 2. In the event of the construction of new, large power plants and a significant increase in the capacity of existing ones, the Contracting Parties, in accordance with current law, shall proceed to evaluate the impact on the Alpine environment and to evaluate the territorial and socioeconomic effects of this in accordance with Article 12. The Parties shall recognise the right to consultation at international level on projects with cross-border effects. 3. The Contracting Parties shall take account in their energy policies of the fact that the Alpine region lends itself to using renewable energy sources and shall encourage mutual collaboration in development programmes in this area.

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4. The Contracting Parties shall preserve protected areas and their buffer zones, other protected and quiet zones as well as areas of unspoilt nature and countryside; they shall optimise energy infrastructures according to the different levels of vulnerability, tolerance and the ongoing deterioration of the Alpine ecosystem. 5. The Contracting Parties should be aware that an appropriate research and development policy instigating preventive and improving measures can make a significant contribution to protecting the Alps from the impact of energy infrastructures on the environment. They shall encourage research and development activities on this subject and shall exchange the main results. 6. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate with a view to developing methods for taking better account of the true costs in the field of energy.

Article 3 Conformity with international law and other policies 1. This Protocol shall be implemented in accordance with international legal standards, particularly those of the Alpine Convention and the Protocols drafted pursuant to it, and in accordance with current international agreements. 2. The Contracting Parties shall undertake to also take account of the aims


of this Protocol in their other policies, particularly in the fields of town and country planning and regional development, transport, agriculture and forestry as well as tourism in order to avoid negative or conflicting effects in the Alpine region.

Chapter II Specific Measures Article 5

Article 4 Participation of regional and local authorities 1. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular to exploit and develop synergies when applying energy policies in the Alpine region and implementing measures under them. 2. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures, within their competence and within the existing institutional framework. 3. The Contracting Parties shall encourage international cooperation between the institutions directly concerned by the problems linked to energy and the environment so as to encourage an agreement on the solutions to common problems.

1. The Alpine region requires specific measures for saving, distributing and making rational use of energy. These measures must take account of: (a) energy needs which are spread over vast areas and which vary greatly according to altitude, the season and the demands of tourism; (b) the local availability of renewable energy resources; (c) the particular impact of atmospheric immissions in basins and valleys due to their geomorphological configuration.

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Energy saving and rational use

2. The Contracting Parties shall seek to make energy use more environmentally friendly and shall, as a priority, encourage energy saving and rational energy use, particularly concerning production processes, public services and large hotel complexes, as well as facilities for transport and sport and leisure activities. 3. They shall adopt measures and make provisions, particularly in the following areas: (a) improving insulation in buildings and the efficiency of heating systems; (b) optimising the performance of heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems; Alpine signals 1

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(c) periodic monitoring and reduction, where appropriate, of polluting emissions from thermal plants; (d) saving energy through modern technological processes for energy use and conversion; (e) individual calculation of the costs of heating and hot water; (f) planning and promoting new buildings which use low energy technologies; (g) promoting and implementing municipal or local energy and climate projects in accordance with measures provided for in Article 2, paragraph 1.c; (h) improving energy performance in buildings undergoing renovation and encouraging the use of environmentally friendly heating systems.

Article 6 Renewable energy resources 1. The Contracting Parties shall undertake, within the limits of their financial resources, to promote and give preferential treatment to renewable energy resources which are environmentally friendly and do not harm the countryside. 2. They shall also encourage the use of decentralised plants for the use of renewable energy sources such as water, the sun and biomass. 3. The Contracting Parties shall encourage the use of renewable energy resources, even in combination with existing conventional supplies.

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4. The Contracting Parties shall particularly encourage energy produced through the rational use of water and wood from sustainably managed mountain forests.

Article 7 Hydroelectric power 1. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the ecological functions of watercourses and the integrity of the landscape are maintained through appropriate measures, such as establishing minimum flows, implementing standards for the reduction of artificial fluctuations in water level and shall guarantee animal migration in the case of new hydroelectric plants, and existing ones where possible. 2. The Contracting Parties may adopt measures aimed at improving the competitiveness of existing hydroelectric plants, subject to compliance with their safety and environmental standards. 3. They shall also undertake to protect water resources in areas reserved for drinking water, in protected areas and their buffer zones, other protected and quiet zones as well as areas of unspoilt nature and countryside. 4. The Contracting Parties shall recommend reopening disused hydroelectric plants rather than building new ones. The provision under paragraph (1) on the protection of aquatic ecosystems and other related systems


5. The Contracting Parties may, in the framework of their national legislation, examine how they can make endconsumers of Alpine resources pay market-related prices, and the extent to which the local population can be fairly compensated for services supplied in the general interest.

Article 8 Energy from fossil fuels 1. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the best available techniques are used in new thermal plants using fossil fuels to produce electricity or heat. The Contracting Parties shall limit emissions from existing plants in the Alpine region as far as possible through the use of appropriate technologies and/or fuel types. 2. The Contracting Parties shall examine the technical and economic feasibility and the environmental compatibility of replacing fossil fuel thermal plants with ones which use renewable energy sources or are decentralised. 3. The Contracting Parties shall adopt measures in favour of cogeneration in order for energy to be used more rationally. 4. In border regions, the Contracting Parties shall, as far as possible, har-

monise and connect their emission and immission monitoring systems.

Article 9 Nuclear energy 1. The Contracting Parties shall undertake, within the framework of international conventions, to exchange comprehensive information on plants and other nuclear installations which have, or could have, consequences for the Alpine region, with the aim of ensuring the long-term protection of the health of the people, the flora and fauna, and their biocoenosis, habitat and interactions.

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shall also be applied to the reopening of existing hydroelectric plants.

2. Furthermore, the Contracting Parties shall ensure the harmonisation and connection, as far as possible, of their systems for monitoring environmental radioactivity.

Article 10 Transport and energy distribution 1. The Contracting Parties shall continue to rationalise and optimise all existing infrastructures while taking account of requirements for environmental protection and especially the need to preserve very sensitive ecosystems and the landscape, while at the same time, where appropriate, taking steps to protect the local people and the Alpine environment.

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2. When constructing electricity transmission lines and power stations linked to them, as well as oil and gas pipelines, including pumping stations and booster stations and plants which are very significant from an environmental point of view, the Contracting Parties shall implement all the necessary measures to avoid disturbance to the local people and the environment, including, if possible, the use of preexisting facilities and grids.

Article 12

3. Concerning electricity transmission lines, the Contracting Parties shall take particular account of the importance of protected areas and their buffer zones, other protected and quiet zones as well as areas of unspoilt nature and landscape, as well as birdlife.

2. The Contracting Parties shall recognise the advisability of adopting, as far as possible, the best available techniques so as to eliminate or limit environmental impact by making provision for the decommissioning of disused and non-environmentally friendly plants.

Article 11

Article 13

Renaturalisation and environmental engineering

Dialogue

The Contracting Parties shall use pilot studies and environmental impact studies provided for under current legislation to establish arrangements for the restoration of aquatic locations and environments following the completion of public or private works in the energy field relating to the Alpine environment and ecosystems. This shall be done, as far as possible, by employing environmental engineering techniques.

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Environmental impact analysis 1. The Contracting Parties shall, in accordance with national legislation and international conventions and agreements, carry out an initial evaluation of the environmental impact of any planned power plant under Articles 7, 8, 9 and 10 of the present Protocol, and of any substantial change made to these plants.

1. The Contracting Parties shall undertake to consult one another prior to starting any project which may have crossborder effects. 2. For projects which may have crossborder effects, the Contracting Parties concerned must be able to present their comments in good time, and these will be taken into account when issuing permits.


Further action The Contracting Parties may take further action than measures on energy and sustainable development set out in this Protocol.

of local people, economic operators and regional and local authorities. 3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the various national results of the research and systematic observation are integrated in a joint permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework.

Chapter III Research, Education and Information Article 15 Research and observation 1. The Contracting Parties shall, in close collaboration and taking account of results already achieved at various national and international levels, encourage and harmonise research and systematic observation in order to achieve the targets set out in this Protocol; in particular concerning the methods and criteria for analysis and for evaluation of the impact on the environment and the climate, as well as specific technologies for saving and making rational use of energy in the Alpine region.

Article 16 Training and information

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Article 14

1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage basic and further training and the provision of information to the public about the objectives, measures and implementation of this Protocol. 2. They shall particularly encourage the further development of training, continuous training and technical assistance concerning energy, including protecting the environment, nature and the climate.

2. They shall also take account of the results of research in the process of defining and checking targets and energy policy measures as well as in their training and technical assistance activities at local level for the benefit Alpine signals 1

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Chapter IV Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation Article 17 Implementation The Contracting Parties shall undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

Article 18 Monitoring of compliance with obligations

4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

Article 19 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this Protocol. They shall consider the adoption of appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives.

1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted.

2. The regional and local authorities shall be associated with this evaluation within the existing institutional framework. Nongovernmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations under this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources.

Chapter V

3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on the compliance of the Contracting Parties with the obligati-

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ons arising from the Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference.

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Final Provisions Article 20 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the


ment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol.

Article 22

3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of:

Article 21 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the signatory States of the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 16 October 1998 and in the Republic of Austria, as the depositary, from 16 November 1998. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

Notification

(a) any signature, (b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval, (c) any date of entry into force, (d) any declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory, (e) any denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective.

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meaning of Article 2 thereof and any other relevant articles of the Convention.

In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol. Done at Bled on 16 October 1998 in French, German, Italian and Slovene, all four texts being equally binding, in one copy to be deposited in the Austrian State archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory Parties.

3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendAlpine signals 1

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community, - In accordance with their task, arising from the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) of 7 November 1991, of pursuing a comprehensive policy for the protection and the sustainable development of the Alpine region; - In compliance with their obligations under Article 2(2) and (3) of the Alpine Convention; - Aware that the ecosystems and landscapes of the Alpine region are particularly sensitive, that its geographical conditions and topography are likely to increase pollution and noise and that it contains unique natural resources and a unique cultural heritage; - Aware that, without appropriate measures, transport and the environmental damage which it causes will continue to increase owing to the further integration of markets, socioeconomic development and leisure activities; - Convinced that the local population must be able to determine its own social, cultural and economic development plan and take part in its implementation in the existing institutional framework;

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- Aware that transport is not without an environmental impact and that the environmental damage it causes produces increasing negative effects on and risks to the ecology, health and safety, which need to be tackled through a common approach; - Aware that enhanced safety measures are needed during the transport of hazardous materials; - Aware of the need to make comprehensive arrangements for observation, research, the provision of information and consultation in order to establish the links between transport, health, environment and economic development and to make clear the need to reduce environmental damage; - Aware that, in the Alpine region, a transport policy based on the principles of sustainability is in the interests of both the Alpine and extra-Alpine populations and that it is also necessary to preserve the Alpine regions as both a habitat and a natural and economic region; - Aware that on the one hand the present potential of modes of transport is to some extent not used sufficiently and on the other hand not enough account is taken of the importance of infrastructures for more environmentally-friendly transport systems (such as railway transport, shipping and combined transport) or of the transnational compatibility and operability of the various means of transport, and that it is therefore necessary to optimise such transport systems by a major strengthening of the networks inside and outside the Alpine region; - Aware that regional-planning and economic-policy decisions taken inside and outside the Alpine region have major


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Have agreed as follows:

Chapter I General Provisions Article 1 Objectives 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to pursue a sustainable transport policy which will: (a) reduce the negative effects of and risks posed by intra- Alpine and transalpine transport to a level which is not harmful to people, flora and fauna and their environments and habitats, inter alia, by transferring an increasing amount of transport, especially freight transport, to the railways, in particular by creating appropriate infrastructures and incentives in line with market principles; (b) contribute to the sustainable development of the habitats and economic areas in which people living in the Alpine region dwell and work by implementing a transport policy which encompasses all modes of transport and is harmonised between the various Contracting Parties; (c) help to reduce and, as far as possible, avoid any impact which might endanger the role and natural resources of the Alpine region, the importance of which goes beyond the boundaries of the Alpine areas, and threaten its natural and cultural heritage; (d) ensure the movement of intra-Alpine and transalpine transport at Alpine signals 1

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repercussions for the development of Alpine transport; Desiring to make a decisive contribution to sustainable development and to improvement of the quality of life by reducing the volume of traffic, managing transport in a more environmentally-friendly manner and increasing the effectiveness and efficiency of existing transport systems; Convinced that it is necessary to balance economic interests, social needs and envronmental requirements; With due regard for the bilateral and multilateral conventions concluded between the Contracting Parties and the European Community, in particular in the field of transport; Convinced that certain problems can only be resolved in a cross-border framework and require joint measures on the part of the Alpine States

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economically bearable costs by increasing the efficiency of transport systems and promoting modes of transport which are more environmentally-friendly and more economic in terms of natural resources; (e) ensure fair competition between modes of transport. 2. The Contracting Parties undertake to develop the transport sector while observing the precautionary principle, the preventive principle and the polluter-pays principle.

Article 2 Definitions

appropriate measures in the case of both new building works and existing infrastructures which have a significant impact on the land. ‘External costs’ are costs which are not borne by the user of goods or services. They include the costs of infrastructure where use is free, the costs of environmental pollution and noise and the costs of damage to people and property caused by transport. ‘New, large-scale building works, or major alterations or extensions of existing transport infrastructures’ are infrastructure projects having effects which, in accordance with national impact assessment legislation or international conventions in force, are subject to an environmental impact assessment.

For the purposes of this Protocol: ‘Transalpine transport’ is transport made up of journeys whose points of departure and arrival are outside the Alpine region. ‘Intra-Alpine transport’ is transport made up of journeys whose points of departure and arrival are inside the Alpine region (inland transport) including transport made up of journeys whose points of departure or arrival are inside the Alpine region. ‘Bearable negative effects and risks’ are negative effects and risks to be defined through environmental-impact assessment and risk analysis with the aim of putting an end to any further increase in negative effects and risks and, where necessary, reducing them by means of

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‘Large-capacity roads’ are all motorways and roads with two or more lanes, without intersections, or any road the traffic impact of which is similar to that of a motorway. ‘Environmental quality objectives’ are objectives which describe the environmental quality level to be attained, with due regard for the effects on ecosystems. They lay down (updateable) quality criteria for the protection of the natural and cultural heritage from a material, geographical and time-related viewpoint. ‘Environmental quality standards’ are specific standards which enable the environmental quality objectives to be met. They determine the objectives applicable


to certain parameters, the measuring procedures or the overall requirements.

Article 3

‘The precautionary principle’ is the principle whereby measures intended to avoid, control or reduce serious or irreversible effects on health and the environment should not be postponed by arguing that scientific research has not yet strictly proven the existence of a cause-and-effect relationship between the substances concerned and their potential harmfulness to health and the environment. ‘The “polluter-pays” principle’, including the acceptance of liability for effects caused, is the principle whereby the costs of preventing, controlling and reducing environmental damage and restoring the environment to an acceptable state are to be paid by polluters. The latter should, as far as possible, pay the entire cost of the impact of transport on health and the environment. ‘Advisability study’ is an investigation, in accordance with national laws, during the planning of new, large-scale building works, or major alterations or extensions of existing transport infrastructures concerning the advisability of projects from the angle of both transport policy and economic, environmental and socio-cultural impact.

1. To enable transport to develop in a sustainable manner, the Contracting Parties undertake to contain, by means of a concerted transport and environmental policy, the negative effects and risks due to transport by taking account of: (a) the importance of the environment so that: (aa) the use of natural resources is reduced to a level which, as far as possible, does not exceed their natural capacity for regeneration; (bb) harmful emissions are reduced to a level which is not detrimental to the absorption capacity of the environments concerned; (cc) the input of substances into the environment is limited so as to avoid harming environmental structures and natural materials cycles; (b) the requirements of the population so as to: (aa) allow accessibility for persons, labour, goods and services, while effectively preserving the environment, saving energy and space and meeting the essential needs of the population; (bb) avoid endangering human health and reduce the risks of environmental disasters and the number and severity of accidents; (c) the importance of economic criteria so as to:

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Sustainable transport and mobility ‘Environmental quality indicators’ are indicators which make it possible to measure or evaluate the present state of environmental damage and to forecast any change.

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(aa) increase the profitability of the transport sector and internalise external costs; (bb) encourage optimum use of existing infrastructures; (cc) guarantee employment in undertakings which are performing well in the various sectors of the economy; (d) the need to take enhanced measures against noise because of the special topography of the Alps. 2. In keeping with the national and international transport legislation in force, the Contracting Parties undertake to develop national, regional and local strategies, objectives and measures which: (a) take account of the different environmental, economic and sociocultural data and different needs; (b) make it possible to reduce environmental damage due to transport by putting in place economic tools combined with measures for regional and transport planning.

Article 4 Taking the objectives into account in other policies 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to take account of the objectives of this Protocol in their other policies as well.

2. The Contracting Parties undertake to anticipate and evaluate the effects of other policies, strategies and concepts on transport.

Article 5 Participation of regional and local authorities 1. The Contracting Parties shall encourage international cooperation between the competent institutions in order to find the best possible crossborder harmonised solutions. 2. Each Contracting Party shall define, within its institutional framework, the best level of coordination and cooperation between the institutions and regional and local authorities directly concerned so as to encourage solidarity of responsibility, in particular in order to exploit and develop synergies when implementing transport policies and the resulting measures. 3. The regional and local authorities directly concerned shall be parties to the various stages of preparing and implementing these policies and measures within the limits of their competence and within the existing institutional framework.

Article 6 Reinforced national regulations In order to protect the ecologically sensitive Alpine region and without prejudice

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Chapter II Specific Measures (A) Strategies, Concepts, Projects Article 7 General transport-policy strategy 1. In order to ensure sustainability, the Contracting Parties undertake to promote rational, safe transport management in a harmonised, cross-border network that: (a) ensures coordination between different carriers, modes and types of transport and encourages intermodality; (b) optimises the use of existing transport systems and infrastructures in the Alps, including through the use of electronic data transmission, and charges external and infrastructure costs to polluters in line with the damage caused; (c) encourages, by means of structural and regional planning measures, the transfer of the carriage of passengers and goods

to more environmentally-friendly means of transport and to intermodal transport systems; (d) recognises and utilises the opportunities for reducing traffic volume. 2. The Contracting Parties undertake to adopt the necessary measures so as to ensure as far as possible: (a) the protection of communication routes against natural hazards; (b) in areas particularly damaged by transport, the protection of persons and of the environment; (c) the gradual reduction of emissions of harmful substances and noise by all modes of transport, including through the use of the best technologies available; (d) greater transport safety.

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to international conventions in force, the Contracting Parties may take measures going beyond those provided for in this Protocol because of special situations relating in particular to their natural areas or on grounds of public health, safety or protection of the environment.

Article 8 Evaluation and intergovernmental consultation procedure 1. In the case of new, large-scale building works and major alterations or extensions of existing transport infrastructures, the Contracting Parties undertake to carry out advisability studies, environmental impact assessments and risk analyses and to evaluate the results in the light of the objectives of this Protocol. 2. The planning of transport infrastructure in the Alps must be carried out in a coordinated, concerted manner. In the case of projects with a significant cross-border impact, each ContracAlpine signals 1

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ting Party undertakes to carry out, at the latest once the studies have been presented, prior consultations with the other Contracting Parties concerned. These provisions shall be without prejudice to the right of each Contracting Party to construct transport infrastructure which has been adopted in accordance with their internal legal order at the time of adoption of this Protocol or the need for which has been established in accordance with the law. 3. The Contracting Parties shall encourage the increased consideration of transport policy in the environmental management of undertakings in their countries.

(B) Technical measures Article 9 Public transport In order to maintain and improve the settlement pattern and the economic organisation of the Alps as well as their attractiveness for recreation and leisure purposes in a sustainable manner, the Contracting Parties undertake to encourage the creation and development of user-friendly, environmentally adapted public transport systems.

Article 10 Rail transport and shipping 1. In order to make better use of the particular suitability of the railways for meeting the requirements of long-distance transport, and use of the railway network for economic activity and tourism in the Alps, the Contracting Parties shall, within the limit of their competences, promote: (a) the improvement of railway infrastructure by constructing and developing the major transalpine railway routes, including connecting routes and suitable terminals; (b) the further optimisation and modernisation of railway undertakings, in particular for cross-border transport; (c) the adoption of measures designed in particular to transfer the long-distance carriage of goods to rail and to further harmonise transport-infrastructure user charges; (d) intermodal transport systems and the further development of rail transport; (e) the increased use of rail and the creation of user-friendly synergies between long-distance passenger transport, regional transport and local transport. 2. In order to reduce the volume of transit goods carried by land, the Contracting Parties shall encourage additional efforts to increase the use of shipping.

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Road transport 1. The Contracting Parties shall refrain from constructing any new, large-capacity roads for transalpine transport. 2. Large-capacity road projects for intra-Alpine transport may be carried out only if: (a) the objectives set out in Article 2(2)(j) of the Alpine Convention can be attained by means of appropriate precautionary and compensatory measures as determined by the environmental impact assessment; (b) the transport requirements cannot be met by making better use of existing road and railway capacity, by extending or constructing new railway transport and shipping infrastructures, by improving combined transport, or by any other transport organisation measures; (c) the results of the advisability study have shown that the project is economically viable, the risks are contained and the result of the environmental impact assessment is positive; (d) regional planning and/or programmes and sustainable development are taken into consideration.

alone, the Contracting Parties shall recognise the need, in these remote areas, to create and maintain sufficient transport infrastructures for private transport to function.

Article 12 Air transport 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to reduce as far as possible the environmental damage caused by air transport, including aircraft noise, without transferring it to other regions. Taking account of the objectives of this Protocol, they shall make efforts to limit or, where appropriate, prohibit airdrops in places other than airfields. In order to protect the wild fauna, the Contracting Parties shall take appropriate measures to impose time and place limits on nonmotorised air transport for leisure purposes.

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Article 11

2. The Contracting Parties undertake to improve public transport systems from airports on the fringes of the Alps to the various Alpine regions so as to be able to satisfy transport demand without further damage to the environment. In this context, the Contracting Parties shall restrict as far as possible the construction of new airports and any major extension of existing airports in the Alps.

3. However, in view of the geography and the settlement pattern of the Alpine region, which cannot always be efficiently served by public transport Alpine signals 1

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Article 13 Tourist facilities 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to evaluate, in the light of the objectives of this Protocol, the transport impact of new tourist facilities and, if necessary, to take precautionary or compensatory measures to fulfil the objectives of this or other Protocols. Priority shall be given in this case to public transport. 2. The Contracting Parties shall support the creation and maintenance of lowtraffic and traffic-free areas, the exclusion of cars from certain tourist sites and measures to encourage tourists not to arrive by car or use cars.

Article 14 Real costs In an attempt to influence the routing of transport by taking greater account of the real costs of the various transport modes, the Contracting Parties agree to apply the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;polluter-paysâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; principle and to support the establishment and use of a system to calculate infrastructure costs and external costs. The objective is gradually to introduce transport-specific charging systems to cover such real costs in an equitable manner and to: (a) encourage the use of the most environmentally-friendly modes and means of transport; (b) achieve a more balanced use of transport infrastructure;

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(c) provide incentives to make more use of opportunities for the reduction of environmental and socioeconomic costs by means of structural and regional planning measures which have an impact on transport.

(C) Monitoring and control Article 15 Supply and use of transport infrastructure 1. The Contracting Parties undertake to record and periodically update in a reference document the state, development, and use of or improvement in large-capacity transport infrastructure and transport systems and the reduction in environmental damage. They shall use a uniform presentation for this purpose. 2. On the basis of the above reference document, the Contracting Parties shall consider the extent to which implementing measures have contributed to the achievement and further development of the objectives of the Alpine Convention and, in particular, this Protocol.


Environmental quality objectives, standards and indicators 1. The Contracting Parties shall lay down and implement environmental quality objectives for the establishment of sustainable transport. 2. They agree on the need to have suitable standards and indicators for the specific requirements of the Alpine region. 3. The application of these standards and indicators is intended to measure damage to the environment and health caused by transport.

Chapter III Coordination, Research, Training and Information Article 17

col, giving priority to the use of existing information systems; (d) reach agreement prior to any major transport-policy decisions, in particular in order to incorporate them in a harmonised cross-border regional planning policy.

Article 18 Research and observation 1. The Contracting Parties shall cooperate closely in encouraging and harmonising research on and systematic observation of the interaction between transport and the environment in the Alps and specific technological developments which will increase the economic efficiency of environmentally friendly transport systems.

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Article 16

2. The results of the joint research and observation shall be duly taken into account when reviewing the implementation of this Protocol, in particular in order to devise methods and criteria for defining sustainable traffic development.

Coordination and information The Contracting Parties agree, where necessary, to hold joint meetings in order to: (a) evaluate the impact of measures taken under this Protocol; (b) consult each other prior to any major transport-policy decisions which are likely to have an impact on the other Contracting States; (c) encourage exchanges of information on the implementation of this Proto-

3. The Contracting Parties shall ensure that the various results of national research and systematic observation are included in a common permanent observation and information system and that they are made accessible to the public under the existing institutional framework. 4. The Contracting Parties shall support pilot projects for the implementation

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of sustainable transport concepts and technologies. 5. The Contracting Parties shall support research into the applicability of methods for intermodal strategic environmental impact assessment in the Alps.

Article 19 Training and provision of information to the public The Contracting Parties shall encourage basic and further training and the provision of information to the public on the objectives, measures and implementation of this Protocol.

Chapter IV Monitoring and Evaluation Article 20 Implementation The Contracting Parties undertake to ensure the implementation of this Protocol by taking any appropriate measures within the existing institutional framework.

Article 21 Monitoring of compliance with Protocol obligations 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly report to the Standing Committee on measures taken under this Protocol. The reports shall also cover the effectiveness of the measures taken. The Alpine Conference shall determine the intervals at which the reports must be submitted. 2. The Standing Committee shall examine these reports in order to ensure that the Contracting Parties have fulfilled their obligations arising from this Protocol. It may also ask for additional information from the Contracting Parties concerned or have recourse to other information sources. 3. The Standing Committee shall draw up a report on compliance by the Contracting Parties with the obligations arising from this Protocol, for the attention of the Alpine Conference. 4. The Alpine Conference shall take note of this report. If it finds that obligations have not been met, it may adopt recommendations.

Article 22 Evaluation of the effectiveness of the provisions 1. The Contracting Parties shall regularly examine and evaluate the effectiveness of the provisions of this

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2. The regional and local authorities shall be associated with this evaluation within the existing institutional framework. Nongovernmental organisations active in this field may be consulted.

Chapter V Final Provisions Article 23 Links between the Alpine Convention and the Protocol 1. This Protocol constitutes a Protocol to the Alpine Convention within the meaning of Article 2 and any other relevant articles of the Convention. 2. Only Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention may become a party to this Protocol. Any denunciation of the Alpine Convention also implies denunciation of this Protocol. 3. Where the Alpine Conference discusses matters relating to this Protocol, only the Contracting Parties to this Protocol may take part in the vote.

Article 24 Signature and ratification 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the signatory States of the Alpine Convention and by the European Community on 31 October 2000 and in the Republic of Austria, as the depositary, from 6 November 2000. 2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instruments of ratification, acceptance or approval.

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Protocol. They shall initiate appropriate amendments to this Protocol where necessary in order to achieve objectives.

3. For Parties which later express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

Article 25 Notification The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of:

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(a) any signature; (b) the deposit of any instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval; (c) any date of entry into force; (d) any declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory; (e) any denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective. In witness whereof, the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol.

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Done at Lucerne this thirty-first day of October two thousand, in the French, German, Italian and Slovene languages, the four texts being equally authentic, in a single original which shall be deposited in the Austrian State Archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory States.


on the Solution of Litigations

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Protocol on the Solution of Litigations

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Preamble The Republic of Austria, the French Republic, the Federal Republic of Germany, the Italian Republic, the Principality of Liechtenstein, the Principality of Monaco, the Republic of Slovenia, the Swiss Confederation and the European Community, Contracting Parties to the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention), in their mutual intention to create an effective procedure for consultation and conciliation of disputes regarding the Alpine Convention and its Protocols, have agreed as follows:

Article 1 Whenever there is any dispute between the Contracting Parties regarding the interpretation or application of the Alpine Convention or one of its Protocols, the Contracting Parties shall firstly aim to reach a settlement by a system of consultations.

Article 2 If, following the invitation sent in writing by one of the Parties concerned to pursue the consultation procedure, no agreement is reached to settle the dispute within a period of 6 months, one of the

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Parties may have recourse to an arbitration procedure by sending a written communication to the other Party and to the Presidency of the Alpine Conference, for the purpose of settling the dispute in accordance with the provisions set forth in this respect. The Presidency will immediately notify all the Contracting Parties.

Article 3 To proceed with arbitration pursuant to article 2, an arbitration panel consisting of three members will be formed as follows: a) Each Disputant will nominate one member of the arbitration panel. If one of the Disputants does not nominate a member within 60 days of receiving the notification as at article 2 from the Presidency, the member will be nominated by the Secretary-General of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague within the following 30 days on request from the other Disputant. b) The Chairman of the arbitration panel will be nominated by mutual agreement between the two members designated in accordance with letter a) above. If no agreement is reached within 120 days of receiving the notification as at article 2 from the Presidency, the Chairman will be nominated by the Secretary-General of the Permanent Court of Arbitration at The Hague within a further 30 days on request from one of the Disputants. c) Once appointed, the members of the arbitration panel may only be dis-


Article 4 1. Each Contracting Party has the right to inform the arbitration panel of its opinion in relation to the dispute. 2. When a Contracting Party considers it has an interest of a juridical nature in relation to the object of the dispute, it may request to the arbitration panel to be allowed to intervene in the case.

which language or official languages of the Alpine Convention will be used during the procedure.

Article 8 1. The Disputants shall facilitate the work of the arbitration panel and, specifically, using every means at their disposal: a) they will provide the panel with all the relevant documents and information and b) they will allow the panel, if necessary, to summon witnesses or experts and to receive their evidence.

Unless the Disputants decide otherwise, the arbitration court will determine its own Internal Regulations.

2. All the documents and information submitted to the arbitration panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s attention by one of the Disputants must, by that Disputant, be simultaneously brought to the knowledge of the other Disputant.

Article 6

Article 9

The Disputants shall refrain from adopting any measure that could compromise or prejudice the award of the arbitration panel. On request from one of the Disputants, the arbitration panel has the power to indicate cautionary measures that must be taken to protect the respective rights of each Disputant.

The panel will pronounce its sentence in accordance with international law and the provision of the Alpine Convention and its Protocols.

Article 5

Article 7 Unless the Disputants have agreed otherwise, the arbitration court will define

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missed by mutual agreement between the Disputants. d) The positions becoming vacant will be assigned by the methods prescribed for the initial nomination.

Article 10 The absence of one of the Parties or its lack of defence will not constitute an obstacle to continuing the proceedings. Before pronouncing the final sentence, the arbitration panel must ensure that the application is justified in terms both of Alpine signals 1

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substance and from a legal point of view.

Article 11 The arbitration panel will pronounce its definitive award within 6 months from the date it is fully constituted, unless deeming it necessary to defer the period for a maximum of 6 months.

Article 12 Both as regards the legal issues arising from the arbitration proceedings and the substance matters, decisions reached by the arbitration panel are by a majority of its members. The arbitral award is final and binding on the Disputants. The arbitration panel must publish the motivations for such award. The Disputants shall promptly implement the arbitrations panelâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s decision.

Article 13 Unless the arbitration panel decides otherwise due to special circumstances in the specific case, the arbitration costs, including the fees to its arbitrators, will be equally borne by the Disputants.

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the Contracting Parties and to the observers, in accordance with article 5 (5) of the Alpine Convention.

Article 15 1. The denunciation of this Protocol is only admissible at the same time as denouncing the Alpine Convention. 2. However, this Protocol continues to be applicable to the denouncing Parties as regards the proceedings in progress on the date the denouncement comes into effect. These proceedings shall continue until their conclusion.

Article 16 1. This Protocol shall be open for signature by the Contracting Parties to the Alpine Convention and the European Community on 31 October 2000 and from 6 November 2000 in the Republic of Austria as the depositary.

Article 14

2. This Protocol shall enter into force for the Contracting Parties which have expressed their agreement to be bound by the said Protocol three months after the date on which three States have deposited their instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval.

The Chairman of the arbitration panel shall inform the Disputants and the Presidency of the Alpine Conference about the result of the arbitral award. The President forwards the results of the award to

3. For Parties which express their agreement to be bound by the Protocol at a later date, the Protocol shall enter into force three months after the date of deposit of the instrument of rati-

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Article 17 The depositary shall, in respect of this Protocol, notify each State referred to in the Preamble and the European Community of: a) each signature, b) the deposit of each instrument of ratification, acceptance or approval,

c) each date of entry into force, d) each declaration made by a Contracting Party or signatory, e) each denunciation notified by a Contracting Party, including the date on which it becomes effective. In witness whereof the undersigned, being duly authorised thereto, have signed this Protocol. Done at Lucerne on 31 October 2000 in the French, Italian, Slovene and German languages, the four texts being equally authentic, the original text being deposited in the Austrian State Archives. The depositary shall send a certified copy to each of the signatory Parties.

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fication, acceptance or approval. After the entry into force of an amendment to the Protocol, any new Contracting Party to the said Protocol shall become a Contracting Party to the Protocol, as amended.

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Declaration

Declaration on Population and Culture

on Population and Culture

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Preamble The Ministers of the Parties to the Alpine Convention  Regard the socio-economic and sociocultural aspects mentioned in Article 2, Paragraph 2, Item a., as being central to the implementation of an integrated policy to ensure the protection and sustainable development of the Alpine area. They hold the conviction that the value of the Alpine area lies in its diversity. They are therefore committed to preserving and promoting cultural diversity in the Alps as well as to building bridges and fostering dialogue between cultures. The ministers recognise that for the inhabitants of the Alpine area to identify with the Alpine Convention and its protocols, they need to constitute a people-centred, sustainable development policy that focuses on the needs, wishes and opinions of the people who live in the Alpine area.

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tial direction of the ministersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; political aims. The ministers are aware of the effects of demographic change on living and working conditions in the Alpine areas and commit to the following aims and principles which will be implemented through the exemplary measures set out in the annex to this declaration within the framework of the applicable national regulations and based on the available resources.

Chapter I Community Awareness and Cooperation Community Awareness and Identity 1. Affirmation of the shared responsibility of the Alpine and non-Alpine populations and of political decision-makers at all levels, for the maintenance of the cultural uniqueness of the Alpine environment with a particular view to strengthening community awareness and the identity of the people who live in it.

The ministers recognise the right of the inhabitants of the Alpine areas to live in these areas on a permanent basis and to engage in economic activities there.

Cooperation within the Alpine Area and Between Alpine and non-Alpine Areas

They also recognise the right of Alpine residents to equality of opportunity, both within the Alpine region as well as in relation to the residents of non-Alpine areas. These points constitute the essen-

2. Facilitation of communication between the various linguistic groups, encouragement of dialogue, of cooperation and of knowledge-sharing within the Alpine area and between inhabitants of the Alpine and the non Alpine areas, as a means of strengthe-

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3. Strengthening of sustainable regional development through cooperation and the sharing of experiences between the various cultural groups of the Alps and with people from other mountainous regions throughout the world. Transparency and Participation 4. Recognition of the significant role of civil society in promoting sustainable development in the Alpine area and in fostering transparency in the relationships between the state authorities and the general population as well as encouraging the participation of the general population in public affairs.

2. Support of modern culture and the maintenance and development of local and regional traditions in the areas of expression and representation (customs, literature, music, dance, theatre, various types of communication and so forth). Linguistic Diversity 3. Improvement of the conditions under which the linguistic diversity of the Alpine area can be maintained and promoted, with particular regard to the traditional cultural and linguistic communities. 4. Recognition of the meaning and value of the toponomastic heritage (particularly place names and field names) in the Alpine area for cultural and historical reasons and also for the sake of their appreciation.

Chapter II

Creative, Artistic Activities

Cultural Diversity

5. Support of artistic creation in all its forms including the artistic expression of Alpine themes.

Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage 1. Research, maintenance and development of the existing physical and non-physical cultural heritage and traditional knowledge. This applies in particular to traditional methods of landscape management and the architectural and artistic heritage, including traditional methods of working the fields, forestry, handcrafts and industrial production.

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ning mutual understanding and respect.

Chapter III Living environment, Quality of Life and Equal Opportunity Condition of Settlements and their Structures 1. Maintenance and modernisation of the existing settlements and developing them on the basis of the principAlpine signals 1

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le of sustainability and on the basis of the idea of taking the particular characteristics of each site into account. General Service Provision and Primary Health Care 2. Maintenance, guarantee and development of de-centralised primary health care. Schools, Job Training, Further Education and Adult Education. 3. Maintaining and developing an up to date school system and job training facilities as well as appropriate adult education programmes on a local and regional level. In all areas of education and training, account will be taken of any factors that relate specifically to the Alpine environment.

Community Life 7. Fostering mutual understanding, dialogue and community life in settlements throughout the Alpine area.

Chapter IV Economic Area Regional Development 1. Implementation of a clear regional policy aimed at a diversified and independent development of the region through the sustainable use of inherent potential and through the use of new socially and environmentally friendly technologies. Value Chains

Leisure Activities 4. Maintenance of broadly diversified, year-round cultural programmes and, where possible, a suitable programme of leisure activities for local residents. Communication and Information 5. Maintenance and promotion of the diversity of the media with a view to protecting the cultural characteristics of the Alpine area. 6. Facilitating access of the Alpine population to modern communication technologies.

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2. Strengthening and development of local value chains to promote local and regional products and services. Employment 3. Putting in place the measures needed to ensure that attractive jobs are on offer and, where necessary, combinations of jobs.


The Role of Urban and Rural Areas Relationships Between the Towns and the Surrounding Countryside 1. Recognition of the significance of Alpine cities, particularly as regards their role as centres of social, cultural and economic activity that interact with the surrounding area. Relationships Between Alpine and non-Alpine Cities

outside the Alpine area with a view to facilitating the exchange of information between Alpine and non-Alpine people in the areas of business, academia, and culture. The Role of Rural areas 3. Recognition of the importance of rural Alpine areas and of their varied, heterogeneous, and discrete economic, natural, and cultural scope. Putting in place integrated strategies that are suited to the particular potential of each area.

2. Building and strengthening relationships between towns within the Alpine area and with towns and cities

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Annex to the “Population and Culture” Declaration

Measures Regarding Transparency and Participation

I. Community Awareness and Cooperation

• Promotion of further education and training of decision-makers in the areas of participation and mediation • Support of local Agenda 21 processes

Measures to promote community awareness and identity • Support for organisations that promote community values • Promotion and further development of partnerships between local and regional authorities in the Alps • Activities that gives the population access to knowledge about the Alpine area that is of historical, economic and environmental interest • Information and education programmes concerning the Alpine Convention and its protocols Measures to Promote Cooperation Between the Alpine area and the non-Alpine areas • Establishing, consolidating and developing cross-border and inter-regional cooperation networks • Activities to promote cultural exchange as well as the sharing of information and experiences concerning specific issues • Events, exhibitions, publications, film productions and research • Production and dissemination of multilingual publications in the languages of the Alpine area • Projects in the context of international partnerships between Alpine areas • Cross-border exchange programmes within the Alps and with areas outside the Alps

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II. Cultural Diversity Measures Concerning Tangible and Intangible Cultural Heritage • Establishment and development of local and regional documentation resource centres for cross-referencing purposes and for the dissemination of information about tangible and intangible natural and cultural heritage • Preservation and renovation of structures and buildings that have historical and architectural merit • Availability of training to enable the passing on of skills associated with traditional Alpine crafts • Supporting innovative forms of cultural creation and expression • Programmes and projects in the areas of information and education (courses, competitions, experimental workshops, etc) with a view to imparting inherited knowledge and traditions • Fostering cooperation among relevant public and private museums, educational establishments and private individuals Measures Concerning Linguistic Diversity • Targeted support for the languages of the Alpine area, and of regional langua-


Measures Concerning Creative and Artistic Activities • Organising art exhibitions and artistic events • Invitations to tender for the creation of quality labels, logos, and corporate design for local administrative bodies and businesses in the Alpine area • Giving art courses and workshops with specifically Alpine themes • Projects and initiatives to encourage artistic creation using raw materials from the Alpine region

III. Human Habitat, Quality of Life and Equal Opportunity Measures Concerning The Condition of Settlements and Buildings • Taking sustainability principles into ­account when planning and building • Additional training programmes in sustainable construction for building industry professionals and for the authorities responsible for issuing building permits • Events and initiatives aimed at raising awareness among the general public about sustainable construction and ­sustainable use of resources Measures Concerning General Service Provision and Primary Health Care • Measures aimed at a more even distribution of basic service provision • Maintenance of local service provision via improved availability at multi-purpose centres • Re-establishment or improvement of existing public transport facilities

Declaration on Population and Culture

ges in particular. This includes dialects at school • Further training of teachers • Production of the necessary teaching materials • Fostering linguistic diversity and multilingualism and ensuring the linguistic integration of migrants • Building partnerships between schools from different linguistic areas • Cultural products in local languages, particularly music, literature and/or theatrical presentations, language courses and print and electronic ­media • Projects to acquire and develop regional knowledge through toponomastic research • Erection of information boards in towns and villages with the most important and significant place names

Measures Concerning Schooling, Job Training and Further Education Including Adult Education • Ensuring the provision of suitable education facilities including appropriate teaching materials and technologies • Adult education courses • Facilitation of school partnerships Measures Concerning Leisure Activities • Provision of suitable leisure activities and facilities. The needs and wishes of Alpine signals 1

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the various regional populations are to be heeded • Increased support of local cultural and sporting clubs • Building, maintaining and refurbishing cultural and sporting facilities, social and environmental considerations permitting • Supporting youth work in the areas of sport and culture Measures Concerning Communication and Information • Securing the presence of the media in remote Alpine regions through the provision of public media outlets • Promoting communication and information provision in regional languages • Putting in place a framework for establishing print media in the regional languages • Encouraging the coverage of issues concerning the Alpine area

• Reinforcement of initiatives for the promotion of socially, culturally and environmentally friendly tourism • Fostering regional policies which address the specific needs of mountain areas • Specific economic support programmes that target young people • Supporting regional development work which is aimed at increasing cooperation between agriculture, forestry, the trades, tourism and other areas of economic activity Measures Concerning Value Chains • Establishment and development of regional brands, quality standards and systems of quality labelling for products and services from the Alpine area • Support for the marketing of local and regional products • Support for training in this area Measures Concerning Employment

Measures Concerning Community Living • Maintenance and promotion of meeting places • Promotion of cooperation and exchange programmes • Valorisation of volunteer work and neighbourhood assistance

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• Support for long term public/private investment for the creation of jobs, particularly for highly qualified people • Creation of well-paid jobs • Improving the social security net, especially for seasonal workers

V. Role of Urban and Rural Areas

Measures Concerning Regional Development

Measures Concerning Relationships Between the Towns and the Surrounding Countryside

• Specific measures for the economic advancement of mountain areas to be included in all sector-based policies

• Initiatives to increase awareness of people from urban areas and from the country regarding their joint responsi-

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Measures Concerning Relationships Between Alpine Towns and Towns Outside the Alps

• Partnerships between Alpine and nonAlpine towns and communities with a view to sharing information and to demonstrating best practice techniques Measures Concerning The Role of Rural Areas • Guaranteeing and supporting cooperation and sharing experiences across rural areas • Development of political strategies to make the most of inherent potential and synergies as well as of creative regional milieu • Guaranteeing equal access to infrastructure, information and knowledge in order to strengthen the position of rural areas as regards their economic competitiveness

• Voluntary agreements between Alpine regional authorities and bodies outside the Alpine area • Exchange and visiting programmes for young people with particular interests that are pertinent to the urban partnerships between Alpine and non-Alpine towns

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bility to preserve the cultural and natural heritage for future generations • Cooperation between towns. Cooperation also between towns and the surrounding communities within the context of information exchanges and development projects across communities on a national and international level, involving the pursuit of aims that are in line with the Alpine Convention’s environmental, economic and developmental aims • Communication and information campaigns to avoid and resolve conflicts regarding land use

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Declaration

Declaration on Climate Change

on Climate Change

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Preamble The Alpine Conference with reference to the decision of the 8th Alpine Conference about natural hazards; recognises with concern that the global climate change particularly affects the Alpine Area. The average temperature increase since the pre-industrial age is clearly above the global average in this area. Already today this shows itself through the increase of the threat through natural hazards or as a visible effect in the form of the progressive melting of glaciers and the reduction of the permafrost; notices that, according to the climate scenarios supplied by the scientific community, significant climate changes must be taken into account by 2100 in the Alpine Area; emphatically requires the worldwide implementation of the framework convention on climate and of the Kyoto protocol as well as the definition of ambitious objectives for the reduction of greenhouse gases for the period after 2012 with a view to the necessary stabilization of greenhouse gas concentration in the atmosphere at a level at which a dangerous anthropogenic disturbance of the climate system is prevented and the increase of the global surface temperature, according to the conclusions of the presidency at the meeting of the European Council of 22/23 March 2005, is li-

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mited at maximum 2 °C with respect to the preindustrial level; WITH respect to the progressive climate change for the future, indicates that it is necessary to develop appropriate strategies and activities for the Alpine area for the adaptation to the consequences that will result from the climate change, that consider the “Five-year programme of work on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change“ under the UN framework agreement about climate changes, as well as the European Climate Protection Programme (ECCP), that are also aimed at specific sectors and include regional peculiarities, needs and abilities for the adaptation; deems efforts for the promotion of international research projects as necessary, in order to achieve better understanding about the effects of climate change on the Alpine area (among other things, on land use, land use changes, on the water balance with the envisaged more frequent occurrence of extreme rainfall events and drought periods and the consequences for the vitality of mountain forests) and therefore create the basis for the drafting or implementation of effective adaptation strategies, that can be transposed to other mountain regions of the world with comparable issues by means of suitable and commonly supported „Capacity Programmes“; invites the Alpine states and the EU to include within the framework of national policies and in the common Alpine policy the following recommendations for action to avoid a further progressive climate change and to its adaptation:


- the improvement of the energy efficiency and the use of existing energy saving potential, - an increased use of local raw materials that can be regenerated (e.g. wood) and the increased use of renewable energies in the Alpine area, - the promotion of energy saving constructions and the renovation of buildings with a view to energy saving, - environmentally sustainable traffic, dwelling and landscape planning and actions for an environmentally sustainable development of road traffic, - promotion of methods of agricultural use that are low in greenhouse gases, including organic farming, - the promotion of sustainable forestry use. Adaptation to the effects of climate change by means of the development of concrete strategies for the inclusion of adaptation measures in segment policies, guarantee of the organisational, legal and appropriate budget framework conditions, implementation of new or intensification of current actions, raising awareness and targeted research, in particular - quick drafting of proposals for appropriate, additional future actions

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in economy sectors which are particularly affected, such as agriculture and forestry as well as tourism and traffic total risk management for the prevention and reaction to the likely stronger occurrence of natural hazards ensure a land use adapted to the threat potential through natural hazards as well to the shift of vegetation areas and putting land planning actions in line with the reduction of the danger and damage potential research to assess possible effects of planned adaptation measures on the â&#x20AC;&#x17E;Alpsâ&#x20AC;&#x153; system and the people who live there early alarm systems, emergency planning and, if necessary, integrated transborder catastrophe management, adaptation to great events as well as setting up of corresponding damage compensation solutions for larger risks promotion of danger knowledge and danger awareness through information and participation of the population (from affected to involved) protection and recovery of mountain forests for the protection of the soil and the improvement of the protection from Alpine natural dangers, more intense efforts for the preservation, care and, where necessary, recovery of protection forests in the mountains strategies for the adaptation to the changes in the water balance with the previously said increased frequency of extreme rainfalls events Alpine signals 1

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Avoid climate change progressing further through appropriate measures for the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions and the support to the absorption of greenhouse gases, in particular by means of

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and drought periods as well as for the solution of conflicts of objectives in water use - exchange of information about adaptation strategies and actions and exchange of knowledge about the effects of climate change on the Alpine area as well as their implementation underlines that the bodies of the Alpine Convention in collaboration with their partners will take into consideration the problem, the causes and the consequences of climate change in all their actions.

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In particular, regarding this issue, the Alpine Conference takes two long-term initiatives: The natural hazard platform deals within the framework of its mandate with the effects of climate change on the safety of people, dwellings and infrastructures. Within the framework of the implementation of the multi-year work programme and the research agenda drafted by ISCAR with respect to it, the issue of Global Change and the possibility of adaptations to the effects on the water balance will be given a particular priority.


Alpine Convention

The IX Alpine Conference (Alpbach, 9.11.2006) adopted the Declaration reproduced at page 179 and mandated the Permanent Committee with the task of preparing, in time for the X Alpine Conference, an Action Plan recommending measures of specific alpine character and long-term initiatives, together with a schedule for their implementation. Accordingly, the X Alpine Conference (Evian, 12.03.2009), adopted the Action Plan reproduced hereafter.

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Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

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Preamble The Alps are particularly sensitive to climate change. As the OECD report «Climate Change in the European Alps – Adapting Winter Tourism and Natural Hazards Management» confirms, the effects of climate change in the Alps are three time higher than the world average. Moreover, this is a densely populated (14 millions inhabitants for approximately 200,000 km2) and tourist area, thus requesting special measures. In the face of climate change, mountain ranges, with their water reserves and their capital for biodiversity, have a key role to play towards other territories. Therefore, their protection goes beyond the supra-national dimension. Alpine regions should take part in the collective effort to reduce the greenhouse effect by searching for adapted solutions to tackle the specific issues that affect them, particularly in terms of transport, energy efficiency, buildings, tourism, farming and water. The Action Plan following the Ministers’ Declaration of Alpbach rests on the joint commitments taken by the Alpine countries which fall under the Framework Convention on climate change and the Kyoto Protocol. This Action Plan is part of the ongoing discussions to reach a comprehensive and ambitious post-2012 agreement and takes into account the commitments made in this regard by the European Union. Its aim is to go beyond the general framework to offer concrete measures that are specific to the Alps by

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promoting, both in terms of mitigation and adaptation, themes and measures that could be the subject of regional cooperations in the frame of the Alpine Convention, and by taking into account actions that are already in place on a national, regional and local level. The Action Plan on Climate contributes to both the global effort aiming at reducing greenhouse effect following international commitments by the Contracting Parties and to the quality of life of Alpine populations for present and future generations. This Plan complements a full and complete implementation of the Protocols of the Alpine Convention by the Contracting Parties. The fight against the effects of climate change goes hand in hand with a real policy on sustainable development. It is therefore worth-noticing that some of the measures of the Action Plan materialise provisions mentioned in the various Protocols. The measures recommended for illustrative purposes are aimed at multiple stakeholders, either public – on a local or national level – or private, with the aim to change the attitudes to tackle climate change. The Action Plan should also bring about common projects, promote the development of concrete regional cooperations and the exchange of experiences, and support specific scientific research projects. The Alpine Conference will guarantee the dissemination of such measures as well as the promotion of corresponding « best practices » by taking into account


the specific needs of local partners and by making the most of their relevant skills. It will secure the help of its various Working Groups and will integrate in its Multiannual Work Programme the objectives of this Action Plan. It will promote the Plan with institutional partners assisting in its implementation, including European partners, in order for the Alpine Convention decisions to be formally taken into account.

Measures

Mitigation Strategies

Examples of good practices

Measures to be taken are part of a comprehensive policy in terms of spatialand land planning. Transports and household consumption of fossil fuels â&#x20AC;&#x201C; particularly for residential heating â&#x20AC;&#x201C; offer great potential to reduce CO2 emissions. In the Alpine context, the tourism industry should contribute in a noticeable way to the efforts aiming at reducing emissions in both sectors. Taking into consideration their resources in wood and water and their potential in terms of solar, wind and geothermal energy, Alpine regions could lead the way by using mainly renewable energies to cover their needs.

Within its project of Climate Plan, the autonomous Province of Trento (Italy) has set up Working Groups to survey issues linked to climate change in the Alpine region and its territory, particularly in areas such as analysis and monitoring of climate, water resources management, energy and industry, environment and spatial planning, tourism management and information. Guidelines have been determined to reduce CO2 emissions by raising public awareness and promoting the development of good practices in the different fields of application. The innovative element is that the issue of CO2 emissions is treated comprehensively by taking into account all partners and factors involved (political, social, cultural, legal, energy, mobility, etc.).

Measures in the Subject Fields of Spatial and Land Planning Objectives - -

Ensure efficient space management, promote urban densification Promote CO2 efficient urbanisation and planning

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

1. promote the integration of bioclimatic criteria (exposure to the sun, natural ventilation â&#x20AC;Ś) in the tools used for land planning, particularly on a municipal level 2. localise urbanisation projects in areas served by eco-friendly public transports 3. maintain natural areas (as carbon sinks)

Since 1990, the Municipality of Cavalese (Italy) not only takes into account measures to preserve natural resources but also bioclimatic criteria (maps indicating solar exposure, survey of prevailing winds, etc.) when selecting building land. Such measures maximise the benefits of Alpine signals 1

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natural radiation, thus contributing to saving energy which, in return, can be used to heat buildings (measure 1). The «Green architecture» initiatives («Architettura verde») of the Autonomous Province of Trento boost ecological building («bioedilizia»). Moreover, the certification «CasaClimaKlimahaus», set up by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano-Bozen in South Tyrol (Italy) aims at combining energy saving, well-being at home and sustainability. The categories «CasaClima Gold», «CasaClima A» and «CasaClima B» help determining the energy home rating (e.g. less than 10 kWh/m² for the category «CasaClima Gold») (measures 1 and 2).

Measures for the Energy Industry: Heating Energy, a Key Sector in the Alpine World Objectives - -

significantly reduce CO2 emissions promote the use of renewable energy sources

Measures 1. elaborate in a participative way an energy policy specific to the Alps in order to create a consensus for a future sustainable management of energy in the Alps 2. increase the energy efficiency of buildings by promoting the rehabilitation of existing buildings and the

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construction of «passive» buildings 3. in order to respect natural balance and landscapes, promote the production of renewable energies, and their use for heating purposes on a local level by individuals and communities, by using recent technologies with high energetic efficiency which, in the case of biomass, limit pollution emissions in the atmosphere 4. disseminate existing techniques that reduce energy consumption by favouring local resources while building, particularly by improving the training of mountain building professionals (training campaigns, networking…) 5. launch information campaigns and take concrete measures to promote the use of biomass (mainly wood from mountain forests) and other renewable energies respecting the environment and produced locally Examples of good practices In Slovenia, financial support and subsidies are granted to families and public bodies for using renewable energy sources (biomass boiler, solar collectors, heat pumps for heating). Furthermore, a decree on energy efficiency states that, in terms of heating and ventilating buildings, 25% of the energy should come from renewable sources (measures 1 and 2). The Municipality of Diex (Austria), taking advantage of solar radiations that are


more intense in the Alps than in any other region and of the absence of fog, made big investments in a photovoltaic programme (residential buildings, road signals, information board, street lighting) (measure 2).

Measures for the Transport Industry: shift Traffic towards more eco and climate-friendly Means of Transportation

The municipal council of Munderfing (Austria) adopted and implemented a modular energy system (biomass; solar, wind and hydraulic energy; PR modules) that was developed in cooperation with the local population. (measure 2).

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In Embrun (France), the association ÂŤ Le Gabion Âť offers seminars toprofessionals and individuals to build or renovate houses in order to better regulate the energy consumption and reduce the discharge of polluting gases into the atmosphere. Thanks to these seminars about ecological building that also protects the heritage, the association makes the most of the local materials and traditional knowhow involved, such as framing made out of wood and straw, soil, hemp, stones, plaster and lime (measures 2, 3 and 4).

significantly reduce CO2 emissions linked to transports

Measures 1. shift as much of the transalpine traffic of goods and persons as possible towards means of transportation emitting less CO2 : a. spur and support the cooperation between national managers of railway networks, companies and local authorities to improve the service offer in terms of quality and frequency on existing railway networks, whether it be for the transport of goods or for the transport of persons (more particularly the Brenner plan and the BRAVO project, the IQ-C plan on the Gothard/Simplon corridor , the French- Italian programme on the historical line between Turin and Lyon, the Alpfrail project on the Tauern axis)

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

The Energy Institute of Vorarlberg (Austria) has been trying for the past ten years to raise public awareness on energy. It promotes activities and measures aiming at improving energy efficiency and the use of renewable energies. It cooperates with other institutions on an international level.

Objective

b. continue with the implementation of new transalpine railway infrastructures on all major Alpine passes in order to create a transeuropean network adapted for traffic shift: Swiss programme NLFA (nouvelles liaisons ferroviaires alpines or new Alpine railway networks), priority projects of the EU Alpine signals 1

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(axis Lyon - Turin - Trieste - Divaca - Ljubljana – Ukrainian border, and Berlin - Munich - Verona - Bologna - Naples via the Brenner) c. continue with the surveys initiated by the transport Ministers of the Alpine countries within the Zurich Declaration in order to determine the most efficient means to regulate road traffic for goods through the Alps (better management of the traffic on an hourly and daily basis, optimisation of flows, feasibility of an Alpine transit exchange, etc.) d. survey available options that rely on marine navigation (motorways of the sea) to replace transalpine road traffic when conceivable 2. encourage regional and local authorities to reduce within the Alpine space the traffic impact on environment and climate, especially for means that produce CO2: a. promote policies that reduce the use of individual cars (cheaper public transports, carpooling, use of bicycles within city centres) or make it less polluting (programmes on how to drive in a more ecological way) b. develop on all scales a network of public transports which will guarantee practical continuity between the various means, mainly for reaching mountain resorts and tourist areas, and promote the

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means of transportation that emit less CO2 and pollute less c. develop planning tools (urban and interurban logistics plans, circulation plans, traffic plans, keeping or creating local services …) d. ensure application in full of the provisions of article 12, paragraph 2, of the Transport Protocol on air traffic which plans to restrict the construction of new airports and «to improve public transport systems from airports on the fringes of the Alps to the various Alpine regions ». Examples of good practices Several measures have been adopted along the Brenner corridor (motorways A22 and A12 between Italy and Austria) to limit HGV traffic, some of them promoting the use of alternative transport systems and the replacement of old vehicles that pollute. It was also decided to temporarily forbid the transit of HGV over 7.5 tons and of engines belonging to « Euro 0 » and « Euro 1 » categories, and to carry the goods by rail instead. Speed limits have been introduced during the night, along with a traffic management system. At night, HGVs are not allowed to travel and have to pay higher transit charges on the motorway A13 (measures 1 and 2). In November 2005, the town of Gap (France) decided buses would be totally free for its 39 000 inhabitants. Since December 15, 2007, a free shuttle is availa-


The Alpine furrow demonstrates the cooperation between Alpine departments (Haute-Savoie, Savoie, Isère, Drôme France) for a coordinated and sustainable transport policy. This project, focuses on modal transport, organises space and urban development and tries to optimise the infrastructures in order to provide users with alternatives to cars. The Alpine furrow improved the service offer and the information to travellers, mainly by developing central offices on mobility (measures 1 and 2).

Measures in the Tourism Industry:

2. promote soft mobility for reaching tourist sites by favouring the least polluting means of transportation (adapted rates, using aerial lifts such as cable cars to go from the valleys to the nearby resorts …) 3. develop with transport operators the «last mile» connection and longdistance access to tourist sites using railways 4. favour the rehabilitation of real estate aimed at tourists by adapting it to climate change instead of building new infrastructures which generate « empty beds » (tourist beds that remain unoccupied for most of the year) 5. adapt the resorts’ communicating and marketing strategies to reflect the new measures 6. develop cross-border public transports and simplify tariff offers for tourists in the Alps

Objectives -

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Reduce CO2 emissions produced by tourist activities and ensure travel professionals offer the option of sustainable transports promote Alpine holidays offers that are « climate neutral »

Measures 1. put into place a regular environmental audit of tourist destinations containing a « carbon report » and refer to this audit when granting authorisations and/or public subsidies

7. ensure travel and tourism professionals develop together practical information on the soft mobility options that are available in different Alpine sites and make it accessible to the general public

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

ble in the city centre every ten minutes. Two 22-seater buses, equipped with access ramps for people with reduced mobility and particle filters, provide this service. The shuttle links several car parks, thus encouraging people to give up their cars in the city centre, and promotes intermodality and accessibility to the train station (measure 2).

8. harmonise school holidays calendars in order to limit peak season and the development of infrastructures

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Examples of good practices Arosa (Switzerland), a resort accessible by train, set up a system of «carbon offset» for CO2 emissions generated by tourist travels. It also has on offer a large array of eco-friendly activities such as free use of buses, electric bicycles, ski lifts, cable cars or pedalos on the lake (measures 1, 2 and 5). The Alpine Pearls network promotes soft mobility to holiday makers by offerin them to move around by train, bus, bike or foot. In Bad Hofgastein and Werfenweng (Austria), « car-less mobility » is on offer, which contributes to the development of public transports, electric or fun vehicles, car pooling and information system for travellers. Press releases about the events taking place (day without car) support and highlight such activities (measures 2, 3 and 5). The Tiroler Gemeinden mobil project (Austria) encourages the use of buses and trains with the help of central offices on mobility and advisory services (pocketsize timetables for public transports are handed out, car pooling, information for new residents) (measures 2 and 5). The Pays des Écrins (France) set up thematic discovery shuttles (wine heritage, religious heritage, water heritage, silver mines etc.) (measure 2). In Italy and France, the project « Montagnes en chemin » (Piedmont, Aosta Valley, Liguria, Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur) aims at creating an integrated tourist system supporting sustainable development and monitor climate change in

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mountainous areas. The project favours tourism initiatives about summer and winter hiking and it already involves over 60 organisations from both countries. Within a partnership between the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region (France), the SNCF (French national railway) and 24 resorts (and groups of resorts from the valley) of the Southern French Alps, the project « train des neiges » (or snow train) has been implemented. It allows travellers to book a train + shuttle package which will take them directly to the bottom of the ski slopes. The offer is available to and from several towns and resorts (measures 2 and 6). In France, the ANMSN (National Association for Mayors of Mountain Resorts) – Ski France elaborated, in cooperation with other partners, a « Charter supporting sustainable development in mountain resorts » made up of eight field of activity or action plans. Furthermore, carbon reports in mountain resorts are being implemented within the CIMA (an interregional committee for the Alps) (measure 1). CIPRA International proposes to create, within the next two years, 100 packages that would use sustainable means of transportation to reach and move around a tourist site (measure 2).

Adaptation Strategies Adaptation is one of the main challenges in the fight against climate change, especially in the Alps, which are particularly exposed and densely populated.


Measures in Terms of Spatial Planning: Objective -

Promote an integrated approach to adapt Alpine space to new climatic conditions and more particularly to: • better control natural hazards and limit their consequences • ensure sustainable development in terms of housing and economic activities

Measures 1. define risk areas in the whole Alpine region following harmonised procedures, taking into account risks resulting from climate change (landslides, rock slides, avalanches, floods, fires …) and consequently adapt town planning documents by defining adequate security perimeters.

2. reinforce prevention and strategic management of natural hazards a. keep land sealing to a minimum, mainly by improving the ratio between built and open space in town planning projects b. establish efficiency indicators on policies and risk prevention tools c. identify a master event that is the most relevant for floods and avalanches by taking into account climate change and adapt practices and regulations accordingly d. anticipate the risks of transport infrastructures deteriorating due to climate change in the Alps and develop a map of itineraries potentially at risk along with crisis management plans and a survey on prospects for the next 20 years 3. reinforce the territories’ adaptation capacity to climate change a. adapt existing tools and planning methods for an innovative management looking towards the future b. integrate into all levels of spatial planning the objective of risk prevention and vulnerability reduction c. use participative method of risk governance in the planning process

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

Changes in summer precipitations, increase in winter precipitations, increase in temperatures and storm frequencies could well be the most noticeable consequences of climate change which already, and even more so in the future, amplify natural hazards in mountain areas. Policies and measures implemented should be long-lasting and should not contribute to the increase of greenhouse gas emissions nor of pressure on natural resources. Some appropriate information and awareness action are also necessary.

4. inform the population and make it aware of its responsibilities a. improve public access to data on natural hazards b. support and maintain a «risk culture» in mountain areas with adapted preventive information Alpine signals 1

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aimed at permanent and seasonal residents, and keep the public involved when measures and prevention strategies are drawn up c. develop and adapt pre-warning and warning systems, particularly in case of torrential floods d. disseminate «good practices» 5. anticipate deterioration of transport infrastructures Examples of good practices In Samedan (Switzerland), protective measures against floods have been set up and favour a more economical approach which takes into account the ecological function of waters and excessive pressures, the maintenance of flood areas, the arrangements for emergency services, the revitalisation and bypass of the Inn river, etc. (measures 1, 2 and 3) In Bavaria (Germany), coordinated measures have been implemented to optimise water retention by combining reservoirs for exundation, renaturalisation of peatlands and wetlands, creation of depressions and drains, modification of growing techniques, reforestation, ecological valorisation and renaturalisation of water resources (measures 1 and 2).

The results of the INTERREG IV B « CLISP » project (Climate Change Adaptation by Spatial Planning), which has been implemented in pilot Alpine regions, will serve as a reference basis for the implementation of measures that were suggested.

Enhancement of Mountain ­Forests and Development of the Wood Industry Mountain forests have several functions: production of a renewable and ecological material, habitat for fauna and flora (biodiversity reserve), prevention of natural hazards, production of energetic biomass, part of the landscape and essential basis for tourism. Climate change is now seriously threatening the forests as the adaptation in the Alpine space of ecosystems to the rapid changes of the ecological conditions is becoming particularly difficult. Objectives -

- The « ILUP » project in Austria developed innovative management and land use models: assessment of the zone from a functional point of view (soil, site, water and materials balance), survey of the link between precipitations and runoff, land use and structural changes, survey of natural geogenic risks in mountain areas (measures 1 and 2).

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Favour the adaptation of forest stands to climate change by keeping the Alpine forests in a good ecological state and by increasing their biodiversity Develop wood industries so that wood can be used as a material and as an energy source that would benefit the economic development of local populations, and the use of scrap wood as raw material reinforce the role played by the forests in preventing natural hazards


1. encourage the diversification of forest stands by favouring autochthonous species that are ecologically resistant 2. allow natural regeneration of mountain forests by limiting populations of hoofed animals according to article 2b of the Mountain forests Protocol 3. ensure eco-certification of all forests part of the public right of way of each member state, give better information to private forest owners and encourage them to exploit their land in accordance with the demands of an accredited certification system and assess the actions 4. promote continued maintenance and exploitation of forests in natural hazard areas in order to reinforce prevention and ensure sustainability of populations 5. identify difficulties and potential congestions in local industries exploiting and transforming wood in order to implement adapted solutions 6. implement coordinated observation methods on the effects of climate change on forests

gement: implementation of a specific zoning, choice of tree species by taking into account the planting season and consolidation measures (measures 1 and 3). Exploitation of protective forests in the Grosse Walsertal biosphere park (Vorarlberg, Austria)

Preservation of Biodiversity Climate change triggers major changes in flora and fauna that could even lead to extinction for a large number of species. In order to counteract this phenomenon, further fragmentation of natural habitats should be avoided. Moreover, the key role played by mountain farming in preserving “ordinary” biodiversity should be recognised. Objectives - - - -

Examples of good practices - The « Protective forest of Hinterstein » mediation project (Germany) aims at safeguarding the protective function of the forest thanks to appropriate mana-

create an ecological continuum in order to facilitate the migration of Alpine fauna and flora species preserve the biodiversity of protected areas and maintain ecosystem services ensure habitat preservation for species that are representative of the Alps support quality agriculture which contributes to the quality of the environment and to the stability of biodiversity maintain peatlands as CO2 sinks and biodiversity reservoirs

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Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

Measures

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Measures

Examples of good practices

1. implement [consider in view of a potential enforcement] concrete measures that will be suggested by the « Ecological Network » Platform to maintain biodiversity through a perennial « ecological continuum » (this measure might necessitate the demarcation of new protected areas and the reinforcement of existing protected areas)

ECONNECT aims to enhance ecological connectivity in the Alpine space. Protection of biodiversity and natural heritage is more than ever a central need to face the challenges of climate change. The Alpine ecological continuum needs an integrated approach beyond established protected areas while considering high biodiversity areas and corridors as linking elements. Spatial links and respective management measures are an initial approach to facilitate the increasing migratory needs of species in latitude and altitude due to climate change. The project develops the basis for an alps wide and local implementation strategy. Within a survey aimed at anticipating and supervising changes and impact on pasture spaces and at outlining in the medium-term a charter on national parks, les Ecrins, Vanoise and Mercantour national parks (France) have determined the following objectives:

2. adapt management plans for large protected spaces in order to take into account expected climate changes in the Alpine space and adapt them according to the results of monitoring programmes implemented for this purpose (adaptation and management of leisure activities, maintenance measures for infrastructures …) 3. implement in a coordinated way, and on the whole of the Alpine range, special protection programmes aimed at species representative of the Alps (Tetraonidae, ptarmigan, globe thistle...) and other endemic species endangered by climate change 4. perform an ecological follow-up on experimental plots (e.g. on sample plots of 15 ha) to survey fauna adaptation to climate change

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5. promote mountain farming based on small structures and maintain quality farming work on all Alpine territories 6. preserve existing peatlands and renaturalise the ones that can be ­renaturalised

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update knowledge on pasture areas as far as biodiversity and agro-pasture practices are concerned, identify the origin and the management terms of herds estivating in national parks, create a methodological frame allowing comparisons with available data, define adapted indexes taking into account the partners from the terri­ tory.

The Isere department (France), at the heart of the Alpine furrow, launched the «Isere ecological network» project to identify the breakdowns (over 300) in the


Tourism Objective -

Adapt winter tourism and diversify the tourism offer

Measures 1. supervise the construction of tourist infrastructures in glaciated and wilderness areas 2. combine investment of public funds in snow-making equipment with the assessment of the consequences of such techniques on the environment and direct public funds towards other alternatives 3. support local authorities which diversify their activities and offer an alternative to Alpine skiing in winter, and spread the information in order to attract new customers.

4. aim at a better complementarity between summer and winter tourist seasons by favouring interseasonal tourism 5. favour the pooling between a mountain tourist resort and its surrounding territory (valley, mountain range…) 6. support the rehabilitation of existing dwellings Examples of good practices As far as sport and outdoor activities are concerned, the PACA region (France) is encouraging local partners to diversify their tourist offer. It also initiated spatial redistribution of tourist flows from highdensity areas to areas that are not so easily accessible by making the latter more attractive (by associating sport, adventure and by diversifying the natural and cultural assets on offer) (measures 3 and 5).

Water and Water Resources The foreseeable change in the water regime, which is partly but not exclusively linked to glaciers melting, will result in contrasted effects depending on the region: the central and northern parts of the Alps should be subject to floods whereas intra-Alpine regions and the southern part of the Alps should be subject to accentuated droughts. Moreover, the development of small hydro-electric power plants, which are harmful on an ecological point of view, should be supervised. The Water FraAlpine signals 1

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

ecological continuum and tackle them. An action plan worth nine million euros over six years and designed in cooperation with local authorities and relevant partners (farmers, hunters, fishermen...) was launched to restore ecological corridors providing passages to the fauna. The Voreppe cluse and the Grésivaudan valley have been selected as priority sites. This programme is being developed in partnership with the Rhône-Alpes region, the Government but also with the regional motorway maintenance ­company (measure 1)

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mework Directive, which determines ambitious objectives, is a well-adapted frame in the face of climate change. Objectives

Examples of good practices

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The Municipality of Les Gets (France) has to face water shortage and water cutoff during peak periods. It has, however, found the following solutions in order to deal with the problem: use of a retaining reservoir situated on a hill, better distribution networks (technical aspect), large research programme on water (scientific aspect) and raising of public awareness (civic aspect) (measures 1 and 2).

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reinforce the implementation of the Water Framework Directive prevent water shortage develop plants according to the ecology of water streams

Measures 1. reduce water consumption : a. promote water saving in all areas by supporting an integrated approach of the resource and its uses b. systematically take into account the impact on water resource when granting administrative permits c. favour rain water collection and the use of waste water 2. improve the use of water: a. rationalise the use of water resources, unevenly distributed throughout the year b. favour collaborative management between the various uses for water c. identify water catchment areas for various uses (in particular for snow-making equipments) 3. reduce the impact of hydro-electric plants on the environment : a. improve the efficiency of existing artificial lakes and electricity plants

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b. decide on common guidelines for the construction of small power stations

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The LEADER project in the Mariazellerland, M端rztal and Eisenstrasse region (Austria) aims at making the population aware of the importance of water, thus encouraging its sustainable exploitation.

Mountain Farming Mountain farming, which is directly touched by climate change, should also be subject to an adaptation strategy as it contributes to the attractiveness of Alpine territories. Objective -

Improve mountain farming contribution to the environment, the maintenance and the attractiveness of Alpine territories


1. supervise adaptation approaches to climate change for farming methods and systems 2. encourage breeders to choose more resistant autochthonous species and favour extensive grazing 3. support agricultural holdings and territories which aim for excellence in terms of production and environment protection 4. favour synergies and co-operations between tourism and agriculture in order to diversify mountain tourism activities Examples of good practices The objective of the IRRIWEB project is to create a soil map highlighting the irrigation needs of the Trentino province (Italy). This project aims at improving the systems used for measuring soil moisture, making stocks and sampling from reservoirs or hydroelectric pipes. The University of Trento developed a hydrological model which simulates the effects of different irrigation strategies on the availability of water resources. (measure 1). In the « BIO ALPE ADRIA » project (Italy, Slovenia and Austria), associations of organic producers have created a crossborder macro area in which genetic engineering is not used so that natural diversity in organic farming can be preserved and various initiatives in the ecosector can be networked. Approximately

6000 agricultural holdings are taking part in the project. An internet site provides information in three languages and is aimed at suppliers and producers of the relevant areas. Sustainable crop management helps preserve ground water, which can be contaminated by chemical elements such as fertilisers and pesticides used extensively in non-organic farming (measure 1). The project also helps mitigate climate change impact by limiting the use of synthetic chemical fertilisers which are energy-consuming. The economic interest grouping « GEN’OSE » was set up to gather under one roof the herd book societies for three native breeds: the Préalpes du Sud, the Mérinos d’Arles and the Mourérous. It launched a genetic selection programme which aims at preserving the breed hardiness in order to reinforce pastoral practices and supply the sector with breeding animals adapted to environmental constraints and commercial demands. The indicators of implementation showthe number of marketed rams and ewe lambs from the three breeds over the year and the dispatching of the dissemination throughout the Alpine range (measure 2).

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

Measures

Develop Applied Research to the Alpine Range and Improve Public Awareness In spite of several studies carried out, some uncertainties remain in terms of natural hazards, economic and social Alpine signals 1

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impact, agriculture or soil conservation for example. The effects of climate change are not thoroughly known and vary according to the regions. A specific effort should therefore be made in order to gain, mutualise and capitalise on common information throughout the Alps in order to benefit all partners. Acute observation of current and future impact of climate change is critical for the following two reasons: -

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mitigation, as objective « markers » will reinforce public awareness and facilitate the creation and validation of policies and measures that will alter our lifestyle adaptation, by establishing efficient and well-targeted strategies

Moreover, raising public awareness is essential in order to prompt changes in behaviours to reduce greenhouse gas emissions but also to allow populations to adapt themselves to the already visible consequences of climate changes. Objectives -

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Improve knowledge to better understand the impact of climate change on a local level, particularly as far as water, natural hazards and socioeconomic balance are concerned. Reinforce cooperation in order to gain common knowledge of the existing risks Reinforce public awareness, especially among the youth

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Measures 1. reinforce homogenous and coordinated observation on the effects of climate change on a local level by using, if necessary, regional and inter- Alpine research networks (ISCAR, ClimChAlp…) a. use the results of the « ClimChAlp » project and ensure a follow-up (particularly in terms of establishing a platform that would synthesise, in a biographical manner, the different types of impact) b. proceed with the interoperability of existing databases c. promote research networks associating scientists and economists and integrating a social and economic dimension in order to better identify on a local level what is at stake as far as climate change is concerned, and create adaptation scenarios for valleys as well as for mountain sites. 2. empower the Natural Hazards Platform to implement a coordinated observation system on phenomena: a. survey current evolutions (rhythm, extent and characteristics of floods, avalanches, torrential muds, landslides, temperature rise, fire recrudescence) b. map territories according to their vulnerability on the basis of completed works by giving priority to areas that are the most at risk c. assess the cost of damages linked to climate change on the basis of specific cases and identify adequate response mechanisms,


through insurance companies for example

contribute to the implementation and the follow-up of the Action Plan:

3. public awareness a. organise interactive exhibitions and scientific events to make the population, especially youth and tourists, more aware of what is at stake in terms of climate change and of the solutions advocated by the Alpine Convention b. communicate periodically through different elements of the media (local newsletters, press, local and regional TV and radio channels â&#x20AC;Ś) to inform the public on the objectives and measures defined in this Action Plan

The Permanent Secretariat shall contribute to the dissemination and promotion of this Action Plan. It might also specifically contribute to its implementation, mainly by collecting and disseminating relevant information in the Alpine space.

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Examples of good practices - The PERMAdataROC project (Aosta, Italy) provides a database on gravitational phenomena in periglacial environment on pilot sites by collecting data on gravitational movements and by determining the thermal regime of rock walls in order to establish a link between weather conditions and wall stability (measure 1).

Implementation of the Action Plan The Contracting Parties shall take the necessary measures to involve local and regional authorities in this Action Plan. The Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention, the Working Groups and the Platforms set up by the Permanent Committee, as well as Observers, shall

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build a database on good practices and facilitate its use support SOIA in identifying simple indicators of implementation of the Action Plan by liaising with the European Environment Agency and with relevant associations or experts provide local and regional Alpine authorities with information on the most efficient practices or technologies in order to fight the effects of climate change Facilitate, if necessary, the co-operation with European institutions for the implementation of concrete measures contribute to the implementation of measures concerning the Alpine Network of Protected Areas (with the support of the dedicated Task Force) offer to constitute a platform in order to exchange information on the implementation of the Plan and secure a follow-up on such exchanges

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Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

More particularly, its responsibility will be to:

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Decision of the X Alpine Conference The Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention, gathered in Evian on 12th March 2009, adopt, in accordance with the decision taken by the IXth Alpine Conference in Alpbach, the Action Plan which aim is to make the Alps an exemplary territory for prevention and adaptation to climate change, and commit themselves to proceed in its implementation with concrete measures in order to fight climate change by providing the necessary resources. Acknowledging the necessity to act promptly and the added value of a collective action from all Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention to limit the impact of climate change, they have agreed as follows: 1. implement, with the help of structures provided by the Alpine Convention and its Working Groups, common projects to concertedly apply measures of the Action Plan in the regions that are relevant to the Alpine Convention, and more particularly: - document the effects of climate change on natural hazards in the Alps by relying on PLANALP (Natural Hazards Platform) - develop guidelines for the followup of mountain forests facing climate change - identify which tour operators offer ÂŤ carbon-efficient Âť stays and means of transportation, disseminate good practices and reward the best achievements with ad-hoc

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initiatives (for example award for sustainable tourism in the Alps, CIPRA award, Pro-natura-Pro-ski award) - create a green transalpine network to facilitate the migration of plants and animal species by relying more particularly on the work of the Ecological Network Platform - develop guidelines for the construction, optimisation and rehabilitation of small hydroelectric power stations while respecting aquatic environments and biodiversity - implement exemplary projects in terms of ecological construction, promote them and adapt, if necessary, the existing regulations in this area 2. ask Ministers belonging to the Zurich Group who survey different regulation methods for the Alpine transit of goods, such as an Alpine transit exchange, to acknowledge the urgency linked to climate change and the need to implement concrete solutions rapidly in order to limit greenhouse gas emissions and to organise for this purpose at the earliest opportunity information exchanges between the two bodies 3. ask the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention: a. to set up an internet page to collect and pool relevant and up-todate information on climate change in the Alps and to share concrete solutions so that the highest possible number of Alpine resi-


4. to carry out the first assessment of the implementation of the Action Plan at the next Ministerial Conference in order to adjust it if necessary. 5. to launch a survey on whether the Alps could become a carbon-neutral zone by 2050.

Action Plan on Climate Change in the Alps

dents and local policy-makers can contribute to the implementation of the Action Plan b. to fine-tune, using appropriate means, the implementation of the Action Plan

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On the occasion of the VII Alpine Conference in Meran in 2002 the Compliance Committee of the Alpine Conference was established. Its function is to implement a mechanism for reviewing compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols. Each Contracting Party has been bound to submit a national report at intervals of four years since the coming into force of the Implementation Protocols. The Compliance Committee reviews the national reports, looks into requests for reviewing suspected non-compliance with the Treaty and draws up recommendations that are to assist the Contracting Parties in complying with the Convention and its Protocols. Decision VII/4 of the VII Alpine Conference in Meran on 19/20 November 2002 is printed in the following.

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Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance

Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols

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The Alpine Conference -

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being of the opinion that compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols is of major importance, being of the conviction that a mechanism for reviewing compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols may contribute significantly to the efficient application of the obligations assumed by the Contracting Parties, appreciating the fact that the method of reporting laid down in Article 5 Paragraph 4 of the Alpine Convention is a crucial prerequisite for the functioning of the intended Mechanism, decides for compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols to be periodically reviewed and the Contracting Parties to be supported in fulfilling their obligations, establishes, in application of Article 6 (e) of the Alpine Convention, a permanent Working Group for this purpose, lays down that the Compliance Committee shall fulfil its tasks in coordination with the Permanent Committee. decides as to form, subjects and intervals of the method of reporting, structure and functions of the Compliance Committee, and the procedure of the Mechanism, in accordance with the regulations in the Appendix which is part of this resolution, instructs the Compliance Committee to devise a standardised structure which is to serve the Contracting Parties as a basis for their periodic reports,

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lays down that the method of reporting and the Mechanism of reviewing compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Protocols on the part of the Contracting Parties are to be applicable also to future changes to the Alpine Convention and its Protocols, and to additional Implementation Protocols, lays down that the method of reporting, the structure and functions of the Compliance Committee, and the procedure of the Mechanism may be subject to reviewing on the occasion of any Alpine Conference, lays down that the procedure of the Mechanism is of a consultative, non-confrontational, non-judiciary, and non-discriminating nature.


2. Characteristics of Content

1. Formal Characteristics

The Contracting Parties are required to report especially on:

1.1.

1.2.

1.3.

Every Contracting Part, as from the entry into force of the first Implementation Protocol, is to submit to the Compliance Committee via the Permanent Secretariat a four-yearly national report on Compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols in the four languages of the Alpine Convention. The national reports shall be compiled on the basis of a structure to be devised by the Compliance Committee and to be approved by the Permanent Committee. The Permanent Secretariat shall submit the national reports, immediately after receiving them, to the other Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention, and to the Observers that have representation in the Permanent Committee. They shall be made available to the public by the Permanent Secretariat. Any information classified as confidential by one or several affected Contracting Parties is excluded from disclosure to the public.

2.1. Introduction • significance of the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols to the reporting Contracting Party and declaration of percentage of the Alpine Space compared to total area; • a general overview of measures taken for the promotion of sustainable development and the protection of the Alpine Space; 2.2.

Summary past and future, planned efforts for Compliance with the Convention and its Protocols;

2.3.

Compliance with Cross-Protocol Obligations in Line with Articles 3 and 4 of the Alpine Convention • cooperation in research and systematic observation, including harmonisation of pertinent collection and administration of data; • cooperation and information in the fields of law, science, economy, and technology; • periodical information of the public as to results of research and observation, and measures taken;

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Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance

I. Method of Reporting

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2.4.

Compliance with Protocol-Specific Obligations - measures taken for Compliance with the Protocols, measures going beyond the ones provided in the respective Protocol, and evaluation of their effectiveness; - problem areas such as differing interests in the use of natural resources, and respective measures; - measures taken in cooperation with other Contracting Parties;

2.5.

1.2.

Within the framework of the areas of responsibility assigned to it by the Alpine Conference, the Permanent Secretariat is to support the Compliance Committee in its actions. The Compliance Committee may give the Permanent Secretariat instructions to that effect.

1.3.

The Compliance Committee is subject to the Rules of Procedure of the Permanent Committee. Where required, it can, in analogous application of Article 7 Paragraph 1, vote in supplementary or divergent regulations.

Implementation of Resolutions and Recommendations

- implementation of resolutions and recommendations of the Alpine Conference in accordance with Article 6 of the Alpine Convention; - implementation of resolutions and recommendations which the Alpine Conference has issued on the basis of the report by the Compliance Committee;

2.6.

manent Committee may send a maximum of two representatives to the sessions of the Compliance Committee. If necessary, experts may be consulted. The presidency of the Compliance Committee is modelled on that of the Alpine Conference.

Outlook important activities planned for years to come (such as degree of concretion, agents, schedules)

II. Structure and Functions of the Compliance Committee, and Procedure of the Mechanism

2. Functions of the Compliance Committee The Compliance Committee fulfils the following functions: 2.1.

It shall review the information and national reports submitted to it; in doing so, it may also request additional information from the Contracting Parties or obtain information from other sources;

2.2.

It shall at their request support the Contracting Parties in complying with the Convention and its Protocols;

1. Institutional Issues 1.1.

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The Compliance Committee is constituted of a maximum of two representatives per Contracting Party of the Alpine Convention. The Observers with representation in the Per-

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It shall process the requests for reviewing supposed non-compliance with the Convention and its Protocols submitted to it by the Contracting Parties and Observers;

2.4.

It shall inform the affected Contracting Party or Parties of the results of its work;

2.5.

It shall generate reports on the state of Compliance with the Convention and its Protocols along with proposals of resolutions and recommendations;

2.6.

It shall propose measures for the improvement of reporting and for the improvement of Compliance with the Convention and its Protocols.

Committee may perform exploratory activities on its territory. 3.1.4. Information classified as confidential is to be treated as confidential. 3.1.5. The sessions throughout all of the Procedure of the Mechanism are confidential. Observers with representation in the Permanent Committee may be excluded from sessions within the framework of this Procedure, especially in the following cases:

3. Procedure 3.1.

General Considerations Regarding the Procedure

3.1.1. Any affected Contracting Party has the right to have a part in all of the Procedure, to be granted complete access to all relevant documents, and to comment on the actions of the Compliance Committee. 3.1.2. Whenever issues regarding the Implementation Protocols are discussed, only the Contracting Parties of the respective Protocol are eligible to vote. 3.1.3. With the consent of the affected Contracting Party, the Compliance

â&#x20AC;˘ in case of infringement of confidentiality â&#x20AC;˘ during the discussion of information that is confidential in accordance with 3.1.4

3.2. Time Sequence of the Procedure 3.2.1. In the course of the reporting period, the Contracting Parties shall submit their national reports to the Permanent Secretariat by the end of August of every legal year preceding the Alpine Conference. 3.2.2. The Permanent Secretariat shall immediately forward the national reports submitted to it to the Compliance Committee.

Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance

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3.2.3. Within a period of six months after the forwarding of a national report by the Permanent Secretariat, the Compliance Committee shall present to the Contracting Party or Parties the results of its pertinent sessions, along with any comments on the part of other Contracting Alpine signals 1

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Parties and Observers with representation in the Permanent Committee, in form of a draft report. 3.2.4. The affected Contracting Party or Parties may comment on this within a period of three months after acknowledging the results, and announce what measures they are planning to take based on the draft report. 3.2.5. If the affected Contracting Party is ready to remedy ascertained shortcomings, the Compliance Committee is free to refrain from proposing to the Alpine Conference the passing of resolutions or making of recommendations. The Compliance Committee shall review the implementation of the measures announced by the affected Contracting Party. 3.2.6. The Compliance Committee shall submit its reports for the attention of the Permanent Committee to the Permanent Secretariat at the latest two months after receiving the comments by the affected Contracting Party or Parties. 3.2.7. The Permanent Committee shall forward the reports unaltered and with comments, should they be necessary, to the Alpine Conference at the latest two months prior to its convening. 3.2.8. This Procedure applies analogously to requests for reviewing supposed non-compliance with the Convention and its Protocols. Such

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requests may be lodged at any time in written and motivated form. 3.2.9. The Compliance Committee adopts its reports by consensus; should all efforts to reach a consensus have been exhausted, and if the President explicitly declares so, these reports may be adopted by a threequarters majority.

4. Consequences 4.1.

On the basis of the reports adopted by the Compliance Committee and forwarded by the Permanent Committee to the Alpine Conference, the Alpine Conference may pass resolutions or make recommendations. Such recommendations are adopted by consensus; should all efforts to reach a consensus have been exhausted, and if the President explicitly declares so, such recommendations may be adopted by a three-quarters majority.

4.2.

These resolutions and recommendations include: advice and support for a Contracting Party regarding compliance issues; support for a Contracting Party in the development of a compliance strategy; establishing contact with experts who can assist the affected Contracting Party or Parties; exploratory activities on site, with the consent of the Contracting Party or Parties, for the identification of


4.3.

4.4.

The Mechanism for reviewing compliances with the Alpine Convention and its Implementation Protocols is independent from the procedure for the solution of litigations laid down in the Protocol on the Solution of Litigations Relating to the Convention on the Protection of the Alps (Alpine Convention) and has no prejudicing effect on it.

The reports by the Compliance Committee, and the resolutions and recommendations by the Alpine Conference shall be published.

Mechanism for Reviewing Compliance

compliance problems and possible measures; • measures supporting cooperation between the affected Contracting Party or Parties and governmental and nongovernmental organisations (see Article 4 Paragraph 3 of the Alpine Convention); • invitation of the affected Contracting Party or Parties to develop a compliance strategy; • call for a compliance schedule.

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Alpine Conference - Rules of Procedure

Rules of Procedure of the Conference of the Contracting Parties (Alpine Conference)

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Chapter I Scope Article 1 These Rules of Procedure apply to all meetings of the Alpine Conference which are called in accordance with Art.5 of the Alpine Convention.

Chapter Il Calling of Meetings Article 2 1) Venue, date, and duration of an ordinary meeting are fixed by the Presidency after consulting with the Permanent Committee. 2) The Presidency notifies the Contracting Parties and Observers of the venue, date, and duration of the Alpine Conference at least two months prior to the beginning of a meeting.

Chapter Ill Observers Article 3 1) According to Art.5 Para.5 of the Alpine Convention, the Presidency at their request invites the United Nations, their special organisations, the Council of Europe, any European state, and transnational associations of Alpine administrative units as Observers to the meetings of the Alpine Conference.

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2) At the suggestion of the Permanent Committee, the Alpine Conference decides as to the admission of international nongovernmental organisations as Observers to the meetings of the Alpine Conference in accordance with Art.5 Para.5 of the Alpine Convention. 3) The Alpine Conference vests the Permanent Committee with the authority to permit to international nongovernmental organisations to participate as Observers in the sessions of the Permanent Committee until the next meeting of the Alpine Conference even prior to their being granted admission in accordance with Para.2 of this article. 4) Observers in line with Para.2 of this article may be excluded partially or completely from specific meetings.

Chapter IV Agenda Article 4 The draft agenda for any ordinary meeting, prepared by the Presidency in accordance with Art.5 Para.3 of the Alpine Convention, as a rule contains: 1) Adoption of the agenda. 2) Decision as to written authorities. 3) Admission of international nongovernmental organisations. 4) Items of the agenda that can be derived from the individual articles of the Alpine Convention, especially Art.6. 5) Items of the agenda that can be derived from individual articles of Protocols in accordance with Art.2 Para.3 of the Alpine Convention.


Article 5

Article 8 The agenda is adopted by the Alpine Conference.

Article 9 Any item of the agenda of a meeting which could not be brought to a close at this meeting shall, unless the Alpine Conference decides otherwise, be added to the agenda of the next meeting.

The Presidency shall submit the draft agenda of any ordinary meeting, if possible along with the meeting documents, at least two months prior to the beginning of the meeting to the Contracting Parties and Observers.

Chapter V

Article 6

Any Contracting Party participating in the Alpine Conference has representation by a Delegation. This is constituted by a head of delegation and if necessary by other authorised delegates and advisers.

The Presidency shall include into the agenda any additional item tabled by a Contracting Party after the issuing of the draft agenda, if possible eight days prior to the beginning of the meeting.

Article 7 The draft agenda for an extraordinary meeting consists only of those items that were requested in accordance with Art.5 Para.6 of the Alpine Convention. This draft is sent to the Contracting Parties and Observers along with an invitation to the extraordinary meeting.

Representation and Authorities Article 10

Article 11 The heads of the Delegations and if necessary the other authorised delegates must possess pertinent authorities unless they are entitled ex officio to being representatives. Written authorities shall be handed to the Presidency prior to the opening of a meeting of the Alpine Conference if possible. The heads of the Delegations shall notify the Presidency of the constitution of their Delegations, and of any later changes to them.

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Alpine Conference - Rules of Procedure

6) Items of the agenda whose discussion was decided at the previous meeting. 7) Items of the agenda in line with Art.9 of theses Rules of Procedure. 8) Any items of the agenda proposed by a Contracting Party to the Presidency and accepted by this prior to the issuing of the draft agenda. 9) Any other business. 10) Adoption of the Minutes of Decisions according to Art.22 Para.1 of theses Rules of Procedure.

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Article 12

Article 15

The Presidency shall review the written authorities and present a pertinent report at the beginning of a meeting. The Alpine Conference shall decide as to the authorities. Until this decision, the Delegations are authorised to preliminarily take part in the meeting.

1) The President is that delegate of the presiding Contracting Party who has been entrusted by the Presidency with the chairing of a meeting of the Alpine Conference. 2) The President shall take part in the meetings of the Alpine Conference in this function only and shall not use during this period the rights of a Delegate of a Party, which, if necessary, shall be administered by another Delegate of the Contracting Party in question. 3) In the event of a temporary absence or being prevented of the President he or she shall appoint a proxy. The proxy may not while chairing a meeting use the rights of a Delegate of another Contracting Party.

Chapter Vl Presidency Article 13 The Presidency shall remain in office until a new Presidency has been appointed in accordance with Art.5 Para.2 of the Alpine Convention.

Article 14 1) The Presidency is responsible for the organisation of ordinary and extraordinary meetings of the Alpine Conference and sessions of the Permanent Committee taking place during its term of office, and especially for: a) the provisioning of structures and services required for the meetings and sessions; b) the collection, translation, and submission of official documents; c) the generation and presentation of minutes of meetings and sessions in accordance with Art.22 Para.1 and 2. 2) The Presidency may, with the permission of the Contracting Parties, delegate some of these single tasks to another Contracting Party.

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Chapter VlI Chairing of Meetings Article 16 In the course of debate the Contracting Parties have the right to raise a point or order at any time, which will be discussed immediately. In the case of several points of order the one diverging furthest from the procedure originally in question is discussed at first. On any point of order raised, one Contracting Party may comment positively and one negatively. Unless the President can observe a consensus, the motion underlying the point of order raised shall be accepted if it is approved by two thirds of the Contracting Parties partaking in the vote.


Subject to the provisions in Art.11 of the Alpine Convention, requests for resolutions to be passed by the Alpine Conference shall be submitted in written form in one of the Official Languages at the latest two months prior to the beginning of the respective meeting. Requests for the amendment of received requests shall be submitted at the latest one month prior to the beginning of the respective meeting. The requests shall be forwarded by the Presidency to the Contracting Parties and Observers. The Alpine Conference may in exceptional cases and at the request of a Contracting Party decide on reduced periods of time.

Chapter Vlll Votes Article 18 For votes in the decision-making of the Alpine Convention in line with Arts.6 and 7 of the Alpine Convention as well as for decisions as to points of order in line with Art.16 of these Rules of Procedure, the presence of two thirds of the Contracting Parties is required.

Article 19 1) Votes are generally taken by show of hands. 2) At the request of any Contracting Party a secret vote is taken. 3) An abstention does not according to Art.7 of the Alpine Convention count against unanimity.

4) Votes concerning points of order in line with Art.16 of these Rules of Procedure are always taken by show of hands.

Chapter IX Written Procedure Article 20 1) The Alpine Conference may at the request of a Contracting Party pass resolutions by means of written procedure. 2) This request is submitted to the President along with the draft resolution. The President shall immediately forward the request for the resolution to the Contracting Parties for commenting within two months after submission and in the meantime consult with the Permanent Committee. He shall inform the Observers. The resolution shall be passed after all Contracting Parties have consented. The President shall inform the Contracting Parties and Observers as to the results of the written procedure.

Chapter X Languages

Alpine Conference - Rules of Procedure

Article 17

Article 21 1) The Official Languages of the Alpine Conference are German, French, Italian, and Slovene. 2) Statements issued in one of the Official Languages shall be translated into the other Official Languages. 3) Official documents of the sessions of the Conference shall be written in one of Alpine signals 1

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the Official Languages and translated into all the other Official Languages.

Chapter XI

3) The Minutes of Decisions completed according to Para.2 of this Article shall after submission be approved by the Contracting Parties at the next meeting of the Permanent Committee.

Meeting Minutes of the Alpine Conference

Chapter XlI

Article 22 1) The Alpine Conference shall at the end of any meeting approve minutes which contain the wording of the decisions made at this meeting (Minutes of Decisions). 2) The President shall submit these Minutes of Decisions to the Contracting Parties and Observers as well as the leaders of the currently existing Working Groups in line with Art.6 (e) of the Alpine Convention within one month, completed especially with the following elements: • list of meeting participants • sources of the tabled requests • votes taken • declarations of decisions • any other declarations by Contracting Parties and Observers at their request, in short form.

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Changes to the Rules of Procedure Article 23 The Alpine Conference may change these Rules of Procedure according to Art.6 (c) and Art.7 Para.1 of the Alpine Convention.


Alpine Convention

Permanent Committee - Rules of Procedure

Rules of Procedure of the Permanent Committee of the Conference of the Contracting Parties

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Chapter I Scope Article 1

Chapter llI

(1) These Rules of Procedure apply to all meetings of the Permanent Committee of the Alpine Conference.

Observers and Other Participants

(2) The regulations within these Rules of Procedure apply in addition to the regulations within the Rules of Procedure of the Alpine Conference as far as the Permanent Committee is concerned. With regard to questions of interpretation priority is due to the Rules of Procedure of the Alpine Conference.

Chapter lI Calling of Meetings Article 2 (1) Meetings take place as often as may be necessary, but at least once a year. (2) The Presidency fixes venue, date, and duration of any meeting, after consultations with the Contracting Parties. (3) Moreover, meetings take place whenever a written request to that effect by two thirds of the Contracting Parties is presented to the Presidency. (4) The Presidency notifies the Contracting Parties and Observers of venue, date, and duration of meetings at least six weeks prior to their begin-

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ning, but at the latest immediately after the fixation of their holding.

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Article 3 (1) A transnational association of Alpine administrative units may be admitted as an Observer if its subordinate units are not already represented in the Permanent Committee. (2) The Permanent Committee may propose to the Alpine Conference international nongovernmental organisations as Observers and grant the participation of these organisations in the meetings of the Permanent Committee and the Working Groups in line with article 13 of these Rules of Procedure until the next session of the Alpine Conference, so long as they a) pursue the goals of the Alpine Convention according to its statutes and contribute substantially to the work of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee; b) operate throughout the whole of the Alpine Space; c) are based within the Alpine Space and possess a permanent organisational structure with a board, secretariat, and statutes, and d) have an agenda (field of activity) that has not as yet been sufficiently represented by the other Observer status organisations.


Article 4 The Permanent Committee decides on a case-by-case basis as to the participation of nongovernmental organisations in its meetings (Other Participants).

Article 5 (1) For the creation of networks and the promotion of transparency, the Presidency of the Permanent Committee keeps a record in which all interested governmental and nongovernmental organisations without Observer status are listed. (2) Interested organisations in line with Paragraph 1 are advised in an appropriate manner of the activities of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee.

Article 6 The Permanent Committee may, according to Art.8 Para.4 of the Alpine Convention, invite governmental and nongovernmental organisations to specific sessions, also of the Working Groups in line with Art.13 of these Rules of Procedure.

Chapter IV Agenda Article 7 The draft agenda of any meeting as a rule contains: (1) Adoption of the agenda. (2) Adoption of the completed Minutes of Decisions from the previous meeting according to Art.19 Para.2 of these Rules of Procedure. (3) Admission of governmental and nongovernmental organisations. (4) Items to be discussed at the request of the Alpine Conference. (5) Items to be discussed at the request of the previous meeting. (6) Items of the agenda in line with Article 10 of these Rules of Procedure. (7) Any items of the agenda proposed by a Contracting Party to the Presidency and accepted by this prior to the submission of the draft agenda. (8) Any other business. (9) Adoption of the Minutes of Decisions according to Art.19 Para.1 of theses Rules of Procedure.

Article 8 The Presidency shall submit the draft agenda of any meeting, if possible, along with the meeting documents at least six weeks prior to the beginning of the meeting to the Contracting Parties and Observers as well as to the leaders of currently Working Groups in line with Art.13 of these Rules of Procedure.

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Permanent Committee - Rules of Procedure

(3) In this context a balanced representation of varied interests is to be ensured. (4) Observers in line with Paragraph 2 of this article may be partially or completely excluded from specific sessions.

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Article 9

Chapter VI

The Presidency shall add to the agenda prior to the meeting any item tabled by a Contracting Party after the submission of the draft agenda.

Presidency

Article 10 The agenda is adopted by the Permanent Committee.

Article 11 Any item that cannot be brought to a close at the meeting for which it is on the agenda shall, unless the Permanent Committee decides otherwise, be added to the agenda of the next meeting.

Chapter V Composition of the Delegations Article 12 (1) The Contracting Parties and Observers are represented by Delegations. (2) The Contracting Parties and Observers shall notify the Presidency of the Heads of their Delegations. The Heads of the Delegations shall notify the Presidency of the constitution of their Delegations with the Permanent Committee and the Working Groups according to Art.13 of these Rules of Procedure, as well as of any later changes to their constitution.

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Article 13 (1) The President shall take part in the meetings of the Permanent Committee exercising this function only and may not use during such meetings the rights of a Delegate of a Party, which, if necessary, shall be administered by another Delegate of the relevant Contracting Party. (2) In the event of the President being temporarily absent or unable to attend a meeting, he or she will appoint a proxy. The proxy may not while chairing a meeting use the rights of a Delegate of a Contracting Party.

Chapter VlI Working Groups and Ad-hoc Working Groups of the Permanent Committee Article 14 (1) The Permanent Committee shall, for the implementation of the Alpine Convention and for the preparation of decisions of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee, appoint Working Groups according to Art.6 (e) and Art.8 Para.6 (e) of the Alpine Convention and coordinate their activities. (2) Unless the Permanent Committee enacts special rules of procedure for a Working Group that it has appointed, this Working Group is subject to the


Rules of Procedure of the Permanent Committee where applicable. (3) It is for the Contracting Party that was entrusted with the leadership of a Working Group to perform the duties of Presidency according to Art.14 of the Rules of Procedure where applicable. (4) The leadership of a Working Group shall be entrusted by the Permanent Committee to a Contracting Party, which shall nominate the person to chair the Working Group and notifies this person the Contracting Parties and the observers (5) The leaders of current Working Groups shall be invited to sessions within the framework of the Permanent Committee whenever it appears expedient.

motion underlying the point of order raised is accepted if it is approved by two thirds of the Contracting Parties participating in the vote.

Article 15

Article 18

Whenever it considers necessary, the Permanent Committee may appoint Adhoc Working Groups and entrust them with specific tasks.

(1) Votes are taken by show of hands. (2) At the request of any Contracting Party a secret vote is taken. (3) An abstention does not according to Art.7 of the Alpine Convention count against unanimity. (4) Votes concerning points of order in line with Article 15 of these Rules of Procedure are always taken by show of hands.

Chairing of Meetings Article 16 In the course of debate the Contracting Parties have the right to raise a point of order at any time, which will be discussed immediately. In the case of several points of order the one diverging furthest from the procedure originally in question is discussed first. On any point of order raised, one Contracting Party can comment positively and one negatively. Unless the President can observe a consensus, the

Votes Article 17 For votes in the decision-making of the Permanent Committee in line with Arts.6 and 7 of the Alpine Convention as well as for decisions as to points of order in line with Article 15 of these Rules of Procedure, the presence of two thirds of the Contracting Parties is required.

Chapter X Languages

Permanent Committee - Rules of Procedure

Chapter VllI

Chapter lX

Article 19 (1) The Official Languages of the Alpine Conference are also the Official Languages of the Permanent Committee, the Working Groups in line with Art.13 and the Ad-hoc Working Groups in Alpine signals 1

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line with Art.14 of these Rules of Procedure. (2) Statements issued in one of the Official Languages shall be translated into the other Official Languages. (3) Official documents of the Permanent Committee shall be written in one of the Official Languages and translated into the other Official Languages.

Chapter Xl Minutes of Meeting of the Permanent Committee

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these Rules of Procedure. The minutes should include especially the following elements: - list of meeting participants - sources of the tabled motions - votes taken - declarations of decisions - any other declarations by Contracting Parties and Observers at their request in short form. (3) The Minutes of Decisions completed according to Para.2 of this Article shall be approved by the Permanent Committee at their next meeting.

Article 20

Chapter XlI

(1) At the end of any meeting the Permanent Committee approves minutes which contain the wording of the decisions made at this meeting (Minutes of Decisions). (2) Within one month, the President submits these Minutes of Decisions to the Contracting Parties and Observers as well as the leaders of the currently Working Groups in line with Art.13 of

Changes to the Rules of Procedure

Alpine signals 1

Article 21 The Permanent Committee may change these Rules of Procedure according to Art.8 Para.3 and Para.7 of the Alpine Convention.


Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention

On the following pages the decision VII/2 of the VII Alpine Conference in Merano - Meran from 19.-20.11.2002 is printed.

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Permanent Secretariat - Statute

Statute

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Conscious of the importance that is due to the implementation and further development of the Alpine Convention, Convinced of the prominent role that the Permanent Secretariat will play in this, In reference to Article 9 of the Alpine Convention and to the establishment of the Permanent Secretariat provided in Decision 7A adopted by the VI Alpine Conference, The VII Alpine Conference makes the following decision: 

A) Official seat of the Permanent Secretariat The Alpine Conference decides to establish the official seat of the Permanent Secretariat in Innsbruck with a branch office in Bolzano. The tasks shall be distributed as follows: In Innsbruck the following tasks shall be fulfilled: - Seat of the Secretary General and location of the political and administrative functions of the Secretariat, especially - representation of the Secretariat to the outside - public relations - political and content-related support to the Presidency In Bolzano the following functions shall be fulfilled: - technical/operational functions, especially in terms of the System for the Observation of and Information on the Alps (SOIA) - coordination of Alpine research (e.g. with Bolzano, Grenoble, Innsbruck, Lugano, and Munich) - translation tasks

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The Vice-Secretary General shall assume special responsibility for the Bolzano office. Activities in Bolzano shall be made possible partially by financial contributions on the part of the Italian Government and by the support of the European Academy of Bolzano.

B) Tasks 1) The Permanent Secretariat shall support the activities of the bodies established by the Alpine Convention. 2) According to the Statute contained in Enclosure I, the following main areas of responsibility reside with the Permanent Secretariat: a) content-related, logistical, and administrative support of the implementation of the Alpine Convention and its Protocols; b) coordination of research activities, observation, and information related to the Alps; c) public relations; d) administrative duties and archiving.

C) Right of Proposal

The Permanent Secretariat may within the framework of its responsibilities present to the Permanent Committee proposals as to any issues related to the Alpine Convention and its Protocols.

D) Appointment of the Secretary General, the Vice-Secretary General, and the Secretary General ad interim 1) The head of the Permanent Secretariat is the Secretary General.


E) Privileges and Immunities 1) It is the duty of the Secretary General to reach, acting on behalf of the Permanent Secretariat, a seat agreement with the state that is to provide the Permanent Secretariat with an official seat, and to conclude this agreement after approval by the Alpine Conference. 2) The Permanent Committee is charged with drafting a proposal as to the privileges and Immunities to be granted to the Secretary General, the Vice-Secretary General, and the staff of the Secretariat in the Contracting States of the Alpine Convention outside the state providing the Permanent Secretariat with an official seat.

F) Funding The funding of the Permanent Secretariat is provided according to the regulations contained in Enclosure III.

G) Final Clauses 1) Internal organisation and the tasks of the Permanent Secretariat are regulated by the Statute contained in Enclosure I.

2) The regulations concerning the Secretary General contained in the present decision apply mutatis mutandis to the Secretary General ad interim. 3) Enclosures I, II, and III are part of the present decision.

Enclosure I Statute of the Permanent Secretariat Article 1 Areas of responsibility of the Permanent Secretariat 1) The Permanent Secretariat shall fulfil its tasks in accordance with Section B of this decision and in accordance with the regulations hereinafter. 2) The Permanent Secretariat shall support the implementation of the Alpine Convention in terms of content-related issues, logistics, and administrative duties. In doing so, it shall fulfil the following functions especially: a) Forwarding the reports generated by the Contracting Parties for the Implementation of the Alpine Convention and its Protocols to the responsible Committee for Reviewing Compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Protocols; b) Supporting the responsible Committee for Reviewing Compliance with the Alpine Convention and its Protocols in generating its reports.

Permanent Secretariat - Statute

2) The Secretary General and the ViceSecretary General are appointed in accordance with the procedure contained in Enclosure II. 3) As Secretary General ad interim Noel Lebel is appointed; he shall remain in office until the VIII Alpine Conference. 4) In this respect the Ministers shall come to an agreement in accordance with the specifications in Enclosure IV.

3) The Permanent Secretariat is responsible for coordinating research activiAlpine signals 1

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ties as well as observation and information concerning the Alps. In this context it fulfils the following functions: a) central point of coordination for the System for the Observation of and Information on the Alps (SOIA); b) cooperation in the conducting of surveys and research tasks decided by the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee, c) harmonisation of research and observation activities, and of pertinent data collection; d) Coordination with other international institutions active in the field. 4) The Permanent Secretariat is responsible for public relations. This includes the following tasks especially: a) maintenance of the Alpine Conventionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s websites; b) information on activities within the framework of the Alpine Convention; c) responding to inquiries on the part of the public; d) responding to inquiries submitted by the Contracting Parties; e) contact with other international institutions active in the field. 5) The Permanent Secretariat is in charge of administrative duties and archiving. This includes fulfilling the following tasks especially: a) preparation and organisation, in coordination with the Presidency of the Alpine Conference, of ordinary and extraordinary meetings of the Alpine Conference (Article 5 Paragraphs 2 an 6 of the Convention), of sessions of the Permanent Committee (Article 8), as well as of mee-

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tings of the bodies established by the Alpine Convention if the respective decision by the Alpine Conference or the Permanent Committee provides so; b) taking minutes of meetings and sessions of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee, and of sessions within the framework of the bodies established by the Alpine Convention if the respective decision by the Alpine Conference or the Permanent Committee provides so; c) ensuring of translation and interpretation into the Official Languages of the Alpine Convention; d) keeping of the Archive, and ensuring appropriate access to the documents contained in it; e) forwarding relevant documents to the Alpine Conference, to the Permanent Committee, and to the other Contracting Parties; 6) Moreover, the Permanent Secretariat is in charge of any areas of responsibility assigned to it according to the Alpine Convention and its Protocols, and by the Alpine Conference. 7) Within the framework of these areas of responsibility, the Permanent Committee may assign specific tasks to the Permanent Secretariat.


Article 2 Constitution of the Permanent Secretariat 1) The Permanent Secretariat is constituted of one Secretary General, one ViceSecretary General, and four staff members.

5) The Secretary General shall compile an annual report of the activities of the Permanent Secretariat for the attention of the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee.

Article 4

Article 3 Secretary General 1) The Secretary General shall be appointed in accordance with the regulations contained in Enclosure II of this decision. 2) The Secretary General is the head of the Permanent Secretariat; he/she leads all activities of the Permanent Secretariat and is responsible for them. 3) The Secretary General shall represent the Permanent Secretariat to the outside and is authorised to enter into private law contracts, and to perform further legal acts in line with the respective national legal system which are necessary for fulfilling the responsibilities of the Permanent Secretariat. 4) The Secretary General shall in accordance with Article 6 of the present Statute and the regulations contained in Enclosure III of this decision administrate the funds allocated to the Permanent Secretariat.

1) The Vice-Secretary General shall be appointed in accordance with the regulations contained in Enclosure II of this decision. 2) The Vice-Secretary General shall support the Secretary General in the fulfilment of his duties and act in place of him/her in case of his/her being prevented.

Article 5 Staff 1) The Secretary General shall hire the staff. In choosing the staff of the Permanent Secretariat, equal consideration of all Official Languages of the Alpine Convention is to be ensured.

Permanent Secretariat - Statute

Vice-Secretary General 2) The Permanent Secretariat may consult external experts.

Article 6 Financial Administration of the Permanent Secretariat 1) The Secretary General shall draw up an annual budget and balance sheet, and submit them to the Alpine Conference and the Permanent Committee. Alpine signals 1

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2) The Permanent Committee shall review the budget and the balance sheet and forward their possible annotations to the Alpine Conference. 3) The Permanent Committee may at any time entrust an independent agency with the reviewing of the financial administration of the Permanent Secretariat. 4) The Alpine Conference shall approve the budget and the annual balance sheet.

Article 7 Final Clauses 1) The Secretary General, the Vice-Secretary General, and the staff of the Permanent Secretariat are independent in the exercise of their office and may not accept instructions either by the Contracting Parties or third parties. 2) Moreover, the employment relationship between the Permanent Secretariat on the one hand and the Secretary General, the Vice-Secretary General, and the staff on the other hand is subject to the national legislation of the state providing the Permanent Secretariat with a seat unless the seat agreement with this state contains contrary regulations.

Enclosure II Procedure for the Appointment of the Secretary General and the Vice-Secretary General Article 1 Search for Candidates 1) The Contracting Parties shall, based on a common international advertisement and recruitment procedure, conduct a search for candidates on their respective territory. The search for candidates shall follow the principles of transparency and efficiency. The international advertisement and recruitment procedure shall be prepared and conducted under the supervision of the Permanent Secretariat. 2) The Permanent Committee may establish a Working Group for shortlisting the most qualified candidates.

Article 2 Appointment The Alpine Conference shall unanimously appoint one of the candidates presented in accordance with Article 1 Secretary General.

Article 3 Term of Office The Secretary General shall take office within three months after the Alpine Confe-

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Article 4 Election of the Vice-Secretary General

Funding of the Permanent Secretariat Article 1

Switzerland (CH)

Germany (D)

France (F)

Liechtenstein (FL)

Italy (I)

Monaco (MC)

Slovenia (SLO)

1) The annual budget of the Permanent Secretariat for the years 2003 and 2004 amounts to 800,000 â&#x201A;Ź (Euros) each. This amount may be re-stipulated after presenting a new budget estimate. The financial year of the Permanent Secretariat begins on 1 January each year. 2) The annual budget as specified in Paragraph 1 is divided into contribution percentages among the Contracting Parties according to the distribution basis represented by the table below. 3) At the request of one or several Contracting Parties this distribution basis may be altered by the Alpine Conference on the occasion of its VII meeting or at a later date. The distribution basis remains in force until the next, diver-

Austria (A)

1) The Vice-Secretary General is appointed by the Permanent Committee at the request of the Secretary General. Secretary General and Vice-Secretary General must not be of the same nationality. 2) During the appointment procedure it must be ensured that the positions of Secretary General and Vice-Secretary General be not, if possible, newly filled at the same time. 3) Moreover, the regulations contained within this enclosure apply analogously to the Vice-Secretary General.

Enclosure III

% per state

24.5

14.5

8.5

18

2

26.5

2

4

100

Total amount per state

196,000

116,000

68,000

144,000

16,000

212,000

16,000

32,000

800,000

Alpine signals 1

Permanent Secretariat - Statute

rence at which he/she was appointed. The term of office has a duration of four years and may be extended by two years once only. Article 2 of this enclosure applies to the extension analogously. The Secretary General shall remain in office until the taking office of his/her successor.

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ging decision of the Alpine Conference. 4) The contributions for the funding of the Permanent Secretariat shall be transferred as soon as possible in order to guarantee its continued functionality.

Article 2

Article 1 The Ministers agree on entrusting the French candidate with the function of interim Secretary General of the Alpine Convention.

1) Voluntary contributions may be submitted by the Contracting Parties at any time and used for funding specific activities. These contributions may also be accomplished in non-pecuniary form. 2) Contributions must be paid in Euro currency directly into the account of the Secretariat.

Italy withdraws its reservation against the implementation mechanism.

Article 3

Italy shall fund one expert to work in Bolzano who shall be appointed by Slovenia.

The annual gross salary of the Secretary General amounts to 70,000 to 100,000 â&#x201A;Ź. The exact amount of his/her payment shall be stipulated by the Permanent Committee after his/her appointment.

Article 4 The salary of the Secretary General shall be stipulated after the conclusion of the seat agreement.

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Enclosure IV

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The Ministers stipulate that the Vice-Secretary General in office at the same time as the interim Secretary General must be a person of German mother tongue, and one staff member of the Secretariat a person of Slovene mother tongue.


Agreement between the Republic of Austria and Permanent Secretariat of the Convention for the Protection of the Alps on its Official Seat

Official seat agreement with Austria

The establishment of the Permanent Secretariat in Innsbruck required concluding a seat agreement with the Republic of Austria. This Official Seat Agreement was solemnly signed in June 2003.

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Präambel

Artikel 1 Begriffsbestimmungen

Unter Bezugnahme auf das am 7. November 1991 in Salzburg unterzeichnete Übereinkommen zum Schutz der Alpen (Alpenkonvention), das in Artikel 9 vorsieht, dass die Alpenkonferenz mit Einstimmigkeit die Errichtung eines Ständigen Sekretariats der Alpenkonvention beschließen kann; unter Bezugnahme auf den Beschluss 7A der VI. Alpenkonferenz vom 31. Oktober 2000, mit dem die Errichtung des Ständigen Sekretariats beschlossen wurde; unter Bezugnahme auf den Beschluss VII/2 der VII. Alpenkonferenz vom 19. November 2002, mit dem die Einrichtung des Sitzes des Ständigen Sekretariats in Innsbruck mit einer Außenstelle in Bozen festgelegt und der Generalsekretär beauftragt wird, im Namen des Ständigen Sekretariats ein Amtssitzabkommen mit dem Sitzstaat des Ständigen Sekretariats zu verhandeln und nach Genehmigung durch die Alpenkonferenz abzuschließen; und im Bestreben, den Status sowie die Privilegien und Immunitäten des Ständigen Sekretariats in der Republik Österreich festzulegen und dem Ständigen Sekretariat die Wahrnehmung seiner Aufgaben und Funktionen zu erleichtern; sind die Republik Österreich und das Ständige Sekretariat des Übereinkommens zum Schutz der Alpen wie folgt überein­ gekommen:

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In diesem Abkommen: a) bezeichnet der Begriff „zuständige österreichische Behörden“ die Bundes-, Landes-, Gemeinde- und sonstigen Behörden der Republik Österreich, die je nach dem Zusammenhang und gemäß den in der Republik Österreich geltenden Gesetzen und Übungen zuständig sind; b) bezeichnet der Begriff „Alpenkonvention“ das am 7. November 1991 in Salzburg unterzeichnete Überein­kommen zum Schutz der Alpen (Alpen­ konvention); c) bezeichnet der Begriff „das Ständige Sekretariat“ das Ständige Sekretariat der Alpenkonvention; d) bezeichnet der Begriff „Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats“ alle Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats einschließlich des Generalsekretärs und des Vizegeneralsekretärs mit Ausnahme des an Ort und Stelle aufgenommenen und nach Stundenlohn bezahlten Personals; e) bezeichnet der Begriff „Angestellte des Ständigen Sekretariats“ alle Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats sowie alle im Dienste einer Regierung oder einer Internationalen Organisation stehenden und von dieser an das Ständige Sekretariat entsandten ­Personen; f) bezeichnet der Begriff „amtliche Tätigkeiten“ alle Tätigkeiten, die das Ständige Sekretariat in Ausübung der ihm von der Alpenkonferenz übertragenen Aufgaben durchführt;


Artikel 2 Rechtspersönlichkeit Die Republik Österreich anerkennt die Rechtspersönlichkeit des Ständigen ­Sekretariates. Es hat insbesondere die ­Fähigkeit: a) Verträge abzuschließen; b) unbewegliche und bewegliche Vermögenswerte zu erwerben und zu ver­ äußern; c) Gerichtsverfahren anzustrengen oder zu erwidern und d) andere Handlungen zu setzen, die für die Durchführung seiner Aufgaben notwendig oder nützlich sind.

Artikel 3

ne Sitzungen benützt wird, gilt als zeitweilig in den Amtssitzbereich ein­ bezogen.

Artikel 4 Unverletzlichkeit des Amtssitzes (1) Der Amtssitz des Ständigen Sekretariats ist unverletzlich. Kein Beamter oder Vertreter der Republik Österreich noch sonst irgendeine in der Republik Österreich Hoheitsrechte ausübende Person darf, außer mit der Zustimmung des Generalsekretärs des Ständigen Sekretariats und unter Einhaltung der von ihm festgelegten Bedingungen, den Amtssitz betreten und dort Amtshandlungen setzen. (2) Das Ständige Sekretariat wird verhindern, dass der Amtssitz Personen als Zuflucht dient, die sich der Verhaftung auf Grund eines Gesetzes der Republik Österreich entziehen wollen, die diese an ein anderes Land ausliefern will oder die gerichtlichen Vollzugshandlungen zu entgehen versuchen. (3) Soweit sich aus der Alpenkonvention oder diesem Abkommen nichts anderes ergibt, gelten im Amtssitzbereich die Gesetze der Republik Österreich.

Amtssitz

Artikel 5

(1) Der Amtssitz des Ständigen Sekretariats ist in Innsbruck; es hat eine Außenstelle in Bozen. (2) Jedes Gebäude in Innsbruck oder außerhalb Innsbrucks, das im Einvernehmen mit der Republik Österreich für vom Ständigen Sekretariat einberufe-

Befreiung von Gerichtsbarkeit und ­anderen Maßnahmen

Official seat agreement with Austria

g) bezeichnet der Begriff „amtliche Besucher“ die gemäß der Alpenkonvention oder vom Ständigen Sekretariat eingeladenen Vertreter von Regierungen Internationalen Organisationen und grenzüberschreitenden Zusammenschlüssen alpiner Gebietskörper­ schaften.

(1) Das Ständige Sekretariat ist mit Ausnahme der folgenden Fälle von Gerichtsbarkeit und Vollzugshandlungen befreit: Alpine signals 1

233


a) wenn das Ständige Sekretariat in einem bestimmten Fall ausdrück­ lich auf eine solche Befreiung verzichtet hat; b) wenn gegen das Ständige Sekretariat durch Dritte eine zivilrechtliche Klage auf Schadenersatz nach einem Verkehrsunfall mit einem im Besitz des Ständigen Sekretariats befindlichen oder in seinem Auftrag betriebenen Kraftfahrzeug oder aufgrund einer anderen Übertretung von Bestimmungen über den Besitz, Betrieb oder Einsatz von Kraftfahrzeugen eingebracht wird; c) wenn es aufgrund einer richterlichen Entscheidung zu einer Pfändung der vom Ständigen Sekretariat an einen Angestellten zu zahlenden Gehälter, Bezüge oder Entschädigungen kommt und das Ständige Sekretariat den österreichischen Behörden nicht innerhalb von 14 Tagen nach Kenntnisnahme von der betreffenden Entscheidung mitteilt, dass es auf seine Immunität nicht verzichtet. d) in allen Streitigkeiten arbeitsrechtlicher Natur zwischen dem Stän­ digen Sekretariat und seinen ­Angestellten.

(2) Unbeschadet der Bestimmungen der Absätze 1 und 3 gelten das Eigentum und die Vermögenswerte des Ständigen Sekretariats unabhängig von ihrem Standort als von allen Formen der Beschlagnahme, Einziehung, Enteignung oder Zwangsverwaltung befreit. (3) Das Eigentum und die Vermögenswerte des Ständigen Sekretariats sind ebenfalls von jedem behördlichen Zwang oder jeder Maßnahme, die ei-

234

Alpine signals 1

nem Urteil vorausgehen, befreit, es sei denn, dass dies im Zusammenhang mit der Verhinderung und gegebenenfalls der Untersuchung von Unfällen, an denen dem Ständigen Sekretariat gehörende oder für dieses betriebene Motorfahrzeuge beteiligt sind, vorübergehend notwendig ist.

Artikel 6 Unverletzlichkeit der Archive Die Archive des Ständigen Sekretariats sowie alle Dokumente und Datenträger, die ihm gehören oder sich in seinem Besitz befinden, sind unverletzlich.

Artikel 7 Schutz des Amtssitzbereichs Die zuständigen österreichischen Behörden werden entsprechende Vorsorge treffen, um zu gewährleisten, dass die Ruhe des Amtssitzbereichs nicht durch Personen oder Personengruppen gestört wird, die diesen ohne Erlaubnis zu betreten ­versuchen.

Artikel 8 Öffentliche Leistungen im Amtssitzbereich (1) Die Republik Österreich trifft entsprechende Maßnahmen, um die Versorgung des Amtssitzes mit den not­ wendigen öffentlichen Leistungen zu


Artikel 9 Nachrichtenverkehr (1) Die Republik Österreich trägt dafür Sorge, dass das Ständige Sekretariat in der Lage ist, Mitteilungen in Verbindung mit seinen amtlichen Tätigkeiten ohne Zensur oder andere Eingriffe zu versenden und zu empfangen. (2) Das Ständige Sekretariat genießt in der Republik Österreich im Hinblick auf alle seine amtlichen Mitteilungen und auf die Übermittlung aller seiner Schriftstücke Bedingungen, die nicht weniger vorteilhaft sind, als die günstigsten Bedingungen, die die Republik Österreich anderen Internationalen Organisationen hinsichtlich der Gewährung von Vorzugsbehandlungen, Tarifen und Sondergebühren für Postsendungen, telegraphische Mitteilungen, Funktelegramme, Faxnachrichten, Telephongespräche oder andere Kommunikationsformen gewährt.

Artikel 10 Befreiung von Steuern und Zöllen ­sowie andere Maßnahmen (1) Das Ständige Sekretariat und sein Eigentum sind nach Maßgabe der nachfolgenden Bestimmungen von allen Formen der Besteuerung befreit. (2) Indirekte Steuern, die in den Preisen der an das Ständige Sekretariat gelieferten Waren oder Dienstleistungen, einschließlich Miet- und Leasingkosten, enthalten sind, werden dem Ständigen Sekretariat insoweit rückerstattet, als dies für diplomatische Vertretungen in Österreich vorgesehen ist. (3) Alle Rechtsgeschäfte, an denen das Ständige Sekretariat beteiligt ist, und alle in Verbindung mit solchen Rechtsgeschäften stehenden Schriftstücke sind von Steuern sowie Beurkundungs- und Gerichtsgebühren befreit. (4) Alle Waren, einschließlich Dienstfahrzeuge und Ersatzteile dazu, die vom Ständigen Sekretariat für amtliche Zwecke ein- oder ausführt werden, sind von Zöllen und sonstigen Abgaben befreit, soweit diese nicht bloß Gebühren für erbrachte öffentliche Leis­tungen sind, sowie von allen wirtschaftlichen Ein- und Ausfuhrverboten und -beschränkungen ausgenommen. Die Republik Österreich stellt dem Ständigen Sekretariat für jedes von ihm gehaltene Fahrzeug ein Diplomatenkennzeichen zur Verfügung, das dieses Fahrzeug als amtliches Fahrzeug einer Internationalen Organisation ausweist. (5) Waren, die gemäß Absatz 4 eingeführt wurden, dürfen vom Ständigen Sekretariat innerhalb eines Zeitraumes von Alpine signals 1

Official seat agreement with Austria

an­gemessenen Bedingungen zu­ ge­währleis­ten. (2) Der Generalsekretär des Ständigen Sekretariats wird über Ersuchen die erforderlichen Vorkehrungen treffen, um den gehörig bevollmächtigten Vertretern der zuständigen öffentlichen Einrichtungen zu ermöglichen, die Anlagen, Leitungen, Netze und Kanalanlagen im Amtssitzbereich zu überprüfen, instand zu setzen, instand zu halten, wiederherzustellen oder zu verlegen, und zwar in einer Weise, dass dadurch die amtliche Tätigkeit nicht über Gebühr gestört wird.

235


zwei Jahren nach ihrer Einfuhr weder verliehen, verpfändet, vermietet, veräußert noch überlassen werden, andernfalls die Abgaben nach den zum Zeitpunkt der Verfügung geltenden Bemessungsgrundlagen erhoben ­werden. (6) Das Ständige Sekretariat ist von der Verpflichtung zur Entrichtung des Dienstgeberbeitrages zum Ausgleichfonds für Familienbeihilfen oder an eine Einrichtung mit gleichartigen Funktionen befreit.

Artikel 11 Finanzeinrichtungen Die Republik Österreich trägt dafür Sorge, dass das Ständige Sekretariat in der Lage ist: a) Währungsguthaben und Wertpapiere auf gesetzlich zulässigem Weg zu erwerben und zu erhalten sowie solche zu besitzen oder zu veräußern; b) Bankkonten in jeder beliebigen Währung zu eröffnen und zu unterhalten, und c) seine Einlagen, Wertpapiere und Währungsguthaben nach, aus oder in die Republik Österreich zu transferieren.

Artikel 12 Sozialversicherung (1) Das Ständige Sekretariat und seine Angestellten sind von allen Pflichtbeiträgen an die Sozialversicherungsein-

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Alpine signals 1

richtungen der Republik Österreich befreit. (2) Die Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats haben das Recht, jedem einzelnen Zweig der Kranken-, Unfall- und Pensionsversicherung sowie der Arbeitslosenversicherung beizutreten. Diese Versicherung hat die gleichen Rechtswirkungen wie eine Pflichtversicherung. (3) Die Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats können das Recht nach Absatz 2 binnen drei Monaten nach In-KraftTreten dieses Artikels oder binnen drei Monaten nach dem Beginn ihres Beschäftigungsverhältnisses beim Ständigen Sekretariat durch Abgabe einer schriftlichen Erklärung geltend ­machen. (4) Die Versicherung nach Absatz 2 beginnt in dem gewählten Zweig mit dem Beginn der Beschäftigung beim Ständigen Sekretariat, wenn die Erklärung binnen sieben Tagen nach Inkrafttreten dieses Artikels oder nach Beginn der Beschäftigung abgegeben wird, sonst mit dem der Abgabe der Erklärung nächstfolgenden Tag. (5) Die Versicherung endet mit dem Ende der Beschäftigung beim Ständigen ­Sekretariat. (6) Die Mitarbeiter des Ständigen Sekretariats haben für die Dauer der Versicherung die Beiträge zur Gänze an die ­Tiroler Gebietskrankenkasse zu entrichten. (7) Die nach Absatz 3 abzugebenden Erklärungen werden vom Ständigen Sekretariat der Tiroler Gebietskrankenkasse übermittelt. Das Ständige Sekretariat erteilt der Tiroler Gebietskrankenkasse auf Ersuchen die für die Durch-


Artikel 13 Durchreise und Aufenthalt (1) Die Republik Österreich trifft Vorsorge dafür, dass den unten angeführten Personen die Einreise nach und der Aufenthalt in der Republik Österreich ermöglicht wird, dass sie die Republik Österreich ohne Probleme verlassen und unbehindert vom oder zum Amtssitz reisen können und dass bei diesen Reisen der notwendige Schutz gewährleistet wird: a) der Generalsekretär und die im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen und sonstige Haushaltsangehörige; b) die Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats und die im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienan­ gehörigen; c) die amtlichen Besucher und d) die Sachverständigen. (2) Die für die in Absatz 1 genannten Personen erforderlichen Sichtvermerke werden kostenlos und so rasch wie möglich bewilligt. (3) Keine von einer in Absatz 1 genannten Person in amtlicher Funktion im Rahmen des Ständigen Sekretariats verrichtete Tätigkeit darf als Grund dafür verwendet werden, dieser Person die Einreise nach bzw. die Ausreise aus der Republik Österreich zu verweigern. (4) Die Republik Österreich hat das Recht, einen ausreichenden Nachweis dafür

zu verlangen, dass Personen, die eines der in diesem Artikel genannten Rechte in Anspruch nehmen wollen, einer der in Absatz 1 beschriebenen Kate­gorien angehören, und zu verlangen, dass den Quarantäne- und Gesundheitsvorschriften in angemessener Form entsprochen wird.

Artikel 14 Angestellte des Ständigen Sekretariats (1) Die Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats genießen in und gegenüber der Republik Österreich folgende Privilegien und Immunitäten: a) Befreiung von jeglicher Gerichtsbarkeit in Bezug auf die in Ausübung ihrer amtlichen Funktionen gemachten mündlichen oder schriftlichen Äußerungen und gesetzten Handlungen, wobei diese Befreiung auch dann weiterbesteht, wenn die betreffenden Personen nicht mehr Angestellte des Ständigen Sekretariats sind; diese Befreiung gilt nicht für Streitigkeiten arbeitsrechtlicher Natur zwischen dem Ständigen Sekretariat und ­seinen Angestellten; b) Unverletzlichkeit aller amtlichen Schriftstücke, Daten und sonstigen Materialien; c) Schutz vor Beschlagnahme ihres privaten und ihres dienstlichen Gepäcks und Schutz vor Durchsuchung des Dienstgepäcks und, falls der/die Angestellte unter Artikel 15 fällt und nicht österreichische(r) Staatsbürger(in) ist oder seinen/ihren ständigen Wohnsitz in der ReAlpine signals 1

Official seat agreement with Austria

führung der Versicherung erforderlichen Auskünfte.

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publik Österreich hat, auch des privaten Gepäcks; d) Befreiung von der Besteuerung von Gehältern, Bezügen einschließlich Zulagen, Entlohnungen, Entschädigungen und Ruhegenüssen, die sie vom Ständigen Sekretariat für ihre Dienste erhalten; diese Ausnahme gilt auch für alle Unterstützungen an die Familien der Angestellten; e) Befreiung von allen Formen der Besteuerung der Einkünfte, die sie oder ihre im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen aus Quellen außerhalb der Republik Österreich beziehen; f) Befreiung von der Erbschafts- und Schenkungssteuer (außer für inländische Liegenschaften), sofern eine Verpflichtung zur Bezahlung solcher Steuern allein aus dem Umstand entsteht, dass die Angestellten und ihre im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen ihren gewöhnlichen Aufenthalt in der Republik Österreich genommen haben oder beibehalten; g) Befreiung von Einwanderungsbeschränkungen und von der Ausländerregistrierung für sich selbst und für die im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen und weiteren Haushaltsangehörigen; h) die Befugnis, in der Republik Österreich ausländische Wertpapiere, Guthaben in fremden Währungen, andere bewegliche sowie, unter den gleichen Bedingungen wie für österreichische Staatsbürger, auch unbewegliche Vermögenswerte zu erwerben und zu besitzen, weiters das Recht, nach Beendigung ihres Dienstverhältnisses beim StändiAlpine signals 1

gen Sekretariat unbehindert ihre Zahlungsmittel in der gleichen Währung und bis zu denselben Beträgen wieder auszuführen, wie sie sie in die Republik Österreich eingeführt haben; i) das Recht, zum persönlichen Gebrauch frei von Zöllen und sonstigen Abgaben, soweit diese nicht bloß Gebühren für erbrachte öffentliche Leistungen sind, sowie frei von wirtschaftlichen Einfuhrverboten und –beschränkungen Folgendes einzuführen: i) innerhalb eines Jahres ab ihrem ersten Dienstantritt ihre Wohnungseinrichtung, Gebrauchsgegenstände und sonstiges Übersiedlungsgut in einem oder mehreren getrennten Transporten und ii) alle vier Jahre ein Kraftfahrzeug; j) den gleichen Schutz und die gleichen Repatriierungsmöglichkeiten für sich selbst und ihre im selben Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen, wie sie den Mitgliedern vergleichbaren Ranges des Personals der bei der Republik Österreich beglaubigten Leiter von diplomatischen Vertretungen in Zeiten internationaler Krisen eingeräumt werden; k) die Möglichkeit eines bevorzugten Zuganges zum Arbeitsmarkt für ihre im selben Haushalt lebenden Ehepartner und unterhaltsberechtigten Angehörigen im Einklang mit den österreichischen gesetzlichen Bestimmungen, unter der Voraussetzung, dass bei Aufnahme einer Erwerbstätigkeit die in diesem Abkommen angeführten Privilegien


(2) Die Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats sowie deren im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebende Familienmitglieder, auf die sich das Abkommen bezieht, sind von den Geldleistungen aus dem Ausgleichsfonds für Familienbeihilfen oder einer Einrichtung mit gleichartigen Funktionen ausgeschlossen. Dies gilt nicht, wenn diese Personen österreichische Staatsbürger oder durch gemeinschaftsrechtliche Bestimmungen gleichgestellte Staatsangehörige eines EU- oder EWR -Mitgliedstaates oder Staatenlose mit Wohnsitz in Österreich sind.

Artikel 15 Der Generalsekretär des Ständigen ­Sekretariats Neben den in Artikel 14 genannten Privilegien und Immunitäten genießen der Generalsekretär des Ständigen Sekretariats sowie höherrangige Mitarbeiter in Vertretung des Generalsekretärs während dessen Abwesenheit, die gleichen Privilegien und Immunitäten, Befreiungen und Möglichkeiten, wie sie auch den Leitern bzw. Mitgliedern vergleichbaren Ranges von diplomatischen Vertretungen eingeräumt werden, sofern sie nicht österreichische Staatsbürger sind oder ihren ständigen Wohnsitz in der Republik Österreich haben.

Artikel 16 Amtliche Besucher (1) Amtliche Besucher genießen gegenüber der Republik Österreich die folgenden Privilegien und Immunitäten: a) Befreiung von jeglicher Gerichtsbarkeit hinsichtlich aller von ihnen in Ausübung ihrer amtlichen Tätigkeit gemachten mündlichen oder schriftlichen Äußerungen und gesetzten Handlungen, wobei diese Befreiung auch dann weiterbesteht, wenn die betreffende Person nicht mehr amtlicher Besucher ist; b) Unverletzlichkeit aller amtlichen Schriftstücke, Daten und sonstiger Materialien; c) Schutz vor Beschlagnahme ihres privaten und ihres Dienstgepäcks. (2) In den Fällen, in denen der Anfall einer Steuer vom Aufenthalt abhängt, werden Zeiträume, während deren sich die in Absatz 1 genannten Personen zur Erfüllung ihrer Aufgaben in der Republik Österreich aufhalten, nicht als Aufenthaltszeiträume angesehen. Diese Personen sind insbesondere von der Steuerzahlung für ihre vom Ständigen Sekretariat bezahlten Bezüge und Spesen während eines derartigen Zeit­raumes sowie von allen Fremdenverkehrsabgaben befreit.

Official seat agreement with Austria

und Immunitäten auf eine solche Tätigkeit keine Anwendung finden. Dieses Privileg wird gemäß dem Annex eingeräumt.

Artikel 17 Sachverständige Sachverständige genießen bei der Ausübung ihrer Tätigkeit für das Ständige Sekretariat oder bei der Ausführung von AufAlpine signals 1

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trägen für dieses gegenüber der Republik Österreich dieselben Privilegien und Immunitäten wie die amtlichen Besucher nach Artikel 16, soweit dies für die Ausübung ihrer Tätigkeiten notwendig ist. Zusätzlich sind Sachverständige und ihre im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen von Einwanderungsbeschränkungen und von der Ausländerregistrierung befreit.

ihren ständigen Wohnsitz in Österreich haben, genießen nur die in Artikel 12, Artikel 14 Absatz 1 lit. a), b), c) mit den darin vorgesehenen Einschränkungen, und d) und Artikel 16 Absatz 1 lit. a), b) und c) angeführten Privilegien und Immunitäten.

Artikel 20 Zweck der Privilegien und Immunitäten

Artikel 18 Notifikation von Anstellungen, ­Lichtbildausweise (1) Das Ständige Sekretariat übermittelt den zuständigen österreichischen Behörden eine Liste der Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats und revidiert diese regelmäßig. (2) Die Republik Österreich stellt den Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats und ihren im gemeinsamen Haushalt lebenden Familienangehörigen sowie den weiteren Haushaltsangehörigen nach Maßgabe der österreichischen Rechtsvorschriften einen Lichtbildausweis, der mit dem Lichtbild des Inhabers versehen ist, zur Verfügung. Dieser Ausweis dient zur Legitimierung des Inhabers gegenüber den zuständigen österreichischen Behörden.

Artikel 19

Artikel 21

Österreichische Staatsbürger und ­Personen mit ständigem Wohnsitz in der Republik Österreich

Streitbeilegung

Österreichische Staatsbürger und Personen, die zum Zeitpunkt ihres Dienstantritts

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(1) Die in diesem Abkommen gewährten Privilegien und Immunitäten dienen nicht dazu, den Angestellten oder amtlichen Besuchern des Ständigen Sekretariats persönliche Vorteile zu verschaffen. Sie werden lediglich gewährt, um damit dem Ständigen Sekretariat zu allen Zeiten die ungestörte Ausübung seiner amtlichen Tätigkeiten zu ermöglichen und um sicherzustellen, dass die Personen, denen sie eingeräumt werden, vollkommen unabhängig sind. (2) Das Ständige Sekretariat verpflichtet sich, auf die Immunität zu verzichten, wenn es der Auffassung ist, dass diese Immunität den normalen Gang der Rechtspflege behindern würde und dass ein solcher Verzicht die Interessen des Ständigen Sekretariats nicht beeinträchtigt.

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Alle Meinungsverschiedenheiten zwischen der Republik Österreich und dem Ständigen Sekretariat über die Auslegung oder Anwendung dieses Abkommens oder über


Artikel 22 Meistbegünstigung Sofern und insoweit die Regierung mit einer vergleichbaren zwischenstaatlichen Organisation ein Abkommen trifft, das Bestimmungen oder Bedingungen enthält, die für die betreffende Organisation günsti-

ger sind als die entsprechenden Bestimmungen oder Bedingungen dieses Abkommens, dehnt die Regierung mittels eines Zusatzabkommens diese günstigeren Bestimmungen oder Bedingungen auch auf das Ständige Sekretariat aus.

Artikel 23 Inkrafttreten und Dauer des ­Abkommens (1) Dieses Abkommen wird auf unbestimmte Zeit geschlossen und tritt am ersten Tag des dritten Monats nachdem die Republik Österreich und das Ständige Sekretariat einander den Abschluss der für das In-Kraft-Treten erforderlichen Verfahren mitgeteilt haben, in Kraft. Die Artikel 10, 12 Absatz 1, 14, 16, 17, 19 und 20 dieses Abkommens treten nach Ablauf der im ersten Satz genannten Frist mit 1. Jänner 2003 rückwirkend in Kraft. (2) Dieses Abkommen tritt bei Beendigung der Alpenkonvention außer Kraft. (3) Dieses Abkommen kann von jeder der beiden Parteien unter Einhaltung einer sechsmonatigen Frist schriftlich gekündigt werden. Geschehen in Innsbruck am 24.6.2003, in zwei Fassungen in deutscher Sprache.

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Official seat agreement with Austria

irgendeine andere Frage hinsichtlich des Amtssitzes oder des Verhältnisses zwischen dem Ständigen Sekretariat und der Republik Österreich, welche nicht im Verhandlungswege oder nach einem anderen einvernehmlich festgelegten Verfahren beigelegt werden, sind zur endgültigen Entscheidung einem aus drei Schiedsrichtern zusammengesetzten Schiedsgericht zu unterbreiten; von diesen ist einer vom Ständigen Sekretariat, einer vom Bundesminister für auswärtige Angelegenheiten der Republik Österreich und ein dritter, der als Vorsitzender des Schiedsgerichtes fungiert, von den beiden ersten Schiedsrichtern auszuwählen. Können die beiden ersten Schiedsrichter innerhalb von sechs Monaten nach ihrer Ernennung keine Einigung hinsichtlich des dritten Schiedsrichters erzielen, so wird dieser auf Ersuchen der Republik Österreich oder des Ständigen Sekretariats vom Präsidenten des In­ ternationalen Gerichtshofes ausgewählt.

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Annex Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt 1. Die Ehegatten der Angestellten des Ständigen Sekretariats und deren Kinder bis zu einem Alter von 21 Jahren haben unter der Voraussetzung, dass sie mit dem Ziel der Familienzusammenführung nach Österreich kamen und mit dem Hauptberechtigten des gemäß Art. 18 ausgestellten Lichtbild­ ausweises einen gemeinsamen Haushalt bilden, bevorzugten Zugang zum Arbeitsmarkt. Die Definition „Angestellte des Ständigen Sekretariats“ gemäß Art. 1 lit. e trägt der spezifischen Struktur des Ständigen Sekretariats Rechnung. Diese Familienmitglieder werden in Folge als Begünstigte bezeichnet. 2. Die nach Punkt 1 Begünstigten erhalten auf Antrag vom Bundesministerium für auswärtige Angelegenheiten eine Bescheinigung, aus der hervorgeht, dass sie dem nach dem Abkommen bevorzugt zu behandelnden Personenkreis angehören. Die Ausstellung der Bescheinigung ist an kein konkretes Arbeitsplatzangebot gebunden. Die Bescheinigung gilt für das gesamte österreichische Bundesgebiet und verliert ihre Gültigkeit, wenn der Lichtbildausweis seine Gültigkeit verliert. 3. Einem Arbeitgeber, der den Inhaber einer Bescheinigung zu beschäftigen beabsichtigt, wird auf Antrag eine Beschäftigungsbewilligung erteilt, sofern die Beschäftigung nicht in einem Arbeitsmarktsektor oder in einer Region aufgenommen werden soll, wo laut Arbeitsmarktservice gravierende Arbeitsmarktprobleme bestehen. Die Be-

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schäftigungsbewilligung kann auch nach Überschreitung der gesetzlich festgelegten Bundeshöchstzahl für die Beschäftigung von ausländischen Arbeitskräften erteilt werden. 4. Die Ausstellung der Beschäftigungsbewilligung erfolgt durch die regionale Geschäftsstelle des Arbeitsmarktservice, in deren Sprengel der in Aussicht genommene Beschäftigungsort liegt, bei wechselndem Beschäftigungsort von der regionalen Geschäftsstelle des Arbeitsmarktservice, in dem der Arbeitgeber seinen Betriebssitz hat. 5. Kinder, die vor Vollendung des 21. Lebensjahres zum Zweck der Familienzusammenführung nach Österreich eingereist sind und erst nach Vollendung des 21. Lebensjahres eine Beschäftigung aufnehmen wollen, gelten dann als Begünstigte, wenn ihnen vor Vollendung des 21. Lebensjahres bis zur tatsächlichen Aufnahme der Beschäftigung vom Hauptberechtigten des Lichtbildausweises Unterhalt gewährt wurde. Alle anderen abhängigen Verwandten unterliegen den gewöhnlichen Regelungen betreffend die Zulassung zur unselbständigen Beschäftigung von Ausländern in Österreich. 6. Soweit eine selbständige Erwerbstätigkeit ausgeübt werden soll, finden die obigen Regelungen über die Erteilung einer Beschäftigungsbewilligung keine Anwendung. In diesem Fall haben die Begünstigten die für die Ausübung einer selbständigen Erwerbstätigkeit die gesetzlich erforderlichen Befähigungen und Voraussetzungen zu erbringen.


Agreement between the Government of the Italian Republic and the Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention on its Branch Office in Bolzano - Bozen

Official seat agreement with Italy

Due to the establishment of a branch office of the Permanent Secretariat in Bolzano - Bozen, in September 2003 an Official Seat Agreement between the Italian Republic and the Permanent Secretariat was signed.

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Premesso Che tra gli Stati dell‘Arco alpino è stata firmata a Salisburgo il 7 novembre 1991 la Convenzione per la protezione delle Alpi con allegati e processo verbale di modifica del 6 aprile 1993; Che in data 30 ottobre 2000 la VI Conferenza delle Alpi ha deliberato l‘avvio delle procedure per l‘istituzione del Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi e per la selezione delle città candidate ad ospitare la sede di detto Segretariato; Che a seguito del Bando nazionale emanato con Decreto del Ministro dell‘Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio del 19 Dicembre 2001, l‘Italia ha individuato la città di Bolzano quale miglior sede nazionale da candidare ad ospitare il Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi; Che in data 19 novembre 2002 la VII Conferenza delle Alpi ha deliberato l‘istituzione della sede del Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi a Innsbruck con sede operativa distaccata a Bolzano; che in base alla Decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi la sede di Bolzano svolgerà funzioni tecnico-operative, ed in particolare quelle riguardanti: - Il Sistema di Osservazione ed Informazione delle Alpi (SOIA); - Il Coordinamento delle attività di ricerca alpina - La traduzione e l‘interpretazione; che in base alla citata Decisione, le attività della Sede di Bolzano saranno parzialmente garantite da finanziamenti del Governo italiano e dal supporto dell‘Accademia Europea di Bolzano (EURAC);

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Visto La Convenzione tra il Ministero italiano dell‘Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e l‘EURAC, finalizzata ad assicurare alla sede di Bolzano del Segretariato Permanente un adeguato supporto in termini di personale e di strumenti di lavoro, del 9 gennaio 2002, e allegati; La Convenzione fra la Provincia autonoma di Bolzano, il Comune di Bolzano, l‘Accademia Europea di Bolzano, e il Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi, relativo alle condizioni per la messa a disposizione di locali, strumenti e servizi, per la Sede operativa distaccata di Bolzano del Segretariato Permanente, del 13 settembre 2003, e allegati. Il Governo della Repubblica Italiana e il Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi, manifestando la disponibilità a concludere un accordo per definire i privilegi e le immunità della sede operativa distaccata di Bolzano del Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi, convengono quanto segue:

Articolo I Definizioni Ai fini del presente Accordo: (a) per «Convenzione delle Alpi» si intende la Convenzione per la protezione delle Alpi, con allegati e processo verbale di modifica del 6 aprile 1993, firmata a Salisburgo il 7 novembre 1991.


riato, così come individuati dalla decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi; (i) per «Stato» si intende una Parte contraente della Convenzione delle Alpi; (j) per «Rappresentanti degli Stati» si intendono i capi delle delegazioni degli Stati, i loro supplenti e altri membri che partecipano alle riunioni degli organi della Convenzione delle Alpi; (k) per «Esperto» si intende una persona che non faccia parte del personale, nominata dal Segretario Generale al fine di espletare un compito specifico a nome o per conto del Segretariato.

Articolo II Sede operativa di Bolzano del ­Segretariato Permanente della ­Convenzione delle Alpi Conformemente alla Decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi il Segretariato avrà la propria Sede operativa in Bolzano, e dispone di locali strumenti e servizi secondo quanto stabilito nella Convenzione tra gli Enti competenti di Bolzano e il Segretariato stesso, del 13 settembre 2003, e alle­ gati.

Articolo III

Official seat agreement with Italy

(b) per «decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi» si intende la decisione con la quale il 19 novembre 2002 a Merano (Bolzano, Italia), la Conferenza dei Ministri della Convenzione delle Alpi ha istituito il proprio Segretariato Permanente con sede ad Innsbruck (Austria) e Sede operativa distaccata a Bolzano (Italia); (c) per «Segretariato» si intende il Segretariato Permanente istituito con decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi; (d) per «Segretario Generale» si intende il Segretario Generale e il Segretario Generale ad interim, nominato a capo del Segretariato in base alla decisione della VII Conferenza delle Alpi; (e) per «Governo» si intende il Governo della Repubblica Italiana; (f) per «Enti competenti di Bolzano» si intendono la Provincia Autonoma, il Comune e l‘Accademia Europea di Bolzano che hanno stipulato con il Segretariato Permanente della convenzione delle Alpi, una Convenzione relativa alle condizioni per la messa a disposizione di locali, strumenti e servizi, per la sede operativa distaccata di Bolzano del Segretariato Permanente, del 13 settembre 2003, e allegati, (g) per «Sede di Bolzano» si intende la sede operativa distaccata del Segretariato istituito dalla VII Conferenza delle Alpi, come individuata nella Convenzione tra gli Enti competenti di Bolzano e il Segretariato Permanente della Convenzione delle Alpi, ed ogni altro luogo in Italia dove avrà occasione di operare il personale e gli esperti del Segretariato; (h) per «Membri del Personale» si intendono i membri del personale del Segreta-

Privilegi ed immunità della Sede di Bolzano Immunità dalla giurisdizione e dalla esecuzione (a) La Sede di Bolzano sarà inviolabile. (b) Nessun agente o funzionario della Repubblica Italiana o chiunque eserciti Alpine signals 1

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una pubblica funzione sul territorio della Repubblica Italiana potrà accedere alla Sede di Bolzano per esercitarvi le proprie funzioni senza il consenso del Segretario Generale o di un suo delegato. In caso di calamità naturali, di incendio o di altro evento che esiga immediatamente misure di protezione per la sicurezza e la salute pubblica, ovvero qualora sia necessario perseguire fatti criminosi, ad eccezione di quelli compiuti nell'esercizio dell'attività ufficiale del Segretariato, il consenso di accesso alla sede di Bolzano sarà considerato presunto. (c) Il Segretario Generale impedirà che la Sede di Bolzano divenga rifugio per coloro che cercano di sfuggire ad una misura restrittiva della libertà personale disposta in esecuzione di una legge della Repubblica Italiana o che sono ricercati per essere estradati in un altro paese. (d) I beni di proprietà del Segretariato ed i suoi archivi, ovunque situati e da chiunque posseduti, saranno esenti da sequestro o pignoramento, requisizione, confisca, esproprio e da qualsiasi altra misura esecutiva o amministrativa, sempreché i beni e gli archivi siano direttamente destinati al perseguimento dei fini istituzionali del Segretariato. (e) Il Segretariato non godrà dell'immunità dalla giurisdizione e dalla esecuzione se ha espressamente rinunciato all'immunità nei seguenti casi particolari:

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(i) in relazione ad una azione civile da parte di un terzo per danni derivanti da un incidente causato da un veicolo che appartiene al, o è utilizzato per conto del, Segretariato ovvero in relazione ad una violazioAlpine signals 1

ne del codice stradale in cui sia coinvolto detto veicolo; (ii) in relazione a contratti, diversi da quelli conclusi in conformità al regolamento sul personale, senza la clausola arbitrale di cui all'Articolo XIII; (iii) in relazione all'esecuzione di un lodo arbitrale reso ai sensi dell'articolo XIII del presente Accordo; (iv) in relazione ad una domanda riconvenzionale direttamente connessa a procedimenti legali intentati dal Segretariato.

Articolo IV Status giuridico Il Segretariato godrà della personalità giuridica, in particolare, ha la capacità di: a) stipulare contratti; b) acquistare beni mobili ed immobili e di disporne; c) di stare in giudizio. Nell'ambito della Sede di Bolzano, il Segretariato potrà effettuare tutte le attività atte a promuovere le sue funzioni quali definite dalle Decisioni della Conferenza delle Alpi. In particolare, potrà convocare riunioni nella sede di Bolzano, o in altro luogo sito in Italia, di concerto con le autorità italiane competenti.


Responsabilità (a) Responsabilità internazionale In ragione delle attività del Segretariato, svolte su territorio italiano, il Governo non dovrà incorrere in alcun tipo di responsabilità internazionale per atti o omissioni del Segretariato o dei suoi rappresentanti che agiscano o omettano di agire nei limiti delle loro funzioni. Qualora una richiesta venga tuttavia avanzata nei confronti del Governo, esso avrà diritto di fare ricorso contro il Segretariato. (b) Assicurazione per responsabilità Il Segretariato dovrà disporre di una ­assicurazione sufficiente a coprire le proprie responsabilità ai sensi del presente Accordo.

Articolo VI Agevolazioni finanziarie 1. Libertà dalle restrizioni valutarie Il Segretariato potrà ricevere e detenere qualsiasi tipo di fondi, valuta o contanti; potrà disporre liberamente di essi per qualsiasi fine di cui alle Decisioni della Conferenza delle Alpi, e detenere conti in qualsiasi valuta nella misura necessaria a far fronte ai suoi scopi istituzionali. 2. Disposizioni doganali e imposizione fiscale (a) Merci e materiali di qualsiasi tipo importati o esportati dal Segretariato e necessari per la creazione e la gestione della Sede di Bolzano, e per l'esercizio delle attività ufficiali dello stesso,

saranno esenti da tutti i dazi doganali e le imposte sull'importazione o sull'esportazione, ad eccezione di quegli oneri che altro non sono che corrispettivi per servizi resi. (b) Le merci importate esenti da dazi ed imposte ai sensi del presente Accordo non saranno vendute o cedute ad un terzo salvo che le autorità italiane abbiano fornito il loro previo accordo ed i dazi, le imposte ed i contributi applicabili siano stati corrisposti. Ove detti dazi, imposte e contributi siano calcolati sulla base del valore delle merci, si applicheranno il valore, al momento della cessione, ed i tassi in vigore a quel momento. 3. Esenzione dalle imposte (a) Il Segretariato, le sue proprietà ed i suoi beni, nei limiti delle sue attività ufficiali, saranno esenti da tutte le imposte dirette ed i dazi imposti da Stato, Regioni, Province e Comuni. (b) Il Segretariato godrà della non imponibilità sul valore aggiunto per acquisti rilevanti di beni e servizi connessi alla attività istituzionale ed all'esercizio delle sue funzioni. Per acquisti rilevanti si intendono gli acquisti di beni e servizi di importo superiore al limite stabilito dalla legislazione nazionale per le organizzazioni internazionali in Italia. (c) Le esenzioni non saranno accordate in relazione a dazi ed imposte che sono in realtà soltanto oneri per i servizi pubblici resi al Segretariato.

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Official seat agreement with Italy

Articolo V

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Articolo VII Notifica delle nomine Il Segretariato informerà il Governo qualora un membro del personale assuma o rinunci ai suoi compiti presso la sede di Bolzano. Inoltre, il Segretariato invierà di volta in volta al Governo una lista di tutto il personale ad esso assegnato in Italia indicando in ciascun caso se la persona è un cittadino italiano o residente permanente in Italia. Prima di impiegare una persona che si trova al momento in territorio italiano, il Segretariato dovrà fare in modo di accertarsi che detta persona non sia presente in Italia in violazione delle relative leggi in materia di immigrazione o non sia soggetta ad alcuna proibizione ad assumere un impiego in Italia. Qualora il Governo determini che una qualsiasi unità di personale si trovasse al momento dell'impiego in violazione delle leggi in materia di immigrazione o soggetta a detta proibizione, il Segretariato ed il Governo dovranno consultarsi al fine di concordare su un rimedio appropriato, ivi compreso, se necessario, la cessazione di detto impiego.

Articolo VIII Membri del Personale (a) I membri del personale del Segretariato nonché gli Esperti di cui all'articolo I, lettera (k), godranno nel territorio italiano dal momento del loro reclutamento: (i) di immunità dalla giurisdizione per le parole dette o scritte e per tutti gli

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atti compiuti nell'esercizio delle loro funzioni ufficiali. Questa esenzione non si applica alle controversie di lavoro che potranno sorgere tra il Segretariato ed i membri del personale: (b) I membri del personale e gli Esperti, che non sono cittadini italiani o non sono residenti permanenti in Italia, godranno, dal momento del loro reclutamento, dei seguenti privilegi ed immunità: (i) esenzione per se stessi, per i loro coniugi e relativi familiari a carico, dalle restrizioni in materia di immigrazione e dalle formalità di registrazione degli stranieri. Su richiesta del Segretariato, ai coniugi ed ai relativi familiari a carico del personale, che sono residenti in Italia, sarà accordata la possibilità di assumere un impiego in Italia; (ii) immunità dall'arresto dal fermo e dalla custodia cautelare, eccetto che in caso di flagranza o di reato commesso nella Repubblica Italiana che comporti secondo la legge italiana una pena detentiva non inferiore nel massimo a tre anni; (iii) stessi privilegi in materia di facilitazioni di cambio accordati agli agenti diplomatici in conformità alla Convenzione di Vienna sulle Relazioni Diplomatiche; (iv) stesse facilitazioni in materia di rimpatrio concesse agli agenti diplomatici in periodi di crisi internazionali, così come i loro coniugi e relativi familiari a carico; (v) diritto di importare in esenzione fiscale, franco dogana e senza altre imposizioni, restrizioni o limitazioni


no al personale localmente reclutato per servizi interni del Segretariato. (f) Ogni anno il Segretariato comunicherà al Governo la lista dei membri del personale e degli esperti ai quali si applicheranno le disposizioni del presente Accordo.

Articolo IX Segretario Generale (a) Il Segretario Generale godrà, nel territorio della Repubblica Italiana, dal momento della sua nomina, della immunità dalla giurisdizione per le parole dette o scritte e per tutti gli atti compiuti nell'esercizio delle sue funzioni ufficiali, salvo che vi abbia rinunciato espressamente. (b) Il Segretario Generale che non sia cittadino italiano o che non risieda permanentemente in Italia da data anteriore alla sua nomina godrà, oltre della immunità prevista alla lettera (a), delle seguenti immunità e privilegi: (i) immunità dall'arresto, dal fermo e dalla custodia cautelare; (ii) immunità dall'ispezione e dal sequestro dei suoi bagagli personali ed ufficiali, fatto salvo il controllo per motivi di sicurezza; (iii) inviolabilità dei documenti ufficiali in suo possesso; (iv) esenzione, per lui e per i familiari conviventi a carico, dalle misure restrittive relative all'immigrazione; (v) gli stessi privilegi fiscali accordati ai membri del personale delle missioni diplomatiche di rango equiva­ lente. Alpine signals 1

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alle importazioni del loro mobilio e di altri effetti, ivi compresa una automobile entro sei mesi dalla loro prima assunzione in Italia, in uno o più invii. Pertanto saranno autorizzati ad importare in esenzione ­fiscale i pezzi di ricambio che si renderanno necessari per questi articoli; (vi) esenzione dalle imposte dirette sui salari ed emolumenti corrisposti dal Segretariato. (vii) L'immunità dalla giurisdizione non si applica in caso di azione civile intentata da un terzo per i danni risultanti da incidente causato da un automezzo, natante o aereo appartenente al Segretariato o circolante per suo conto, né in caso di infrazione alla regolamentazione della circolazione automobilistica, nautica ed aerea. Il Segretariato, comunque, si impegna a stipulare un'assicurazione a copertura di ogni responsabilità civile verso terzi allo scopo di garantire il risarcimento dei danni eventualmente causati nello svolgimento delle proprie funzioni. (c) Le esenzioni ai sensi del presente Accordo non si applicheranno agli oneri ed ai dazi che altro non sono se non corrispettivi per servizi resi. (d) Gli Esperti, i Rappresentanti degli Stati membri, nonché, i dipendenti del Segretariato impiegati presso la sede di Innsbruck, in missione sul territorio italiano per il Segretariato, godranno dei privilegi e delle immunità di cui ai precedenti commi (a) (i), (b) (i) (ii) e (iii). (e) I privilegi e le immunità previsti nel presente Accordo non si applicheran-

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(c) Il Segretario Generale, che sia cittadino italiano o risieda permanentemente in Italia da una data anteriore a quella della sua nomina, godrà, nel territorio della Repubblica, oltre che della immunità prevista alla lettera (a) dei seguenti privilegi ed immunità: (i) immunità dall'arresto dal fermo e dalla custodia cautelare, eccetto che in caso di flagranza o di reato commesso nella Repubblica Italiana che comporti secondo la legge italiana una pena detentiva non inferiore nel massimo a tre anni;

(ii) immunità, dall'ispezione e dal sequestro dei suoi bagagli ufficiali, fatto salvo il controllo per motivi di sicurezza;

(iii) inviolabilità dei documenti ufficiali in suo possesso;

(iv) le stesse facilitazioni, nei riguardi di restrizioni valutarie o di cambio, accordate ai rappresentanti dei governi esteri in missione in Italia limitatamente, però, alle esigenze necessarie allo svolgimento delle funzioni ufficiali, con esclusione di qualsiasi altro privilegio fiscale e valutario accordato ai membri delle missioni diplomatiche.

(d) L'immunità dalla giurisdizione non si applicherà in caso di azione civile intentata da un terzo per i danni risultanti da incidente causato da un automezzo, natante o aereo appartenente al Segretariato o circolante per suo conto, né in caso di infrazione alle norme sulla circolazione automobilistica, nautica ed aerea. Il Segretariato, comunque, si impegna a stipulare un'assicu-

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razione a copertura di ogni responsabilità civile verso terzi, allo scopo di garantire il risarcimento dei danni eventualmente causati nello svolgimento delle proprie funzioni. (e) I privilegi e le immunità di cui sopra ­saranno accordate al membro del personale che sostituirà il Segretario Generale in sua assenza.

Articolo X Oggetto dei privilegi e delle immunità L'oggetto dei privilegi e delle immunità, concessi in base al presente Accordo ai Membri del personale ed agli Esperti del Segretariato, sarà esclusivamente quello di garantire al meglio la gestione del Segretariato e l'indipendenza delle persone a cui sono concessi. Fatti salvi i privilegi e le immunità concesse in base al presente Accordo, tutti coloro che godranno di detti privilegi ed immunità avranno l'obbligo di conformarsi alla legislazione ed ai regolamenti in vigore nel territorio della Repubblica italiana e non interferiranno negli affari interni dello Stato. Il Segretariato avrà il diritto ed il dovere di rinunciare alle immunità quando dovesse ritenere che esse ostacolino la giustizia e sia possibile farne a meno senza arrecare pregiudizio agli interessi del Segretariato. Il Segretariato coopererà in qualsiasi momento con le autorità competenti al fine di impedire qualsiasi abuso dei privilegi, immunità e facilitazioni di cui al presente Accordo.


Articolo XIII

Comunicazioni

Contratti

(a) Tutte le comunicazioni dirette al Segretariato, o ai Membri del personale e agli Esperti del Segretariato nella Sede di Bolzano, e tutte le comunicazioni ufficiali esterne del Segretariato, in qualsiasi forma e con qualsiasi mezzo trasmesse, non saranno soggette alla censura o a qualsiasi altra forma di intercettazione o interferenza.

Il Segretariato stabilirà procedure idonee per la soluzione delle controversie con il suo personale.

(b) Il Segretariato avrà diritto di utilizzare codici ed inviare e ricevere comunicazioni ufficiali per corriere o in bollette sigillate, in quanto sono estesi ad essi gli stessi privilegi ed immunità accordati al corriere ed alle bollette diplomatiche.

Articolo XII

Nei contratti con gli altri soggetti, siano essi persone fisiche o giuridiche, il Segretariato inserirà clausole relative alla soluzione delle controversie mediante arbitrato, mediante procedure che si conformino ai criteri giuridici generalmente accettati a tutela dell‘imparzialità dell‘organo giudicante e di altri aspetti, come la salvaguardia del contraddittorio. Il Segretariato dovrà avere una adeguata copertura assicurativa o adottare altre misure analoghe, al fine di consentire al Segretariato stesso di far fronte a richieste di risarcimento di natura extracontrattuale.

Sicurezza sociale Nella misura in cui il Segretariato gestisca un sistema di sicurezza sociale, o nel caso in cui un Membro del personale, o un esperto, decida di avvalersi di altro sistema di sicurezza sociale, il Segretariato, il suo Segretario Generale ed i Membri del personale, e gli esperti, saranno esentati da tutti i contributi obbligatori dovuti alle autorità italiane per la sicurezza sociale. Un accordo ad hoc sarà concluso tra il Governo ed il Segretariato al fine di formalizzare tale esenzione.

Articolo XIV Composizione delle controversie Qualsiasi controversia che dovesse insorgere in merito all'interpretazione o applicazione del presente Accordo, che non sia stata composta tramite negoziato o con altra modalità convenuta, sarà, su richiesta di una delle due Parti sottoposta ad un tribunale arbitrale. Il Segretariato ed il Governo designeranno ciascuno un arbitro ed i due arbitri cosi designati eleggeranno un terzo arbitro che fungerà da presidente del tribunale. Alpine signals 1

Official seat agreement with Italy

Articolo XI

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Qualora entro trenta giorni dalla richiesta di arbitrato, una delle due Parti non abbia designato un arbitro, una delle due Parti può chiedere al Presidente della Corte Internazionale di Giustizia di nominare un arbitro. La stessa procedura sarà applicata se, entro trenta giorni dalla designazione o dalla nomina del seconda arbitro, il terzo non sia stato ancora eletto. La maggioranza dei membri del tribunale arbitrale costituirà il quorum e le decisioni saranno prese a maggioranza dei voti. La procedura arbitrale sarà stabilita dal tribunale le cui decisioni, ivi comprese quelle concernenti la sua costituzione, procedura, giurisdizione e la ripartizione delle spese di arbitrato fa le Parti, saranno vincolanti per tutte le Parti alla controversia. La remunerazione degli arbitri sarà determinata sulla stessa base di quella dei giudici ad hoc della Corte Internazionale di Giustizia ai sensi dell'Articolo 32 (4) del proprio Statuto.

Articolo XV Accordi supplementari Il Governo ed il Segretariato potranno stipulare quegli accordi supplementari che si renderanno necessari.

Articolo XVI Entrata in vigore Il presente Accordo entrerà in vigore alla data della seconda delle due notifiche con cui le Parti Contraenti si saranno comunicate l'avvenuto espletamento delle formalità richieste dai rispettivi ordinamenti interni.

Articolo XVII Revisione e cessazione (a) I negoziati per la revisione o cessazione del presente Accordo avranno luogo su richiesta di una delle due Parti contraenti. (b) Qualora questi negoziati non abbiano portato, dopo un anno, ad una intesa, il presente Accordo potrà essere denunciato da una delle due Parti contraenti con un anno di preavviso.

Articolo XVIII Durata dell'Accordo Fatte salve le disposizioni del comma (b) dell'Articolo XVII, il presente Accordo resterà in vigore fino a che il Segretariato avrà la Sede di Bolzano. Fatto a Bolzano, il 13 settembre 2003, in due originali in lingua italiana.

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The Ministers of the Signatory States of the Alpine Convention already at the VII Alpine Conference in Merano in 2002 pronounced themselves in favour of contributing the experiences from the Alpine process to the “International Partnership for Sustainable Development in Mountain Regions” (Mountain Partnership). The partnership was agreed upon within the framework of the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development and developed further at the “Global Mountain Summit” in Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan. As a result of decisions on mountain partnerships by the VII, VIII and IX Alpine Conferences, the main areas cooperating with the Alpine Convention are the Carpathians, the Caucasus, Central Asia (Pamir and Tien Shan), and the Balkans. Cooperation with the Carpathian Convention is especially intensive.

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International Mountain Partnerships

International Mountain Partnerships

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Use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention The logo of the Alpine Convention is an important instrument for making the Convention and its protocols more widely known.

The logo of the Alpine Convention is available for download from the website of the Alpine Convention www.alpconv.org.

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Use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention

The emblem, the manual on the graphical appearance of the Alpine Convention and the conditions of use were adopted by the V Alpine Conference on 10.16.1998 in Bled.

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Criteria for Use

Modalities of use of the Logo

1) Purpose The Logo of the Alpine Convention shall be used for the marking of events and other activities, and of publications. 2) Close relationship with intended purpose to the Alpine Convention. The projects and publications for which the logo is to be used must bear a close relationship to the Alpine Convention. 3) Use of the Logo The Logo of the Alpine Convention must only be used provided that in doing so the criteria laid down in the present set of regulations are observed. 4) Exclusion of danger of confusion The Logo of the Alpine Convention must not be used when there is the danger of misrepresentation as to the origin of projects and publications.

Those authorised institutions listed in groups A, B, and C may use the Logo freely. The Logo is made available for download from the websites of the Organisation along with the complete text of the present set of regulations. The Logo may be used solely in the form published on the websites of the Organisation without any alterations. Those authorised institutions listed in group D who are interested in making use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention are requested to contact the Permanent Secretariat by mail or e-mail. The Permanent Secretariat shall examine the intended use of the Logo in accordance with the present set of regulations and answer the request as soon as possible by mail or e-mail. Reasons shall be given in the event of rejections. Use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention compliant to rules does not concede any exclusive right. The Logo of the Alpine Convention is registered for worldwide protection with the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).

Authorised institutions The following institutions are authorised to use the Logo: The Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention, including their regional and local administrative units located within the scope of the Alpine Convention as well as their associations (A) The bodies established by the Alpine Convention (Alpine Conference, Permanent Committee, all Working Groups, all Platforms, the Permanent Secretariat) (B) Organisations with the status of official Observers of the Alpine Convention, including their member organisations (C) Organisations cooperating with the bodies or Contracting Parties of the Alpine Convention (D). This includes especially MoUpartners of the Permanent Secretariat.

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Action to be taken in case of illegitimate use of the Logo The Permanent Secretariat is required to deny use of the Logo of the Alpine Convention to agencies responsible for activities and publications that do not comply with the present set of regulations. Written interdiction shall take place as soon as the Permanent Secretariat gains knowledge of the illegitimate use of the Logo. Pertinent reasons shall be given.


Addresses

Addresses

Contracting Parties

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Austria:

Principality of Liechtenstein:

Bundesministerium für Land- und Forstwirtschaft, Umwelt und Wasserwirtschaft Abt. V/9 Stubenbastei 5 1010 Wien Österreich www.lebensministerium.at

Landesverwaltung Amt für Wald, Natur und Landschaft Dr. Grass-Strasse 10 9490 Vaduz Liechtenstein Internet: www.liechtenstein.li

France:

Ministre Conseiller Organismes Internationaux à caractère scientifique, environnemental et humanitaire Athos Palace, 2, rue de la Lüjerneta 98000 Monaco Monaco Internet: www.monaco.gouv.mc

Ministère de l’Écologie, de l’Énergie, du Développement durable et de la Mer Tour Pascal A 6, place de Degrés 92055 La Defense Cedex France Internet: www.environnement.gouv.fr

Germany:

Slovenia:

Bundesministerium für Umwelt, Naturschutz und Reaktorsicherheit Referat KI II 3 Alexanderstraße 6 10178 Berlin Deutschland Internet: www.bmu.de

Ministrstvo za okolje in prostor Dunajska cesta 21 1000 Ljubljana Slovenija Internet: www.mop.gov.si

Italy:

Bundesamt für Raumentwicklung Mühlestraße 2 3063 Ittigen Schweiz - Suisse - Svizzera Internet: www.are.admin.ch

Ministero dell´Ambiente e della Tutela del Territorio e del Mare Direzione per la Ricerca Ambientale e lo Sviluppo (RAS) Via C. Cristoforo Colombo 44 00147 Roma Italia Internet: www.minambiente.it

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Principality of Monaco:

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Switzerland:


Europäische Kommission DG Environnement 1049 Bruxelles Belgique Internet: http://ec.europa.eu

Permanent Secretariat of the Alpine Convention Herzog – Friedrich – Strasse 15 6020 Innsbruck Österreich Internet: www.alpconv.org Branch office in Bolzano - Bozen: Viale Druso - Drususallee 1 39100 Bolzano - Bozen Italia

Addresses

European Union:

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Addresses

Addresses

Official Observers

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AEM Association Européenne des élus de montagne Avenue Boileau 16 1040 Bruxelles Belgique Internet: www.promonte-aem.net ALPARC International Steering Committee (ISC) of the Alpine Network of Protected Areas 256, Rue de la République 73000 Chambéry France Internet: www.alparc.org ARGE Alp c/o Amt der Tiroler Landesregierung Landhaus 6020 Innsbruck Österreich Internet: www.argealp.org ARGE Alpe Adria c/o Amt der Kärntner Landesregierung Völkermarkter Ring 21 9020 Klagenfurt Österreich Internet: www.alpeadria.org CAA Club Arc Alpin Praterinsel 5 80538 München Deutschland Internet: www.club-arc-alpin.eu CIPRA International Im Bretscha 22 9494 Schaan Fürstentum Liechtenstein Internet: www.cipra.org

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EUROMONTANA Schweizerische Arbeitsgemeinschaft für die Berggebiete (SAB) Seilerstr. 4 Postfach 7836 3001 Bern Schweiz - Suisse - Svizzera Internet: www.euromontana.org FIANET SNTF Alpespace Bâtiment Annapurna 24 rue Saint-Exupéry 73800 Francin France Internet: www.sntf.org ISCAR/WIKO International Scientific Committee for Alpine Research Schwarztorstr. 9 3007 Bern Schweiz - Suisse - Svizzera Internet: www.alpinestudies.ch/iscar IUCN International Union for Conservation of Nature Godesberger Allee 108/112 53175 Bonn Deutschland Internet: www.iucn.org Managing Authority of the European Cooperation Programme Alpine Space Land Salzburg Südtirolerplatz 11 5020 Salzburg Österreich Internet: www.alpine-space.eu


ProMontBlanc BP 27 74170 Les Contamines-Montjoie France Internet: www.pro-mont-blanc.org

Addresses

UNEP Vienna â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ISCC United Nations Environment Programme Room: DO434 Vienna International Center PO Box 500 1400 Wien Ă&#x2013;sterreich Internet: www.unep.org

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contracting parties: Austria | France | Germany | Italy | Liechtenstein | Monaco | Slovenia | Switzerland | European Union

www.alpconv.org

Permanent Secretariat of Alpine Convention Herzog-Friedrich-Strasse 15 A-6020 Innsbruck Tel. +43 (0) 512 588 589 Fax: +43 (0) 512 588 589 20 info@alpconv.org

Branch office in Bolzano-Bozen Viale Druso - Drususallee 1 I-39100 Bolzano - Bozen Tel. +39 0471 055 352 Fax: +39 0471 055 359


Alpine Signals 1 - The Alpine Convention - Reference guide