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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Gating the community - Losing the city Introduction: Gating as a phenomenon: If we look at any major residential development happening in and around Pune, the most striking feature of that project will be that it is a ‘gated community’. This has become a trend and a strong selling point for the private players under the name of security and privacy. For instance, ‘Ivy Estate’ - a mega project of villas, apartments, etc. developed by Kolte – Patil developers (a private developer) is being promoted as “the largest gated community development in eastern Pune” (http://www.koltepatil.com/ivy/about.html ). If we go through the amenities of this project, it provides a swimming pool, volley ball court, skating area, theme gardens and many other recreational facilities which help in promoting a gathering of people. But the irony is that these ‘social spaces’ are highly private as these would be accessible only to the residents of this project. So, with the help of a compound wall and a gate the developer is not only claiming to make the place secure but is also privatising the shared facilities which can be used only by “like-minded individuals”1 (the residents), barring entry to the rest of the city. This is just one and a very recent example; but ‘gating’ has become a recurring phenomenon in Pune and in almost all the cities in India.

1. Ivy Estate – Layout Plan

2. View of the amenities with housing around

Thus, it can be argued that the new urban development of a city like Pune, led by private developers, is fragmenting and segregating the fabric of the city with the help of walls and barriers thereby ruling out any chance of sociability. This results in polarisation, as the people who can afford a house in these high end schemes are creating their own bubbles, and end up moving from one bubble (home) to another bubble (workplace) as a part of their day to day routine, thereby refusing to interact with the less privileged. This is detrimental to the very concept of a city (as an urban space) which aspires diversity.2 This phenomenon is observed mostly in the sub-urban areas of the city whose grain and fabric is very different from the core. Unlike the suburbs, it is hard to find gates and compound walls around a building in the old city part. Rather, in this area, the workspaces, the living areas and the streets have a 1 2

http://www.koltepatil.com/ivy/about.html - Official website of Ivy Estate Hajer & Reijndorp (2001) – In search of new public domain – Pg.12-13

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

strong connection to each other. Also, small alleys branch out from the main street leading to a small open space from in between two structures, where people from different communities gather and share the same space without any discomfort, thereby forming a new ecology which is very vibrant and diverse. But nowadays, the city is losing these old values and principles of community living (which encouraged the formation of public and social spaces) because of its inclination towards gating.

Railway station

B.

Mutha River

A.

C.

Old city area of Pune Mirza Galib Road

Raviwar Peth

Primary road

3. Old city of Pune & Raviwar peth area inside it

A.

B.

Secondary road

Tertiary road

4. Raviwar peth – hierarchy of roads

C.

Images showing how the streets and the buildings interact with each other in Raviwar Peth (an area in the old city of Pune)

Emergence of Gated communities: “Gated communities are residential or mixed use enclaves bound by a perimeter compound wall with access restrictions. The gated communities in India are usually characterized by the presence of common amenities within the precincts of the property, which bring fun and convenience to the residents.” (http://www.gatedcommunities.in/ ) The reasons: The fact that all the new developments are inclined towards gating shows that there is a growing demand for them from the people. What are the factors that have led to this change in the mind-set of the people?

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

The most common factor that has initiated these developments is fear.3 The growing crime rate in the cities of India has made the common man so obsessed about security and privacy that the only solution he thinks is ‘gates’. Though it has always been a topic of debate whether these communities are really safe or not4, the notion that ‘gates will protect us from the anti-social elements’ has become psychological. The private developers have used this weakness of the people to their advantage and have nurtured it further, making it work like an ‘addiction’. Furthermore, people have also lost faith in the local government to provide them with basic facilities such as good roads, unhindered electricity supply, open spaces, etc.5 In other words, it is a reply to the inaction of the local bodies to cater to the primary needs of the citizens. For instance, electricity load shedding is a common occurrence in many cities of India; but in these developments, backup generators are provided by the private developers which supply uninterrupted electricity at least in the common areas of the project.6 As a result, when a private developer provides these kinds of amenities exclusively for the residents of his project, people fall prey to this and instead of protesting against and pressurising the government to perform its duties, they start accepting this change as they feel it will give them a security of investment. Prestige is another reason why people opt to fence themselves.7 In India, as there is a great divide between the rich and the poor, those ones with a balanced lifestyle always want to separate themselves from the economically backward. Hence, a gated community which provides certain lavish amenities is being used to make a statement about one’s social status (in a way undermining the poor, as they would never be able to afford them). In other words, gated communities are promoting insularity by attracting homogeneous groups of people.8 Along with the above mentioned factors, there is another dimension to this, which is related to the private developers. By gating, private developers are able to raise the value of their land by speculating in the property market. The moment you fence a piece of land and provide the basic infrastructure and amenities, you can easily hike the property rates.9 This is the most crucial tool that goes in favour of the private players and hence is being supported and built so rampantly by them under the guise of providing security. 3

Gated Communities: An international review – Pg. 4-5 http://www.csir.co.za/Built_environment/Planning_support_systems/gatedcomsa/docs/International_review.pdf 4 Gated and guarded communities - Security concerns or elitist practice? – (2008) Paper by Grace Xavier – Pg.4 http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/22385556/248102641/name/Grace_Xavier_University_of_Malaya.pdf 5 Don't Fence Us Out: The Municipal Power to Ban Gated Communities and the Federal Takings Clause – (2001) - Richard Damstra – Vol. 35, Number 3 – Pg. 534 - Though this article talks about the American context, a few parallels can be drawn to India too. 6 Do Gated Communities Threaten Society? – Sarah Goodyear – April 11, 2012 http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2012/04/do-gated-communities-threaten-society/1737/ 7 Don't Fence Us Out: The Municipal Power to Ban Gated Communities and the Federal Takings Clause – (2001) - Richard Damstra – Vol. 35, Number 3 – Pg. 533 - Though this article talks about the American context, a few parallels can be drawn to India too. 8 Gated Community – 9 January, 2011 - http://www.englisharticles.info/2011/01/09/gated-community/ 9 Gated and guarded communities - Security concerns or elitist practice? – (2008) Paper by Grace Xavier – Pg.3 http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/22385556/248102641/name/Grace_Xavier_University_of_Malaya.pdf

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Vital organs10 v/s dead bodies: All these reasons, especially the fear amongst people is turning the urban environment into an “enclosed and privatised realm” (Types of Gated community – 2004 - Jill Grant - Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2004, volume 31, pg. 913). This new insecurity amongst the masses (the rich people) is redefining the kind of spaces created in the city leading to segregation and fragmentation.11 The basic meaning of a city as mentioned by Hajer and Reindorp is “an urban space where a battle of meaning is fought through exchanges” (In search of new Public domain, 2001 – Pg.13). This means that a city should encourage encounters amongst people from various sections of the society that help an individual in formulating his own ideas and judgements which is very essential for his own social growth. On the contrary, instead of promoting this, the gated developments are creating a superficial sense of a public realm. For instance, we may argue that whether a park inside these communities is really delivering to its true purpose or not? Though it is open, it is a private space meant for specific users which is empty or unused most of the time. And even when it is used, there is a very little variation in the kind of people using it (this being obvious, as these communities are meant for like-minded individuals) i.e. socially, economically, etc. these people fall in the same category thereby eliminating the option of encountering the ‘other’.12 So, imagine a series of open spaces in the same neighbourhood being so monotonous and homogeneous that they undermine the diversity that is required to constitute a public realm. These spaces become merely functional devoid of any ‘friction’13 which is in strong contradiction to the definition of a public realm - “the sphere of social relations going beyond our own circle of friendships, family and professional relations” (Hajer & Reijndorp (2001) – Pg. 12 – In search of new public domain). In other words, these communities are hampering the spatial structure of a city by weakening its public realm. To elaborate this further, we may also take the example of streets. Streets play a very important role in the smooth functioning of any city and are the obvious places for constituting a public domain – a place where strangers can encounter each other and experience new surprises and discover new horizons.14 Jane Jacobs has very correctly stated that streets are “the most vital organs” of a city.15 People get to experience the city life when they walk or drive on the streets giving them a sense of belonging and security too. For instance, if we look at the streets from the old area of Pune city (as shown earlier in the images of Raviwar Peth, Pune), we would find a bunch of hawkers, a temple, a balloon seller, a grocery store, an eating joint etc. which have located themselves in relation to the street giving it its vibrancy. In olden days people understood this concept and always planned the neighbourhoods with respect to this. The buildings were placed and oriented in such a way that they had their “eyes upon the streets” 10

Jane Jacobs (1984) – The death and life of great American cities – Pg. 39 Hajer & Reijndorp (2001) – In search of new public domain – Pg.14 12 Hajer & Reijndorp (2001) – In search of new public domain – Pg.12 13 Steven Miles (2010) – Spaces for consumption – Pg. 176 14 Hajer & Reijndorp (2001) – In search of new public domain – Pg.12 15 Jane Jacobs (1984) – The death and life of great American cities – Pg. 39 11

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

(Jane Jacobs (1984) – Pg.45 - The death and life of great American cities). This understanding not only made the streets active but also made them safe for the users as well as the residents. On the contrary, if we study the sub-urban growth of Pune, a paradox can be observed. Barring the main streets most of the other streets appear to be dead. And it is an obvious result of the constant repetition of this model of gated developments in the city. As mentioned in the paragraphs above, the addiction to compound walls and gates is so strong that along with these huge communities which have many amenities inside them (giving them a reason to fence themselves), even a standalone building without any amenities will be a gated entity (under the name of ‘security’).

Compound wall Building Open Space

5. Stand alone building with a compound wall

6. A typical gated community

As a result, the streets in these new areas are framed by a line of dead walls on either side. This phenomenon of the “buildings to turn their back towards the street” (Jane Jacobs (1984) – Pg.45 - The death and life of great American cities) is making the streets counter- productive to their main purpose. For example, a person would either avoid such streets which are devoid of any places which encourage

7. Schematic diagram showing the impact of gated developments Open spaces acting in isolation Few social gathering places - Street acts like a linear axis devoid of any interaction with the building

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

public gathering (making him/ her feel insecure) or would just walk past the dull facades of these walls without any social exchanges. In other words, the city is losing its streets to the whims of a few who are creating their own safe bubbles making the outside vulnerable and unsafe.

Building Building Building

Compound wall

Compound wall

Shops

Shops Street

8. Schematic section: Old city part - Active Street front

Building

Street

9. Schematic section: Outside gated communities - Dead street front, framed by walls

Moreover, when every building starts having a compound wall around it, the option of having small alleys which pass from in between various buildings connecting different areas (creating a hierarchy of space) is automatically ruled out. For example, in the core city of Pune, these alleys are clearly evident and are extremely effective in connecting two areas. These are sometimes less crowded than the main streets giving an alternative option for the people to commute. Also, they provide a shorter way of accessing point A from point B as compared to the main streets. So, these kinds of spaces not only create a different kind of an environment but also act as a bridge between two neighbourhoods, which unfortunately are not seen in the sub-urban Pune. Social and legal disconnect: As observed in the section above, the emergence of gated communities has resulted in the formation of fragmented spaces which lack any connection to the streets or the neighbourhood. In addition to this spatial disconnect, the paragraphs below talk about how they are also causing damage to the social and legal framework of the city. In a gated community in Pune called ‘Hyde Park’, the gates are manned, the internal streets are clean and tidy, there is a designated play area with a swimming pool, landscaped garden, basketball court, tennis court, etc. which together provide for an ideal place for like minded people to reside and contribute in a formation of a so called ‘community life’. The visitors aren’t allowed to enter the premises without confirming their identity may it be guests, maids, cleaners, etc. All the provisions are made so as to filter the kind of people who can enter this privatised space to make it secure. But the flip side is that there are a few rules for the residents themselves, aimed at bringing discipline and homogeneity inside the gated community which pose a threat to their social life. The Indian culture for centuries has promoted social gathering of people through the provision of various festivals such as Holi (festival of colours), Diwali (festival of lights), etc. Ironically, the rules made by the residents themselves, work against this phenomenon. It prevents the use of colours and water (which is essential to celebrate the festival of Holi) or bursting of crackers (integral part of celebrating 6


Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Diwali) inside the compound walls of this project. The reason given is that the premises may get dirty because of the use of colours or bursting crackers. As a result, the kids, teenagers, etc. have to go outside the gates to enjoy the festivals, which causes frustration amongst them as these rules work against the freedom of an individual.

10 & 11. Images of ‘Hyde Park’, Pune & its amenities

In the recent years, the residents have started turning a blind eye to these rules and are making use of the premises to celebrate these festivals. This will be an obvious reaction when unreasonable rules are forced on the people. It is also observed that a typical gated development is mostly mono - functional i.e. majorly residential spaces with a very few provisions for commercial activities. People believe that increased mixed usage would invite unwanted visitors, making the area unsafe, which may devalue their investment. This situation is completely in contrast to the old areas of Pune which encourage the overlaps between different uses & users. The small enterprises like shops, restaurants, etc. which attract people during the day as well as night provide for the much needed ‘surveillance’, making the streets capable of “handling the strangers” (Jane Jacobs (1984) – Pg.45 - The death and life of great American cities). Without these local actors, the streets and the public places in general become unsafe and dead. These mono-functional gated communities are eradicating the civic life which is offered by the spaces having complex overlaps.16 “In doing away with hawkers, shopkeepers, fellow travelers, even pedestrians, these urban spaces not only destroy the ‘eyes-and-ears’ of publics on the ground, they also give rise, instead, to vast, dead spaces that have no logic of the neighborhood, where people are not on ‘side-walk’ terms but remain, instead, strangers and bearers of threat, and where only impunity may prevail”. This argument made by Sunalini Kumar (Desires of planning and the planning of Desires: Vignettes of a Rape Culture and Beyond – 2012) on the recent gang rape in Delhi is a very vivid description of how vulnerable the streets of the cities in India have become to the anti-social elements. When buildings turn their back towards the street with the help of compound walls, the streets become unsafe; and once this happens, the urban realm of the city starts dying a slow death. 16

Desires of planning and the planning of Desires: Vignettes of a Rape Culture and Beyond – Sunalini Kumar – December 30, 2012 (http://kafila.org/2012/12/30/desires-of-planning-and-the-planning-of-desires-vignettes-of-a-rape-culture-and-beyondrijul-kochhar/)

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

D Railway station Mutha River Old city area of Pune

F

E Salunkhe Vihar Salunkhe Vihar Road Primary road

12. Pune city & Salunkhe Vihar area in the suburb

D.

E.

Secondary road

Tertiary road

13. Salunkhe Vihar – hierarchy of roads

F.

Images showing the twin aspects viz. mono-functionality & dead facades of the streets in Salunkhe Vihar (sub-urban area of Pune)

Secondly the claim made by the supporters of gated communities about being safe from the un-gated ones has been in debate since a very long time.17 From their study of the gated communities in the United States, Blakely and Snyder clearly mention that the gates are not impervious to the criminals and often do very less to reduce crime. More than protecting, the fences cause disagreement and a public dispute.18 Just by keeping the unwanted or the unknown out doesn’t make you safe from your neighbours who may also be strangers to you. The above two paragraphs show that these gated communities are not providing the safety desired by the people staying in them but on the other hand are instrumental in making the outside more simplistic, mundane and unsafe. Another aspect is that these gated communities have not only put an added financial burden on the residents (as, along with the tax to the local government, the people also have to contribute in maintaining the private spaces inside these gated communities) but has also made the local government irresponsible towards providing social spaces and amenities to the people which are common to everyone in a neighbourhood; it seems that it has transferred this responsibility to the private

17

Gated and guarded communities - Security concerns or elitist practice? – (2008) Paper by Grace Xavier – Pg.4 http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/22385556/248102641/name/Grace_Xavier_University_of_Malaya.pdf 18 Gated Communities: An international review – Pg. 9 – The article refers to the study done by Blakely & Snyder http://www.csir.co.za/Built_environment/Planning_support_systems/gatedcomsa/docs/International_review.pdf

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

developers. Ironically, the spaces thus created, by the developers, are only for a select few and not for the rest of the society which in turn create a divide in the society. Also, sometimes the developer does not come true on his promises and leaves a particular gated community to survive on its own. This leads to the lack of maintenance and cleanliness of the common amenities and roads inside these developments. The double whammy is that even the corporation doesn’t bother to maintain these spaces as it considers them private. As a result, the residents feel agonised - firstly because they don’t get what they pay the developer for and secondly they don’t even get the returns of the tax they pay to the local government on a regular basis.19 Along with the disturbance caused to the social values, these gated communities are also responsible in violating legal framework. Recently, the commissioner of Bangalore Development Authority for the city of Bangalore, India has made a statement that these gated developments are unauthorised as there is no concept of gated communities in the rulebook or the byelaws.20 “Every layout is required to earmark space for parks, roads and areas of common use, say authorities. These roads and parks inside the community come under the civic authorities; hence these communities can't claim exclusivity.” (Sunitha Rao R (2012) - BDA ungates gated communities). This means that the land is given to the private players only for development after which the roads and the civic amenities are to be surrendered to the local government for further control and maintenance. It is also known to the Confederation of Real Estate Developers' Associations of India but is ignored by them for their own convenience.21 This apathy shown by both, the local government and the developers indicates how corrupt and inefficient the government system in the cities of India has become. It is the local corporation who first gives the permission to the developers to construct these compound walls (one reason can also be that these developers are very influential in manipulating the rules and the authorities with the power of money) and later when it realises the damage these walls do, suddenly they render these fences unauthorised. This leaves the residents in a dilemma as they buy a house considering that a particular project is a gated community, and when the corporation says that the walls are illegal, they feel cheated and helpless.22 Conclusion: Though this paper is trying to argue that gated communities are not good for any city in the long run, in the context of Pune and India, it is very difficult to just make a conclusion that ‘these communities should be banned or the walls should be demolished, etc.’ For a cohesive and a genuine solution, we have to think of a long term strategy that has a strong participation of people; as in my opinion, a ‘topdown’ solution would fail. 19

BDA ungates gated communities – Sunitha Rao R – April 5, 2012 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-05/bangalore/31293333_1_bda-development-plan-gated 20 BDA ungates gated communities – Sunitha Rao R – April 5, 2012 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-05/bangalore/31293333_1_bda-development-plan-gated 21 BDA ungates gated communities – Sunitha Rao R – April 5, 2012 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-05/bangalore/31293333_1_bda-development-plan-gated 22 BDA ungates gated communities – Sunitha Rao R – April 5, 2012 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-05/bangalore/31293333_1_bda-development-plan-gated

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

We may agree that the crime rate in a few cities in India has gone up and this is bound to create panic in the minds of the people; but this definitely does not mean that people should start making their own little bubbles. The primary issue is related to the growing inequality amongst the masses who along with being poor are even deprived of good health and education. And maybe this is one of the main problems that forces people to get into criminal activities. If left unattended this would lead to many new problems that would make the scenario even worse. The government needs to focus on this issue on an urgent basis so that everyone who is economically weak becomes literate, has a stable job, access to public amenities, etc. which would eventually raise their standard of living leading to a more balanced society. For this, the system has to intervene at political & social level and revise the policies so that instead of forcing the people to go off the streets it would work at making the social and street life safer. Also, instead of solving the problem of rising crimes, if people start running away from it & start fencing themselves, then it would make the police and the government even more inefficient. Every gated community is porous and tomorrow the crimes may grow inside it too. For instance, if any untoward incident happens inside these privately secured areas, then the police might refrain from taking up the direct responsibility for it. This would create a very chaotic situation leading to a blame game between the private security agencies and the local authorities. Hence, to avoid this, the citizens have to work in co-ordination with the government and the police in making every neighbourhood secure which will eventually put the onus back onto the authorities. The citizens of each neighbourhood can form a small group, who will report about any problems or illegal activities to the police, on a regular basis and help the police in dealing with the anti-social elements. This will make them and eventually the entire system much more efficient and accountable on the matters of social security. Secondly, as we learn from the Bangalore case these gated communities are technically illegal. But still the local corporation allows the private developers to build them, which proves the level of corruption in Indian cities. For this, the architects, planners, social activists, journalists, etc. have to come forward in educating the citizens about the rules and also the negative impacts of these gated enclaves. This will help in various ways: - Before buying a house, people will know what the rule book says and hence would have a clear idea about what the private developer should and should not do. Along with safeguarding the consumer’s interest, it will also help in preventing the flouting of rules by the corporation and the developers. - The extra financial burden that the residents of these gated communities have to bear can be ruled out once they start realising its negative impacts and open up the internal spaces for the neighbourhood, thereby making the corporation accountable for maintaining these spaces and shared facilities. This will in turn benefit the entire locality, as these facilities would be used by everyone without any discrimination and hence would reduce the divide in the society.

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

In addition to educating the masses about the damage these fences are doing to the spatial and social organisation of the city (as elaborated in this paper), the local government should also reframe its planning policies which encourage the formation of new, mixed & complex urban environment (as present in the old city parts). This new planning and design approach would indeed prevent the private developers from building the typical, simplistic & dead urban quarters and force them to be more innovative and create those spatial overlaps which make a ‘city’. To summarise, unless and until it doesn’t come from the people, the change won’t come; and if this negative phenomenon is not nipped in the bud immediately, it may become a new pattern of urban growth for Pune city and India as a whole. This will make the people so used to segregation & fragmentation that we will lose the ‘city’ which our ancestors had envisioned – a city with complex organisation, strong spatial overlaps and a deep sense of community living.

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Bibliography: http://www.koltepatil.com/ivy/about.html - Official website of Ivy Estate http://www.gatedcommunities.in/ http://www.csir.co.za/Built_environment/Planning_support_systems/gatedcomsa/docs/International_r eview.pdf Gated Communities: An international review http://xa.yimg.com/kq/groups/22385556/248102641/name/Grace_Xavier_University_of_Malaya.pdf Gated and guarded communities - Security concerns or elitist practice? – (2008) - Grace Xavier http://scholar.valpo.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1330&context=vulr&seiredir=1&referer=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.co.uk%2Furl%3Fsa%3Dt%26rct%3Dj%26q%3Dgated%2Bc ommunities%2B%2Bcriticism%26source%3Dweb%26cd%3D6%26ved%3D0CFUQFjAF%26url%3Dhttp%253A%252F%252F scholar.valpo.edu%252Fcgi%252Fviewcontent.cgi%253Farticle%253D1330%2526context%253Dvulr%26 ei%3DmohUZO3JYOo4ASMtYHgDA%26usg%3DAFQjCNEj8Aw2Mf4v1rLLtMCGivoOAdkKOQ#search=%22gated %20communities%20-%20criticism%22 Don't Fence Us Out: The Municipal Power to Ban Gated Communities and the Federal Takings Clause – (2001) - Richard Damstra – Vol. 35, Number 3 http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2012/04/do-gated-communities-threatensociety/1737/ Do Gated Communities Threaten Society? – Sarah Goodyear – April 11, 2012 http://architectureandplanning.dal.ca/planning/faculty/download/b3165.pdf Types of Gated community – (2004) - Jill Grant - Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design 2004, volume 31 http://www.englisharticles.info/2011/01/09/gated-community/ Gated Community – 9 January, 2011 Hajer & Reijndorp. (2001). In search of new public domain. NAi Publishers http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=EEoVZ4kVwTMC&pg=PA176&lpg=PA176&dq=hajer+and+reijndorp &source=bl&ots=-qzPZ1m8IC&sig=EVOxNRGwk9A8VbSbyLTuoBvmLg&hl=en&sa=X&ei=dTEpUa_vLIqU0QWd7YDwBA&ved=0CGgQ6AEwCQ#v=onepage&q=hajer%20and%2 0reijndorp&f=false Miles, Steven. (2010). Spaces for consumption. SAGE Publications Ltd. Jacobs, Jane. (1984). The death and life of great American cities. Penguin Books Ltd.

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

http://kafila.org/2012/12/30/desires-of-planning-and-the-planning-of-desires-vignettes-of-a-rapeculture-and-beyond-rijul-kochhar/ Desires of planning and the planning of Desires: Vignettes of a Rape Culture and Beyond – Sunalini Kumar – December 30, 2012 http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2012-04-05/bangalore/31293333_1_bda-developmentplan-gated BDA ungates gated communities – Sunitha Rao R – April 5, 2012 http://www.firstpost.com/living/goodbye-urban-oasis-the-end-of-the-gated-community-dream509463.html Goodbye, urban oasis: The end of the “gated community” dream - Lakshmi Chaudhry - Oct 31, 2012

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Shaping the modern city Alok Kothari – Housing &Urbanism – 2012/13 Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Bibliography - Images: Image no. 1: http://www.koltepatil.com/ivy/layout-large.html Image no. 2: http://www.koltepatil.com/ivy/apartments-images.html Image no. 3: Google Earth Image no. 4: Google Earth Image no. 11: http://www.shahgrouppune.com/project-details?prj=hyde-park Image no. 12: Google Earth Image no. 13: Google Earth

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Profile for Alok Kothari

Gating the community - Losing the city (by Alok Kothari)  

Research Paper - Alok Kothari - Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

Gating the community - Losing the city (by Alok Kothari)  

Research Paper - Alok Kothari - Architectural Association School of Architecture, London

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