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Urban Courtyardism Lo yee Cheung Adrian 2005651426 March I


Table of Contents

Content

2

4

Courtyard Case Study

14

Exercise Stage I - Low Rise

26

Exercise Stage II - Mid Rise

46

Exercise Stage III - High Rise

48

Site Study

50

Site Palnning

54

Tower Study

72

Master Layout Plan

74

Tower Floor Plans

80

Site Section

82

Model Pictures


Project Program

Preface Urban Courtyardism Urban Courtyardism begins by asking: what was the quality of urban courtyards and how did they work as an individual element? What was the system of their fabrication and how were they patterned to make urban spaces? How do we sustain qualities of such building type that is facing challenge and must transform? And how do such typology provide the capacity to sustain continuity and at the same time facilitates new possibilities? Through a series of design explorations, the studio would like to demonstrate how to re-invent the historical courtyard typology for contemporary urban conditions, particularly when density and building height has to be increased. The outcome of the studio will include three parts: 1), studies of courtyard typology; 2), studies of a cluster of low-rise courtyard housing; 3), studies of midrise courtyard housing for a prototypical resettlement project in rural Shenzhen. By looking into three-dimensional systems for multi-leveled courtyard spaces, the studio intend to provide us a platform of imagination toward an urban courtyardism for our contemporary cities facing challenges of density, sustainability and community reintegration.

Typological Studies for Resettlement of Village Housing in Shenzhen

3


Courtyard Urbanism 4


Courtyard Urbanism 5

Initial case study reseach: book- sociopolis, to look at possible deisgn ideas for courtyard houses.


Courtyard Urbanism

idea

idea

idea

idea

over view

relative size typical plan partial

typical section partial

different scale

day light

ventilation 6

public / private

N/A

circulatoin

massing

formation around & spiral

left over

stack variation

subtraction

mass vs void

courtyard

type

hostle

housing

housing

housing

house


Courtyard Urbanism

a scale & stack

house

a

axis & side

ADD & SURROUND

DUPLICATE

house

house

house

Matrix : Case Study of spectrum of Courtyard Design

different scale

different scale

7


Courtyard Urbanism

Traditional Courtyard HOuse Study in GwangDong Region

屏山坑尾村民居

8

寶賢路某宅

5m

西關大屋

plan


Courtyard Urbanism 9

Across page: Houses Studied - Plan

Figure Ground

Transitional space


Courtyard Urbanism

1:300

Upper floor plan

b a

10

Lower floor plan

Sectino AA

Sectino BB

N


Transitional

Courtyard Urbanism

Courtyard

Circulation

3

2

Courtyard Ratio study

Winter

Summer

Ventilation flow study 11

Summer Winter

Solar Study

Isometric View

西關大屋,俗稱古老大屋,是中國廣州市荔灣區西關一帶興建的富有 嶺南特色的傳統民居,多為名門望族、官僚巨賈所建。大部分西關大 屋興建於清朝同治、光緒年間,主要分布在多寶路、寶華路、龍津路 西、上下九路等地。最著名的西關大屋有坐落於寶源北街18號的「梁 資政第」、坐落於多寶路的鄧宮保第以及坐落於寶華路正中的鐘家花 園等,但現已不復存在。


Courtyard Urbanism

INTERMISSION 12


Courtyard Urbanism 13

Presentation 18-02-2010


Courtyard Urbanism

Dual Directional Overlapped Courtyard

Efficient Use of Courtyard

14

Form Exploration Exercise


Courtyard Urbanism

Design 01

Design 02

Design 03

Design 04

15

Design Progress

The above records the ‘natural history’ of the design process of the low-rise row courtyard house. Each step evolves to the next with modifications. I believe there is a fundamental importance for the development of design ideas. Across the page is the (top) concept of having 2 courtyards overlapping at 90 degree for best efficient courtyard space, (bottom) is the 3D form exploration to test ideas of spatial arrangements.


Design 01 Plan & Section

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16


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Floor plan and Section Street vista Lower floor interior space looking towards courtyard View from Entrance View from master bedrom towards upper courtyard Design 01 with family / activity room located on both sides of the ground floor elongated courtyard to maxmized the interaction and fluidity of interor and open garden space. Bedrooms located on the four corner of the upper floor, each with a courtyard outside the rooms.


Design 02 Plan & Section

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18


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Feedback about the alien triangular ventilation openings and unjustified location of the stair has been received. Modification of stair location is being done and the massing has been changed to 2 overlapping ‘H’ 90 degree to each other, making the courtyard more clean and the interior space more usable.


Design 04 Plan & Section

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20


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Over perspective of Design 04 of low-rise courtyard house Architectural Drawing - plan and section View from sitting room to courtyard View from Guest bedroom overlooking upper and lower courtyard In previous design trials, clean and efficiency of courtyard have been achieved. To further refine my design, more effort was put to generate a more complex experience with diverse courtyard situation. This L-shapped house, also suggested a new relationship towards the neighbor house.


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1. Design 01 for courtyard row house 1:100 model 2. Site arrangement of the houses 1:200 model 3. Design 02 for courtyard row house 1:100 model 4. Design 03 for courtyard row house 1:100 model (From left to right)


Courtyard Urbanism

INTERMISSION 24


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Presentation Site Model


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Design Development Strategy


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Unit formal Exploration

27

On the left is the step-by-step development logic of site strategy, starting from massing and coverage design to micro-climatic considerations, then to programmatic arrangements. It aimed to create a maximized central courtyard with each unite having sky facing courtyard. The above illustration is the unit design developmental sequences, each model informed me the credits and cons of each formal schemes. The final L-shapped + U-shapped duplex was selected for further development.


Courtyard Urbanism Scondary Rd

28

Primary Rd

Primary Rd

Courtyard

Top View of Whole Complex


Courtyard Urbanism Site Layout Testing

29

The above diagrams shows alternative site planning methods, with their relative sectional layout. It suggested that by placing the massing on the edge surrounding the site gives the maximized communal courtyard at the center, but undesired corner conditions also arise, also individual unites will be facing all four directions. Design with 2 rows on each side was selected, in between were an axial courtyard, with the ,major entrances facing South and North, following the Feng Shui orientation of traditional Chinese design.


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1. From study progress sequence Massing model 2. Units as module to design whole complex Massing model 3. Testing of form mulipulations Massing model (From left to right)


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Sectional Perspective

of half of the whole complex


Courtyard Urbanism UPPER UNIT UPPER UNIT LOWER UNIT

SHOP

CAR PARK

LOWER UNIT

COMMON COURTYARD

33

UPPER UNIT UPPER UNIT LOWER UNIT

SHOP

CAR PARK

LOWER UNIT

COMMON COURTYARD

The Sectional Perspective on the left shows the spatial arrangement of different units within the site - 4 duplex stacked to form terrace, which each shifted to allow every single courtyard to be sky facing. The less desirable spaces below the upper units become the carpark and retail (with open to the exterior street), this conscious thought of programmatic arrange increased the total value of the whole complex.


Courtyard Urbanism

Road System Primary Rd Secondary Rd Service Rd

34

Pedestrian Circualtion External Pedestrian criculation 2nd level circulation Horizontal criculation internal Pedestrian criculation


Courtyard Urbanism

Solar Consideration Unit with natural light Courtyard Solar angle

35

Ventilation Cross ventilated unit Air flow direction

Here is a demonstration on how his design idea has been well thought, with carefully consideration of circulation, traffic access, lighting and natual ventilation. And all these blends with the formal design of this scheme to from a complete system that celebrated the foundamental concept of courtyard in this complex.


Courtyard Urbanism HIGH WINDOW

36

UPPER FLOOR

UPPER FLOOR

5M


Courtyard Urbanism 37

LOWER FLOOR

LOWER FLOOR

LOWER FLOOR

Floor PLan Design Option 01


Courtyard Urbanism HIGH WINDOW

38

UPPER FLOOR

UPPER FLOOR

5M


Courtyard Urbanism 39

LOWER FLOOR

LOWER FLOOR

LOWER FLOOR

Floor PLan Design Option 02


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Courtyard Urbanism Complex Overall Perspective Communal Courtyard with maximized space as spatial focus Efficient Space Planning - Commercial Street Facade Axial Courtyard of the Complex with living Unit on each Side

The internal facing quality of Courtyard design is celebrated in this residential complex, that each unit is facing to the central courtyard, which is share by all resident of the complex. This courtyard becomes both the spatial and spiritual focus, where various exchange and activity happened. The external walled facade further reinforced the enclose idea. To increase the programmatic values of the whole urban area, shopping arcade street is created to brig life to the primary busy road next to the urban block.

41


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1. Shifting opertion to creat deplex with 2 courtyrads 1:100 model 2. More private upper courtyard over look the family one 1:100 model 3. Site arrangement of the houses 1:200 model 4. Cricualtion between the 2 rows of terrace houses 1:200 model (From left to right)


Courtyard Urbanism

INTERMISSION 44


Courtyard Urbanism 45

Presentation 26-03-2010


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Courtyard Urbanism

Preface The content in this book is a record of the thrid part design exercise of three stage full semester architectural studio, “Urban Courtyardism�, instructured by Mr. Wang Weijan of the University of Hong Kong in year 2010. Through a series of design explorations, the studio would like to demonstrate how to re-invent the historical courtyard typology for contemporary urban conditions, particularly when density and building height has to be increased. The outcome of the studio will include three parts: 1), studies of courtyard typology; 2), studies of a cluster of low-rise courtyard housing; 3), studies of mid-rise courtyard housing for a prototypical resettlement project in rural Shenzhen.

47


Courtyard Urbanism INDIVIDUAL Livestock

Self-made Preserved Meat

Firewood

Subtle Resident Entrance

GF Shop Front

Vendor

Narrow Street

Featured Pool

Central Playground

COMMUNITY 48

URBAN

Site Study

Mahjong in Restaurant


Courtyard Urbanism 49

The living characteristics of the Shenzhen villagers are divided into 3 levels. In “individual” level, each family have their own livestock and firewood, and they also make preserved meat. In “community” level, although their housings are not splendor, they are very welcome to guests and like to participate into communal activities. In “urban” level, their houses are packed together, but they will leave a large central open space for Fung Shui purpose and common area. In conclusion, the village families are very self-sufficient, but they also like to have social activities with other villagers.


Courtyard Urbanism Site planning concpet - Mseh with Tower design

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Site Surroundings - Aerial View

50

Site Palnning MLP Concept Design 1 Starting with a basic grid of towers, the MLP layout is then adjusted according to the landscape and the surrounding fabric. There will be layers of mesh providing low-dense housing.


Courtyard Urbanism

10m 20m 3 STORIES (10.5m)

COMMUNAL SPCAE COMMUNAL SPCAE

COMMUNAL SPCAE COMMUNAL SPCAE COMMUNAL SPCAE

COMMUNAL SPCAE COMMUNAL SPCAE

51

MLP Concept Design 2 The pattern of mesh is further developed. A basic block of 10x20m is copied and rotated to create a community area in every 6 blocks. This system of low dense housing brings the surrounding village experience into the site.


Courtyard Urbanism 52


Courtyard Urbanism +31.5 +21.0 +10.5 + 0.0 53

+31.5 +21.0 +10.5 + 0.0


Courtyard Urbanism 54

Tower Study The diagram above illustrated, in the first roll, the conceptual idea of creating a continuous linked-courtyard sequential-experience in the form of a tower Building. This is inspired from the earlier study of the sequential-spactial progression of traditional Chinese courtyard house. The lower demonstrate the Pros that this design / spacial arrangement brings, e.g. better ventilation, view.. Etc. The Matrix on the right is a evaluation of how success the idea of “Courtyard� is being executed in each high-density courtyard house design, with criteria ranging from microclimatic performance to accessibility.


55

Name of Design


Courtyard Urbanism First Stage Design Trials

56

Breeding and Further Form Testing


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Selected Design and more thinking

Starting from a block massing we brain stormed a range of high-rise building form that might have the quality of courtyard. (top right, left page) And below are the evolved generation with refinements of the first stage deisgn prototypes. Sprial, stacking, shifting, subtraction are opereations that we used. lastly, we choose to proceed with the design above which is embeded with a stronger concept.


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1. From study progress sequence for tower design 1:500 model 2. Designs with concept of spiralling up Massing model 3. Testing of fesibility of connecting towers Massing model (From left to right)


Courtyard Urbanism

01

Square shapped duplex with 4 units on each floor

more “surroundness� courtyard

60

Bar shapped dulpex with center privot (core) View

02


Courtyard Urbanism hollow center

03

61

Bar shapped duplex with triangular arrangement (hollow center, ventilation)

To boarded our choices to evaluate, we created more detailed models to study the possible form and structure of courtyard high-rise towers. We learned that the duplex needs extra up and down circulation which will use up unecessary GFA and triangular shape had an inherited mismatch will four sided courtyard, with a lot of ‘left over’ spaces, that cannot be utilized. But this models do told us that the possibility of creating double height courtyard by hving duplex instead of single floor units.


Courtyard Urbanism 62

Elevation looking at courtyard


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Perspective study of courtyard

To better understand the spatial experience within the continuous courtyard, here is a simulation to see how each resident unit will be connected to the courtyards, and the way that ciuculation will be installed to facilated the movements. Each courtyard will be shared by 3 household units, have triple floor volumn, and visual connection to the next courtyard. The favorable cross-ventilation can also be achieved.


Courtyard Urbanism 64


Courtyard Urbanism

In this exercise, we proposed two design scheme, which in form, looks rather different, but both of them are embedded with a rich design philosophy. In the below diagram it demonstrate the thinking behind, by unfold the structure and retrieve the underinglying continuous “street like” ���JIN” experence - courtyard > transitional space > courtyard > transitional space ... to encourage activity that used to be happened on the ground level urban fabric to reform in a high-rise residential tower.

In the other design on the left, its various sized courtyard suggest different programme to be held, where the resident can enjoy both different spactial and programmatic experience. Also, the courtyard, both big and small are distributed equally, so that the users can reach each type of courtyard within a specified distance.

65


Courtyard Urbanism 66


Courtyard Urbanism 67

The “sense of courtyard� created by the surroundness of massing

Bird eye view overlooking various scale courtyard

Different scale of courtyard gives different experience to the residents, which is enriched by the function / programmatic use of these courtyard, which this system tries to mimic the local village fabric of spatial planning, but in a vertical way. On the left, it is a common courtyard shared by 2 household units. Where the resident can enjoy this semi open space, at the same time it serves as a linkage between the circualtion core and the units.


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View looking down to common courtyard from living room

Internal Private courtyard enhanced the interior space


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Extending the interior space to courtyard then to infinity

Spiral courtyard, looking from exterior

Above renderings shows how the continuous common courtyards on each floor create a very different spatial and programmatic experience to the resident, compared to now-a-days pencil residential towers. Not only encouraging interaction in-between resident who lives on different floor, it also suggest a new lifestyle which convey a healthy and fresh image. Interaction, both physical, visual, and mental is being strength, making a more communal living, with better micro-climate for each unit.


Courtyard Urbanism 70


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The rendering on the left describe how the connection between the “spiral sky courtyard� and the roof garden of the Y-shapped mesh low-rise apartment units from a continuos outdoor experience linking the ground towards the sky. These spaces will become leisure area for local residents and it also increase the connectivity of the whole complex. The above perspective shows the sky courtyards and how the carefully designed facade echoes with this though-out design concept.


1:2500

Courtyard Urbanism 72

Master Layout Plan

N


1:6000

Courtyard Urbanism

N

73

1:2500

N

N

1:6000


1:150

Courtyard Urbanism 74

Tower Scheme 1 Level 1 Floor Plan

Tower Floor Plans


Courtyard Urbanism

1:150

75

Tower Scheme 1 Level 2 Floor Plan


1:150

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Tower Scheme 1 Level 3 Floor Plan


Courtyard Urbanism

1:150

77

Tower Scheme 1 Level 4 Floor Plan


1:1000

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Tower Scheme 2 Typical Floor Plans


Courtyard Urbanism

1:200

Tower Scheme 2 Unit A

79

Tower Scheme 2 Unit B


1:1200

Courtyard Urbanism 80

Site Section


81

Courtyard Urbanism


Courtyard Urbanism 82

Model Pictures


83

Courtyard Urbanism


Courtyard Urbanism 84


85

Courtyard Urbanism


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87

Courtyard Urbanism


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Final Presentation Panel


Courtyard Urbanism