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DIPLOMA PROGRAM DIPLOMA PROGRAM Re composing Presence / A new urban cemetery-scape at the Trumpeldor cemetery, Tel Aviv, Israel Nadav Kochavi Almudena Ruiz-Giménez Úbeda Tutors: APP Andre Fontes DAV Thomas Wiesner

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DIPLOMA PROGRAM Diploma term Spring 2014 BERGEN SCHOOL OF ARCHITECTURE Sandviksboder 59-61a Postadr: PB 39, 5841 Bergen Tlf.+ 47 55 36 38 80Fax.+ 47 55 36 38 81 adm@bas.org Nadav Kochavi Almudena Ruiz-Giménez Úbeda Tutors:

APP Andre Fontes DAV Thomas Wiesner

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Th gin is co Th g an mpe de e co d an ndium pa partu mpen alyzi of rk? re n Th ; d dium g a cultu is e co aling was wide re pa mp r r en with crea ange ks w diu t m the ed as of p as cr e of sim r cu ple a co oject ated ltu s m y Ca re p et mon that as a r n ar hig ou ks hly dat deal grou (Fo Pierr s somwas com a bas with p res mecre ple e o iss ear In r w e-Je s oate x q f re ues ch tow a wa e ar an Jo a 첫 nd a ue fe ce ard y w e wh uve, ouss a stio ren of na ttemp m L c n t me ete s th e ar ere yriq e g ne ro of s ure t at soump wh and an ca em et t ry i e ce e al we ue h l s m a o ar mreese at is as d cu talore tio e n e in s par a tha ise. A nal dead ot on tery, a jou not 1 acsh a na poin lture. a vis t sh tu nd . It i ly w but rne ) att tur t f r i y s e a t em e c or to is pe bul st w her the pt u ine ward ano s us ence hetic here e th at lture vita s t the , fo of al i sp e li ca ble he r st r e no dea iritu ving . ep ach tion s al, s

sdf1

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Quoted in Gaston Bernard, The Poetic of Space, trans.Maria Jolas, Boston 1969, p. 211.

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INDEX

1.1 1.2 1.3

Abstract............................................................8 Introduction................................................10 Framework.................................................... .....12

SITE CONTEXT 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4

The context ........................................................14 Catalogue..........................................................22 Approach to the site............................................24 Defining elements...............................................30

CONDITIONS 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

Neglected conditions...........................................34 Neglect Consequences...................................... 36 The government proposal.................................... 40 Sustainability considerations................................42

BACKGROUND 4.1 4.2

Context background............................................48 The cemetery background....................................54

ARCHITECTURE AND CONSERVATION 5.1

Conservation paradoxes ........................................58

CONSIDERATIONS 6.1 6.2

Social Anthropology Essay summery A...................62 Social Anthropology Essay summery B...................66

INDEX 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5

Expected outcomes.............................................71 Time-line and Scope.............................................72 Proposed final material........................................73 Schedule...........................................................74 CVs...................................................................77

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1.1 Abstract Revival of Trumpeldor Cemetery The subject of the diploma thesis project concerns itself with the revival of an existing cemetery in the town of Tel Aviv, Israel. The project seeks for a physical intervention focusing on new burial possibilities, a new transition space to prepare the body for burial, and a more coherent relationship (both physically but also as a significant historical space in the city) with the context. Project Interventions will take into account religious rules and local conventions to a degree, which will allow for the rethinking of the unsustainable burial procedures in nowadays Israel. Trumpeldor cemetery The cemetery is located 300 meters East to the waterfront of Tel Aviv, between the middle section of Trumpeldor Street, Hovevei Tsyion Street, and Pinsker Street. Although located in the most active part of the city, the location of the cemetery and its historical significance are known by few. Because zoning restrictions limit the size of cemeteries and use of the land around them, conventional (field) burial over the course of one lifetime (75 years) would require more than 10 square miles, or half the area of the city. In just one lifetime, there would be no more room for the living in Tel Aviv. Space shortages in countries around

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the world are raising an overwhelming question: where to lay dead bodies to rest. Many countries are in the same position. But it’s not that simple. Death and burial is fraught with tradition and meaning, and “transforming” those rites of passage is easier said than done. Above all, the idea is to maintain a person’s dignity in death. The site for the project was chosen for three reasons. Trumpeldor Cemetery is an emblematic element in the city, we believe as opposed to its current state that it should be harnessed to foster cultural identity. Secondly the poor condition of the cemetery, and its lack of connection with the surrounding context. And lastly our believe that if change will be possible where change isn’t even considered, a new layer will be added to the current debate (due to sustainability concerns) of future burial in Israel.

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1.2 Introduction A new urban cemetery-scape at the Trumpeldor cemetery, Tel Aviv, Israel The diploma project will attempt to test the many interactions between physical and metaphysical realms in the chosen location. The work will manifest itself in an architectural proposal supplemented by more theoretical assessments of different approaches to contemporary Israeli burial customs in Trumpeldor cemetery in Tel Aviv, testing their interactivity in nowadays urban life in Israel. Cemeteries distil their cultures. They are a kind of museum, which embeds both people and their stories into parcels of land. In contrast to the characteristically chaotic environments of conurbations, they exist where silence and peace prevail. During recent decades Israeli cemeteries have been constructed on the outskirts of cities, often adjacent to industrial sites. They have suffered from poor architectural qualities due to limited planning and poor attention to detail. Slowly these cemeteries have become sequestered from the people. Yet in response to current Israeli concerns regarding land shortage and population growth, a new type of cemetery is being build, encompassing transitions from field burial to stacked burial; this highlight a pivotal moment where old customs face modern concerns with sustainability.

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Generic burial rules in Judaism

1.3 Framework _Grave dimension must be at least: 2.00m X 0.50m X 0.40m. _The graves are arranged in rows. _There must be a connection between the grave and the ground soil _Jewish law requires a distance of six handbreadths(6 to 10 centimetre) between graves. If necessary, one body may be buried on top of another, if there is a separating layer of earth the depth of six handbreadths. _The body is to be buried without a coffin or one with holes. _A land profiled as a graveyard must remain so for 999 years, Indicating that Trumpeldor cemetery will remain as is until 2901. _An ancient custom was to leave cemeteries unadorned by trees and plants. However, beautifying cemeteries with trees and plants is now a widespread practice among Jews. _Traditionally, a building was erected at the cemetery to serve as a chapel and sometimes also as a place to prepare the body for burial. _A wall or fence surrounds the cemetery. _Cremation although possible, is not considered an alternative. _ Graves in Judaism exist forever. More accurately, until the arrival of the Messiah. During this time bodies can not be moved and graves cannot be reused. Although the rules appear firm, further analysis in the chosen context reveal that they are often manipulated and broken.

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Current manipulation of field burial rules in multi-level burial.

Layer of sand inside the coffin chamber separation between graves

Connection point to the shaft and the

Sand shaft

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The state of Israel is located in the Middle East. Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, and the Mediterranean Sea border it

LEBANON

SYRIA

Next page:

Haifa

Tel Aviv / Jaffa total area: 51,4 km2 Population: 400,000

Nazareth

Tel Aviv WEST BANK

Jerusalem

GAZA

JORDAN

Dimona

EGYPT

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2.1 The context

The chosen location

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Cemeteries total area: 1,82 km2 (3,5%) leisure/park total area: 8,7 km2 (17,2%) Cemeteries Park/leisure

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A

280m

A

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Municipality owned and empty plots Cemetery area: 11,000m2 Graves: 5,000

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m

0m

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5m

160m

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Building 2.2 Building Catalog Catalogue

1. A 2. C 3. A 4. A 5. A 6. A 7. A 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. A 12. A 13. A+R 14. A 15. A 16. A+R 17. A 18. A 19. Ed 20. S 21. A 22. A 23. A 24. A 25. H 26. A+R 27. E 28. E 29. A 30. A 31. A 32. A 33. A 34. A 35. A 36. A 37. A

38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. 69. 70. 71. 72. 73. 74.

A S A+R A+R A A+R A A+R A+R E A+R R A+R A+R E A-N A E A A A A+R A A A A A A/E? A K A A A/N A+R A A A

75. A 76. A 77. A 78. A+C 79. A 80. A+R 81. 82. A+R-N 83. A+R 84. A+R 85. A+R 86. A+R 87. A+R 88. A+R 89. A+R 90. A 91. A 92. A 93. A 94. A 95. A 96. A 97. A+R 98. A+R 99. A+R 100. H+A+R 101. D

95 96

98

97

99 30

100 27 WE 26

28

1

25 24

23

58

57 61

60 70

71 82

31

29

59 58

32

72

69 73 74

80

7 SN

22

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90

89

88

91 92

87 36

93

37

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94 34

85 38

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6 5

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NS 86

39

8

4

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3

40 41

43

42

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45 46

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12 13

14 15 21

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56 62

66

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55 54

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A_Apartments C_Clinic D_Dog park E_Empty Ed_Education H_Hotel K_ Kindergarten N_New construction R_ Retail S_Synagogue

EW

65

76

75

78 84

17

50

64

67

79

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51 52

77

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2.3 Approach

SN

EW

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NS

WE

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Photos from the cemetery

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Existing walking paths and burial plots: A(oldest) - G(recent) Early residents of Tel Aviv Figures from little Tel Aviv Intellectuals

plot E

plot F

plot D

Main

gate

plot G

plot C

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plot B

plot A

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2.4 Defining Elements

The wall

The gates

The life around

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The repetition

The areas within

The vegetation

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Textures ambience taken from plot A

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3.1 Neglected conditions In the last few decades cemeteries have been constructed on the outskirts of cities, as shown, often adjacent to industrial sites or to inhabit high quality land that otherwise could be used for agriculture or development. The images illustrate boundaries created by roads and perhaps lack of boundaries between cemeteries and industrials sites. It is clear that there is little use of landscaping which could provide shading, an important outdoor element in this warm climate. Today this type of burial is acknowledged to be unsustainable. Especially when considering that graves in Judaism exist forever.

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Top_Hulon Cemetery aerial view Area:600,000m2 Bottom_Yarkon Cemetery Area:250,000m2 Left_Kiryat Shaul Cemetery Area:320,000m2

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3.2 Neglect Consequences Recently additional burial plots were added to several cemeteries in Israel. The image illustrates the new burial plots built at the Northwest side of Kiryat Shaul cemetery which become quit fast a recurring approach to space shortage. On that site a three-story, step-pyramid shaped building was built. The image highlight a drastic transition from experiencing cemeteries as part of a landscape, to an indoor (Mausoleum) type experience that projects a very different cultural attitude towards death.

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Land-space crises _Every year 36,000 people are buried in Israel _Traditional Field burial make possible for 240 graves for every 1000m2 _In order to bury 2 million people in the metropolitan area of Israel in the next 50 years 26 cemeteries with an area of 300,000m2 will be needed.

The following diagram illustrates the needed spaces for burial purposes for the population living in the Central area of Israel following field burial regulations. In 50 years an area equal to the city of Tel Aviv must be profiled as cemeteries.

- 300,000m2 of cemetery space, total 7,800,000m2

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3.3 The government proposal to the problem Recently published in the media, the government is planning a new cemetery as a response to concerns of burial shortage. The plans indicate that the cemetery will be located in a quarry, an hour away from the centre of Tel Aviv. It is estimated to provide around 300,000 burial spots, covering an area of 1,300,000m2. As illustrated below the cemetery will be located with proximity to the flight path towards Ben Gurion International airport. The proposal addresses an important issue such as the shortage of space, yet fails to truly stir more fundamental questions regarding the cemetery relation to society. In fact the solution is temporary. It further extenuate the separation created between death and society.

Landing approach route Proposed site by the government

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Bareket Quarry, Ganei-Ad proposal by Ponger-Sagiv Architects

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3.4 Sustainability considerations Trumpeldor, cemetery is an atypical public space, in a way that it is both metaphorically and physically accessible and inaccessible. We believe that it has an important social role in the society at nurturing identity and preserving memories and history. Today there is a disconnect between the city and the cemetery; expressed in lack of care and neglect. Reactivating this sort of public domain will stimulate several advantages components that would work together in our sustainability approach. - Nowadays, noise pollution problem is becoming serious while it receive little attention when in fact noise pollution leads to major health problems, including heart disease, sleep disturbance etc. In general the cemetery is a quit place in contrast to the chaotic environments of conurbations. We would like to preserve this quality as we see it to be unique in the city. - The urban heat island effect occurs often in urbanized areas, where buildings, asphalt, and concrete absorb solar radiation and then emitted as heat, causing air temperature to rise. The presence of nature in open urban spaces proven to reduce the urban heat island effect, directly by shading heat absorbing surfaces, and indirectly through evapotranspiration. Israel is a warm country where shaded areas in the city are important and are widely used. As shown

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temperature differences reach an average of two degrees Celsius

Temperature

between green areas and constructed areas in the city.

Hour

Trumpeldor

Meir park

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Fig 1: Hourly temperatures in the centre of Meir park ( ) and in the surrounding built-up environment ( ) during 6-7 June 2002


- We see the cemetery as an integral part of the social environment. Much can be done in the cemetery, making it more socially sustainable. From economic perspective, which is a component in sustainably, reactivating the cemetery and transforming it into an engaging area will increase the value of the neighbourhood. The physical situation as of today (tall brick walls creating visual barriers, no paths, little use of vegetation, no benches..) makes it unfriendly. Apartments with a view towards a cemetery can be worth up to 15% less than apartment facing other directions in the same building. - Field burials in Israel prove to inhabit large amount of land this alarming problem raises question regarding how new burial should take place. We look at the possibility to expand where land is already used rather than taking more green field land. As shown today new burial structures are heavy and require extensive amounts of materials, which we attempt to address in the project proposal. Furthermore, new government proposals revile plans to construct mega cemeteries outside of cities. Besides the social implications of having to drive far to visit graves (especially for older population) we are concerned with the impact it will exert on the environment.

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Transitions

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Transitionsfrom the Distance centre of Tel Aviv

“I wish the cemetery would be closer says Ronit, especially for my mother, for her the visit to the cemetery is a special day. If the cemetery was far away I don’t know if I’d be able to take her there, at her age it becomes more difficult”. (A conversation with a women visiting Trumpeldor cemetery)

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500m 1km 5km 10km 30km


4.1 Context background: Tel Aviv uniqueness stems from the complex set of historical factors that shaped it from a utopian garden city in the beginning of the 20th century, into a cosmopolitan metropolis today. The city was founded primarily by immigrants and refuges, which came from different countries with a wide variety of backgrounds. Both “Tel Aviv-constructed” and “Tel Aviv-imagined” a concept devised by Barbara E. Mann, discussed in her book “A Place in History,” were shaped during the decades were international modernism flourished. The city was imagined in various forms years before its establishment, when Jews started to realize that they are not welcomed in Europe or Africa. Even during the relatively modest stages of its initial constructions it was envisioned as a grandiose centre for the Jewish cultural renewal, for it encompasses a vision and an obligation. In a sense, the construction of Tel Aviv was a struggle for the secularization of space, to make what had been biblical into an actual place one can call home. As it were the city became a focal point for larger ideological clashes concerning Jewish life in Palestine. Central among these conflicts was the question of what kind of a lifestyle Jewish renewal should be like. For some, manual labour, and collective living was appropriate. Tel Aviv as an idea was the opposite of these beliefs. Urban life was also strongly connected to Jewish life in the Diaspora, and negative elements often attributed to Tel Aviv were seen as a continuation or replication of the problematic conditions Jews experienced in the Diaspora. The city was kind of a “laboratory for urban design” dealing with opposing ideological desires and hopes of the many immigrants who

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Top: The meeting founding Tel-Aviv on the sand dunes north to Jaffa, 1908 Bottom: Early years

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Right: Street activity during “White Night” Festival 2013

Map: Two polarities; Tel Aviv & Jerusalem

built it. The future oriented drive towards newness was continually grounded by the ancient relationship to a homeland; the return to a privileged space, refereed to in the bible as the “Land of Israel.” This return envisaged a new Hebrew culture deriving from ancient Jewish life in the region, based on biblical depictions and archaeological excavations. This highlights a paradox between the context of time (of liberation realized through modernism), and the context of memories, which far accedes one generation. This paradoxical notion of a home is bounded by two different perceptions; the wish of newness and the strangeness.1 1

Mann, Barbara E. A Place in History. 1 edition. Stanford University Press, 2006.: 3-72.

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The place that is understood as an ancient homeland must somehow be “made new� and is also in a physical sense foreign. Another role the city assumed was its opposition to Jerusalem with its historical solidity and spiritual authority. These dichotomies were also represented in literature, the arts, and naturally in the built environment. Today, greater Tel Aviv includes a number of suburbs like Hulon, PetahTikvah, Bat Yam, Bene-Barak and Ramat-Gan, in total Tel Aviv community has 1.1 million people. It is the commercial, financial and industrial centre of the country. The city is also the a creative centre, it houses the Philharmonic Orchestra, the National Theatre,museums and galleries. J Jerusalem still stands in opposition to Tel Aviv today. Considered holly to Christians, Muslims and Jews it is rich in memories and ambience. The city is the diplomatic face of Israel although recognized to be; area in dispute and physically parted.

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Life around the Cemetery is very active

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Top: Trumpeldor Cemetery during a funeral 1927. Bottom: The Cemetery today

4.2 Trumpeldor Cemetery background Trumpeldor cemetery was founded during the 1902 cholera epidemic that erupted in Egypt, hit Jaffa and spread over the boundaries of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman officials prohibited the burial of the dead within the city walls for fear of an outbreak. The existing cemetery at the time was located with proximity to the centre of the city. Jewish leaders requested an alternative and were granted permission to purchase land North of the city. The first two graves were dug distant from each other to claim ownership on the graveyard plot. The eastern section is the oldest. Buried in the cemetery are some of the city’s founders, early residents, and cultural and historical figures, including the second Prime Minister of Israel. When the cemetery opened, its location was far from populated areas but today it is located in downtown Tel Aviv. In essence, than, Tel Aviv was born with the cemetery. As the city evolves around it, the cemetery remains a memento for where the city came from, the journey it narrate, and a reminder that mourning is part of the makeup of identity. Memory is a powerful element; it often feed itself when opposite constructions occurs as a sort of a protection mechanism that is reinforced by the passage of time. This becomes particularly true when considering the location of the Trumpeldor cemetery in the centre of Tel Aviv hectic, constantly changing centre. What is evident today is that the cemetery is neglected, little changes are made and very few graves erect. Today, only persons holding plots purchased long ago and a small number willing to pay significant amounts are buried there. It appears that the cemetery is the only spot in Tel Aviv that is static.

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Jaffa 1879

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Evolution of the cemetery and the city.

Jaffa 1880

Trumpeldor Cemetery

1910 Tel-Aviv city

1980

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5.1 Conservation paradoxes Subtle spatial changes can alter a site/a building or a space quality dramatically. Elements such as natural light and composition are often what make high quality architectural spaces distinctive and powerful. Yet the conservation community does not take this recognition of space as a concrete element that architects deal with extensively into full consideration. This lack of consideration can be observed in documents describing restoration theory and in several international conservation charters. This charters focuses manly at preservation of the visual and the aesthetic qualities of heritage sites. The intention to protect valued cultural sites for future generations is worthy, yet there is a paradox in how it is being measured, executed and by whom.1 This problematic condition does not aim at arguing that qualities of space are ignored intentionally but to highlight why this might occur. First the element of space although crafted in the past, was not part of the architecture discourse until recently (came about to discussions with modernism) for it is not measurable and therefore difficult to grasp. Secondly, significance in the built environment has to do more with memory and culture; perceived through the inner world of the beholder. These two aspects, which are central to those places around the world meet with societies’ wish to preserve certain sites in their culture for the sake of identity and power, a drive tied to the emergence of the nation state and economical benefits.

1

Amorim, Luiz. “Preserving Space: towards a new architectural conservation.� Proceedings,6th International Space Syntax Symposium,Istanbul. (2007): 1-13.

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As suggested by Luis, in order to address these paradoxes new paradigms must be created which will acknowledge deeper architectural qualities that are not measurable, and formulate a way to recognize and protect them. Otherwise the heritage environment that we wish to preserve will be reduced to aesthetics and will lose its relation to the society they attempt to preserve. These questions regarding approaches to preservation will be investigated in the project, as Trumpeldor Cemetery seems to posses the parameters to be conserved. Yet reality suggest otherwise. Today the site is neglected and appears to be with no significance. This brings about a more fundamental question regarding the cemetery, which requires establishing what is this site with relation to the culture and the built environment prior to preservation.

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Damaged grave in Trumpeldor cemetery


Concept model 31.1.14

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T: Moment of force d: Moment arm (degree of influence) c: Axis of rotation (cemetery) F: Applied force (intervention)

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6.1 Anthropological Essay A Mirrors of Societies_ Cemetery as a reflection of a culture Death is the most universal concept. Religion, culture, geographical and other factors create variations in the ways to approach and deal with death. Bodies burned or bodies buried; this is the last physical status of the human body. Death is not just a biological event, it provokes both moral and social obligations, it can even provoke profound social rupture. Practices of mourning and materialization around death structures the social identity of those still alive as well as provide understanding of life and relations among the living.1 Cemeteries are not just physical places, like Basso expresses; they evoke memories, desires, expectations, and emotions. They become the mirrors of societies, for they revile their values and rituals.2 They are places where death is memorialised, and person-hood is commemorative in order to keep it alive. Discussion of material culture and burial practices has emphasized factual differences that may indicate the expression of social differentiation, in terms of individual, kin, regional identities, and the creation of social memories. To understand that, it is necessary to read and explore the different layers that form these public spaces, and how they connect to the society. 1

Kaufman, Sharon, and Lynn Morgan. The anthropology of the beginnings and ends of life.34. Annual Reviews, 2005.: 317-341. 2 Basso, Keith. Wisdom Sits in Places: Landscape and Language Among the Western Apache. Santa Fe, New Mexico: School of American Research Press, 1996.: 53 90.

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The Old-Trumpeldor cemetery (bevyt, ha-kvarot ha-yashan) is an oscillation between a description of physical aspects (location, layout, and tombstone inscriptions) and its “metaphysical” aspects (its own history, as well as the many individual histories it circumscribes.1 It may be seen as an “empty space”, but in fact it is a place full of richness, which layer by layer represents the story and growth of a culture. It comes to debate a simple question; who cemeteries are for, and where are the boundaries between public and private / the cemetery and the city. Today, walking in the cemetery, it is possible to find different types of visitors: Those interested in local history, and those that come to express their respects. It is also possible to observe others that just come to relax in one of the city’s quietest areas. This raises a conflict between people who wish to experience the city freely and those who because of religious reasons believe that the cemetery shouldn’t become too attractive, which today results in a broken connection with society. Perhaps it is not about creating a bigger cemetery with more spaces, but about re establishing its relationship to its context. Several people in Israel argue that the Cemetery should be left as it is so that generations to come will be able to experience how the Cemetery originally existed. Because Tel-Aviv is such a young city, the society does not have emblematic elements devoted exclusively to its own history. Trumpeldor however, is such an element; one of the oldest and most important landmarks/asset the city has, that is why it must be integrated into its present.

1

Mann, Barbara E. A Place in History. 1 edition. Stanford University Press, 2006.: 26-72.

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In Trumpeldor rests many Israeli distinguished personalities, leaders, artists, poets etc. Because of the lack in space, only people with means and kinship relationships can be buried there. This elements extenuate social boundaries between those who can and those who can not, which alienate the cemetery from the majority of the people. Coupled with the modesty of the design and little use of vegetation due to religious rules the cemetery is dormant and deserted. According to current municipality plans, there are intentions to make Trumpeldor a type of a museum. Although this may be a good preservation of the past, I argue that this is not the right direction because it can also create a disconnect with the present. By reactivating the cemetery, I believe it will regain its role in the city. There is a way to make the cemetery an honourable space without transforming it to a type of an attraction. Changes could be done in a way that follow the restrictions of a place where cultural rules still govern the space. Changes such as breaking social boundaries, trying to solve the lack of space with new burial possibilities can bring opportunities to people with different social statuses. As well, by rethinking the existing walls and creating a better connection with the street, visual boundaries could be broken. Furthermore, life inside of the cemetery boundaries can be activated, for instance, with the inclusion of nature with solutions like hanging trees. These are samples of opportunities that could create a more active and important public space that contribute to society and is a source of identity for the inhabitants of Tel Aviv.

Almudena Ruiz-GimĂŠnez Ăšbeda

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Diagram showing the evolution of the city with relation to the cemetery

The city

mete The ce

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ry


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6.2 Anthropological Essay B A Different Type of Place Cemeteries distil their cultures; they are kind of museums, which embed both people and their stories into parcels of land. In “Of Other Spaces” Michel Foucault describes places with strange characteristics that by relation, suspension, neutralization, or mirroring, reflect or set them apart from real places that form our environment. Those places are utopias and heterotopias. Foucault, discusses the strange typology of the cemetery as a representation of a heterotopia (type place). Although the argument made in the article about the cemetery is based of the Christian model,it reflects many similar relationships that holds true for both Jewish and non-Jewish typologies, including the constant dialogue between absence and presence that is captured in the cemetery. There are six principals for heterotopias. They exist in every culture, they serve a function, they hold several incompatible spaces, they can juxtapose time across space, they are both accessible and restricted from other spaces, and lastly they are relational to other spaces.1 Religious rules in Judaism refrain from physical representation of the divine. This also influenced the visual language of symbols and ritual procedures. Modest maybe, this also raises questions regarding their ability to deal with cultural changes that occur in Israel toady.

1

Foucault, Michel. “Of Other Spaces, Heterotopias.” Architecture, Mouvement, Continuité 5 (1984): 46-49.

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Intentional or not this is underlined in the poor architectural quality and neglect, one can find in Israeli cemeteries. Although this subject is sensitive as religious topics often are, history tells us that significant changes in rituals did occur due to social needs in the past. These changes happened in pivotal moments where issues other than religion played part in the decision-making reasoning. Coupled with the ambiguity that surrounds the topic of death in the Jewish culture, I argue that a pivotal moment is happening in Israel today, and that a new trajectory for the cemetery typology can be formed. This new trajectory will align directly with, or be in opposition, to the era of consumerism and technology in which places as heterotopias lose their unrealness because everything around them is manipulated and border-less. At first glance it appears that cemeteries in Israel stray from their position to promote morality and humility, an important quality in a society. However when considering changes in culture, perception of space and existence in this era of technology and information paradise, the simplicity of the cemetery is what also sets it apart. A sort of an anchor perpetuated in a reverse relation. During recent decades Israeli cemeteries have been constructed on the outskirts of cities, often adjacent to industrial sites. They have suffered from poor architectural qualities due to limited planning and poor attention to detail. Most cemeteries in Israel are not attractive places to visit. This has to do with the general negative perception of it, but also the little use of ornaments and vegetation, a habit adopted for security reasons when Jews where dispersed in Europe. Intentionally or not slowly these cemeteries have become sequestered from the people. Yet in response to current Israeli concerns regarding land shortage and population growth, new types of cemeteries are being

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built, encompassing transitions from field burial to stacked burial, which highlights a pivotal moment where old customs face modern concerns with sustainability. Periods like this can be found at several junctions in Jewish history, resulting in significant changes in mortuary rituals and the cemetery typology. Municipal proposals reveal plans to create massive stacked cemeteries located far from the cities. The diploma project sets out to investigate whether this can be challenged by a different approach, focusing on repositioning the cemetery into the city. In his article “Semiology and Urbanism,” Roland Barthes pays particular attention to the centre of the city as an area with great meaning. In a more general sense the investigations asserts that every city possesses this centre, which he refers to as the “solid core”. The core dose not claims any particularity, but a kind of an empty “heart” of the community.1 In Tel Aviv too, there is a type empty place (Trumpeldor cemetery), which has an important relationship to the city for two reasons. First in essence all things in the city relate to the cemetery, as the city was conceived from it. Secondly is the social memory that is embedded within its walls. The indeterminacy of the topic sets it free, and such as a new dimension was conceived from shortage of space in the multi layered cemetery in 16th century Prague, the mutation of the cemetery today can provide a new aspect to the city and its people.

Nadav Kochavi 1

Barthes, Roland. “Semiology and Urbanism.” (1971): 413-418.

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7.1 Expected outcomes The project objective is to reorient Trumpeldor Cemetery from a “closed cemetery” to an “open cemetery” by providing additional burial possibilities and clearer dialogue with its context. This will take the form of a physical intervention in the chosen location. By establishing that cemeteries mirror societies and societies are always in a state of change we argue that the cemetery should not be static. The project proposal will introduce a burial typology more in tune with society from social and sustainable perspectives. We believe that the project outcomes will be relevant (to a degree) in different contexts, in Israel and abroad, as several issues investigated in the diploma are universal and urgent. Initially we aim to develop a solid body of material and understandings for the subject, which will suggest direction and further questions. The work will take shape with open mindedness based on critical and precise investigations. The final material will be presented as an architectural project, including all the necessary material both visual and physical to exhibit the final proposal.

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7.2

Timeline and Scope Phase 1. Anthropology research analysis in the form of individual papers As well as a program distributed to tutors and administration. Phase 2. Site visit/1:1 exploration and interventions. Further analysis of the local context from social/ physical perspectives. Phase 3. At this phase the work will attempt at synthesizing the layers explored in previous weeks spanning from the metaphysical to physical explorations. Addressing issues and questions raised in earlier phases during anthropological and context analysis. Phase 4. The work will take more concrete form. In this phase the focus will be at producing precise material that will convey intentions and qualities Extensive work will be curried in the form of models and drawings using different mediums and scales. The work produced will span from the macro scale of the city to light and space qualities in a micro scale. Phase 5. Exhibition presentation

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7.3

Diploma Project Components

- Various research and registration material, essays, including audio visual data from two visits on site, diploma programme booklet, references and archive of relevant data. - An architectural project in form of drawings, scale models, AV and complementary 1:1 components, demonstrating a coherent synthesis of the chosen subject’s various issues, including sustainability concerns. (drawings: 1.2000 / 1:500 / 1:100 / 1:50 - models: 1.2000/ 1:500 / 1:50) Above material description to be open for relevant changes/adjustments during diploma process

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start of Phase 1 Project program formulation, and Anthropological research

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start of Phase 5 Start preparing the exhibition space

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7.5 CVs Almudena Ruiz-Giménez Úbeda Madrid, Spain

Nadav Kochavi Petah-Tikva, Israel

Education:

Education:

2009-2012 - Madrid technical school of Architecture (ETSAM)

2008-2011 - The University of Minnesota

Master courses at BAS:

Master courses at BAS:

Fall 2012 - LIBRARY The course consisted of 20 students from 4th and 5th year. The aim was the design and construction of the Bergen Arkitekt school library. The course started from scratch in an open space but limited area by the existence of foundations, including the design and construction of a new floor, walls and interior.

Fall 2012 - Complex Context, diversified solutions The objective of the course was to design an albergue for pilgrims along the Via Da Prate in Galicia, Spain. Emphasizing carful considerations in developing architectural proposals and spatial strategies in a foreign context.

Instructors: Cecile Andersson, Eva Kun, Professor Harald N Røstvik, Jacob Schroll, May Elin Bjerck

Bachelor of Arts, Architecture

Instructors: Professor Arild Wåge, Professor Kalle Grude, Andre Fontes

Spring 2013 - BJAANES NATURCULTUREPARK Based on the grounds of an ongoing master plan for new housing settlements and recreation areas on the peninsula of Bjånes, the work produced investigated the possible insertions on the site through extensive architectural and artistic studies. Instructors: Professor Thomas Wiesner, Eli Goldstein, Andrea Spreafico.

Fall 2013 - Think Tank Bergen II The course look at how new type work-space can built-up the critical mass to generate the diversity needed to create more diverse and sustainable neighbourhoods. Instructors: Jerome Picard, Jonathan Woodroffe, Eva Kun, Professor Harald N Røstvik.

Others:

Others:

3RW architects, model builder

Nov-2011 - UPFRONT FILMES set designer Mar-2012 - Preschool Kindegarten Assistant

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“With regards to the cemetery management. This element isn’t attached to the fence. It is not offensive or dangerous it’s simply sitting on the fence” The intervention was placed following the burial (Nov, 2013) of Arik Einstein (an Israeli singer) in Trumpeldor cemetery.

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Re composing Presence _ Program