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Augustus, have their graves in the crypt of Vilnius Cathedral. Several Dukes of Mazovia were laid to rest in the crypt of Warsaw Cathedral, which is also the last resting-place of the novelist Henryk Sienkiewicz, Poland’s first Nobel prizewinner, as well as of several Polish presidents and statesmen, Gabriel Narutowicz (1922), and Ignacy Jan Paderewski, who died in the USA in 1941 and whose ashes were brought home in 1992. In 1993 the ashes of President Ignacy Mościcki were interred in the Cathedral’s crypt, and the ashes of General Kazimierz Sosnkowski in 1994. In Kraków

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The chief burial place of the kings and heroes of Poland has always been The Romanesque St. Leonard’s Chapel in the crypt of Wawel Cathedral; with the tomb of John King Sobieski on the left, and of his wife Queen Marie Casimire on the right Wawel Cathedral in Kraków. Its crypt was being used for the interment of deceased members of the Lesser Polish made major contributions to the culture of land’s rulers of the Greater Polish line of line of the Piast dynasty already in the 11th Germany and Austria, and is a hall of fame the House of Piast, were buried in the crypt rather than a pantheon. However, there are of Poznań Cathedral. A magnificent mau- century, but the royal tombs which have numerous royal and imperial burial places soleum was erected for them in the Cathe- come down to our times date back to the in Germany and Austria, the oldest at dral’s Golden Chapel in the early 19th cen- first half of the 14th century, viz. the interAachen, containing the 9th-century tomb of tury. The location of the grave of Boleslaus ment of King Vladislaus the Elbow-high, Charlemagne. The imperial necropolis of the Bold is unknown. According to legend who died in 1333. From that time on all the Austria, the Kaisergruft, is in the Capuchin he was laid to rest in Ossiach Monastery kings of Poland until August II (except for Church in Vienna, and it holds the tombs of in the Austrian province of Carinthia, but Vladislaus of Varna and Henri de Valois) twelve emperors and eighteen empresses. recently historians have been speculating were laid to rest here. After the Partitions of Poland, when that perhaps he was buried in the church the country was deprived of independence In Poland crypt of Tyniec Abbey near Kraków. Many and statehood for 123 years (1795-1918), of the princes of Poland were laid to rest in the crypt of Wawel Cathedral started to The first necropolis of the kings and Płock, Wrocław, Legnica, or Opole. King be used as a national pantheon on a more princes of Poland was founded in Poznań. Alexander the Jagiellonian and Queen Barpurposeful basis for the nation’s military Mieszko I and Boleslaus the Brave, Po- bara Radziwiłłówna, consort of Sigismund heroes. In 1817 the mortal remains of Prince Józef Poniatowski, the Polish hero of the Napoleonic Wars, were laid to rest in St. Leonard’s Chapel in the crypt, next to the tomb of King John Sobieski. In 1817 the body of Tadeusz Kościuszko, commander of the first uprising against Russia, were laid to rest here. In the early 19th century there was a plan to transfer the mortal remains of General Jan Henryk Dąbrowski, founder and commander of the Polish Legions of Napoleonic times, to the crypt of Wawel Cathedral, however, the endeavour was not successful. In 1935 the body of Marshal Józef Piłsudski, the individual who made the greatest military contribution to the restoration of Poland’s independence in 1918, was buried in 62

alma mater No. 166 The Distinguished Persons’ Crypt in Skałka Church. Czesław Miłosz, a Nobel prizewinner for literature, is buried here

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