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Novo lutkovno središče v Čedadu/New puppetry centre in Cividale del Friuli

Pridobivanje občinstva v kulturi/Building audiences in culture

Študij lutkarstva v Osijeku/Studying Puppetry in Osijek

Želimo si živo središče z delavnicami, razstavami in gledališčem./We believe it should be a place with laboratories, exhibitions and a theatre.

Izziv vsake ustanove je pridobiti občinstvo, še večji pa ga je obdržati./ A major challenge lies in attracting audiences and building their loyalty.

Nova generacija lutkarjev z novimi izzivi./New generation of puppeters breaking boundaries.

Bilten Bulletin Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva

Ljubljana 10. 9.—2. 10. 2016 Brezplačni izvod Free copy

All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Lutkarstvo v prvi polovici 20. stoletja/ Puppetry in the first half of the 20th century Čas pomembnih sprememb in vpeljevanja novih izraznih oblik./ Time of significant changes, introducing new forms of expression.

Lutkarstvo Umetnost Zgodovina Ohranjanje dediščine Glasba Puppetry Art History Preserving Heratige Music

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Program: Ustvarjalna Evropa

Razpis: EACEA 32/2014

Vodilna ustanova: Mestna občina Čedad, Italija

Kategorija: Projekti sodelovanja manjšega obsega

Trajanje: 30. 9. 2015–30. 9. 2017

Partnerji: Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Slovenija, Títeres Etcétera, Španija, Umetniška akademija v Osijeku, Hrvaška

Kontakt: Elisabetta Gottardo cultura@cividale.net

O projektu Sodelovanje v projektu »Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva« vzpostavlja zanimivo povezavo med štirimi partnerji – mestno občino Čedad, Lutkovnim gledališčem Ljubljana, gledališko skupino Títeres Etcétera in Umetniško akademijo v Osijeku, ki delujejo na področju lutkovne umetnosti in se zavzemajo za večje spoštovanje evropskega kulturnega bogastva in njegove raznolikosti. Namen projekta je razširiti znanje o evropskem lutkarstvu v prvi polovici 20. stoletja s predstavitvijo izbranih posameznikov s področja lutkovne umetnosti, Vittoria Podrecce iz Italije, Milana Klemenčiča iz Slovenije in Hermenegilda Lanza iz Španije.

V dve leti trajajočem projektu (2015–2017) bo potujoča razstava s števinimi spremljajočimi dogodki, kot so lutkovne predstave, strokovne delavnice in predvanja, obiskala vse štiri sodelujoče države. S poudarjanjem, da je lutkarstvo celostna umetnost in z izmenjavo znanj, si projekt prizadeva tudi za izboljšanje mobilnosti različnih ustvarjalcev s področja lutkarstva (igralcev, lutkarjev, tehnikov, restavratorjev), še posebno mlajših generacij. Projekt je delno podprt s strani programa Evropske komisije Ustvarjalna Evropa in Ministrstva za kulturo RS.

Programme: Creative Europe

Project Call: EACEA 32/2014

Lead organisation: Municipality of Cividale del Friuli, Italy

Category: Small-scale Cooperation projects

Dates: 30. 9. 2015–30. 9. 2017

Partners: Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, Slovenia, Títeres Etcétera, Spain, Academy of Arts in Osijek, Croatia

Contact: Elisabetta Gottardo cultura@cividale.net

Project "All Strings Attached" is a unique cooperation bringing together four partners active in the puppetry field – Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, Títeres Etcétera and the Academy of Arts in Osijek – to improve awareness and encourage greater appreciation of European puppetry’s cultural richness and diversity. The aim of the project is to spread knowledge of European puppetry of the first half of the 20th century by highlighting selected figures, such as Vittorio Podrecca from Italy, Milan Klemenčič from Slovenia and Hermenegildo Lanz from Spain. Over two years (2015–2017), a travelling exhibition will visit Slovenia, Croatia, Spain and Italy and numerous

events, such as puppet shows, professional workshops and lectures will be developed for the larger public. Presenting puppetry as a total work of art, the project aims also to increase the transnational mobility of cultural operators active in the field of puppetry (artists, puppeteers, technicians, restorers) through the exchange of best practices and by offering opportunities to younger generations working in contemporary puppetry. "All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes" is co-funded by the Creative Europe programme of the European Commission and Ministry of Culture of Slovenia.

Vsebina projekta je izključno odgovornost avtorjev in v nobenem primeru ne predstavlja stališč Evropske komisije./The European Commission support for this project does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


KAZALO/INDEX

8 Klemenčič, Podrecca in Lanz: pionirji v osrčju avantgarde/ Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz: Three Pioneers in the Heart of the Avant-Garde

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva/ The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Program Programme

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Klemenčič, Podrecca in Lanz: pionirji v osrčju avantgarde/Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz: Three Pioneers in the Heart of the Avant-Garde

8

Milan Klemenčič

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Družinsko lutkovno gledališče Franja Robide/Family Theatre of Franjo Robida

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Restavriranje lutk Milana Klemenčiča/Restoring Milan Klemenčič’s puppets

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Vittorio Podrecca Novo lutkovno središče v Čedadu/ New Puppetry Centre in Cividale del Friuli

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Hermenegildo Lanz

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Novo lutkovno središče v Čedadu/New Puppetry Centre in Cividale del Friuli

Skrivnostna moč lutkovne umetnosti/ The Mysterious Power of Puppetry Art

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Študij lutkarstva na osiješki akademiji/ Studying Puppetry at the Academy of Arts in Osijek

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Lutkarstvo na Hrvaškem in Milan Klemenčič/Puppetry in Croatia and Milan Klemenčič

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Poročila/Reports

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UNIMA kongres/Congress

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Lutkovna umetnost, med preteklostjo in prihodnostjo/ Puppetry Art, Between Past and Future

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Sledite nam/Follow us: @eupupts

www.allstringsattached.eu

Restavriranje lutk Milana Klemenčiča/Restoring Milan Klemenčič’s puppets

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Izdelava kopij izbranih lutk Vittoria Podrecce iz zbirke Marie Signorelli/Copying Vittorio Podrecca’s Selected Puppets from Maria Signorelli’s Collection

Kuratorji in sodelavci/ Curators and Collaborators

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31 Skrivnostna moč lutkovne umetnosti/ The Mysterious Power of Puppetry Art

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Družinsko lutkovno gledališče Franja Robide/Family Theatre of Franjo Robida

Uredništvo Biltena/Bulletin Editorial Oddelek Lutkovni muzej/Museum of Puppetry department Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre Krekov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, SI muzej@lgl.si, +386 (01) 300 09 75


Nadja Ocepek DOBRODOŠLI

W ELCOME

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Program, ki osvetljuje utrinke evropske lutkovne preteklosti, je nastal je v sklopu evropskega projekta »Iz zaodrja: pionirji ev ro ps ke g a l u tk a rst va /Al l Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind The Scenes«. V njem poleg Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana sodelujejo tudi občina Čedad iz Italije, španska gledališka skupina Títeres Etcétera in Umetniška akademija iz Osijeka. Namen sodelovanja je širšemu občinstvu z različnimi dogodki predstaviti pomembne zgodbe izbranih lutkovnih osebnosti z začetka 20. stoletja, ko je lutkovna umetnost doživela velike spremembe. Čeprav je v različnih oblikah (maske, lutkovno gledališče in drugi animirani predmeti) med ljudmi živela vse od prazgodovine in v kulturni zgodovini zasledimo številne ustvarjalce, ki jih je lutkovno gledališče tako pritegnilo, da so ga svojim izrazom poskušali oplemenititi in mu priboriti vstop med lepe umetnosti, si je lutkarstvo v umetniškem smislu svoje pravo mesto začelo utrjevati šele po koncu prve svetovne vojne, ko so spremembe v gospodarstvu in družbi omogočile novo ustvarjalnost, načine izražanja in intelektualna stališča. Tedaj namreč lahko zasledimo delovanje nekaterih markatnih osebnosti in umetniško pomembnih odrov na Dunaju, v Salzburgu, Rimu, Pragi, Bukarešti, ki so opravili veliko pionirsko delo in so med drugim zaslužni za dokončen

Casting a light on European puppetry’s past, the programme was conceived within the framework of the European project All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind The Scenes. This project marks a collaboration of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, the Municipality of Cividale del Friuli from Italy, the Spanish theatre troupe Títeres Etcétera and the Academy of Arts in Osijek, Croatia. The collaborative project sets out to introduce to the wider public, through various events and significant stories of a few select puppetry figures from the early 20th century – a time of fundamental changes in puppetry. Ever since prehistoric times, puppetry has marked man’s existence in various forms – whether it be through masks, puppet theatre or simply by animating inanimate objects – and throughout history there have been artists so utterly captivated by the puppet theatre that they sought to refine it and elevate it to a fine art through their distinct personal expression. But despite such historical efforts, puppetry found its artistic footing only after the First World War, when changes in the economy and society gave way to a new type of creativity, opened up new means of expression and allowed new intellectual viewpoints. In this period, some of history's most remarkable personalities operated artistically significant and groundbreaking puppet stages (i.e. in Vienna, Salzburg, Rome, Prague, Bucharest).

prodor lutkarstva na področje umetnosti. K ustvarjanju v lutkovnem mediju so vzpodbudili številne umetnike in občinstvo prepričali, da si zasluži enakovredno mesto v sklopu gledališke umetnosti. Zaradi potrebe po novem, izvirnem in medijsko odmevnem je lutkarstvo prvič v zgodovini postalo ne samo odraz tedanje družbe, temveč tudi takratne avantgardne umetnosti. V generacijo številnih izjemnih osebnosti, ki je v lutkarstvo vpeljala nove izrazne oblike, se uvrščajo tudi lutkovni mojstri: Milan Klemenčič (1875—1957), Vittorio Podrecca (1883—1959) in Hermenegildo Lanz (1893— 1949), ki so vsak v svoji deželi – Sloveniji, Italiji in Španiji – na zanimiv način tlakovali razvoj lutkovne umetnosti. V sklopu projekta, katerega prednostne naloge so tudi raziskovanje in restavriranje izbranih lutkovnih zbirk ter izmenjava znanja, s partnerji projekta na Festivalu LUTKE 2016 v Ljubljani obiskovalc e m p r v i č p re d st av l j a m o dozdajšnje delo na projektu. Stopite z nami v zaodrje in si oglejte potujočo razstavo ter druge dogodke, ki odkrivajo evropsko lutkovno preteklost, predvsem pa življenje in delo omenjenih mojstrov.

Thanks to their efforts, puppetry was finally able to break through into the sphere of art. They encouraged many other artists to create art through puppets, and convinced audiences that puppetry deserved an equal place in the pantheon of theatre arts. The times called for something new, original and attractive for the media, and puppetry became, for the first time in history, not only a reflection of the zeitgeist, but the face of avant-garde art. The generation of exceptional personalities who introduced new forms of expression into puppetry also includes the puppet masters Milan Klemenčič (1875–1957), Vittorio Podrecca (1883–1959) and Hermenegildo Lanz (1893–1949). These men paved the way for the development of puppetry in their respective countries (Slovenia, Italy and Spain). The International Puppet Theatre Festival LUTKE 2016 in Ljubljana will be the first time that we will present the work accomplished to date within the framework of the project together with our project partners. Other project priorities include the research and restoration of selected puppet collections and the exchange of expert knowledge. Step with us behind the scenes and discover the travelling exhibition and other events that uncover puppetry in European history, as well as the life and work of the three masters.

www.allstringsattached.eu 4

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 Bulletin

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Program/PROGRAMME 10. 9.—2. 10. 2016

GUIDED TOUR

VODENI OGL ED

Lutkovni muzej/Museum of Puppetry Vodeni ogled stalne razstave/ Permanent exhibition guided tour za odrasle/for adults, 60 min

10. –12. 9. 2016, 15.00 Ljubljanski grad

L ECTUR E

PR EDAVA NJE

V fokusu: Milan Klemenčič/ In the Spotlight: Milan Klemenčič

STROKOV NA DEL AV NIC A

M A STER WOR K SHOP

Ohranjamo lutke/Preserving Puppets

Goriški muzej, Slovenija/Slovenia za odrasle/for adults, 120 min

Violaine Blaise, Francija/France, Zala Kalan, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Slovenija/Slovenia za odrasle/for adults, 120 min

11. 9. 2016, 17.15 Ljubljanski grad, GRAJSKO GLEDALIŠČE

12. 9. 2016, 14.30 Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, PREDDVERJE

SEMINA R

VODENI OGL ED

Izmisli si zgodbo/Come Up ith a Story

Pridobivanje občinstva v kulturi/Building Audiences in Culture

V kraljestvu domišljije/Exploring the Kingdom of Imagination

Goriški muzej, Slovenija/Slovenia 4+, 60 min

Títeres Etcétera, Španija/Spain za odrasle/for adults, 120 min

Vodeni ogled gledališča/Theatre guided tour za vse starosti/for all ages, 60 min

12. 9., 14.30, 30. 9., 16.00 Galerija Kresija

13. 9. 2016, 10.00 Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, mali oder

10.–11. 9. 2016, 12.00 Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, PREDDVERJE

DOŽI V L JAJSK A DEL AV NIC A

H A NDS - ON WOR K SHOP

GUIDED TOUR

H A NDS - ON WOR K SHOP

DOŽI V L JAJSK A DEL AV NIC A

Restavriramo!/Restore-it! Lutkovni muzej, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Slovenija/Slovenia 4+, 60 min

13. 9. 2016, 16.00 Galerija Kresija

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana Po motivih iz 18. stoletja/based on 18th century motifs 12+, za odrasle/for adults, 60 min po predstavi ogled zaodrja/behind the scenes after the show 10.–11. 9. 2016, 16.00 Ljubljanski grad, GRAJSKO GLEDALIŠČE

Doktor Faust/ Doctor Faustus PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

Títeres Etcétera, Španija/Spain za odrasle/for adults, 50 min po predstavi ogled zaodrja/behind the scenes after the show 12. 9. 2016, 17.00 Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, ŠentjakobSKI ODER

Duh lutkovne preteklosti/ The Soul of People PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

CassiopeaTeatro, Italija/Italy za odrasle/for adults, 80 min po predstavi ogled zaodrja/behind the scenes after the show 13. 9. 2016, 17.00 Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, ŠentjakobSKI ODER

Od 3 do 93. Veličastna stvaritev/ From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention R A ZSTAVA EX HIBITION

Potujoča razstava v Galeriji Kresija/ Travelling Exhibition at the Kresija Gallery 10. 9.–2. 10. 2016 Javna vodstva/Guided Tours 23. 9. 2016, 16.30, 27. 9. 2016, 16.30

Pionirji evropskega lutkarstva/ The Pioneers of European Puppetry The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Yanisbel V. Martínez OZ A DJE

STORY

Klemenčič, Podrecca in Lanz: pionirji v osrčju avantgarde

Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz: Three Pioneers at the Heart of the AvantGarde

L

I

utkovno gledališče, vselej veren odraz družbe, je predvsem v Evropi v 20. stoletju doživelo velike spremembe. Z eno besedo bi takšne korenite spremembe najbolje opisali z “metamorfozo”. Vse od prazgodovine dalje so bile maske, lutke in animirani predmeti del ljudskega gledališkega udejstvovanja. V začetku 20. stoletja je lutkarstvo stopilo na dolgo in zahtevno pot do svojega vrhunca v osrčju sočasne umetnosti. V prvi tretjini prejšnjega stoletja so evropsko celino pretresale globoke krize: prva svetovna vojna (1914–1918) in oktobrska revolucija (1917). Krize so budile upanje v drugačen ekonomski sistem, prijaznejši do delavstva. Spremembe so se odražale v umetniškem ustvarjanju in v razumevanju družbe. V umetnosti je vse staro zamenjalo novo in še nikdar videno, izvirno in tehnološko napredno. V želji po preseganju vsega preživetega, sentimentalnega, iz poveličevanja nezavednega, racionalnega, svobodnega, strastnega in individualističnega se je v prvih desetletjih 20. stoletja rodila avantgardna umetnost. Pojavila so se različna umetniška gibanja: impresionizem, ekspresionizem, fauvizem, kubizem, futurizem, dadaizem, nadrealizem idr. In čeprav je vsako od njih zagovarjalo svoje estetske ideale, je med njimi nekaj skupnega: zavračanje tradicije, uresničevanje posameznikove svobode, inovativnost, eksperimentiranje in hiter razvoj idej. Umetnost je takšne ideje prevzela z drugih področij, kot sta marksizem in Freudova psihoanaliza. »Treba je biti popolnoma sodoben,« je dejal Arthur Rimbaud, medtem ko je Karl Marx zahteval »popolno spremembo sveta«.

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n the twentieth century, puppetry, which has always been a true reflection of society, experienced great changes, notably in Europe. If a single word were to be used to describe these significant changes, the best word would be "metamorphosis", because European puppetry was transformed into something completely different. Dating from prehistoric times, masks, puppets and animated objects have been a part of the theatre for centuries, particularly in the popular milieu. However, in the twentieth century puppetry stepped on a long and winding road leading to its culmination in the heart of contemporary artistic creation. In the first third of the previous century, the principal European powers opposed each other. The continent was struck by a major crisis that had been triggered by the First World War (1914–1918) followed by the Russian Revolution (October 1917). Both historical events revived the hopes for a different economic system more suited to the proletariat. Artistic creation clearly reflected these changes and also new ways of understanding society. The arts brought modernity, and everything that was old and obsolete was replaced by concepts that were original, hitherto unknown and technologically more advanced. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the determination to cut ties with the old, to fight against sentimentalism, to glorify the unconscious, and everything that is rational, and celebrate freedom, passion and individualism led to the birth of the avant-garde art movement. Multiple art movements such as Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism soon emerged. Although each of these movements defended its own aesthetic foundations, they shared several common characteristics: the fight against traditionalism ensuring

 Bulletin

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Milan Klemenčič (1875–1957)

Vittorio Podrecca (1883–1959)

Spremembe so sprožile pojav novih umetniških praks tudi v gledališču. Ob koncu 19. in na začetku 20. stoletja se je v gledališču pojavil scenograf (metteur en scène), kar je spremenilo celoten koncept gledališča. Gledališče na naši celini je iskalo načine, da bi preseglo naturalizem. Model meščanskega gledališča z enim glavnim igralcem (»zvezdnikom«), izumetničeno igro in pretiravanjem je bil opuščen. Uveljavili so se igralci z izraznim gibom, ki so se bili sposobni vživeti v celoten koncept predstave. Oder ni bil več le prizorišče za igralčevo igro, ampak harmonična celota različnih elementov. Pomembnejši od avtorja dramskega dela je postal režiser, ki je določal luč, glasbo, scenografijo, koreografijo, rekvizite in barve. Tehnološki napredek je omogočil drugačno osvetlitev. Scenski pristor je postal bolj dinamičen s stopnicami in rampami, s katerimi so lahko ustvarili razgibanost in ritem, v katerem sta blestela igralec in njegovo telo. Največ novosti na tem področju so vpeljali: Konstantin Stanislavski in njegovo moskovsko gledališče, delo Antona in Mihaila Čehova, Vsevoloda Mejerholda, pa tudi Maurica Maeterlinck, Lugné-Poe, Paul Claudel, Alfred Jarry, Antonin Artaud, Jacques Copeau, Max Reinhardt, Adolphe Appia, Edward Gordon Craig, Bertold Brecht in mnogi drugi. Gledališki ustvarjalci so, drugače kot druge veje avantgardne umetnosti, ki so želele odločno prekiniti s preteklostjo, gledali na svojo gledališko preteklost drugače: zanje so to bili rituali, commedia dell’arte, sejamarsko gledališče, cirkuška umetnost in raznolike azijske tradicije. To je bilo vendar tudi obdobje razcveta orientalizma.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Bilten 

Hermenegildo Lanz (1893–1949)

the exercise of individual freedom and innovation, the audacity in terms of forms, experimentation and the rapid pace in terms of new concepts. This was supported by ideas originating from other areas, such as Marxist philosophy and Sigmund Freud’s research. “One must be absolutely modern,” said Arthur Rimbaud, while Karl Marx required that “the world must be changed”. These innovations were echoed in the performing arts. At the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century, the role of director (metteur en scène) was established, leading to complete transformation in how the dramatic arts were structured. The performing arts in our continent attempted to find new ways to openly defy naturalism. The model of the bourgeois theatre led by divas with poor interpretation and a tendency to exaggerate was abandoned. Better actors who were trained and specialised in the art of expressive body language and who were able to identify with the overall concept of the scene came to the fore. The stage was no longer a place for individual performances but a harmonious whole composed of different elements. Playwrights ceded their previously key roles to the director, who now assumed the major responsibility for the whole, and contributed to decisions about lighting, music, set design, choreography, colours and props. Everything was supported by technological advances allowing different means of illumination. The stage gained in significance by including dynamics, stairs and ramps used to create a more flexible atmosphere and rhythm, where the actor and their body assumed the principal role. Great protagonists contributing to these reforms in Europe were Constantin S. Stanislavsky and his Moscow Art Theatre, the oeuvre of Anton

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Azijski umetniki, kot sta na primer Sada Yacco in Mei Langfang so navdihovali gledališke reformatorje in spreminjali njihove poglede na gledališko umetnost. Pomislimo, na primer, kakšen vpliv je imela predstava balijskih plesalk na Antonina Artauda leta 1931 v Parizu.

and Michael Chekhov, Vsevolod Meyerhold and Maurice Maeterlinck, Lugné-Poe, Paul Claudel, Alfred Jarry, Antonin Artaud, Jacques Copeau, Max Reinhardt, Adolphe Appia, Edward Gordon Craig and Bertold Brecht, among others.

Režiserjem je bilo jasno, da potrebujejo sposobne, disciplinirane in izurjene igralce z izpiljeno tehniko, ki bi svoje spretnosti razvijali brez pretiravanja. Lutkovna umetnost je lahko ponudila umetno in dehumanizirano telo kot alternativo igralcem iz mesa in krvi. Lutke so postale ideal igralca, saj so bile zmožne igrati popolnoma neprizadeto, ne da bi pokazale kakršna koli čustva.

In these new endeavours, unlike other avant-garde movements which tried to make a clear break with the past, theatre artists took a different view of the past dramatic creations, seeing it as a kind of ritual inheritance, the "Commedia dell’arte", which is the theatre of fairs and circuses and certain Asian traditions. This was also the period when Orientalism blossomed. Asian artists such as Sada Yacco or Mei Langfang fascinated great reformers and changed the way they saw. Consider for example the influence of Balinese ballet dancers on Antonin Artaud in 1931 in Paris.

Craigova teorija o »über-marioneti« govori prav o tem. Za tega britanskega režiserja je prav delo z animiranimi predmeti poudarjalo intimen odnos med gledališčem in smrtjo. Prav tu naj bi arhetipsko in prvobitno sobivalo z avantgardnim in s tem ustvarjalo nove povezave ter umetniške jezike. Koncept »über-marionete« je postal estetski ideal za nov tip igralca. »Zaradi svoje specifičnosti je lutka stičišče dveh različnih realnosti (žive in nežive, predmeta in igralca, telesa in duše); in čeprav je to precej neopazno in včasih moteče, občasno ustvarja - prej kot neprijetna presenečenja - nepredvidljive in plodne izmenjave, ki si jih že od nekdaj želimo.«1 V lutkarstvu začetka 20. stoletja so se vzporedno s klasičnimi in tradicionalnimi uveljavile nove umetniške in eksperimentalne oblike, vezane na sočasne modernistične in avantgardne ideje. Skozi stoletja je bilo lutkarstvo del družinske tradicije, ki se je prenašala iz roda v rod, odvijalo pa se je na trgih, plažah, semnjih in v kavarnah. Čeprav so se mnoge tradicionalne oblike ohranile vse do danes, npr. lika Puncha, Pulcinelle, sicilijanska »Opera dei Puppi« idr., so bile mnoge v 20. stoletju na robu izumrtja (npr. portugalski Dom Roberto), druge (npr. španski Don Cristóbal) pa so popolnoma izumrle. Kljub temu pa tradicionalno lutkarstvo ni bilo edina pot, ki bi jo lutkarstvo 20. stoletja lahko ubralo – na obzorju je bila vrsta novih možnosti. Kot je zapisal poljski zgodovinar Henryk Jurkowsky, so za »preporod lutkovne umetnosti zaslužni umetniki, slikarji in kiparji, ki niso bili poklicni lutkarji. Ustvarjali so dela, blizu lutkovni umetnosti v svojih dramskih delih (Picasso), baletih (Léger) in filmih (Aleksandra Ekster). Futurista Fortunato Depero in Enrico Prampolini sta sodelovala z Vittoriem Podrecco v Rimu. Navdih za oblikovanje lutk sta našla v geometriji in mehanskih modelih. V züriškem lutkovnem gledališču sta Sophie Tauber – Arp in Otto Morach ustvarila dadaistične ter kubistične lutke preprostih oblik in prosto preigravala močne in žive barve ter na lutkah puščala sledi uporabljenega orodja. Nekateri od njih so ustanovili svoja lutkovna gledališča, med tem ko so drugi utrjevali samosvoj umetniški izraz v okviru različnih gledališč.«2 Lutkovno gledališče je vzbudilo veliko zanimanje številnih ustvarjalcev (glasbenikov, pesnikov, koreografov, slikarjev, kiparjev in drugih), ki so s samosvojimi izrazi oplemenitili lutkarstvo in ga uvrstili med umetnosti. Tradicionalni repertoar se je razširil, dramsko pisanje pa je začelo utirati nove poti. Avantgardno lutkarstvo je črpalo iz različnih literarnih in glasbenih predlog. Razširil se je tudi spekter tehnik animacije in oblikovanja lutk ter scene: v materialih, barvah, prostorskem in lučnem oblikovanju. Lutkovne igre so se z mestnih trgov in semnjev preselile na različne velike ter majhne odre in na različna prizorišča, kjer so bile predstave tehnično izvedljive. Odnos med igralcem in predmetom ter animacijo je ustvarjal nove načine izražanja. Lutkarstvo se je profesionaliziralo in s tem doseglo novo stopnjo. V evropskih državah, kot so Slovenija, Italija in Španija, ki so pokrajinsko in kulturno tako različne, najdemo posameznike, ki ne izhajajo iz lutkarskih družin, pa so se vseeno znašle v svetu lutkovne umetnosti in celo odigrale ključno vlogo v lutkovni zgodovini svojega naroda: Milan Klemenčič (1875–1957), slovenski fotograf in slikar, pionir barvne fotografije, scenograf in začetnik slovenskega lutkarstva; Vittorio Podrecca (1883–1959), italijanski odvetnik, ljubitelj glasbe, ustanovitelj gledališča »I Piccoli« – enega največjih gledaliških in-

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For the directors of the time, it became evident they needed capable, disciplined and trained actors with well-honed techniques, who would be able to develop their abilities without becoming overexaggerated. Puppetry was able to offer an artificial and dehumanized body as an alternative to flesh and blood actors. Puppets became the ideal actor because they were able to perform on stage without being carried away by their emotions and who could all perform any physical action required of them perfectly every time. Craig’s theory of the “Über-Marionettes” was one of the referential theoretic discourses illustrating these ideas. For this British director, working with animated objects emphasized the intimate relationship between the theatre and death, where archetypal and primitive concerns lived side by side with the avant-garde, leading to the creation of new ties and new artistic languages. This made the “Über-Marionette” an aesthetic ideal that contributed to a new perspective on traditional actors. “Due to its unique position, a puppet is a point of contact between different realities (animate and inanimate, object and actor, body and soul); and even if this condition makes it imperceptible and therefore rather unsettling, it also occasionally results in an unpredictable and rich exchange desired for years, rather than in surprising encounters.”1 As a result, traditional and popular forms of European puppetry in the early twentieth century began to co-exist by side the more artistic and experimental forms associated with the avant-garde movements. Through the centuries, traditional puppets were part of the family heritage passed down from parent to child, and appeared in specific environments such as squares, beaches, cafés, and fairs. Although many traditional performances survived up until to the present day, e.g. Punch, Pulcinella, Sicilian "Opera dei Puppi", it is true that some of them were in danger of disappearing in the twentieth century. Some were on the verge of extinction, such as Portugal's Dom Roberto, and some had disappeared completely, like Spain's Don Cristóbal. Nevertheless, traditional puppetry was not the only path open to this genre in the twentieth century; many new opportunities were opening up. According to the Polish historian Henryk Jurkowsky, ”the continued existence of puppetry lies in the hands of artists, painters and sculptors who are not professional puppeteers. They introduced artefacts that were similar to puppets in plays (Picasso), ballet (Léger) or films (Alexandra Exter). The futurists Fortunato Depero and Enrico Prampolini worked for Vittorio Podrecca in Rome. Their inspiration for creating puppets came from geometry and mechanical models. In the puppet theatre in Zürich, Sophie Tauber - Arp and Otto Morach created Dadaist and Cubist puppets with simple forms, and played without limitations, which had simple forms, and played about with them freely, leaving marks on the puppets from the tools they had used. Some of them established their own puppet theatres, while others formed ties with theatres and claimed their artistic identity.”2 Musicians, poets, choreographers, dancers, painters and sculptors, all of them showed an interest in puppets and enriched this art from their differing points of view, thus driving progress in the art of puppetry Traditional puppetry repertory became more diverse, and playwrights explored new directions, both in terms of theme and form. The novel avant-garde 1 Brunella Eruli, Puck Flower, in: Puck, No. 1, Avant-Garde and Puppets, Charleville-Mézières, 1988, p. 3. 2 Henryk Jurkowski, Metamorphosis. Puppetry in the 20th century. CharlevilleMézières 2000, p. 21.

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Teatro dei Piccoli: »El retablo de Maese Pedro«, 1956

lutkovnih ansamblov vseh časov in Hermenegildo Lanz (1893–1949), španski profesor risanja, fotograf in scenograf, ki je soustvaril vrsto lutkovnih predstav, pomembnih za gledališko zgodovino Španije, Evrope in Latinske Amerike. Vse tri osebe povezuje lutkarstvo, ki je stopilo v ospredje prav v začetku 20. stoletja, v času razcveta avantgardne umetnosti. Klemenčič, Podrecca in Lanz poosebljajo čas sprememb in iskanj, ki je omogočil razvoj današnjega lutkarstva. Milan Klemenčič je s svojimi miniaturnimi marionetami postavil temelje za razvoj slovenskega lutkarstva. Leta 1920 je ustanovil prvo poklicno lutkovno gledališče, hkrati pa je bil tudi velik inovator na področju scenografije in oblikovanja luči. Kot je dejal: »Moje glavno slikarsko delo je bilo marionetno gledališče in moje slikarske razstave so bile marionetne predstave.« Njegovo delo je zaznamovalo preteklost in prihodnost lutkarstva tega naroda na območju Srednje Evrope. Danes je lutkovna umetnost v Sloveniji na zelo visoki ravni. Država in lokalna skupnost podpirata različna gledališča in lutkovne ustvarjalce. Odličen primer je tudi Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana z nedavno odprtim Lutkovnim muzejem. V veliki meri gre za neposredne dediče Milana Klemenčiča. Ko je Vittorio Podrecca v Rimu videl nastop »Ballets Russes« Sergeja Djagileva, je bil tako navdušen, da je želel ustvariti nekaj podobnega, le manjšega. Zato je leta 1914 ustanovil »Teatro dei Piccoli« – pri čemer ime »piccoli« (»majhni«) prav nič ne zmanjša veličine in predanosti te izjemne lutkovne skupine. K sodelovanju je povabil pomembne avantgardne umentike, da so skladali glasbo, osnovali lutke in scenografijo – in pri tem je bil izjemno uspešen. V 50. letih so »I Piccoli« prepotovali polovico sveta. Njegove marionete in številčna zasedba so bili svetovljani in primer tega, kako lahko s takšnim delom ustvarjamo skupni jezik, ki presega geografske, kulturne in politične meje. Podrecca je postal gledališki producent svetovnih razsežnosti, vendar pa je bil vpliv njegovega dela na druge mednarodno pomembne umetnike celo večji od njegove slave. Dva od takšnih umetnikov sta

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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puppet theatre was based on diverse literary and musical sources. The spectrum of animation and aesthetic techniques used to create puppets and scenery, including figurines, materials, colours, spatial concept and lighting, also became broader. Puppet performances were no longer limited to town squares or fairs, but also other large or small stages, auditoriums and other spaces where a different type of performance was technically feasible. The relationship between the body of the actor and the object, and the animation that was visible produced unusual means of expression. Puppetry became professional and reached a new level. In the distinct geographical and cultural environments of Slovenia, Italy and Spain, there were individuals without any family tradition in this field who approached the art of the country's puppet theatre: Milan Klemenčič (1875–1957), a Slovenian painter, a pioneer in colour photography, set designer and the father of the puppet theatre in the country; Vittorio Podrecca (1883–1959), an Italian lawyer, and music lover, the founder of the "Teatro dei Piccoli", one of the greatest theatre and puppet ensembles of all times, and Hermenegildo Lanz (1893–1949), a Spanish drawing teacher, photographer and set designer, who took part in several major puppet performances in terms of Spanish, European and Latin American theatre history. What these three individuals have in common is puppetry, which came to the forefront in the early twentieth century when the avant-garde art movement was blooming. Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz are a good representation of this time transformation and of the experiments that opened new horizons for the theatre of puppets. With his small marionettes, Milan Klemenčič laid the foundations for the development of puppetry in his country. In 1920, he established the first professional puppet theatre and was a great innovator in the field of lighting and set design. As he said, “my main work as a painter was in the marionette theatre and the performances there were my exhibitions.” His work had a major influence on the past and future of this Central European nation. Today, puppetry in Slovenia has attained a very high level of artistry. The art of creating puppet scenery is supported by the state, and there are several companies that are using these funds and human resources. An

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na primer Ramón del Valle Inclán, ki ga poznamo kot enega ključnih španskih literatov 20. stoletja, in Jacques Chesnais – znameniti francoski lutkar in zbiratelj. Hermenegildo Lanz je napravil lutke in del scenografije za premiero predstave »El retablo de maese Pedro« v Parizu. Lutkovna opera Manuela de Falle je ena od mojstrovin španske glasbe preteklega stoletja in eden največjih dosežkov avantgardnega lutkarstva te južnoevropske države. Lanz je bil tudi pionir v uveljavljanju papirnega gledališča kot umetniške zvrsti; z velikim vplivom na nemške ustvarjalce in druge tuje sočasne lutkarje. Pečat je pustil tudi v delih svojega prijatelja Federica Garcíe Lorce, s katerim je leta 1923 sodeloval pri ustvarjanju predstave »Títeres de cachiporra«. Tudi Lorca je eden ključnih protagonistov za razumevanje lutkovne zgodovine celotne Latinske Amerike. Milan Klemenčič, Vittorio Podrecca in Hermenegildo Lanz niso edini, ki poosebljajo spremembe v lutkarstvu 20. stoletja. Lahko bi omenili še mnoge druge. O izbranih protagonistih razpravljamo, ker so v projektu sodelujoče evropske institucije neposredno povezane z njihovimi zapuščinami in želimo širšemu krogu obiskovalcev predstaviti njihovo življenje in delo. Razstave, predstave, konference in pričujoče strani želijo spodbuditi zavedanje o njihovem pomembnem prispevku k lutkovni umetnosti. Njihovo delo je bistveno za razumevanje tega, kdo smo in od kod prihajamo, za to, da najdemo svoj prostor v sedanjosti in moč, da stopimo prihodnosti naproti s široko odprtimi očmi.

excellent example is the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre and its recently opened museum. To a large extent, they are the direct heirs of Milan Klemenčič. Vittorio Podrecca who was fascinated by the performance of Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes, which he saw in Rome, wanted to emulate this artistic company by creating something similar, but on a smaller scale. So he founded, in 1914, "Teatro dei Piccoli", but the name “piccoli” (small) does not in any way reduce the magnitude and commitment of this exemplary company. He employed major avant-garde artists who composed music, made puppets and scenography, and was highly successful, touring around half the globe for fifty years. His marionettes and the numerous personnel who were part of the company were cosmopolitans, and set an example of how this profession was able to create a universal language that went beyond geographical, cultural and political borders. Podrecca became a theatre producer of global dimensions, but the influence of his work on many other internationally acclaimed artists was larger than his reputation. Two of these artists were Ramón del Valle Inclán, known as one of the key authors of Spanish literature in the twentieth century, and Jacques Chesnais, a renowned French puppeteer and collector, among others. Hermenegildo Lanz made puppets and part of the set for the première of the “El retablo de maese Pedro” in Paris. This opera by Manuel de Falla is one of the masterpieces of Spanish music from the previous century, and a major contribution from this Southern European country to the avant-garde movement in puppetry. Lanz was also a pioneer in introducing paper theatre into the arts, which highly influenced German creators and contemporary international puppeteers. His left his mark on the literary and artistic works of his friend Federico Garcia Lorca, with whom he collaborated in 1923 on the "Títeres de cachiporra" performance. Lorca was also a key individual in terms of understanding Latin America's puppet theatre history as a whole. Milan Klemenčič, Vittorio Podrecca and Hermenegildo Lanz are not the only individuals who embody the transformation of puppetry in the twentieth century. There are others who could be mentioned also. But we are talking about them today because several European organisations related to these pioneers and who are the direct heirs or legatees have assembled here to showcase their life and work. Exhibitions, performances, conferences and the following pages are intended to raise public awareness of their important contributions to the art of puppetry. Their paradigmatic work is essential for understanding who we are and where we come from, for finding our place in the present and finding the strength to walk towards the future with our eyes wide open.

Hermenegildo Lanz: prizor iz predstave »Veliko gledališče sveta«/Scene for "The Grand World Theatre", Granada, 1927

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Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana

Ljubljana Puppet Theatre


Milan Klemenčič Solkan, 1875 – Ljubljana, 1957 slikar, lutkar, scenograf IN fotograf.

painter, PUPPETEER, SET DESIGNER AND PHOTOGRAPHER.

Malo marionetno gledališče Šturje pri Ajdovščini, 1910–1914; Gradec, 1917

Small Marionette Theatre Šturje near Ajdovščina, 1910–1914; Graz, 1917

22. decembra 1910 je Klemenčič uprizoril prvo predstavo »Mrtvec v rdečem plašču« in Šturje so postale rojstni kraj slovenskega lutkovnega gledališča. Predstava je očarala gledalce, kar je Klemenčiča spodbudilo, da se je s še večjo vnemo lotil dela. Sledile so igre s prebrisanim Gašperčkom v glavni vlogi: »Začarani princ« (1911), »Kralj Lavrin« (1911), »Kraljevič Nagelj in kraljična Lilija« (1913), »Gašperček slikar« (1913), in »Trojčki iz Damaska« (1913). Čeprav je ustvarjalni zagon mladega gledališča prekinila prva svetovna vojna, je Klemenčič tudi iz Gradca, kjer je bil nameščen, poslal po oder in lutke ter uprizoril še dve igri: »Skrivnostno zrcalo« (1917) in »Čarobne gosli” (1917).

The Small Marionette Theatre’s very first performance, which took place on 22 December 1910, cemented Šturje as the birthplace of the Slovenian marionette theatre. The performance enthralled the audience and encouraged Klemenčič to pursue his work with even greater fervour. Next, he staged plays starring the sly hero Kasperle Larifari, i.e. "The Enchanted Prince" (1911), "King

in scena natančneje izdelani, odrska postavitev celostno domišljena. Predstave si je naenkrat lahko ogledalo največ trideset povabljencev, večinoma iz ljubljanskih kulturnih krogov, za katere so predstave tega malega gledališča pomenile pravo kulturno doživetje. Z uprizoritvijo predstave »Doktor Faust« je leta 1938 dosegel svoj ustvarjalni vrh. Ko je bilo leta 1948 v Ljublja-

Slovensko marionetno gledališče Ljubljana, 1920–1924 Po vojni se je Klemenčič preselil v Ljubljano, kjer je postal vodja opreme vseh gledališč in Slovenskega marionetnega gledališča, prvega poklicnega lutkovnega gledališča. V nekaj mesecih je pripravil načrte za oder, izdelal 47 marionet, izšolal nove igralce, režiral in igral … 20. januarja 1920 so bile v dvorani Mestnega doma (današnjega Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana) premierno uprizorjene »Čarobne gosli«. Predstava je bila sprejeta z navdušenjem, a Klemenčič prave podpore za delovanje gledališča ni dobil, čeprav si je pridobil veliko podporo. Na svoj četrti rojstni dan je gledališče zaradi finančnih težav zaprlo svoja vrata, mojster pa se je umaknil med slikarska platna. Gledališče Miniaturne lutke Ljubljana, 1936–1957 Klemenčičeva dnevna soba je znova postala gledališka dvorana šele leta 1936, ko je uprizoril predstavo »Sovji grad«. Oder je bil komaj kaj večji od tistega v Šturjah, vendar so bile lutke

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stage and puppets and prepared two plays: "The Mysterious Mirror" (1917) and "The Magic Violin" (1917). Slovenian Marionette Theatre Ljubljana, 1920–1924 Following the war, Klemenčič relocated to Ljubljana, where he was appointed as the Head of the Slovenian Marionette Theatre – the first professional puppet theatre in Slovenia. In a few months, he produced set designs, made 47 marionettes, trained four new actors, and took over directing, acting etc. On 20 January 1920, the Civic Hall hosted the premiere of Pocci's "The Magic Violin". The performance was received with great enthusiasm, but Klemenčič was denied concrete support for the theatre's operations. On its fourth anniversary the theatre had to close down due to financial pressures and the disheartened puppet master returned to painting canvases. Miniature Puppets Theatre, Ljubljana, 1936–1957

Avtoportret z naslovom »Moj atelje«/Self-portrait called "My studio", 1907 ni ustanovljeno Mestno lutkovno gledališče, ga je Klemenčič podprl in sodeloval pri njegovem nastajanju. Pripravil je načrte za nov marionetni oder in likovno zasnovo za »Čarobne gosli«, uresničitev pa prepustil novi generaciji lutkarjev.

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Lavrin" (1911), "Prince Rose-Red and Princess Lily-White" (1913), "Kasperle: The Portrait Painter" (1913) and "Triplets of Damascus" (1913). World War I put an end to the creative drive behind the new theatre. While Klemenčič was stationed in Graz, he sent for his

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After a long break, Klemenčič returned to his puppets in 1935. The silk curtain was lifted on 26 April 1936 for Pocci's "The Castle of Owls" and the Klemenčič living room was once again transformed into a theatre. The stage was scarcely bigger than the one in Šturje, but it was more sophisticated, the puppets and set design were more intricate and the stage setting more elaborate. The performance of "Doctor Faustus" in 1938 marks the pinnacle of Klemenčič. In 1948, the City Puppet Theatre was established in Ljubljana. Klemenčič endorsed the new theatre and was involved in its creation. He made plans for a new marionette stage and took over the visual design of "The Magic Violin", however, he left the stage realization to the new generation of puppeteers.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Tjaša Tomšič V PL I V I

INFLUENCES

Družinsko lutkovno gledališče Franja Robide

Family Theatre of Franjo Robida

M

M

iha Robida je v svojem domovanju pod Krvavcem hranil izjemno lutkovno zapuščino svojega starega očeta Franja Robide (1898–1963). Kmalu po ustanovitvi muzejskega oddelka jo je podaril Lutkovnemu gledališču Ljubljana, da bi jo strokovno preučili in primerno hranili.

iha Robida discovered an extraordinary legacy of his grandfather, Franjo Robida (1898–1963) at the foot of Krvavec Mountain. He donated the artefacts to the museum department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre shortly after it was founded so that they could be examined by experts and given proper storage.

Zbirka osvetljuje del doslej neznane slovenske in družinske lutkovne zgodovine. Franjo Robida je od približno leta 1930 do leta 1959 vodil svoje miniaturno družinsko in pozneje celo »lokalno« gledališče. V doslej najdeni zbirki so: 20 miniaturnih lutk (velikih pribl. 25 cm) ali delov lutk, lesen oder, 38 rekvizitov (npr. klobuki, meči, čelade za lutke), 20 delov scenografije, knjižice z lutkovnimi igrami in sveženj rokopisnih zapiskov.

The collection sheds light on a part of Slovenian puppet history, especially the history of family theatres, which was largely unknown. Franjo Robida operated his miniature theatre from approximately 1930 to 1959, first as a family theatre and, later, as a local theatre. The collection includes 20 miniature puppets (roughly 25cm tall), puppet parts, a wooden stage, 38 props (e.g. hats, swords and puppet helmets), 20 set elements, script booklets and a bundle of handwritten accounts.

Nekaj spominov na družinsko gledališče nam je predal vnuk, še več pa lutkarjevi zapisi. Tako gotovo vemo, da je gledališče delovalo na njegovem domu vsaj od leta 1930 in vse do leta 1959, ko je v koledar zapisal: »Nesem Mihu [vnuk] lutke« in dva tedna pozneje: »Miha odpeljal oder za lutkovno gledališče. Mihu pokazal sestaviti oder in kulise«.

His grandson told us about the family theatre, and the puppeteer’s own records provided us with an even greater wealth of information. We know for certain that the theatre operated in his home from at least 1930 and was still in use in 1959 when he wrote in his calendar: “Taking the puppets to Miha [grandson]” and, two weeks later: “Miha took the puppet theatre stage. Showed Miha how to assemble stage and sets”

Kot je značilno za družinska gledališča, kakršno je imel od leta 1910 v Šturjah in pozneje v Ljubljani Milan Klemenčič, so bile tudi predstave družinskega gledališča Franja Robide sprva namenjene prijateljem, ki so se ob večerih zbirali na njegovem domu. Tako Robida npr. januarja 1930 zapiše: »Dr. Klemenc z ženo pri nas«, »Vovkovi in Legatovi pri nas«, »Klemenovi pri nas« ... Iz zapisov pa vemo, da iger ni uprizarjal le doma, ampak tudi na prostem v javnosti in zanje zaračunaval vstopnino. Na enem izmed ohranjenih natisnjenih vabil tako lahko preberemo: »Vabimo Vas na veseloigro, ki se bo predvajala danes zvečer na terasi Zelenega hriba ob osmi uri zvečer. Naslov: Gašperček išče stanovanje. Vstopnina pol dinarja«. Leta 1942 lahko preberemo zabeležko, da si je njegovo predstavo ogledalo kar 20 gledalcev in da jim je računal 25 lir. Kdaj so njegove predstave presegle domače zidove in družinski krog, ni znano, je pa vsaj že leta 1937 predstave igral tudi na prostem, saj lahko preberemo: »Zmotil dež«. Sam je izdelal oder, marionete in rekvizite pa tudi posamezne scenografske elemente, celotno scenografijo. V zapiskih sledimo njegovemu predanemu in vztrajnemu delu: »Dobil lutkovne igre iz Ljubljane«, »Delal lutko Smrt«, »Delal novo gledališče«, »Zgotovil oder«, »Delal kulise«, »Dovršil kuliso Na vasi«, »Delal lutke«, »Popravljal gledališče«, »Montiral elektriko na oder«, »Delal senčnik iz celofan papirja za lutkovno gledališče« ... V igrah, ki jih je uprizarjal, zasledimo dva glavna junaka: »nemškega« in »Klemenčičevega« Gašperčka, precej pozneje pa tudi sokolskega Jurčka. Sprva nastopa predvsem Gašperček – tako je Robida že leta 1930 zapisal: »Izdovršil lutke. Z Danetom igrala Gašperček išče stanovanje«. V zapisih šele leta 1956 zasledimo sokolskega Jurčka

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Performances at family theatres such as Franjo Robida’s – and the one operated by Milan Klemenčič in Šturje from 1910 and later in Ljubljana – were initially only meant for friends who flocked to the puppeteer’s home in the evenings. In January 1930 Robida wrote: “Dr. Klemenc and wife with us”. “The Vovks and Legats with us”. “The Klemens with us” … His accounts also reveal that his plays were staged not only in his house but also outdoors for the local community who paid to watch them. One of the surviving invitations reads: “You are invited to a comedy to be performed this evening on the terrace of the Green Hill at eight o’clock. Title: Kasperle seeks an abode. Entrance fee is 0.5 dinars”. A journal entry from 1942 notes that his show was attended by 20 visitors and that he had charged each 25 liras. It is unclear at what point his shows outgrew his home and family circle, but we do know that by 1937 he was already putting on plays outdoors, as indicated by the entry: “Interrupted by rain”. He constructed the stage, crafted the marionettes and props, and made individual stage elements as well as designing the entire set. His records allow us to keep track of his dedicated and committed work: “Received puppet plays from Ljubljana”. “Designed the Death puppet”. “Crafted new theatre”. “Finished stage”. “Worked on the backdrop”. “Finished backdrop for ‘At the village’”. “Made puppets”. “Fixed the theatre”. “Installed electricity on the stage”. “Made a shade for the puppet theatre from cellophane” etc. His plays featured two main characters: Kasperle (the “German” version and the one by Klemenčič), and, some time later, Jurček, who was the mouthpiece of the Sokol movement. At first, Kasperle featured in most plays. In 1930 Robida wrote: “Finished the puppets. Dane and I performed

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(»Jurček v peklu«), čeprav imajo že nekateri njegovi izvodi iger iz leta 1930 ime Gašperček pretisnjeno z Jurčkom (npr. »Gašperček/Jurček išče stanovanje«). Robida je zapisal, da je zvezke z lutkovnimi igrami dobil iz Ljubljane. Večinoma gre za slovenske prevode čeških del, v nekaterih nastopajo celo češki junaki (»Klepetavi Miček«), lotil pa se je tudi predelave igre Pogumni krojaček in ponosno je zapisal: »Spisal 'Pogumnega krojačka'«, »Prepisal na stroj 'Pogumnega krojačka'«. Miniaturno lutkovno gledališče družine Robida je delovalo v času »sokolskega lutkarstva«, ki se je ravno takrat dodobra razživelo v veliko sokolskih športnih društvih, in tudi lutkovne igre, ki jih je kupoval v Ljubljani, so bile sokolske (v svoji knjižnici je imel Robida izdajo »Jurček gre na Triglav« Dara Svetliča – enega glavnih pobudnikov lutkovnega odra na Taboru – in vrsto prevodov iz češčine), lahko pa predvidevamo, da je Robida poznal tudi Slovensko marionetno gledališče, ki ga je v letih 1920–1924 vodil Milan Klemenčič. Medtem ko so sokolski lutkarji dolgo časa igrali predstave s kupljenimi češkimi lutkami, se je likovno nadarjeni Franjo Robida snovanja in izdelave – tako kot Milan Klemenčič – lotil sam. Vzporednice z delom Milana Klemenčiča se tako izrisujejo kar same. Nedavno odkritje zapuščine Franja Robide odpira vrsto vprašanj in obenem začenja izrisovati lutkovno pokrajino slovenske dežele. Govori nam predvsem o zgodovini družinskih lutkovnih gledališč, za katera vemo, da so na Slovenskem obstajala, a so razen gledališča Milana Klemenčiča še skoraj povsem neraziskana. Verjamemo, da bomo s takšnimi odkritji in z najdbami postopoma lahko izrisali celoten zemljevid lutkovne dejavnosti na Slovenskem, in sicer od njenih začetkov do današnjih dni.

Kasperle seeks an abode’”. It is not until 1956 that his journal makes any mention of Jurček (“Jurček in Hell”), even though some of his printed plays from 1930 have the character as Kasperle-cum-Jurček (e.g. “Kasperle/Jurček seeks an abode”). Robida recorded that he received his script booklets from Ljubljana. The plays are mostly Slovenian translations of Czech pieces. Some even feature Czech characters (“Chatty Miček”), but he also branched out out into remaking “The Brave Little Tailor”, boasting: “Written ‘Brave Little Tailor’”. “Machine-typed ‘Brave Little Tailor’”. The miniature puppet theatre of the Robida family operated in the “Sokol movement” era during which puppetry had just taken off in many of the Sokol sports societies. The plays he purchased in Ljubljana were of Sokol origin (Robida’s library included a copy of “Jurček goes to Triglav” by Daro Svetlič, who was one of the main initiators behind setting up a puppet stage in Tabor, and a series of translations of Czech shows). We can assume that Robida was familiar with the Slovenian Marionette Theatre headed by Milan Klemenčič from 1920 to 1924. While the Sokol puppeteers performed with commercially purchased Czech puppets for a long time, the artistically talented Franjo Robida set out to design and craft his own – just like Milan Klemenčič. The parallels with the work of Klemenčič are thus unmistakeable. The recently discovered legacy of Franjo Robida raises a series of questions, but also enables us to discern the outlines of the early puppetry landscape of Slovenia. It recounts the history of just one of the Slovenian family puppet theatres which we know existed in Slovenia. However, such theatres – other than that of Milan Klemenčič – remain largely unexplored. We believe that such discoveries and finds will give us the tools to map the field of puppetry in Slovenia in detail, from its beginnings to the present day.

Lutke iz družinskega gledališča Franja Robide/Puppets from the Franjo Robida family theatre

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Zala Kalan DEDIŠČINA

L EG ACY

Restavriranje lutk Milana Klemenčiča

Restoring Milan Klemenčič’s puppets

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utkovni opus začetnika slovenskega lutkarstva Milana Klemenčiča hranimo v Lutkovnem gledališču Ljubljana, arhivsko gradivo in nekaj scenografij pa je v Slovenskem gledališkem inštitutu. Zbirka je bogata in poleg okoli 100 lutk iz različnih obdobij njegovega ustvarjanja od leta 1910 do leta 1940 obsega tudi različne scenografije, številne scenske pripomočke in enega izmed izvirnih odrov. Lutk so v povprečju visoke 10 cm; izjema so lutke iz obdobja Slovenskega marionetnega gledališča (1920–1924), ki merijo okoli 30 cm. Čeprav so majhne, so v smislu dovršenosti detajlov in tehnologije izjemne. Način izdelave še zdaleč ni tipičen, saj je avtor risbo profila prenesel na medeninasto pločevino, jo izrezal in namestil v sredino osnovnega kalupa ter zalil z mavcem. Iz njegovih zapiskov je razvidno, da je odlitek pozneje po liniji medenine izrezal z dletom in natančneje obdelal. Za potujočo razstavo v sklopu mednarodnega projekta »Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva« smo konservirali–restavrirali del Klemenčičeve zapuščine. Ker so bile v gledališču v preteklosti izdelane tudi kopije lutk in scenskih elementov dveh Klemenčičevih poznejših predstav, »Sovjega gradu« (1936) in »Doktorja Fausta« (1938), smo se odločili, da bomo na razstavi, kjer bo mogoče, njegovo zadnje ustvarjalno obdobje predstavili s kopijami in tako zaščitili izvirnike pred morebitnimi poškodbami. Pri konserviranju–restavriranju smo se v največji meri držali načela minimalnih in reverzibilnih posegov v predmete.

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he puppet opus of Milan Klemenčič – the pioneer of Slovenian puppetry – is held in trust at the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, while the archival material and some stage sets are held at the Slovenian Theatre Institute. The extensive collection features around 100 puppets from various stages of his artistic career (from 1910 to 1940), as well as stage sets, numerous set implements and one of the original stages. With the notable exception of the 30cm tall puppets from the Slovenian Marionette Theatre (1920–1924), the puppets only average 10cm. The impressively intricate detailing and sophisticated technology however fully make up for their small size. The creator’s approach to the construction of puppets was very atypical; first, a drawing of the profile was transferred to a brass sheet, cut out and placed at the centre of the base mould and filled with plaster of Paris. Notes reveal that the cast was then cut out with a chisel along the brass line and carefully handcrafted. A portion of Klemenčič’s legacy was conserved and restored for the travelling exhibition showcased within the international project All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind The Scenes. In the past, the theatre had made replicas of the puppets and set elements of two of Klemenčič’s later shows, i.e. "The Castle of Owls" (1936) and "Doctor Faustus" (1938). This prompted our decision to use replicas in the exhibition, wherever possible, to illustrate the final stage of the master’s artistic career, in order to spare the originals from any possible damage. During conservation and restoration, artefacts were

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Odstranjevanje ostankov lepila/Removing the adhesive

Pred posegi smo na izbranih predmetih v sodelovanju z Zavodom za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije opravili osnovne naravoslovne preiskave (optično mikroskopijo, FTIR in ramansko spektroskopijo), da bi se prepričali o sestavi in vrsti materialov. Lutkam smo tako odvzeli mikrovzorce ter določili vrsto pigmentov, veziv in tekstilij. Na podlagi rezultatov je nastala dokumentacija o stanju lutk, s katero smo dobili temeljitejši vpogled v ohranjenost zbirke. Ohranjenost Klemenčičevih lutk je odvisna predvsem od časa njihovega nastanka; slabše ohranjene so vsekakor lutke iz njegovega začetnega oziroma t. i. »šturskega obdobja«. Vzroki so različni – k temu so pripomogli neizogibni procesi staranja, domnevamo pa tudi, da so bile neprimerno hranjene. Od uporabljenih materialov so se najslabše ohranile tekstilije, ki so ponekod izjemno oslabljene ali popolnoma razpadle. Čeprav so površinske nečistoče najpogostejša poškodba lutkovnih zbirk, jih je malo, verjetno zato, ker so bile v zadnjih letih lutke hranjene v škatlah in tako zaščitene. Lutke, izbrane za razstavo, smo minimalno očistili, najpogosteje le mehansko, s čopiči. Čeprav je barvna plast na lutkah v splošnem dobro ohranjena, je na svinčenih okončinah začela odpadati in se luščiti od nosilca. Za utrjevanje na teh delih smo uporabili raztopino paraloida B 67 v belem špiritu (»white spirit«). Retuširali smo najbolj moteče dele, in sicer z barvami na osnovi laropala A 81. Velikost lutk je precej oteževala delo. S snemanjem oblačil bi lahko povzročili še več škode na krhkih tekstilijah, zato smo tam, kjer ni bilo nujno potrebno, tekstilije pustili v obstoječem stanju, drugod pa smo jih podložili s svilenim krepelinom ali tanjšo svilo, ki smo jo po potrebi predhodno pobarvali na želeni odtenek, z ustreznimi barvami. Lutke iz »šturskega obdobja« niso pritrjene na kontrolna vodila, zato bo treba izdelati kopije medeninastih vodil po izvirnih načrtih in jih ponovno pritrditi.

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subject to minimum and reversible treatment. Before setting out to work, a few selected items underwent rudimentary scientific analyses (optical microscopy, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy), in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, to establish their composition and type of material. We took micro samples from the puppets and determined the types of pigment, binders and textiles used. The results were compiled to provide a record of the puppets’ condition, giving us a deeper insight into the overall state of the collection. The level of preservation of Klemenčič’s puppets very much corresponds to the point in time when they were created; the earlier puppets he created in the “Šturje period”, when he was younger, fared worse than the rest. Their state of deterioration can be attributed to different causes such as inevitable aging and, presumably, inadequate storage. Of all the materials used, the textile elements have suffered the most and are extremely weak in some areas or have completely disintegrated in others. The most common damage to puppet collections is usually caused by surface impurities. In this case, the puppets have been stored in boxes for the last few years which protected them from significant impurities. The puppets selected for the exhibition thus required minimal cleaning; in most cases they were cleaned merely by mechanical means, i.e. a brush. Although generally in good condition, the layer of paint on the puppets’ lead limbs had started to chip off and become exfoliated from the substrate. To consolidate the paint on such sections, a solution of paraloid B 67 in white spirit was applied. The most compromised parts were retouched with paints based on laropal A81. The small size of these puppets made for a challenging task. Taking the puppets’ clothing off could potentially further damage the frail textiles, so we left the textiles as they were, in those places where restoration wasn’t absolutely necessary. In other places, they were lined with silk crepeline or thin silk which had been previously colour-matched (if necessary) with the appropriate colouring. The puppets from the “Šturje period” are not on control bars and we will eventually have to consider replicating the brass controls based on the original blueprints to reattach the puppets.

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Mestna obÄ?ina ÄŒedad

Municipality of Cividale del Friuli


Vittorio Podrecca Čedad/Cividale del Friuli, 1883 – Ženeva/Geneva, 1959 odvetnik, pisatelj, novinar in politik, ustanovitelj NAJSLAVNEJŠEGA marionetnega gledališča v 20. stoletju.

LAWYER, WRITER, JOURNALIST, POLITICIAN, FOUNDER OF THE MOST FAMOUS MARIONETTE THEATRE IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

Leta 1905 se je preselil v Rim, kjer je diplomiral iz prava, a v tem poklicu ni nikoli deloval. Pri osemindvajsetih letih je ustanovil otroško revijo »Primavera«, ki je izhajala do leta 1913. V času, ko je bil tajnik glasbenega liceja v Rimu, mu je ruski novinar Alessandro Amfiteatro prinesel opere za otroke, ki jih je za Leningradsko lutkovno gledališče zložil ruski skladatelj César Kjuj. Z mislijo na lutkovne predstave, nad katerimi se je navdušil že v mladosti, je ves svoj prosti čas posvetil ideji o lastnem marionetnem gledališču. Februarja 1914 je z Lugijem Fornaciarijem, predstavnikom glasbene založbe Casa Ricordi, ter z neapeljskim marionetistom in vodjo takrat že uveljavljenega lutkovnega gledališča »I Fantocci di Santoro« je ustanovil marionetno gledališče »Teatro dei Piccoli«. Fornaciari je finančno podprl projekt in za prostore novega gledališča najel nekdanjo konjušnico v palači Odescalchi. Santoro pa je poskrbel za premierni repertoar z različnimi varietejskimi točkami in opernimi deli. Podrecca sam ni bil umetnik, ampak izjemno nadarjen producent in režiser, dovzeten za novosti, je sodeloval s slavnimi lutkovnimi družinami in z animatorji (Striuli, Salici, Braga, Gorno-Dall’Acqua), glasbeniki (Respighi), s slikarji in scenografi (Depero, Prampolini). Marionetni spektakli so kmalu postali svetovni fenomen. Z nekaj tisoč marionetami, ki so karikirale tudi slavne osebnosti, kot so: Greta Garbo, Charlie Chaplin, Betty Boop, pianist Piccolowski idr., so uprizarjali raznovrstna glasbena dela: opere, balete, varietejske točke … Gledalci predstav so vzdihovali ob neobičajno razkošnih kostumih in scenografiji, glasbena kulisa pa je bila vselej izvedena v živo z instrumentalisti in pevci. Druga svetovna vojna je skupino za dobro desetletje zadržala v Argentini, po vrnitvi pa je Podrecca ustanovil še en lutkovni ansambel, ki je izvajal le operna dela. »I Piccoli« so v petdesetih letih svojega delova-

nja prepotovali ves svet. Hvalile so jih znane osebnosti: Eleonora Duse, grška kraljica Federica, Arturo Toscanini, Charlie Chaplin, George Bernard Shaw, Walt Disney in drugi. V Hollywoodu pa so vrteli številne kratke filme njihovih predstav. Med uspešnejšimi točkami »I Piccoli« so bile: »Rumba«, »Akrobati«, »ples nojev« … V tehniki animacije pa naj bi najbolj izpopolnili duo – so-

He moved to Rome in 1905 where he graduated in law, but he never practised. At the age of 28 he established the children’s magazine "Primavera", which was published up until 1913. While working as the secretary at the music conservatory in Rome, he met the Russian journalist Alessandro Amfiteatrov. The latter provided him with the scores of operatic fairy tales for children that Russian composer

pranistko Sinforoso Strangolini in pianista Piccolowskega, ki sta ponavadi nastopila na koncu programa. T. i. »Varietà« je tudi njihova najslavnejša predstava.

César Cui had composed for the Leningrad Puppet Theatre. Fondly remembering the puppet shows that made an impression on him in his early years, he spent all of his leisure time thinking about starting his own marionette theatre. In February 1914 he founded "Teatro dei Piccoli" together with Lugi Fornaciari, who worked for the music publishing company

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Casa Ricordi, and Giovanni Santoro, the Neapolitan marionettist and head of the by then well-established puppet theatre "I Fantocci di Santoro". Fornaciari funded the undertaking and leased the former stables of Odescalchi Palace to serve as the venue. Santoro prepared the opening-night repertoire which features a melange of vaudeville acts and operatic pieces. While not an artist himself, Podrecca was a very talented producer and director eager to embrace novelties; he struck up collaborations with prominent puppet troupes and talented animators (Striuli, Salici, Braga, Gorno-Dall’Acqua), musicians (Respighi), painters and set designers (Depero, Prampolini). The marionette and musical spectacles of the new theatre soon became a worldwide phenomenon. With several thousand marionettes that frequently parodied celebrities such as Greta Garbo, Charlie Chaplin and Betty Boop, pianist Piccolowski, the theatre put on a wide range of musical pieces – operas, ballets, variety shows etc. The audience gasped in awe at the lavish costumes and sets, and the score was always performed live. While on tour in South America, the outbreak of the Second World War extended the troupe’s stay in Argentina for a good decade. After its return to Europe, Podrecca went on to found a puppet troupe that performed only operatic works. In its fifty years of operation, ‘I Piccoli’ travelled the world. They were lauded by many: Eleonora Duse, Federica (queen of Greece), Arturo Toscanini, Charlie Chaplin, George Bernard Shaw, Walt Disney and others. Hollywood even screened several shorts of their performances. Thier biggest hits included: "Rumba", "Acrobats" and "The Ostrich Dance". The programme was usually wrapped up by a duet from soprano Sinforosa Strangolini and pianist Piccolowski, and this was praised on account of the highly sophisticated puppet animation. The so-called "Varietà" is also their most famous show.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Nadja Ocepek POG OVOR

IN TERV IEW

Novo lutkovno središče v Čedadu

New puppetry centre in Cividale del Friuli

BarbarA della polla in ennio GUERRATo O URESNIČITVI MEDNARODNEGA SREDIŠČA VITTORIO PODRECCA IN GLEDALIŠČE ČUDES MARIE SIGNORELLI.

BarbarA della polla AND ennio GUERRATo about realisation of THE international centre of vittorio podrecca and THEATRE OF WONDERS oF MARIA SIGNORELLI.

Od kod zamisel za lutkovno središče v Čedadu? Pobude za Mednarodno središče Vittoria Podrecce (1883–1959) in gledališče čudes Marie Signorelli (1908–1992), ki smo ga 30. junija odprli v prenovljenem delu samostana Santa Maria in Valle v Čedadu, segajo daleč nazaj. Zamisel se je porodila že leta 1979, ko je »Teatro Stabile del Friuli Venezia Giulia« – stalno gledališče Furlanije - Julijske krajine s pomočjo regionalnih oblasti pridobilo marionete, zbralo nekdanje Podreccine sodelavce in oživilo predstave »Teatra dei Piccoli«. A uresničitev centra je z leti zaradi zapletenih upravnih postopkov zastala. »Teatro Stabile« je začelo s starim in z novim repertoarjem gledališča »I Piccoli« potovati po svetu, mesto Čedad pa misli o vzpostavitvi Podreccinega središča ni nikoli opustilo. Tako je pred tremi leti v hrambo pridobilo bogato zasebno zbirko mednarodno uveljavljene scenografinje in lutkarice Marie Signorelli, ki jo predstavljamo v centru Vittoria Podrecce. Za vzpostavitev muzeja, posvečenega Vittoriu Podrecci in njegovim marionetam, si že vrsto let prizadevajo številni prebivalci Furlanije - Julijske krajine. V njem bi sicer morale biti umeščene marionete iz leta 1979, ki jih hrani »Teatro Stabile«. Govorimo o lutkah, ki so v 60. letih preteklega stoletja nastopile na zadnji ameriški turneji »Teatra dei Piccoli«. Ob 20-obletnici Podreccine smrti so jih vrnili v Čedad, da se z nizom predstav poklonijo svojemu ustanovitelju. Od takrat lutkarji vseh starosti oživljajo prizore iz znamenitih varietejskih predstav. Nov val priljubljenosti je gledališče »Teatro dei Piccoli« doživelo še posebno v osemdesetih letih, ko so s številnimi novimi uprizoritvami obujali staro slavo skupine. Ker so marionete vseskozi aktivno nastopale, ni nihče pomislil, da bi jih upokojili in postavili v muzej. To se je spremenilo, ko se je čedadski župan srečal z Giuseppino Volpicelli, z eno od hčera zbirateljice Marie Signorelli. Ta je v svojo bogato zbirko umestila tudi številne marionete »Teatra dei Piccoli«, ki jih je odkrila na znamenitem rimskem bolšjem sejmu Porta Portese. Tako se je porodila zamisel, da središča ne bi posvetili le Vittoriu Podrecci, ampak tudi Mariji Signorelli. Poleg lutk, ki jih je izdelala sama, hranimo tudi različne marionete, ročne lutke in arhivsko dokumentacijo pomembnih italijanskih in tujih lutkovnih družin.

What is the idea behind the puppetry centre in Cividale del Friuli? The idea about the project of the "International Centre of Vittorio Podrecca and Maria Signorelli’s theatre of marvels" goes back a long way. It was opened on 30th of June in the new wing of St Maria’s monastery in Valle, Cividale. The idea first took shape when, in 1979, the Friuli-Venezia Giulia’s "Teatro Stabile" purchased (with the help of regional authorities), the puppets from the "Teatro dei Piccoli". Vittorio Podrecca’s (1883-1959) former troupe of co-workers got together again to set up the shows. This was the first time that regional authorities and the "Teatro Stabile" considered creating a dedicated centre. However this idea got buried under a mountain of bureaucratic red tape, turning into yet another unrealized dream. While the "Teatro Stabile" continued to stage both performances of its own repertoire and new shows from the "Teatro dei Piccoli", the Municipality of Cividale, which had never stopped working on the International Centre concept, finally obtained three years ago an incredible private collection from an internationally known artist, scenographer and puppet-master, Maria Signorelli (1908-1992). For years, people in Fruili-Venezia Giulia have wanted to build a museum dedicated to the puppets of the "Teatro dei Piccoli" and its founding father, Vittorio Podrecca. The puppets that should have been part of this museum are currently held in trust by the "Teatro Stabile" in Trieste. The puppets in question are those used in the last USA tours in the 1960s. Twenty years after the death of Mr Podrecca, the puppets came back to Cividale to star in several shows as a tribute to their founder. From that time on, both young and old puppeteers have launched (with great success), a series of reruns of the famous Varietà acts. In the 1980s new shows were produced, which made puppets popular in the region again. Since the puppets were actively employed, there seemed to be no question of putting them in a museum. That’s why the idea of exhibiting them had never come to pass. In the past few years, this began to seem more likely however, as the mayor of Cividale met with Giuseppina Volpicelli, one of the two daughters of the collector Maria Signorelli. The collection includes some puppets from the "Teatro dei Piccoli", which were found at Porta Portese – a famous flea market in Rome. That’s how we came up with the idea of creating a centre, which wouldn’t just be dedicated to Vittorio Podrecca, but also to Maria Signorelli. As a result we’ve also added creations from Maria Signorelli, as well as puppets and archival documents from many other distinguished Italian families and groups from abroad.

Kdo sta bila Vittorio Podrecca in Maria Signorelli? Vittorio Podrecca je bil vnet zagovornik glasbe in gledališča. Maria Signorelli pa strastna raziskovalka lutkovne umetnosti in tudi sama izdelovalka osupljivih lutk. Napisala je prvo knjigo o gledališču »I Piccoli« in o družini Podrecca. Omeniti je potrebno tudi, da je njen oče gledališče finančno podprl že leta 1914 ob njegovi ustanovitvi v palači Odescalchi. Marijina ljubezen do lutk tako sega v otroštvo, saj je zrasla ob gledaliških predstavah. Že od 70. let prejšnjega stoletja si je želela, da bi v Čedadu ustanovili muzej, ker je v ta namen tudi kupila lutke »Teatra dei Piccoli«.

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Who were Vittorio Podrecca and Maria Signorelli? Vittorio Podrecca was a passionate advocate of music and theatre. Maria Signorelli was an artist and scholar of puppetry art and created many splendid puppets. The first biography dedicated to the "Teatro dei Piccoli" and the Podreccas’ history was written by Maria Signorelli. We should remember that her father was one of the financial supporters for the Teatro Odescalchi — the troupe’s first headquarters in 1914. Maria grew

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Kdo je zasnoval razstavo? Koncept razstave je zasnoval Zavod Cassiopea – Barbara Della Polla in Ennio Guerrato pod vodstvom Giuseppine in Letizie Volpicceli, dedinj zbirke Marie Signorelli. Udeleženi pa so bili tudi številni drugi strokovni sodelavci in poznavalci. Zamislili smo si interaktiven prostor, v katerem bi občinstvu s filmskim gradivom omogočili vpogled v kompleksnost lutkovne skupine, ki jo je ustanovil Vittorio Podrecca in je več kot petdeset let gostovala po svetu ter pri tem nenehno eksperimentirala in nadgrajevala svoje lutkarske veščine. Veliko časa ste namenili popisovanju zbirke Marie Signorelli. Obdelava zbirke je bila zelo zahtevna, evidentiranje predmetov dolgotrajno, saj je izjemno bogata in raznovrstna. Med njimi so lutke, stare tudi dvesto let, ki prihajajo iz različnih evropskih držav, Južne Amerike in z Vzhoda. Zelo dragocena je tudi arhivska dokumentacija, članki, glasbeni aranžmaji in scenariji. »Teatro dei Piccoli« je imelo na vrhuncu svojega delovanja do 3000 marionet. Je v Italiji še kakšna zbirka njihovih lutk? Gre za edino zbirko v Italiji, ki je razstavljena, obstajajo pa tudi manjše zasebne zbirke. Večino lutk, ki so pripadale »Teatru dei Piccoli«, danes hrani že omenjeno gledališče »Teatro Stabile« v Trstu.

up with theatrical shows and she literally fell in love with them. Ever since the 1970s, Maria continually expressed the desire to create a Museum in Cividale, as she had purchased some of the puppets from the "Teatro dei Piccoli". Who curated the exhibition? The exhibition concept was developed by the Cooperativa Cassiopea, Barbara Della Polla and Ennio Guerrato, under the supervision of Giuseppina and Letizia Volpicelli, who are Maria Signorelli’s daughters and heirs. There’s also a great number of collaborators and experts involved. We wanted to make this place interactive and, thanks to movies and video files, allow the audience to understand the complexity of what is involved in a troupe, particularly that set up by Vittorio Podrecca and which travelled around the world for over fifty years, constantly experimenting and updating its craft. You’ve spent a lot of time inventorying the collection. The work involved in the Signorelli collection is very complex since the collection itself is extremely rich and compelling. We have puppets, which are two hundred years old. They originate from different European, South American and Eastern countries. The archive, which contains authentic documents, articles, musical arrangements and scripts is also extremely

Žalostni klovn, lik iz commedie dell'arte, je nastopal v predstavi »Pierrot in luna« in v varietejskih prizorih/Sad clown, a stock character from Commedia dell'arte, appeared in the show "Pierrot and the Moon" and in the variety shows

Prav te lutke nastopajo tudi v novi predstavi z naslovom »Od 3 do 93. Veličastna staritev.«, ki smo jo leta 2014 pripravili ob stoletnici ustanovitve »Teatra dei Piccoli«. V okviru evropskega projekta bomo te lutke kmalu popeljali tudi v Slovenijo, na Hrvaško in v Španijo. Zaupajte nam kaj več o vaši novi pobudi »Posvoji lutko!«. Kakšen je odziv javnosti? S pobudo smo želeli vzpostaviti inovativen in predvsem participatoren odnos k odkrivanju lutkovne zbirke, ki jo hranimo, nadgraditi osnovno zamisel o interaktivnem središču in s tem privabiti več obiskovalcev. Pomen lutk jim želimo približati prek souporabe predmetov in soustvarjanja zbirke. Odziv je bil velik, k pobudi so pristopili tako posamezniki kot podjetja. Ali so umetnostne galerije in muzeji po vašem mnenju

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valuable. The filing process took a very long time. At the height of its activity "Teatro dei Piccoli" held up to 3000 marionettes. Is this the only Podrecca collection in Italy? This is the only collection in Italy which can be viewed inside a centre. There are, in fact, also some private, small scale collections. The majority of puppets used in the "Teatro dei Piccoli" shows are now in Trieste at the Friuli-Venezia Giulia’s Teatro Stabile. We use these authentic puppets in a new show called "From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention", created for the 100th anniversary in 2014. Thanks to the European Project, we are going to showcase these puppets in Slovenia, Croatia and Spain. Tell us about your new initiative "Adopt a puppet"? Has there already been a public response to the idea? Our intention was to draw in a vast audience to the collection and to

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


najprimernejši prostori za razstavljanje lutk? Menimo, da lutke resnično oživijo le na odru, zato nam razstavljanje lutk v muzejih ni blizu, čeprav je lahko dober način, kako občinstvu približati zgodovino lutkovnega gledališča. Prav zato si prizadevamo, da bo mednarodno središče živ prostor, v katerem bomo prirejali začasne razstave, uprizarjali nove gledališke predstave in v okviru lutkovnih laboratorijev poučujevali o veščinah in delovanju lutkovnega gledališča. Kakšni so načrti za novo središče? V ospredju aktivnosti mednarodnega centra bo tudi v prihodnje poudarjanje pomembne vloge Vittoria Podrecce in Marie Signorelli. Preteklost bi pa radi približali tudi mlajšim generacijam, zato si želimo, da bi središče postalo mednarodna referenčna točka, omogočalo redne obiske in delovalo kot študijski prostor. Želimo si, da bi preseglo aktivnosti običajnega muzeja z eksperimentiranjem, izmenjavo idej in projektov. Radi bi, da zaživi kot prostor, kjer lutke občudujemo, se jih dotikamo, izdelujemo in raziskujemo. Idejo bomo dokončno uresničili, ko bomo vzpostavili še lutkovni laboratorij, gledališče in dokumentacijski center. Sodelujete tudi v mednarodnem projektu o pionirjih lutkovne

add value to the idea, which was the basis for the creation of the Centre. Basically, we wanted to make people understand the importance of such artefacts as well as joint management for the common good, in terms of objets d'art. Many people responded to the initiative, including private individuals and entities. Are art galleries and museums the best place for showcasing puppets? We’ve always thought that puppets only really come to life on the stage. Generally speaking, we do not like the idea of a museum. This, however, is a good way of introducing the audience to the history of the puppet theatre. Because of this, we still believe that the International Centre should be a place which accommodates laboratories, exhibitions and new theatrical shows. It should be a place where all the crafts and processes involved in artistic shows like this are taught. What are the plans for the future? The International Centre of Vittorio Podrecca and Maria Signorelli will, first and foremost, act as a tribute to these two distinguished persons. It will narrate a story from the past and bring new generations closer to the artisanal art of puppetry. At the same time, it should function as a location for experimentation, the exchanging of ideas and projects, and a research

Vittorio Podrecca z lutakama Charlija Chaplina in Carmen Mirande/ Vittorio Podrecca with puppets of Charlie Chaplin and Carmen Miranda

umetnosti. Kaj boste pridobili s projektom? Takšne povezave nam odpirajo nove priložnosti. Gre za obogatitev na profesionalni ravni, izmenjavo znanj in udejstvovanje novih ustvarjalcev. Po našem mnenju je to prvi korak k znanju in komaj že čakamo, da začnemo razvijati nove ideje.

centre. Everything revolves around the idea that the Centre shouldn’t just be a museum, but a sequence of rooms instead, in which puppets can be admired, touched, created and studied. The idea will be fulfilled as soon as we make the laboratory, theatre and documentation centre active. We want the Centre to be an international point of reference at all levels, offering regular visits and acting as an efficient centre for study, as well as (we truly hope) a dedicated space where new shows can be staged. You are also involved in the international puppetry pioneers project. What do you think this collaboration will bring to the table? Thanks to the vast and influential network of European projects, we get many new opportunities. It’s mostly about professional enrichment, the exchanging of opinions and the engagement of new artists. We believe this is the first step in familiarisation and we are eager to start working on new ideas.

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Španska plesalka iz predstav »Carmen« (1914) in »Španski ples« (1925)/Spanish dancer from the shows "Carmen" (1914) and "Spanish Dance" (1925)

Zoran Srdić, Zala Kalan, Nadja Ocepek DEDIŠČINA

L EG ACY

Izdelava kopij izbranih lutk Vittoria Podrecce iz zbirke Marie Signorelli

Copying Vittorio Podrecca’s Selected Puppets from Maria Signorelli’s Collection

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Zbirka Marie Signorelli v Čedadu: fond Vittoria Podrecce Ni naključje, da je vodilni partner evropskega projekta »Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva« mesto Čedad, saj se je najslavnejši italijanski lutkovni mojster Vittorio Podrecca rodil prav tam. V obsežni zbirki, ki zaokroža življenje in delo znamenite lutkovne umetnice, zbirateljice in ustanoviteljice lutkovne skupine »L’Opera dei Burattini« Marie Signorelli, hranijo tudi del njegove zapuščine. Zbirka se je širila z nakupi in donacijami; danes obsega več kot 5.000 različnih vrst lutk in drugih predmetov z vsega sveta od 18. do 20. stoletja. Razdeljena je v 25 različnih sklopov (»fantocci«, »burattini«, »marionete iz Trsta«, »Pupi Siciliani«, »Podreccin fond«) in predstavlja eno največjih tovrstnih evropskih zasebnih zbirk s področja gledaliških umetnosti. Podreccin fond je začel nastajati po smrti Vittoria Podrecce (po letu 1960) in obsega okoli 158 lepo ohranjenih lutk, visokih 80–100 cm, različne skice, scenske elemente in arhivske dokumente. Lutke pripadajo znamenitim uprizoritvam s Podreccinega repertoarja, kot so: Paisiellov »Seviljski brivec«, Mozartov »Don Giovanni«, Vernov »Dvajset tisoč milj pod morjem«, Botessinijev »Ali Baba«, Collodijev »Ostržek« idr. Med njimi pa so tudi številčne skupine marionet, ki so nastopale v prizorih posebnih varietejskih spektaklov, t. i. »Varietà«. Glasbene in igralske točke, ki so jih na humoren način izvajale marionete, so gledališču »I Piccoli« prinesle svetovno slavo. Del zbirke je od letošnjega junija na ogled tudi v novem lutkovnem centru »Centro Internazionale Vittorio Podrecca Teatro delle Meraviglie Maria Signorelli«. Izdelava kopij Pogoji italijanskega ministrstva za kulturo za razstavljanje v tujini so strogi, saj lahko uporaba in razstavljanje poškodujeta dragocene predmete kulturne dediščine, kar kaže na visoko zavest pri ohranjanju kulturne dediščine. Z mestom Čedad smo se zato dogovorili, da za potrebe potujoče razstave »Pionirji evropskega lutkarstva« interdisciplinarna skupina pod vodstvom Lutkovne delavnice Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana v poletnih mesecih izdela kopije izbranih Podreccinih lutk – »Španske plesalke« (inv. št. 1/66

P), ki je bila izdelana za lutkovni predstavi »Carmen« (1914) in »Španski ples« (1925), »Pierrota ali žalostnega klovna« (inv. št. 1/20 P), ki je nastopal v predstavi »Pierrot in luna« (1924/25) in v enem izmed prizorov »Varietà«, ter »Bola«, lutke iz temnopolte skupine akrobatov »Bil, Bol, Bul« (inv. št. 1/17-18-19 P), ki so nastopali v varietejskih prizorih. Izbrana rešitev je bila izdelava kopij, ki se tudi sicer v konservatorsko-restavratorski stroki pogosto uporablja kot način varovanja in ohranjanja kulturne dediščine oziroma umetniških del. S kopijami na razstavi bomo v nasprotju z originali vsem obiskovalcem omogočili dotikanje lutk. Otipali bodo lahko posamezne materiale, spoje itn. Eno izmed načel kopistike je, da se navadno izdela le ena ponovitev izvirnika v po videzu podobnem ali popolnoma enakem materialu. V primeru Podreccinih kopij tako ne gre za prave kopije, ki v celoti posnemajo izvirnike. Za izdelavo smo uporabili samo približne oziroma sorodne materiale, pri izdelavi pa smo se odločili za sodobnejšo tehnologijo (3D-skeniranje, CNC). Tehnična izvedba Opis Tehničnih skic in podatkov o izdelavi izbranih lutk v čedadskem arhivu ne hranijo. Pravijo, da so lutke za »I Piccoli« izdelovali številni lutkovni tehnologi in podrobnosti o njihovi tehnologiji niso znane, zato lahko le predvidevamo, da so trupe in okončine za izbrane tri marionete izdelali iz smrekovega ali hrastovega lesa, dlani in glave pa iz lipe ali sambe. Pregibanje trupa jim omogoča konstrukcija iz dveh debelejših kosov lesa (6 cm). Nanju so pritrjene polnjene blazinice, ki lutkam določajo obliko. Premikanje glave jim omogočajo izrezane odprtine v predelu vratu – glave so nanje pritrjene s kovinskimi zankami. Na ramenske sklepe so pritrjene roke iz bombažnega tulca s polnilom, ki je v komolčnem delu zvezan in zaključen z leseno ali s šivano dlanjo. Noge so v predelu medenice na trupe pritrjene z blagom in v kolenskem delu členjene s kovinskimi zankami (5 mm). Za mehkejše in hitrejše zaustavljanje nog imajo na hrbtnih straneh pregibov pritrjene trakove (tudi za to, da se med nastopanjem vanje niso zapletali deli kostumov). Stopala so negibljiva, čevlji pritrjeni s kovinskimi ploščicami, podplati v petnem predelu za nekaj cm višji, da so lutke s stopali čim

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Collection of Maria Signorelli IN Cividale del Friuli: Vittorio Podrecca Fund It is no coincidence that the town of Cividale, the birthplace of Italy’s most acclaimed puppet master Vittorio Podrecca, should act as the lead partner of the European project All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind The Scenes. The extensive collection of Maria Signorelli, which sums up the life and work of this prominent female artist, collector and founder of the puppet company L’Opera dei Burattini, also stores a part of her legacy. Boasting over 5,000 different puppets and other artefacts from all over the world, spanning the period from the 18th to the 20th century, the collection was enlarged through purchases and donations. It is divided into 25 sections ("fantocci", "burattini", "Trieste marionettes", "Pupi Siciliani", "Podrecca’s Fund" etc.) and is one of the largest privatelyowned European collections of this kind in the field of theatre. Podrecca’s Fund came into existence after Vittorio Podrecca’s death (after 1960) and comprises approximately 158 well preserved puppets – 80 to 100cm tall –, drawings, set elements and archival documents. The puppets were used in famous plays from Podrecca’s repertory, such as Paisiello’s "The Barber of Seville," Mozart’s "Don Giovanni", Verne’s "Twenty Thousand Leagues under the Sea", Bottesini’s  "Ali Baba", Collodi’s "Pinocchio" etc. The puppets also include a host of marionettes that performed in special vaudeville spectacles, the so-called "Varietà". Musical and dramatic acts performed by the marionettes that had been spiced up with comedic elements brought worldwide fame to the "I Picolli". As of June 2016, a portion of the collection will be exhibited in the new International Centre of Vittorio Podrecca and Maria Signorelli’s Theatre of Marvels (Centro Internazionale Vittorio Podrecca Teatro delle Meraviglie Maria Signorelli). MAKING COPIES The Italian Ministry of Culture imposes strict conditions for sending exhibitions abroad, as these valuable artefacts of cultural heritage might suffer damage when showcased and used, signalling its high level of sympathy toward cultural heritage conservation. It was therefore agreed with the town of Cividale that in the summer of 2016, for the travelling exhibition All Strings Attached,

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an interdisciplinary team, headed by the Puppet Workshop of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, should set out to create copies of a select few of Podrecca’s puppets, i.e. the "Spanish dancer" (Inv. No. 1/66 P), which was created for the puppet productions "Carmen" (1914) and the "Spanish Dance" (1925); "Pierrot" alias the Sad Clown (Inv. No. 1/20 P) that was used in the play "Pierrot and the Moon" (1924/25) as well as in one of the "Varietà" acts; and finally the character Bol, a puppet from the black acrobat group "Bil, Bol, Bul" (Inv. No. 1/17-18-19 P), which performed in vaudeville acts. The solution chosen for this particular case was thus to make copies of the puppets, which is a common method for safeguarding and conserving cultural heritage and artwork in the conservation and restoration discipline. By showcasing copies, all patrons – even the most fragile of the puppets – will be able to physically touch the puppets, something which would be utterly inconceivable with originals. Patrons will be able to feel the materials used, the joint connections etc. One principle of copying is that normally only one duplicate of the original is made from either similar or identical materials to the original’s. Podrecca’s copies are not true copies as they do not reproduce the original down to the smallest detail. Instead, they were created from approximate or related materials, with the application of modern technology, i.e. 3D scanning and CNC. Technical realisation Description The Cividale archive keeps no record of the technical drawings and data relating to the crafting of selected puppets. According to its accounts, the "I Piccoli" puppets were created by many puppet technologists, and the details of the techniques used have been lost over the years. We can only assume that the torsos and limbs for the three selected marionettes in question were made from spruce or oak wood, and the hands and heads from lime or samba. The bending forward of the torso is achieved with two thicker pieces of wood (6cm). The pieces of wood are encased with padding that gives the puppets shape. Head movement is made possible by openings in the neck area so that the head can be attached via metal loops. The shoulder joints are fitted with arms made from a tube of cotton that has been stuffed and tied into a knot at the elbow, and are finished with hands that have

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manj drsale po površini. Izjema je »Pierrotovo« stopalo, ki se lahko giblje pod kotom 90º v obe smeri. Pri »Španski plesalki« pa smo opazili, da je desno stopalo spuščeno, da se dotika tal. Predvidevamo, da je na tak način dajala takt. Vse lutke so bile prvotno pritrjene na preproste križne kontrolne mehanizme, t. i. »bilancini«. Glave lutk so izvotljene in imajo na temenu luknje, zakrite z lasmi (»Španska plesalka«), kaširane s papirjem in platnom (»Pierrot«) ali prelepljene z umetnim krznom (»Bol«). »Španska plesalka« in »Bol« imata v izvotljenih odprtinah nameščen tudi mehanizem za odpiranje ust. Pri »Španski plesalki« se usta odpirajo skupaj z brado, pri »Bolu« pa se premika samo spodnja ustnica, ki ima tudi vidno kovinsko vez. Na lutkah so vidni nanosi več barvnih plasti. Med nesvetlečimi (»mat«) barvami sicer izstopajo »Bolove« svetleče ustnice, pobarvane z

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rdečim lakom, in plesalkin inkarnat, ki je bil v celoti pobarvan s črno, nato pa posvetljen z lazurnimi nanosi (tehnika je vidna na obrazu v predelu las). Lutke so za svojo velikost razmeroma težke. Glave lutk so votle; trupi so sicer iz ravnega kosa lesa (debelejša deska; slutimo, da je bilo v takratnem času manj orodij za obdelavo lesa in so določene očem nevidne dele konstrukcij poenostavljali), a vendar je oblika odebeljena s tekstilnimi blazinicami, zgornji in spodnji deli nog so iz polnega lesa in v razmerju do telesa daljši, stopala so v proporcu s telesom razmeroma majhna. Pri marionetah je za njihovo lažje vodenje in gibljivost pomembno, da so lutke težje v predelu bokov in spodnjih okončin. Daljše in težje spodnje okončine iz polnega lesa dajejo lutki večjo stabilnost. Posledično morajo biti spoji zaradi teže močnejši (primer opisanih kovinskih zank v kolenskem spoju).

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either been made from wood or stitched. In the pelvic area, the legs are attached to the torso with fabric and articulated in the knees with metal loops. In order to ensure the puppet’s feet stop quickly and smartly, the rear sides of the joints have strips tacked on (also to prevent the puppets' costumes getting caught during the performance). The feet themselves do not move, and the shoes are attached with metal plates, the soles a few millimetres lower in the heel area, so the puppets don’t drag their feet across the surface as much. The only exception is Pierrot’s foot which can be moved 90º in both directions. It was noted with the "Spanish dancer" that the right foot has been dropped and touches the floor. It is assumed that this was done so she could tap her feet rhythm. All puppets were originally stringed onto simple cross-shaped control mechanisms, i.e. "bilancini".

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The puppet heads are hollow with holes at the vertex that are covered with hair (in the case of the "Spanish dancer"), laminated with paper and canvas (for Pierrot) or glued over with fake fur ("Bol"). The "Spanish dancer" and "Bol" also have a mechanism for opening their mouths in these hollow openings. The "Spanish dancer" can open its mouth along with the chin, whereas "Bol" can only move the lower lip which features a visible metal staple. There are several layers of paint on the puppets. "Bol"’s shiny lips, painted over with red varnish, particularly stand out among the matt colours, as does the "Dancer"’s carnation which was first painted completely black and later lightened with layers of glaze. This technique is apparent on the face along the puppet’s hairline. The puppets are relatively heavy for their size. The heads are hollow, but the torsos are constructed from a straight piece of wood

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Predpriprava Za izmero originalov, skiciranje osnovnih konstrukcij lutk, popis delov kostumov, določitev barvnih tonov z barvnimi kartami, določitev materialov, iz katerih so narejene lutke, in za dokumentarno fotografiranje je bilo potrebnih več obiskov arhiva v Čedadu. Pri izrisih je prišlo do določenih odstopanj med izmerami in fotografijami, kar smo ob zadnjem obisku ob primerjavi z izvirniki popravili. In situ se je izdelalo kalupe dlani in 3D-skeniralo glave lutk. Podatke o konstrukciji lutk smo pridobili brez destruktivnih posegov v izvirnike – s pomočjo literature in sorodnih lutk z razkritimi okončinami. Pridobljeni rezultati so zato približni. Če bi želeli ugotoviti natančno zgradbo lutk in vrste uporabljenih materialov, bi bilo treba opraviti tudi naravoslovne preiskave. Izdelava Tehnične skice trupov in okončin (nog, stopal) smo prenesli na lipov les; rezali smo ga s tračno žago ter oblikovali z dleti in brušenjem. Barvna plast na lutkah je stabilna, zato smo se odločili, da kalupe za dlani izdelamo iz brezkislinskega silikonskega kavčuka, ki ne reagira s podlago, in jih ob robu okrepimo z debelejšim nanosom, da bi se kavčuk lepše ločil od dlani. Dobili smo mavčni odlitek, ga retuširali, nato pa kalup izdelali iz silikonskega kavčuka, v katerega smo vlili polimerno maso z dodanim polnilom iz lesne moke. Glave smo izdelali s pomočjo 3 D-skeniranja.1 Obraze lutk smo skenirali z različnih kotov v ločljivosti HD (potrebnih je bilo približno 10 posnetkov), jih očistili nepotrebnih detajlov in sličice sestavili, tako da smo dobili natančen 3D-model. Zaradi napak je bila potrebna dodatna obdelava: zapiranje lukenj, odstranitev robov, šumov in reduciranje poligonov oziroma topološke mreže za lažjo manipulacijo. V programu Maya smo lutke na podlagi predhodnega 3D-modela retopologirali in pripravil nove 3D-modele za izrez iz lipovega lesa na petosnem CNC-rezkalniku. Glave smo nato izvotlili in izdelali mehanizme za premikanje ust. Lutke bodo polihromirane enako kot originali; razlika je le v tem, da so izbrane barve akrilne.

Tudi pri izdelavi oblačil in kostumov se je bilo treba čim bolj približati izvirniku. To je pogosto težavno in dolgotrajno, saj določeni vzorci, tkanje, materiali in barve danes niso več na voljo. V takšnih primerih je tekstilije treba barvati, da dosežemo želeni odtenek. Marionete, s katerimi je nastopalo Podreccino gledališče »I Piccoli«, so imele bogate kostume, pogosto celo več, in te so med različnimi predstavami menjali. Poleg razkošnih materialov, kot sta na primer svila in žamet, so bili kostumi izdelani tudi iz recikliranih delov oblek z različnim okrasjem (pri »Španski plesalki« na primer čipka) ali iz takrat dostopnih materialov (blago oblek, zavese, posteljnina, prti ...). Kostum lutke »Pierrota« je bil izdelan iz starejšega belega blaga za rjuhe, pozneje postaran s črnim čajem. »Bol« je oblečen v hlače iz mehkega bombaža z belo-rdečim črtastim vzorcem, ki posnema takratno modo. Na blago smo ga natisnili digitalno. Pomemben detajl pri plesalki je poleg rože iz filca na primer še vezeni robec s čipko. Rezultati Izkazalo se je, da je izdelava na videz preprostih lutk v resnici kompleksnejša, saj nimamo vpogleda v notranjo sestavo lutk, na voljo nimamo istih materialov, skromen pa je tudi vpogled v takratne postopke izdelave. Lutke so v svoji izvorni funkciji omejene na začasnost uprizoritve, zato pogosto pozabljamo, da lahko živijo tudi zunaj gledališča in da so kot artefakti prave konstrukcijske mojstrovine. V preteklosti se je veliko znanja zaradi različnih razlogov o njihovi izdelavi izgubilo. Preučevanje originalov ob izzivu izdelave njihovih kopij ponovno obuja že pozabljena tradicionalna znanja in postopke, ki v povezavi z naprednimi sodobnimi postopki pomenijo pomemben prispevek k ohranjanju kulturne dediščine. * Kopije lutk Vittoria Podrecce je izdelala interdisciplinarna skupina pod vodstvom Lutkovne delavnice LGL. Pri izdelavi so sodelovali: Zoran Srdić, Iztok Bobić, Polona Černe, Marjeta Valjavec, Slobodan Djordjević, Hermina Pavšič, Maja Peterlin, Smrekca, d. o. o.

Preparatory work It took several visits to the Cividale archive to measure the originals, sketch the basic puppet structure, inventory parts of costumes, specify colour tones with the help of colour charts, determine the materials used and take documentary photographs. Once the sketches were drawn,

1 Strojna oprema: Range Vision Standard+. Programska oprema za zajem podatkov: Range Vision Scan Center. Programska oprema za obdelavo podatkov: Range Vision Scan Merge, obdelava 3D-modelov: Maya Autodesk, izvoz 3D-modelov: format Maya v format.step za CNC.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

(a thicker wooden board). Presumably, there were fewer tools for woodworking available at that time so the non-visible parts of the construction were simplified. The form is given contours with textile padding; the upper and lower parts of the legs are made from solid wood and are elongated relative to the body, while the feet are relatively small in relation to the body. Marionnettes need to be heavier in the hips and lower limbs to facilitate manipulation and movement. Longer and heavier lower limbs made from solid wood lend themselves to greater stability. It follows that the joints need to be stronger due to the heavier weight (hence the metal loops in the knee joint).

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we found discrepancies between the measures we took and the photos, which were corrected during our last visit when we had the originals for comparison. Hand moulds and 3D puppet head scans were made in situ. Information about the puppet construction was obtained without destructive intervention from the originals, by means of literature and similar puppets whose limbs had been uncovered. The results are thus rough approximates. If we wanted to establish the exact construction of the puppets and the materials used, we would also have to conduct scientific analyses. Construction Technical drawings of the torsos and limbs (legs and feet) were transferred to lime wood and cut out with a band saw, carved and sanded. The paint layer on the puppets is stable, therefore we decided to make the hand moulds from acid-free silicone rubber which does not react with the surface, applying a thicker coat along the edges so that the rubber would separate effortlessly from

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the hand. We obtained a plaster cast, retouched it and proceeded to make the mould from silicone rubber which was then filled with clear polymer clay with added wood flour filling. The heads were created using 3D scanning.1 The puppet faces were scanned from different angles in HD resolution. It took us about 10 images. Unnecessary details were removed from the scanned images and the images were assembled to make up a precise 3D model. Because there had been errors, additional processing was necessary such as closing gaps, removing edges, noise and reducing polygons and the topological mesh for easier manipulation. In Maya, the puppets were processed with the retopology tool based on a previous 3D model. This enabled us to make new 3D models which were cut out of lime wood using a five-axis CNC machine. The heads were hollowed out and the mouth-opening mechanisms were crafted. The puppets will be polychromed just like the originals, however the paint of choice is acrylic this time around. Outfit and costume recreation also required matching the original as closely as possible. This is often quite laborious and time-consuming, because some patterns, weaving techniques, materials and colours no longer exist. In such cases, the textiles need to be coloured to achieve the desired shade. Marionettes that performed in Podrecca’s "I Picolli" wore elaborate costumes; often they even had several costumes that were alternated between the shows. In addition to luxury fabrics such as silk and velvet, costumes were also made from recycled dress details (for instance the lace for the "Spanish dancer") or

»Pierrotov« nos je izdelan iz ukrivljene pločevine in z žebljički pritrjen na njegov obraz. Da bi se kar najbolj približali izvirniku in posnemali poškodbo zvite pločevine, smo pločevino pritrdili na novo osnovo in jo z udarci kladiva ustrezno preoblikovali. "Pierrot's" nose is shaped from sheet metal, and tacked to the puppet’s face. In order to match the original as closely as possible and replicate the damage, the sheet metal was fitted to a new substrate and deformed with hammer blows.

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1 Hardware: Range Vision Standard+. Data Capture Software: Range Vision Scan Center. Data Processing Software: Range Vision Scan Merge, 3D model processing: Maya Autodesk, 3D model export: format Maya into format.step for CNC.

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the fabric that happened to be available at the time (dress or suit fabric, drapes, bed linen, table cloths etc.). "Pierrot"’s outfit was made from an old white bed sheet that was later aged with black tea. "Bol" was sporting trousers of soft cotton with a white and red striped pattern in the style of that period. The pattern was digitally printed on the fabric. Another notable detail of the "Dancer", in addition to the felt flower, is her lace-trimmed embroidered handkerchief. Results It turns out that crafting these seemingly straightforward puppets is much more challenging than we had expected, mainly because we are unfamiliar with the inner composition of the puppets, the lack of contemporary materials and on account of having poor insight into the crafting procedures of that time. In their original function, puppets are limited to to the sometimes shortlived duration of the production in question, so much so that one almost forgets that they can exist outside of the theatre as well, and that, as artefacts go, they are impressive feats of construction on a small scale. The craft and knowledge of how to make such puppets has been lost over the years for one reason or another. By examining the originals, while at the same time tackling the challenge of making puppet reproductions, we are bringing to light long forgotten traditional crafts and procedures. In combination with state-of-the-art methods this marks an important contribution in terms of the preservation of cultural heritage. * The copies of Vittorio Podrecca’s pupets were made by the interdisciplinary team led by the Puppet Workshop of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. The team members involved in the creation process: Zoran Srdić , Iztok Bobić, Polona Černe, Marjeta Valjavec, Slobodan Djordjević, Hermina Pavšič, Maja Peterlin, Smrekca, d. o o.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Títeres Etcétera


Hermenegildo Lanz Sevilja/Sevilla, 1893 – Granada, 1949 PROFESOR RISANJA, SLIKAR, GRAFIK, LUTKAR, SCENOGRAF, GRAFIČNI OBLIKOVALEC, FOTOGRAF.

PROFESSOR OF DRAWING, PAINTER, PRINTMAKER, SET DESIGNER, GRAPHIC DESIGNER, PHOTOGRAPHER.

Bil je vsestranski umetnik. Četudi ni bil lutkar, je zelo pomemben za razvoj španske lutkovne umetnosti. Leta 1923 je s skladateljem Manuelom de Fallo in pesnikom Federicom Garcío Lorco pripravil predstavo z ročnimi lutkami t. i. »Títeres de cachiporra«, da bi pomembno špansko izročilo povezali v dialog s tedanjo avantgardo. Lanz je z vpeljavo novega likovnega izraza in proporcev, ki jih je povezal v harmonijo z glasbo, s scenografijo, z liričnostjo, s tematsko raznolikostjo ter s povzdignjenjem ljudskega izročila na raven visoke kulture, ustvaril nadvse avantgardno lutkovno gledališče. Del prestave »Misterij svetih treh kraljev« je bil na primer uprizorjen v tehniki papirnega gledališča, ki jo je iz preprostega dvodimenzionalnega medija povzdignil na novo umetniško raven, kar je bilo zelo revolucionarno za takratno lutkovno gledališče v Španiji. Predstava v Granadi je bila sicer le preizkušnja za lutkovno opero »El retablo de maese Pedro« nekaj mesecev pozneje v Parizu. Zložil jo je de Falla, Lanz pa je zasnoval ročne in ploske lutke ter scenske elemente. Za premiero v Sevilli (1925) in gostovanja po Španiji je bilo Lanzevo tehnično delo bistvenega pomena. Iz ohranjenih dokumentov je razvidna njegova vsestranskost na področju scenografije, mehanike in ustroja gledališča. Zasnoval je lutke človeških velikosti s tehnično zahtevnimi in neobičajnimi vzvodi za animiranje. Lanzevo življenje je nepopravljivo zaznamovala španska državljanska vojna. Izgubil je zaposlitev in se znašel v hudih finančnih težavah. Na prigovarjanje de Falle je leta 1938 izdelal enajst glav za ročne lutke, s katerimi je nameraval zaslužiti za preživetje. Pod vplivom italijanskega lutkarja je leta 1942 izdelal marioneto – klovna z imenom Totolín. Ta ni nikoli nastopal na odru, a je živel na očeh javnosti v španski reviji »La estafeta literaria«, kjer je razmišljal o življenju in svetu. Lanz zaradi domiselnih gleda-

liških projektov, kot je oživitev španskih misterijev, velja za sodobnega španskega scenografa. V sklopu različnih pobud pa se je zavzemal tudi za to, da bi izobrazba in kultura dosegli vsakogar, ne glede na družbeni status. Čeprav je Frankov režim njegovo delovanje potisnil v pozabo, njegovo ime od leta 1978 vse bolj pridobiva na veljavi. Njegovo bogato dediščino je ohranila njegova družina, v Granadi so po njem poimenovali ulico, inštitut za politehnične študije, tekmovanje šolskih gledališč in potujočo knjižnico. Njegovo

He was a versatile artist and, although he was not a puppeteer, his contributions to puppetry are major in terms of Spanish history. In 1923, together with Manuel de Falla and Federico García Lorca, he was the man behind the legendary show “Títeres de Cachiporra”, a masterpiece which attempted to restore the Spanish tradition, and to place it alongside the avant-garde of the time. Lanz gave the puppets new expressions and proportions that blended harmoniously with music, the design and poetry of the play, varied themes

delo je vsako leto del pomembnih razstav v Španiji in v tujini, saj ima velik pomen za zgodovino Granade, Španije in našega gledališkega spomina.

and an explosion of colours on the set; by elevating puppetry from the fields of popular culture to the classical level, he created an immensely innovative puppet theatre in Spain. At the time, The "Mystery of the Magi" was performed using principles from paper theatres. Drawing from a medieval flat work, increasing the scale and

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giving it a stage dimension was a revolutionary idea in European puppet theatre. The work he did in Granada was like a preparation for the première of de Falla’s opera "El retablo de maese Pedro" in Paris a few months later. Lanz created glove and flat puppets, as well as set designs. Lanz’s technical work was of great importance for the 1925 Spanish première in Seville, and the subsequent tour to various towns. Preserved documents give a sense of how he worked as a set designer, his knowledge of mechanics and his many talents as a man of theatre. He created human-size puppets manipulated using techniques that were not in common use at the time. The Spanish Civil War had a big impact on his life; he lost his employment and faced severe financial problems. In 1938, de Falla encouraged him to make 11 heads for glove puppets. With these he intended to tour the villages to make a living. In 1942, he created Totolín, a clown marionette, which never appeared on stage but nevertheless existed in the public eye through the journal "La estafeta literaria". Lanz also contributed to other major theatrical experiences, such as the the revival of Spanish morality plays. He designed sets for many shows and gained a reputation due to modernity of his work. In addition to his artistic contributions, he was also notable for his civil commitments, making efforts to bring education and culture to everyone, regardless of their social class. Even though his name was silenced for many years by Franco’s dictatorship, from 1978 onwards his work has gradually become more widely known because his family preserved his legacy and various institutions have organised exhibitions and published articles celebrating him. In Granada, a street, a polytechnic, a school theatre competition and a mobile library have been named after him. Every year, his work is exhibited in major museums. His oeuvre is indispensable for an understanding of the history of Granada, of Spain and of our theatrical heritage.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Nadja Ocepek POG OVOR

IN TERV IEW

Skrivnostna moč lutkovne umetnosti

The Mysterious Power of Puppetry Art

Z YANISBEL V. MARTÍNEZ in Enriqejem Lanzem o Títeres Etcétera, GLEDALIŠKI SKUPINI IZ GRANADE.

WITH YANISBEL V. MARTÍNEZ and EnriqUe Lanz ABOUT TÍTERES ETCÉTERA, THEATRE GROUP FROM GRANADA.

Kaj in kdo je Títeres Etcétera? Etcétera je projekt Enriqueja Lanza. Smo gledališka skupina, ki ustvarja predstave velikega formata, vendar z majhno skupino ljudi. Stalno sva zaposlena le midva z Enriquejem Lanzem, v projektih pa sodelujeva tudi z drugimi izvajalci.

Who and what is Títeres Etcétera? Etcétera is a personal project undertaken by Enrique Lanz. We are a company that puts on spectacular shows; however, there is only a small group of people behind the scenes. Only two persons, Enrique Lanz and Yanisbel Martínez, are employed full time, while other collaborators join us to carry out particular tasks.

Gledališče Etcétera je poznano po svojih spektakularnih predstavah. Kakšne so priprave na predstave? Proces je pri vsaki predstavi drugačen, zato so tudi rezultati različni. Projekti se razlikujejo v lutkarski tehniki, estetiki, obsegu in v materialih ... zaradi tega je vsak delovni proces posebna izkušnja. Ker ne uporabljamo samo že preverjenih pristopov, vložimo veliko dela v raziskovanje ter se učimo iz poskusov in napak. Priprave so lahko zelo dolge in drage, zato je naš ritem produkcije počasen. Koliko ljudi sodeluje pri ustvarjanju predstav? Naj navedem dva ekstremna primera: našo najbolj priljubljeno predstavo »Peter in volk«, ki jo izvajamo že skoraj dvajset let (2500 ponovitev v 10 državah), je v enem mesecu pripravil en sam človek – Enrique, in na drugi strani predstava »El retablo de maese Pedro«, ki jo je tri leta pripravljalo 34 ljudi. Od zamisli za predstave? Ali vselej uprizarjate predstave z velikanskimi lutkami? Igramo zelo različne predstave; v vseh ne nastopajo velike lutke, nekatere so resnično majhne. Igramo na velikih prizoriščih, a tudi v šolah in manjših krajih. Zaradi vrste repertoarja, iz katerega črpamo zamisli, to so opere in dela klasične glasbe, so naše glavne stranke glasbeni festivali, orkestri in operne hiše, ki so namenjeni večjemu občinstvu, kar pomeni, da se moramo prilagoditi večjemu formatu. Navdih oziroma zagon za ustvarjanje predstav dobimo iz različnih virov, predvsem iz študij glasbenih del, ki jih uporabljamo za podlago, ter od predlogov skladateljev in njihovega obdobja. Etcétera poskuša vseskozi povezati tradicionalno s sodobnim lutkarstvo. Na kakšne načine? Vsekakor je za nas ta povezanost sine qua non za naše delo. Sedanjost ne bi obstajala brez zgodovinskega znanja. Proces spominjanja je za nas ključen. Nedvomno ima velik vpliv sorodstvena vez s Hermenegildom Lanzem; potem ko smo podedovali njegovo delo, smo prevzeli tudi skrb za ohranjanje dediščine. Tradicionalno in sodobno povezujemo na vseh ravneh: pri ustvarjanju lastnih predstav in pri naših drugih aktivnostih – zbiramo lutke, postavljamo razstave, se ukvarjamo s teoretičnimi raziskavami, izvajamo tečaje, lotili smo se tudi zelo pomembnega avdiovizualnega projekta »Duh lutkovne preteklosti« (»El alma del pueblo«).

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Etcétera is known for its spectacular shows. How does the preparation process behind shows like this look? The processes behind our performances can vary greatly, as do the results. Each of our plays is different in terms of puppet technique, aesthetics, scale and materials, and this is why each work process is a different experience. As we do not employ established techniques alone, we generally do a lot of research and we progress by trial and error. The processes involved are rather long and costly, so our production rate is not high. How many people are involved in preparations for these shows? Let me tell you about two extreme examples. "Peter and the Wolf", which is our most popular play and which we have put on for almost twenty years, with 2,500 performances across ten countries, well, this was created in a single month by a single person, Enrique. At the other end of the spectrum, there is "El retablo de maese Pedro", which took two years to create, with thirty-six people involved. Where does the creative drive for the shows come from? Do you always put on shows with monumental puppets? We put on highly diverse shows, and not all of them feature puppets of gigantic size; some of them are really small. We perform on very large stages but also in schools or small towns and villages. However, it is true that for the type of repertoire we have – operas and pieces of classical music – our principal clients are musical festivals, orchestras and opera houses, that involves performances in venues with a large audience, which forces us to adapt to a large scale. The influence or the impetus driving us to create the plays comes from various sources, but above all from the study of the pieces of work we perform, and from the intentions of the composers and the era they are from. Etcétera is in every way trying to link traditional and contemporary puppetry. Indeed, for us this link is a sine que non of our work. Without this perspective, without understanding the past, there is no contemporaneity. For us, this memorial work is essential to our position in the contemporary scene. There is certainly an influence coming from our family ties with Hermenegildo Lanz, because the legacy of his work means we are obliged to preserve his patrimony. This is something we do at every level, from our plays to other activities we carry out – puppet collection, setting up exhibitions, theoretical studies, teaching courses, and our

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Lutkovna opera/Puppet opera »El retablo de maese Pedro«, 2009–2016

Za kaj gre pri projektu »Duh lutkovne preteklosti«? Že več let potujemo po svetu in snemamo mojstre tradicionalnega lutkarstva. Menimo, da bo veliko tradicij izginilo, zato jih preučujemo in dokumentiramo, želimo pustiti sledi lutkovnega ustvarjanja, zapuščino za prihodnje generacije. Pred kratkim je Etcétera prejela državno nagrado za dosežke na področju uprizoritvenih umetnosti (za otroško in mladinsko gledališče). To je najpomembnejša nagrada, ki jo za umetnost in kulturo podeljuje španska vlada. Poleg veselja prinaša tudi večjo odgovornost in obvezo do poklica lutkarja. Hkrati je ta nagrada precej paradoksna, saj so se ustvarjalci dolgo borili, da bi bilo tudi otroško in mladinsko gledališče prepoznavno. Vendar ne želimo, da bi obstajala posebna nagrada za otroško in mladinsko gledališče – to bi moralo imeti enaka merila kot katero koli drugo; ne smemo jih zniževati, saj je to še vedno gledališče, umetnost. Kdo je Hermenegildo Lanz? Hermenegildo Lanz González je bil profesor risanja; ta naziv mu je bil všeč. V resnici je bil vsestranski umetnik, ustvarjal je bakroreze, slike, scenografije, fotografije, oblikoval plakate, pohištvo, igrače, batike, lutke itn., predvsem pa je bil oseba z velikimi državljanskimi ideali, trdno zavezan družbeni tematiki svojega časa. Je eden tistih umetnikov, ki predstavlja srebrni vek španske kulture ter njen zaton v obdobju med državljansko vojno in po njej. Zakaj je tako pomemben za Španijo in zgodovino lutkarstva? Sam ni bil lutkar, a je s svojim delom postavil temelje španski

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major audiovisual project "The Soul of the People". What is "The Soul of the People" about? For a number of years, we have travelled the world filming masters of traditional puppetry with centuries of history behind them. However, in the 21st century, there many different threats to these traditions, which leads us to believe a lot of them will disappear. For this reason, we study and archive them in order to leave a record of what our profession involves, a testimony for future generations. Recently Etcétera received the performing arts award. This award is biggest award granted by the Spanish government, and recognises authors in different fields of art and culture. Of course we were very happy about it, and it inspired us with a greater sense of responsibility and commitment to our profession. However, this National Theatre Prize for Children and Youth seems a bit paradoxical to us. This category exists, because for years, several people and associations working in children’s theatre have fought for this sector to be recognised. While we do accept it, we have always maintained that we do not agree with this being a prize exclusively given for children and the youth theatre. A theatre attended by children must meet the same quality criteria as any other theatre. This is Theatre, this is Art, there is nothing lesser about it. Who is Hermenegildo Lanz? Hermenegildo Lanz González was a teacher of drawing, or that's how used to like to introduce himself. He was also a versatile artist who made engravings, paintings, set designs, photographs, posters, designed furniture, toys, created batik, puppets and so on. But, most of all,

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lutkovni zgodovini. Skupaj s prijateljema in sodelavcema Manuelom de Fallo in Federicom Garcío Lorco je ustvaril zelo pomembne avantgardne predstave, kot sta »Títeres de cachiporra« v Granadi leta 1923 in istega leta »El retablo de maese Pedro« v Parizu. Bil je tudi velik pionir v uveljavljanju papirnega gledališča. Z njegovo pomočjo je papirno gledališče postalo umetniški žanr, ne le domače kratkočasje. Lanz je bil prvi v Evropi, ki je papirno gledališče uporabil kot lutkovno tehniko; tako so se odprla vrata v sodobnost. Raziskovanja na področju ploskega gledališča, kot so ga poimenovali, so imela velik vpliv na države, kot sta Francija in Nemčija. Stvaritve Falle, Lorce in Lanza v Granadi so bile iskra, ki je zanetila velike spremembe v lutkovnem gledališču v Latinski Ameriki. Federico García Lorca je pisal scenarije za marionete in se trudil, da bi tam uprizorili njegova lutkovna besedila. To mu je uspelo šele leta 1934 v Buenos Airesu v Argentini, kjer je ponovil program po enakih načelih, kot so to počeli v Granadi. Hkrati je predstava na jugu južnoameriške celine s poetičnim jezikom in z ročnimi lutkami lutkarstvu utrla novo pot. Hermenegildo Lanz je Enriquejev dedek, in čeprav ga ta ni poznal, saj je Hermenegildo umrl petnajst let pred njegovim rojstvom, ga je dedkova prodornost tako prevzela in navdušila, da se je tudi sam začel ukvarjati z

he was a person with high ideals in terms of human rights, and a strong commitment to the social issues of his era. He is one of the artists who represents the Golden Age of Spanish culture and its downfall after the Spanish civil war. Why is he important for the Spanish history of puppetry? He was not a puppeteer, but he made great contributions to this field in the history of puppetry in our country. He was a friend and a collaborator of Manuel de Falla and Federico García Lorca. They co-authored many of the greatest hits among avant-garde puppet plays in Spain, such as the performance of "Títeres de cachiporra" in Granada in 1923, and in the same year, the première of "El retablo de maese Pedro" in Paris, among others. For example, he was a great pioneer in using paper theatre as a staging technique. With his help, this discipline got into the hands of artists and ceased to be a publication or a domestic play only. Lanz was the first one in Europe to use it as a puppet technique, making a breakthrough into contemporaneity. Expansion into flat theatre, as they called it, had a major influence in countries such as France and Germany. As well as this, the work that was produced by Falla, Lorca and Lanz in Granada proved to be the spark that initiated major changes in the puppet theatre of Latin America,

Hermenegildo Lanz: »Títeres de cachiporra«, 1923

lutkarstvom. Tako je naša skupina v veliki meri dedinja njegovega opusa in hkrati njegova dolžnica. Letos praznujemo 400. obletnico Cervantesove smrti. Ali je Etcétera vključena v te dejavnosti? Imeli smo čast, da smo lahko sooblikovali del uradnega programa ob 400. obletnici Cervantesove smrti – poleg številnih drugih sodelujočih španskih ustanov. Januarja smo uprizorili dvanajst ponovitev naše predstave »El retablo de maese Pedro« v Kraljevem gledališču, ki je eno najpomembnejših v naši državi. Uprizoritve so potekale v nabito polni dvorani pred 1.500-glavo množico, vedno z bučnim ploskanjem, pri čemer je največje navdušenje požela prav naša ekipa desetih lutkarjev. To ploskanje ima za nas velik politični pomen; prinaša nam veselje in nas navdaja s ponosom, saj smo se toliko let borili, da bi bil poklic lutkarja cenjen v državi, kot je naša, v kateri se beseda lutkar še vedno uporablja kot žaljivka. Povrh vsega nam je to uspelo s predstavo »El retablo de maese Pedro«, v kateri je lutkar goljufiv, zloben in nepošten. Ta uspeh si zato razlagamo

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because Federico García Lorca continued to write for puppets and pursued his efforts in putting on his puppet plays there. Nevertheless, he only managed to achieve this in 1935 in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and the programme he followed there was based on the same principles as the programme in Granada. In turn, this show performed in the south of the American continent and opened up a new direction for puppetry through the use of hand puppets and poetic language across this continent. Hermenegildo Lanz is Enrique’s grandfather, and although Enrique never knew Hermenegildo because he died fifteen years before Enrique's birth, the power of the example he set left its mark on Enrique and influenced him in his decision to dedicate himself to the art of puppetry. That is why our company is to a large extent a successor to his work and is highly indebted to it. This year we celebrate the 400th anniversary of Cervantes's death. Is Etcétera involved in these activities? We had the honour of being a part of the official programme celebrating the 400th anniversary of Cervantes's death, in which many Spanish

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kot dvojno družbeno in zgodovinsko poplačilo. Eno izmed teh uprizoritev so neposredno prenašali v 595 šolah po vsej državi, zato je bil medijski doseg tega dela resnično neverjeten. Prav tako je 23. aprila, na svetovni dan knjige, ki sovpada z obletnicama smrti Miguela Cervantesa in Williama Shakespeara, predstavo predvajala nacionalna španska televizija. Kako je Hermenegildo Lanz povezan s Cervantesom? Predstava »El retablo de maese Pedro« se opira na 25. in 26. poglavje drugega dela Cervantesovega romana Bistroumni plemič Don Kihot iz Manče, v katerih je Don Kihot gledalec lutkovne predstave in misli, da je zgodba, ki jo z lutkami pripoveduje mojster Peter, resnična. Ker Don Kihot ne zna ločiti med realnostjo in domišljijskim svetom lutk, je prepričan, da mora rešiti krivico, zato pograbi meč in se spopade v lutkami Mavrov, ki želijo ujeti Gaiferosa in Melisendro. Don Kihot uniči gledališče mojstra Petra in obglavi vse lutke. Za premiero lutkovne opere, ki jo je napisal Manuel de Falla in je ena od mojstrovin španske klasične glasbe 20. stoletja, je Hermenegildo Lanz ustvaril osem ročnih lutk, ploske lutke in del scene. Oblikoval je tudi naslovnico prve izdaje partiture opernega dela ter zasnoval nove lutke in sceno za špansko premiero leta 1925. Ob 30. obletnici gledališke skupine ste pripravili interaktivno razstavo v Muzeju znanosti v Granadi. Ta razstava je eden izmed naših najpomembnejših dosežkov. Odprta naj bi bila le 9 mesecev, a je bila zaradi silnega uspeha na ogled skorajda 27 mesecev. Dosegli smo rekord v kontekstu lutkarstva; ne le zaradi trajanja razstave (815 dni) in obsega (1600 m2), ampak predvsem zaradi števila obiskovalcev (več kot 800.000). Če se oddaljimo od številk, čeprav so nedvomno zelo zgovorne, je najpomembnejši del razstave ves ta pretok dejavnosti, življenja, strasti, srečanj, poklicev in interesov, ki jih je sprožila. Čeprav je še vedno veliko ljudi, ki te umetnosti ne razume in podcenjujejo skrivnostno moč lutk, ta razstava predstavlja apologijo znanja in gledališkega ter lutkovnega dela, zagovor njenih najvišjih vrednot, neposredno vez z državljanstvom. Čutimo, da ni bila pomembna le za Etcétero, temveč za lutkarstvo nasploh. Prav tako sodelujete v mednarodnem projektu o lutkovnih pionirjih. Kaj mislite, da bo prineslo to sodelovanje? Upamo, da bo to sodelovanje prineslo mednarodno priznanje in prepoznavnost dela treh pionirjev: Lanza, Podrecce in Klemenčiča. Prav tako upamo, da bo zasijalo to fascinantno obdobje v zgodovini našega poklica, čas, ko se je lutkarstvo začelo umeščati v svet Umetnosti z veliko začetnico. Radi bi, da bi naše dejavnosti dosegle čim več ljudi, splošno javnost ter študente umetnosti in druge študente, zgodovinarje in raziskovalce. Po eni strani želimo doseči že prepričane, po drugi strani pa tudi tiste bolj zadržane, ki še vedno ne razumejo oziroma ne cenijo ogromnega potenciala, ki ga premore lutkarstvo, in njegovega ogromnega vpliva na reformacijo gledališča v preteklem stoletju ter na današnjo sodobno sceno.

institutions also took part. In January, we performed our rendering of "El retablo de maese Pedro" twelve times in the Royal Theatre, which is one of the biggest theatres in the country. We performed in a full auditorium in front of 1,500 people, where the applause went on for several minutes and the loudest cheers went to our team of ten puppeteers. For us, this applause has major political significance, and is something that makes us really happy and fills us with pride, giving us compensation for all the years we've spent fighting and trying to assert the puppeteer profession in a country where the term puppeteer is often used as an insult. What is more, we performed "El retablo de maese Pedro", where the puppeteer is mischievous, wicked and dishonourable. For this reason, we see this success as both a social and historical restitution. One of these shows was broadcast live in five hundred and ninety-five schools across the country, so the play really achieved extraordinary coverage. The piece was also broadcast on 23 April, World Book Day, that coincides with the day Miguel de Cervantes and William Shakespeare died, by Televisión Española, the national state-owned public service television broadcaster. Hermenegildo Lanz is also indirectly connected with Cervantes. "El retablo de maese Pedro" is based on chapters 25 and 26 of the second part of Cervantes’ novel "The Ingenious Gentleman" Don Quixote of La Mancha. It narrates the episode where Don Quixote is a spectator in a puppet show and believes that the story Master Peter tells with the figurines is really happening. Because he can't distinguish between the reality of his present and the fiction represented in the puppet show, Don Quixote, trying to seek justice, grabs his sword and goes after the Moors that are pursuing Don Gayferos and Melisendra, and thus destroys Master Peter’s theatre, with every single puppet decapitated. For the première of Manuel de Falla’s piece, the puppet-opera which is considered one of the masterpieces of twentieth century Spanish music, Hermenegildo Lanz created eight glove puppets and some of the scenery and the flat figures. Additionally, he designed the cover for the first edition of the sheet music for this opera and was responsible for the production of all the puppets, mini theatre and scenery for the first performance in Spain in 1925. For the 30th anniversary of the company, you put together an exhibition at Parque de las Ciencias in Granada. This was probably a special challenge? For us, this exhibition was one of most gratifying we have ever experienced in the history of our company. Originally, it was scheduled to be on display for nine months, but thanks to its success, it was extended to almost twenty-seven months. If we look at the figures, this exhibition has probably beaten several records in the field of puppetry, not only due to its duration (eight hundred and fifteen days), but also due to its size – 1,600 m2 – and especially due to the number of visitors: more than 800,000 came to see it. But beyond these figures, which undoubtedly speak for themselves, the biggest result from this exhibition was the influx of life, activities, passion, meetings, vocations and interest it inspired. For us, this work was most of all a true public service. Although many people still fail to understand and therefore underestimate the mysterious power of puppets, this exhibition was an apology for the theatrical and puppetry knowledge that has gone unremarked; a recognition of its most noble values and a direct link to the people. We feel that not only Etcétera was rewarded by this, but that it was the whole of our profession which came out victorious. You are also involved in the international project about puppetry pioneers. What do you think this collaboration will bring? We hope that this collaboration will bring international visibility and recognition of the work achieved by the three pioneers, Lanz, Podrecca and Klemenčič, and that it will serve to highlight this fascinating era in the history of our profession, when puppetry started to become a part of the Arts with a capital A. We would like to see the activities that that we are developing reach as many people as possible, both the general public and, in particular, students in the arts, university students, historians and researchers. We want to reach both, those who already have a conviction for this, and the ones who are holding back, and still don't understand or appreciate the enormous potential of the puppet

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


UmetniĹĄka akademija v Osijeku

Academy of Arts in Osijek


dr. Livija Kroflin V FOKUSU

IN FOCUS

Študij lutkarstva na osiješki akademiji

Studying Puppetry at the Academy of Arts in Osijek

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F

olga leta so lutkarji na Hrvaškem hrepeneli po šoli za lutkarstvo. Kolikokrat smo lahko slišali in brali: »Oh, ko bi vsaj imeli šolo lutkarstva!« ali pa »Skrajni čas je, da ustanovimo šolo za lutkarstvo!« ali »PIF je za nas, lutkarje, prava šola, saj lutkarstva nikjer ne moremo študirati!« Občasno so bile organizirane različne lutkarske delavnice, šole pa ni bilo. Tudi festival PIF (mednarnodni lutkovni festival, ki v Zagrebu poteka vse od leta 1968) se je močno trudil: z razstavami, okroglimi mizami, s seminarji, z delavnicami, s publikacijami in z vsemi velikimi uprizoritvami, ki so predstavile skoraj vse najpomembnejše figure evropskega lutkarstva druge polovice 20. stoletja in začetka 21. stoletja. Pa vendar. Še vedno nismo imeli šole. In končno: od študijskega leta 2004/05 imamo na Hrvaškem šolo za lutkarstvo! Oddelek je bil ustanovljen 18. oktobra 2004 na Univerzi Josipa Juraja Strossmayerja v Osijeku, na Umetniški akademiji. Štirje oddelki akademije – za glasbo, likovni umetnost, gledališče in uporabno umetnost – omogočajo pridobitev akademskega naziva za glasbo, likovno umetnost, dramsko igro, lutkarstvo in gledališko oblikovanje. Po končanem študiju gledališkega oblikovanja se študenti usmerijo

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or many years, puppeteers in Croatia had been very keen on having a puppetry school. Sentences like “Oh, if only there was a puppetry school!” or “It is high time we founded a puppetry school” or “PIF is a school for us puppeteers, as we do not have a real puppetry school” had often been the subject of conversation or articles. There used to be some puppetry workshops, but not a school. It is also true that the PIF festival (the international puppet theatre festival that had been held in Zagreb ever since 1968) did make a lot of difference – with all the exhibitions, round-tables, seminars, workshops, publications and all the great shows that reflected almost all the essential features of the European puppetry of the second half of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st. Still, it wasn’t a school. However in the academic year of 2004/2005, a puppetry school was founded in Croatia! An Academy of Arts was founded on October 18th 2004 at the Josip Juraj Strossmayer University in Osijek.The four departments – of Music, Fine Arts, Theatre and Applied Arts – offer students the opportunity of pursuing a degree in music, fine arts, drama and puppetry, and theatre design. After they finish studying theatre design,

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v scenografijo ali kostumografijo, prav tako pa tudi v oblikovanje in izdelovanje lutk, mask in rekvizitov. Posebnost oddelka za gledališče je sočasno izobraževanje študentov v dveh smereh: dramska igra in lutkarstvo, zato ob končanem šolanju študent postane diplomirani lutkovni animator in dramski igralec. Potek študija Od študijskega leta 2005/06 so bili programi oblikovani v skladu z bolonjskim sistemom. V prvem triletju diplomskega študija (BA) se študenti seznanijo z vsemi osnovnimi lutkovnimi tehnikami, z vsako en semester: 1. Animacija delov telesa in predmetov; 2. Ročne lutke; 3. Javanke; 4. Marionete; 5. Animacija treh (pri kateri trije lutkarji animirajo eno lutko), v zadnjem semestru pa študenti pripravljajo avtorski projekt za svoj zaključni nastop. Študenti poslušajo tudi predavanja o zgodovini in estetiki lutkarstva, ki jim pomaga razumeti specifiko lutkarskega medija. V dveh letih magisterskega študija (MA) študenti izpopolnjujejo svojo lutkovno animacijo in jo združujejo s pridobljenimi igralskim spretnostmi. Raziskujejo senčno gledališče in različne možnosti povezave človeka in lutke. V zadnjem semestru se pripravijo na vlogo v eni izmed lutkovnih predstav ali pa skupaj z lutkovnim režiserjem pripravijo svojo lutkovno predstavo. Profesorji in študenti Na Umetniški akademiji v Osijeku predavajo mnogi priznani domači in tuji profesorji: iz Poljske, Slovenije, Italije, Bolgarije, iz Rusije (npr. Wiesław Hejno, Edi Majaron, Brane Vižintin, Gaspare Nasuto, Nikolina Georgieva, Velimir Velev, Zheni and Petar Pashov, Theodora Popova, Nikolay Naumov, Tamara Stavisskaya, Liudmila Fedorova, Anna Brashinskaya in drugi). Med rednimi profesorji sta dva profesorja asistenta (Maja Lučić and Hrvoje Seršić), ki sta končala študij lutkovne igre na Igralski akademiji v Bratislavi, medtem ko je Tamara Kučinović po končanem študiju dramske in lutkovne igre na Umetniški akademiji v Osijeku študirala lutkovno režijo v Sankt Peterburgu. Študenti Umetniške akademije v Osijeku prihajajo s celotne Hrvaške, prav tako pa tudi iz tujine (do zdaj so k nam redno prihajali študenti iz Italije, Slovenije in iz Srbije, preko programa Erasmus+ pa tudi iz Romunije in Slovaške). Čeprav je Akademija v Osijeku še vedno mlada, so njeni študenti že uspešno gostovali na študenstkih in profesionalnih lutkovnih festivalih na Hrvaškem, Slovaškem, v Srbiji, Bosni in Hercegovini, Rusiji in na Poljskem. Festival Lutkokaz Kakovost in zrelost avtorskih projektov, ki jih študenti lutkarstva pripravijo za svoje zaključne nastope, prav tako pa tudi uspehi na domačih in tujih festivalih so spodbudili odločitev Akademije, da organizira “revijo” najboljših lutkovnih predstav za širšo javnost. Prva “Revija” je bila organizirana leta 2010. Leta 2012 je dogodek postal mednaroden in se preimenoval v LUTKOKAZ. Cilji LUTKOKAZA so: prepoznavanje talentov, popularizacija lutkovne umetnosti, bogatitev lokalnega kulturnega življenja, izmenjava znanj in izkušenj ... epilog Čeprav se je po nekaj letih krize hrvaškega lutkarstva stanje začelo izboljševati, največ po zaslugi nekaj generacij diplomiranih lutkarjev – režiserjev, oblikovalcev in tehnologov, je kljub temu še vedno čutiti pomanjkanje specifičnega lutkovnega načina razmišljanja in pravega zanimanja za lutkovni medij. Študij lutkovnega oblikovanja in tehnologije je že omogočen, in če bi uspela Akademija v Osijeku vpeljati tudi študij lutkovne režije (kot načrtuje), bi imeli vse pogoje za nov razcvet hrvaškega lutkarstva.

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students will be trained for independent professional activities in creating scenography and costimography for the needs of theatre productions, as well as in creating and making puppets, masks and stage props. The unique characteristic of the Theatre Department is that it trains students for two fields of art – drama and puppetry, so graduates receive a diploma for being a Graduate Puppeteer and a Graduate Actor. COURSES Since the academic year 2005/2006, the study programmes have been implemented in accordance with the Bologna process. During the three years of the BA study, the students study all the basic puppetry techniques, one in each semester: 1. Animation of body parts and objects; 2. Hand Puppets; 3. Rod Puppets; 4. Marionettes (String Puppets); 5. Animation in 3 (where 3 animators animate one puppet), and in the last semester students work on their final exam, which must be an author’s project. PROFESSORS AND STUDENTS A number of renowned professors from Croatia and also from abroad – Poland, Slovenia, Italy, Bulgaria, Russia – have given lectures in Puppetry at the Academy of Arts in Osijek (eg. Wiesław Hejno, Edi Majaron, Brane Vižintin, Gaspare Nasuto, Nikolina Georgieva, Velimir Velev, Zheni and Petar Pashov, Theodora Popova, Nikolay Naumov, Tamara Stavisskaya, Liudmila Fedorova, Anna Brashinskaya and others). Among the permanent staff there are two assistant professors (Maja Lučić and Hrvoje Seršić) who completed their studies of Puppet Theatre Acting at the Academy of Performing Arts in Bratislava, whereas Tamara Kučinović, after finishing the study of drama and puppetry acting at the Academy of Arts in Osijek, studied directing puppet shows in St. Petersburg. Students from all over Croatia come to study at the Academy of Arts in Osijek, but also students from abroad (so far there have been regular students from Italy, Slovenia and Serbia, and there have also been students from Romania and Slovakia in the Erasmus+ Programme). Although the Academy in Osijek is a relatively recent institution, its students have already been guests at student and professional puppetry festivals in Croatia, Slovakia, Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Russia and Poland with a lot of success. Festival Lutkokaz Prompted by the quality and maturity of the final examinations in Puppetry, which are in the form of independent projects, as well as by their success at festivals at home and abroad, the Academy decided to organise a review of the best examination puppetry shows, so as to bring them to the attention of the wider public, providing an opportunity for all to enjoy them. The first Review was held in 2010. In 2012 it became an international event and its name was changed to LUTKOKAZ. The LUTKOKAZ fulfils a number of objectives: a talent “exchange”, the popularisation of the art of puppetry, a contribution to the city's cultural side, and the exchange of expertise and experience in puppetry... epilogue After some years of crisis, the image of the Croatian puppetry has started to change, mainly thanks to several generations of graduates in puppetry. However, the lack of trained directors, designers and technical specialists in puppetry is still evident in the absence of any specific approach, skills, research or real interest in the medium of puppetry. The study of puppet design and technology has already been implemented, so if the Osijek Academy manages to introduce studies in directing puppet theatre (as planned), the core prerequisites for a new boom in Croatian puppetry will be put in place.

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Lutke Slovenskega marionetnega gledališča/Puppets of Slovenian Marionette Theatre, 1920–1924

Igor Tretinjak

V PL I V I

INFLUENCES

Lutkarstvo na Hrvaškem in Milan Klemenčič

Puppetry in Croatia and Milan Klemenčič

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pomladi leta 1919 so v Zagrebu književnik Velimir Deželić ml., skladatelj Božidar Širola in likovni umetnik Ljubo Babić ustanovili prvo stalno hrvaško lutkovno gledališče – »Teater marioneta«.1 Zaradi prizadevanj Deželića ml., Širole, Babića in drugih ustvarjalcev Hrvaškega narodnega gledališča se je tudi v Zagrebu uveljavilo lutkarstvo, marioneta pa je na odrih postala enakovredna igralcem. 2 Prvo predstavo »Petrica Kerempuh in pametni osel« je gledališče uprizorilo 9. aprila 1920. Besedilo zanjo je pod psevdonimom Vujec Grga napisal pesnik Dragutin Domjanić in je njegovo edino dramsko besedilo. 3 Igra »Petrica Kerempuh in pametni osel« je bila nadvse uspešna in je odmevala v časopisnih člankih, v katerih so hvalili ostroumnost besedila in satirične aluzije na sodobno družbo, umetniško dovršeno scenografijo, brezhibno izdelane silhuete in igrive marionete. Časniki so pisali tudi o tem, da je bila predstava sicer napovedana kot »umetniška igra za otroke«, a je bila zares predvsem za odrasle.4 Že v začetku si je gledališče zadalo zelo ambiciozen program; vanj so uvrstili: Schnitzlerjevega »Hrabrega Kasijana«, Goethejevega »Doktorja Fausta« (po češki priredbi za lutkovne igre), Ajshilovega »Prometeja«, Maeterlinckovo »Smrt Tintagila«, dve igri iz hrvaške literarne tradicije »Barona Tamburlanovića« in »Skup« velikega renesančnega dramatika Marina Držića. Žal program ni bil docela uresničen.5 »Teater marioneta« je sodeloval tudi z drugim, ravnokar ustanovljenim gledališčem, s Slovenskim marionetnim gledališčem Milana Klemenčiča v Ljubljani. Gašperček, ki je redno nastopal v 1 Antonija Bogner - Šaban, Marionete osvajaju Zagreb, Zagreb 1988, p. 21. 2 Id., Tragom lutke i pričala, Zagreb 1994, p. 8. 3 Id., Marionete osvajaju Zagreb, Zagreb 1988, p. 21. 4 Livija Kroflin, Zagrebačka zemlja Lutkanija, Zagreb 1992, p. 13. 5 Antonija Bogner - Šaban, Marionete osvajaju Zagreb, Zagreb 1988, p. 31.

Ljubljani, je verjetno vplival tudi na izoblikovanje Domjanićevega »Petrice Kerempuha«.6 V drugih večjih hrvaških mestih so se lutkovna gledališča pojavila v 30. letih 20. stoletja v okviru športne dejavnosti »Jugoslavenskega sokola«.7 Leta 1935 je bil takšen sokolski oder ustanovljen tudi v Osijeku.8 Osijek je bil verjetno edino hrvaško mesto, ki je imelo v 30. letih 20. stol. sočasno kar štiri lutkovna gledalšča: sokolsko, lutkovno gledališče čeških priseljencev, judovsko lutkovno gledališče in občasne lutkovne predstave v franšiškanskem samostanu.9 V začetku leta 1935 je v Osijek prišel priznani slovenski lutkar Stanislav Hočevar, učenec Milana Klemenčiča – da bi vodil sokolsko lutkovno gledališče. Poleg režiranja predstav je Stanislav Hočevar tudi predaval in vodil delavnice za bodoče igralce in animatorje.10 Zelo verjetno je prav zaradi Stanislava Hočevarja priljubljeni slovenski junak Gašperček postal tako domač tudi na odru sokolskega gledališča v Osijeku.11 »Teater marioneta« je načrtoval tudi prvo hrvaško lutkovno uprizoritev »Doktorja Fausta«, a ga je aprila 1937 prehitelo sokolsko gledališče. Osiješka različica »Doktorja Fausta« v režiji Stanislava Hočevarja se je opirala na Klemenčičevo uprizoritev. Težko ocenimo, ali so osiješki lutkarji lahko sledili zahtevnemu vzoru Klemenčičevega »Fausta«, saj se dotlej še niso srečali s tako zapletenim in filozofsko zahtevnim besedilom, hkrati pa so se šele tedaj postali vešči v zahtevnejšem animiranju marionet.12

6 Helena Verdel, in: Marionete osvajaju Zagreb (ed. Antonija Bogner - Šaban), Zagreb, 1988, p. 28. 7 Antonija Bogner - Šaban, Tragom lutke i pričala, Zagreb, 1994, p. 9. 8 Ibid., p. 8. 9 Ibid., p. 95. 10 Ibid., p. 98. 11 Ibid., p. 100. 12 Ibid., p. 112.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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the spring of 1919, writer Velimir Deželić Jr., composer Božidar Širola and artist Ljubo Babić founded the first permanent puppet theatre “Teatar marioneta” (The Marionette Theatre) in Zagreb and Croatia.1 Owing to the group constituted by Deželić Jr., Babić and Širola as well as the artists of the Croatian National Theatre, puppetry has taken root in Zagreb and marionettes have become the acknowledged partners of accomplished, live actors.2 The first performance by the The Marionette Theatre entitled "Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel" (Petrica Keremph and the Clever Donkey) was premiered in 1920. The author of the text was Dragutin Domjanić, a Croatian writer who wrote it under the pseudonym of Vujec Grga. Petrica is his only dramatic text.3 The play "Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel" gained considerable publicity and provoked a series of ecstatic newspaper headlines praising the witty text with its satirical allusions to contemporary society, the stage set of great artistic quality, flawlessly executed silhouettes and playful marionettes. It has also been mentioned that the play, announced as “an artistic play for children”, was a source of entertainment for children and especially adults.4 "The Marionette Theatre" planned a very ambitious programme which included Schnitzler’s "Brave Cassian", Goethe’s "Faustus" performed according to Czech traditional puppet plays about "Faustus", Aeschylus’s "Prometheus", Maeterlinck’s "The Death of Tintagiles" and two plays from Croatian literature – "Baron Tamburlanović" by an unknown author and "Skup" by our great Renaissance playwright Marin Držić. Unfortunately, the programme was not fully realised.5 "The Marionette Theatre" maintained contact with another newly founded theatre, the Theatre of Milan Klemenčič in Ljubljana, whose regular hero Kasperle probably played a part in the formation of Domjanić’s "Petrica

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Kerempuh".6 In other major Croatian towns, puppet theatres appeared in the 1930s organised by “Jugoslavenski sokol”.7 The “Sokol Theatre” in Osijek was founded in 1935.8 Osijek was probably the only Croatian town that had four puppet theatres in existence at the same time during the third decade of the 20th century – the Sokol puppet theatre, the puppet theatre of the Czech immigrants puppet theatre, the Jewish puppet theatre and occasional puppet shows in the Franciscan monastery.9 At the beginning of 1935, the acclaimed Slovenian master Stanislav Hočevar, a student of Milan Klemenčič, arrived in Osijek to take in charge of the Sokol puppet theatre. Apart from working on plays, Stanislav Hočevar gave lectures and ran practical classes for future actors and puppeteers.10 It is very likely that Stanislav Hočevar was responsible for introducing the beloved Slovenian puppet hero Kasperle to the Sokol theatre stage in Osijek.11 Although it had been originally orchestrated by the Marionette Theatre, the Croatian premiere of "Doctor Faustus" took place in April 1937 in the Sokol puppet theatre in Osijek and was directed by Stanislav Hočevar. The Osijek version of "Doctor Faustus" by Stanislav Hočevar was based on Milan Klemenčič’s play of the same name. It is difficult to determine how many of the Osijek puppeteers were able to follow the exceptional but also very heavyweight model of Klemenčič’s Faustus, since they had never had the opportunity until then of handling such a layered and philosophically sophisticated text. Also they had only just overcome the initial difficulties of working with marionettes in the best and most appropriate way.12

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POROČILA/REPORTS

Utrinek z lutkovno-restavratorskega laboratorija v Čedadu, kjer so se tudi obiskovalci preizkusili v restavriranju/ A glimpse of the puppet-restoration lab in Cividale del Friuli, where visitors were able to try out their skills at restoration

14. 12. 2015

10.00

Mestna knjižnica, Čedad/Biblioteca Civica, Cividale del Friuli

Načrtovanje lutkovne razstave: kje začeti? Puppet Exhibition Planning: A Basic Step by Step Guide Omizje Discussion

29. 2.–2. 3. 2016

Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre

Let's Meet in Ljubljana: lutkovni muzeji in prijatelji/ Puppet Museums & Friends Strokovno srečanje Professional meeting

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Pogovarjali smo se o tem, kako smo načrtovali Lutkovni muzej v Ljubljani in kako potekajo priprave na odprtje lutkovnega centra o Vittoriu Podrecci in Mariji Signorelli. Srečanje smo izkoristili za spoznavanje projektnih partnerjev in izbranih lutkovnih mojstrov ter za diskusijo o tem, kako se lotiti priprave razstave s tako specifičnimi muzejskimi predmeti, kot so lutke. The discussion revolved around the process of planning the Museum of Puppetry in Ljubljana, touching on the preparations that are underway for the opening of the Vittorio Podrecca and Maria Signorelli puppet centre. At the meeting, we took the opportunity to get to know our project partners and learn more about the selected puppet masters. We launched a discussion on how to go about designing an exhibition with museum artefacts as specific as puppets.

Muzejski oddelek Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana je gostil predstavnike evropskih lutkovnih muzejev in druge profesionalce, ki se v Evropi ukvarjajo z lutkovno dediščino ali se zanjo zanimajo. Srečanja, na katerem smo predstavili tudi projekt All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry behind the Scenes, so se udeležili strokovnjaki iz Italije, Španije, Estonije, Nizozemske, Češke, Madžarske, Portugalske in Hrvaške. V Ljubljani je potekal tudi drugi sestanek projektnih partnerjev. The museum department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre played host to European puppet museum representatives and other professionals engaged in or interested in puppetry heritage across Europe. The meeting at which we presented our project All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry behind the Scenes, was attended by professionals from Italy, Spain, Estonia, the Netherlands, Czech Republic, Hungary, Portugal and Croatia. Ljubljana also played host to the second project partner meeting.

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


10. 5. 2016

17.00, 20.00

Grad Kromberk/ Kromberk Castle, Nova Gorica

Muzej na odru: ohranjanje lutk in oživljanje lutkovnih predstav Museum on Stage: Puppet Preservation and Reviving of Puppet Shows Predavanje in otroška delavnica Lecture & Children’s Workshop

Predavatelji/Lecturers: Jelena Sitar, Igor Cvetko (Lutkovno gledališče Zapik, priredba besedila, režije in glasbene podobe lutkovne predstave »Doktor Faust«/Zapik Puppet Theatre, adaptation of text, direction and music design of the "Doctor Faustus" puppet play); Nadja Ocepek, Zala Kalan, Tjaša Tomšič (Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana/ Ljubljana Puppet Theatre).

15. 7. 2016

11.00, 14.00, 15.00, 17.00

Mittelfest, Čedad/ Cividale del Friuli

Lutkovno-restavratorski laboratorij Puppet-Restoration Lab

Museums endeavour to conserve our past, while the theatre lives explicitly in the present. With historical plays, such as "Doctor Faustus", the biggest challenge is to retain the integrity of auteur work while linking it to the present – how can we balance out both of these aspects and stage an authentic modernisation of the play? We presented the process of museum research that is necessary when reviving a historical show like the one in question. At the children’s workshop, the audience of children were shown the importance of preserving puppetry heritage. Taking on the role of a restoration expert, children tried their hand at documenting, cleaning, and retouching copies of Klemenčič’s puppets.

Restavratorski laboratorij je za obiskovalce Mittelfesta v sodelovanju z Občino Čedad pripravil muzejski oddelek Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana. V simulaciji prave restavratorske delavnice so otroci in odrasli spoznali najrazličnejše postopke restavriranja lutk in se v nekaterih preizkusili tudi sami. Vsem obiskovalcem smo predstavili tudi naš projekt. The museum department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre set up a restoration lab for the visitors of Mittelfest in cooperation with the Munipality of Cividale. In a setting that simulated a real restoration workshop, children and adults alike were able to see the myriad stages involved in the puppet restoration process, providing them with a hands-on experience. Afterwards, our project was shown to all festival visitors.

Predavanje in doživljajska delavnica Lecture & Hands-on Workshop

AVG/AUG, SEPT 2016

Muzeji ohranjajo preteklost, gledališče pa živi le v sedanjosti. Pri zgodovinskih predstavah, kot je »Doktor Faust«, je tako vedno največji izziv ohraniti integriteto avtorskega dela in jo hkrati povezati s sodobnostjo – kako torej oba vidika uravnotežiti in na oder postaviti verodostojno posodobitev predstave? Predstavili smo muzejsko raziskovalno delo za obnovitev takšne historične predstave. Na otroški delavnici smo otrokom predstavili pomembnost ohranjanja lutkovne dediščine. Na vzorčnih primerih lutk smo se vživeli v delo restavratorjev: naučili smo se dokumentirati, očistiti in retuširati kopije Klemenčičevih lutk.

Lutkovno gledališče Maribor/ Puppet Theatre Maribor

Kratke animirane filme izbranih lutkovnih pionirjev, ki so nastali v projektu, so predpremierno predvajali na programu mariborskega mednarodnega lutkovnega festivala. A preview screening of the animated short films created in the context of this project and focussing on selected puppetry pioneers took place as part of the programme of the Maribor-based International Puppet Festival.

Kratki animirani filmi na 27. poletnem Lutkovnem pristanu Short Animated Films at the 27th Summer Puppet Pier

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Tolosa in San Sebastian sta letos gostila 22. svetovni kongres in festival organizacije UNIMA. San Sebastian je letos tudi evropska prestolnica kulture.

This year, Tolosa and San Sebastian played host to the 22nd UNIMA World Congress and Festival. In addition, San Sebastian is this year’s European Capital of Culture.

Dr. Livija Kroflin

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NIMA povezuje ljudi. Člani so ponosni na to, da je bila UNIMA prva mednarodna gledališka organizacija in da so bili prav lutkarji izmed vseh ustvarjalcev s področja gledališke umetnosti tisti, ki so prvi začutili potrebo po povezovanju, združevanju in po sodelovanju. Da so imeli znanje in pogum, da so idejo leta 1929 tudi uresničili. Danes imamo e-pošto, pametne telefone, internetne strani, družabna omrežja in sodobno tehnologijo, pa vendar je pristen človeški stik še vedno nenadomestljiv. Zato obstajajo sestanki Izvršnega odbora, zasedanje sveta ter seveda kongresi. 22. svetovni kongres UNIME je potekal od 31. maja do 3. junija v španskem mestu Tolosa. Kot velikemu lutkovnemu zanesencu mi je bilo v veliko čast in zadovoljstvo, da sem bila leta 2000 izvoljena med člane Izvršnega odbora. Del odbora sem bila tri mandate zapored (to je največ, kar je mogoče), do leta 2012, letos pa sem bila ponovno izvoljena. To mesto ne prinaša le časti, temveč

tudi veliko dela, hkrati pa omogoča doprinos k spremembam v lutkarstvu. Kot predsednica komisije za »izobraževanje, razvoj in terapijo« in kot članica nekaterih drugih komisij se bom vsekakor trudila po najboljših močeh, čeprav bi prizadevanja pomenila le majhen del v obširnem področju lutkovne umetnosti. Na kongresu je bil predst avljen tudi projekt »All Strings Attached«, na ogled pa je bil tudi del razstave tega pričujočega projekta. Mednarodni projekt, kakršen je ta, uteleša ideje UNIME o povezovanju in sodelovanju različnih ljudi in nacij. Resnično verjamem, da je prav v takšnih projektih prihodnost.

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NIMA is about connecting people. The members are very proud of the fact that UNIMA was the first international theatrical organisation organisation ever, and that it was puppeteers before any other theatrical sectors who first recognised the need to connect, unite and collaborate together, and who also had the wisdom and impetus to put the idea into action in 1929. Today we have emails, smart phones, web pages, social networks and and all kinds of technology, but good old-fashioned human contact is still irreplaceable. Hence there are ExecutiveCommittee and Council meetings and, of course, Congresses. The 22nd World UNIMA Congress was held from May 31st to June 3rd in Tolosa, Spain. Being a fan of puppetry, for me it was a great honour and pleasure to be elected a member of the Executive Committee in 2000. I served the maximum possible period of 3 mandates, till 2012, and this year I was elected again. It is not only the honour, it means a lot of

work, but it also means an opportunity of making a difference for puppeteers. As the president of the “Education, Development and Therapy” Commission and a member of several other commissions, I will certainly make my own contribution to this domain, however small it may seem within the huge realm of puppetry. The “All Strings Attached” project was also presented at the Congress and it was possible to see a part of the exhibition. International projects such as projects like this embody the UNIMA ideals of connecting with each other and collaborating with people from different nations. I truly believe that such projects are the future.

Katarina Klančnik Kocutar

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NIMA (Union Internationale de la Marionnette) je najstarejša lutkovna organizacija na svetu, ustanovljena leta 1929 v Pragi. Deluje v tesni povezavi z organizacijo UNESCO. Svoja nacionalna predstavništva ima v 90 državah na vseh celinah. UNIMA predstavlja osnovo za izmenjavo informacij, izkušenj, mnenj z vseh področij, na katerih lutkovni ustvarjalci in teoretiki delujejo. Spodbuja sodobno produkcijo, neguje dediščino, povezuje ustvarjalce in raziskovalce v projektih, na festivalih, konferencah, sodeluje s pedagoškimi ustanovami, z izobraževalnimi delavnicami, muzeji … Predvsem pa zaznava in spodbuja vse posebnosti in različnosti, ki so lastne razvoju lutkovne umetnosti. Kot slovenska kandidatka za izvršni odbor sem bila na kongresu izvoljena med 18 članov odbora; prevzela sem Komisijo za komunikacijo in odnose z javnostmi. Gre za velik izziv nadaljevati in nadgrajevati obstoječe kanale za pretok znotraj organizacije in navzven. V

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času čedalje številnejših omrežij, povezovanj, na novo nastajajočih poti sporočanja je to še pomembnejša naloga. UNIMA lahko samo s sodobnim in sprotnim pretokom informacij sledi toku časa ter ostaja dejavna in koristna. Izjemno sem bila vesela, da sem imela na festivalu priložnost ogleda dragocene in lepo postavljene razstave z naslovom »Mojstri 20. stoletja«. Med predstavljenimi španskimi lutkovnimi ustvarjalci je bil tudi Hermenegildo Lanz, ki je eden izmed treh mojstrov projekta »All Strings Attached«. Ob Milanu Klemenčiču in Vittoriu Podrecci je španski mojster tisti, ki je zaznamoval svoje obdobje. Obenem je bila v okviru predstavitev nacionalnih poročil odborov UNIMA možnost, da sem opozorila na slovenski delež v omenjenem projektu in seveda na novo izjemno pridobitev – Lutkovni muzej v Ljubljani.

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stablished in 1929 in Prague, UNIMA (Union Internationale de la Marionnette) is the oldest puppet organisation in the world. It facilitates close connections with UNESCO and boasts national representations in 90 countries across all continents. UNIMA represents a platform for the exchange of information, experiences and opinions in all areas in which puppet creators and theorists operate. It promotes modern production, nurtures heritage, brings together creators and researchers within projects, festivals and conferences, cooperates with educational institutions, training workshops, museums etc. But most of all, it identifies and encourages any and all special features and differences that are intrinsic to the development of puppetry. As the Slovenian candidate for the Executive Committee, I was elected at the Congress to be one of the 18 Committee members and to take over the Communication & Public Relations Commission. Indeed, this is quite a challenge. I will

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continue to build on the existing exchange channels within the organisation and outside of it. In a time of ever-growing networks, connections and newly formed communication paths, this task seems vital. UNIMA can only keep up with the times by employing a modern and up-to-date information exchange to stay active, useful. I was delighted to have been given the opportunity at the Festival to see the valuable and brilliantly designed exhibition, "Masters of the 20th Century". One of the showcased Spanish puppet artists was Hermenegildo Lanz, who is one of the three masters featured in the project All Strings Attached. Together with Milan Klemenčič and Vittorio Podrecca, the Spanish master certainly made an indelible mark on his era. Within the framework of the review of UNIMA’s national committee reports, I was also given the opportunity to bring attention to Slovenia’s part in the aforementioned project and our new remarkable acquisition – the Museum of Puppetry in Ljubljana.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


Edi Majaron MNENJA

OPINIONS

Lutkovna umetnost med preteklostjo in prihodnostjo

Puppetry Art Between Past and Future

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ledališče je med najbolj minljivimi umetniškimi zvrstmi. Lutkovno gledališče pa ima rahlo prednost, saj iz predstav ostanejo vsaj lutke. In prav to je eden izmed razlogov, da sta ohranjanje in vzdrževanje lutk iz preteklih obdobij izjemno pomembni kulturni nalogi vsakega lutkovnega gledališča. V času, ko klasične lutkovne tehnike – marioneta, javanka, ročna lutka, senčna lutka – izginjajo iz lutkovnih gledališč, ko prevladujejo variante namiznega gledališča in izpeljank gledališča bunraku, je dragoceno vsako prizadevanje za ohranjanje lutk in obnavljanje pomembnih predstav iz časa, ko je bila poleg estetske in izrazne moči predstave pomembna tudi ustvarjalna sposobnost animatorjev, da oživijo razne vrste dragocenih lutk v predstave, ki še danes prepričajo gledalce. Naj bodo kot opomin zdajšnjim generacijam, saj je smiselno in ustvarjalno uporabljena lutka v ustrezni dramaturgiji še prepričljivejša od igralca na odru. Pomembno je omeniti še en vidik: vsaka lutka je umetniški artefakt; je avtorsko delo, ki nosi prepoznaven pečat kreatorja lutk. S seboj nosi tudi pomemben delež znanja tehnologa, ki je omogočil, da lutka v lutkarjevih rokah zaživi na najbolj presenetljiv način, ki ga zmore samo lutka. In še nekaj: vsaka lutka oddaja energijo, ki so jo vanjo vgradile generacije lutkarjev in gledalcev predstave, v kateri je nastopala, dokler ni bila »upokojena«.

iz katerih je prišla v gledališče. Ohranjene in oživljene uspešne lutkovne predstave preteklih generacij lahko samo utrjujejo pomen sodobnih ustvarjalcev, ki morajo z znanjem, s poznavanjem in z vero v lutko graditi sodobno lutkovno gledališče kot kontinuiteto. Ta bo prav v bližnji prihodnosti postala umetnost pretekle generacije, potrebna enake pozornosti, kot jo danes posveča projekt lutkam prejšnjih obdobij. Zato je izjemno dragocena pobuda mladih ozaveščenih in sposobnih ljudi, da pogled na preteklo delo lutkovnih umetnikov postavijo v ospredje sočasnega dogajanja in ta prizadevanja utrdijo z mednarodnim povezovanjem podobno mislečih, saj bi le tako prišlo javnosti do zavesti, da ne gre le za ohranjanje dediščine za muzej, ampak za delo, ki naj potrdi izjemno pomembnost lutkovne umetnosti posameznega naroda v preteklosti. Tako naj se nadaljuje tudi v naš čas. Čestitam za dozdajšnje uspehe in vsem sodelavcem želim, da se projekt širi in pridobi javno priznanje kot sestavni del lutkovne umetnosti.

Jasno je, da se v času spreminjata tudi estetika in dramaturgija lutkovnega gledališča. Gotovo na sodobno lutkovno umetnost vplivajo izrazna sredstva digitalne dobe, a zavedati se je vendar treba, da pravilno uporabljena lutka tudi danes ohranja nekaj magičnega iz prastarih ritualov,

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

heatre is one of the most transient art forms that exists. Yet puppet theatre has a slight advantage in that its puppets remain as physical objects once a show is over. This is one reason why preserving and maintaining puppets from bygone days should be vital in every puppet theatre’s cultural agenda. In a time when classic puppetry techniques such as marionettes, Javanese puppets, hand puppets and shadow puppets are vanishing from puppet theatres, giving way to variants of tabletop theatre and bunraku derivations, one should appreciate any effort made to preserve puppets and restore memorable performances from eras in which the aesthetic and expressive power of a performance was just as important as the puppeteers’ creative ability to animate valuable puppets in shows that manage to captivate audiences even today. May they serve as a reminder to present generations that, given the right dramaturgy, puppets can be even more compelling than stage actors, if used skilfully and with a creative touch. There is another notable aspect: every puppet is an artistic artefact and an auteur piece bearing the distinctive style of its designer. The technological expertise provided by technical experts is another important part of the puppet’s makeup, as it makes the puppet come to life in the hands of the puppeteers in the most surprising way, as only a puppet can. And finally, every puppet exudes an energy that it has accumulated in the course of its on-stage career from generations of puppeteers and show patrons, right up until its retirement.

The modern art of puppetry is influenced by the expressive means engendered by the digital age. It should be kept in mind though that, even in this day and age, a masterfully operated puppet is able to capture the magic of the ancient rituals from which it developed before it made its way into theatre. The preserved and revived hit puppet plays that enthralled previous generations underpin the importance of contemporary creators whose job it is to continue building on the modern puppet theatre through knowledge, expertise and uncompromised belief in puppetry. Before long, it will become the art form of a past generation, and in need of the same level of attention that is today given to puppets from other eras through this project. It is therefore especially valuable that young, informed and capable people have launched this initiative focusing on the work of puppet artists of yore, and have brought it to the forefront of contemporaneous events, solidifying their efforts through international integration of like-minded people. The public should become aware that it is not only about preserving heritage for the museum. This is a mission to underscore the vital importance of the art of puppetry in the history of every nation and which should continue well into our era. I congratulate you on your success thus far and hope that, for the sake of everybody who has worked together on this, the project will be expanded and publically acknowledged as an intrinsic part of puppetry art.

It is clear that the aesthetics and dramaturgy of the puppet theatre have changed over time.

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Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


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Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana (nekoč Mestni dom)/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre (formerly Civic Hall)

Med letoma 1920-24 je v drugem nadstropju na Šentjakobskem odru delovalo prvo slovensko poklicno lutkovno gledališče, ki ga je vodil Milan Klemenčič. Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana se je v stavbo preselilo šele leta 1984. Between 1920 and 1924, the first ever puppet theatre in Slovenia, operated on the second floor at the Šentjakob stage and was run by Milan Klemenčič. The Ljubljana Puppet Theatre moved inside the building only in 1984. 2

Lutkovni muzej na Ljubljanskem gradu Museum of Puppetry at Ljubljana Castle

Na gradu je nekoč živela tudi družina Klemenčič. Do razstave lutk, kjer so predstavljene tudi izbrane Klemenčičeve marionete, se je najlepše povzpeti po pešpoteh iz starega mestnega jedra. Once upon a time, the entire Klemenčič family lived in the Ljubljana Castle. The best way to get to the puppet exhibition, where Milan Klemenčič's marionettes are also are exhibited, is to take the walking paths from the old city centre. 3

Slovenski gledališki inštitut Slovenian Theatre Institute

Hrani Klemenčičeve zapiske, risbe in drugo arhivsko gradivo o njem. Ima tudi muzej, s stalno razstavo o zgodovini slovenskega gledališča. The institute holds notes, drawings and other archival materials about Milan Klemenčič. There is also a permanent exhibition about the history of Slovenian theatre. 4

Zrinjskega cesta 7 (danes Ulica Janeza Pavla II/7) /Zrinjskega street 7 (today Janeza Pavla street II/7)

V hiši iz leta 1930 je živel Klemenčič vse do svoje smrti. Prav v tem stanovanju je delovalo tudi njegovo tretje lutkovno gledališče – Miniaturne lutke (1936–1957). Milan Klemenčič lived in this house, built in 1930, until his death. This is also where he operated his third puppet theatre – Miniature Puppets (1936–1957). 5

Modern gallery is the main gallery of the 20th century Slovene art. Its accompanying Museum of Contemporary Art was opened in 2011 and exhibits the international collection Artleast 2000+.

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MG+MSUM

Moderna galerija je osrednja galerija slovenskih likovnih del 20. stoletja. Leta 2011 je bil odprt tudi Muzej sodobne umetnosti, v katerem hranijo in razstavljajo mednarodno zbirko Arteast 2000+.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

SNG Drama Ljubljana Slovenian National Theatre Drama Ljubljana

Milana Klemenčiča je leta 1920 Slovenski gledališki konzorcij imenoval za glavnega scenografa vseh gledališč, tudi Drame. Prvotno Jubilejno gledališče Franca Jožefa I je pozneje postalo osrednje slovensko dramsko gledališče, ki so ga leta 1987 prebarvali v današnjo zeleno. In 1920, the Slovene theatre consortium named Milan Klemenčič lead scenographer for all theatres in the city, including the Drama. The original Franz Jožef Jubilee theatre became the national drama theatre, in 1987 it was repainted green. 9

Muzej novejše zgodovine Slovenije National Museum of Contemporary History

Lutkovnemu muzeju je za stalno razstavo posodil slovenske partizanske lutke. Domuje v Cekinovem gradu iz 18. stol. na robu Tivolskega parka. Nekdaj primestni dvorec, namenjen oddihu in zabavi radoživega plemstva, danes pa hrani pričevanja o novejši slovenski zgodovini. The museum lent the Slovenian partisan puppets for the permanent exhibition of Museum of Puppetry. It is located in the Cekin Mansion from the 18th century on the edge of the Tivoli park. Once a suburban mansion for rest and entertainment of nobility figures, today the home of contemporary history exhibits. Muzejska ploščad Museum Platform

Najnovejše in odprto stičišče kulturnih institucij: Muzeja sodobne umetnosti, Slovenskega etnografskega muzeja, Narodnega muzeja Slovenije, Slovenske kinoteke in Zavoda za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije. The latest open cultural platform, surrounded by important museums and institutions: Ethnographic Museum, National Museum of Slovenia, Museum of Contemporary Arts, Slovenian Cinematheque and Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia. 11

Slovenski etnografski muzej Slovene Ethnographic Museum

Osrednji slovenski etnološki muzej z zakladnico slovenske in zunajevropske dediščine, med katerimi so tudi lutke z vsega sveta.

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Stara mestna elektrarna The Old Power Station

Eden redkih ohranjenih primerov slovenske industrijske arhitekture. Iz leta 1898, ko je Ljubljana zažarela v električni svetlobi. V predverju je še vedno viden del dimnika, turbine in nekatere merilne naprave. Danes je prav posebno prizorišče uprizoritvenih umetnosti. One of the few preserved examples of Slovene industrial architecture. Built in 1898, when Ljubljana was lit up by electricity. In the front hall, you can still see remains of the original chimney, turbines and some measuring devices. Today, it is a truly special venue of performing arts. 13

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Odpiralni čas/Opening hours: PO–PE/MON–TUE 10.00– 18.00, SO/SAT 10.00–14.00, NE/ SUN od 10.00–13.00, prazniki zaprto. V času festivala/During LUTKE 2016: NE–TO/SUN–TUE 10.00–18.00

SNG Opera in balet Ljubljana Slovenian National Opera and Ballet Theatre

Milana Klemenčiča je leta 1920 Slovenski gledališki konzorcij imenoval za glavnega scenografa vseh gledališč, tudi Opere, ki še danes deluje v neorenesančni zgradbi iz leta 1892 z zanimivima alegorijama tragedije in komedije - kipov Alojza Gangla v fasadnih nišah. In 1920, the Slovene theatre consortium named Milan Klemenčič lead scenographer for all theatres in the city, including the National Opera, which still operates in the neorenaissance building from 1892 and depicts a very interesting allegory of tragedy and comedy – statues by Aljoz Gangel.

Galerija Kresija/Galleria Kresija

Mestno razstavišče, ki ga je ob sprehodu čez Tromostovje težko zgrešiti. Tudi ko bo konec razstave o lutkovnih pionirjih, priporočamo še kakšen obisk. A city gallery, not easily missed when walking past the Three Bridges. Worth a visit even after the exhibition about puppetry pioneers.

The national ethnographic museum holds the treasures of Slovene and European heritage, including puppets from around the world.

Kulturnica

Najmanjše prizorišče Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana na eni najmanjših ulic v Ljubljani. Po ustnem izročilu naj bi se tu nekoč nahajala sinagoga. The smalles stage of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre is located on one of the smallest streets in Ljubljana. It is said, that it was once the home of a synagogue. 14

Narodna in univerzitetna knjižnica, Križanke National and University Library of Slovenia, The Križanke Outdoor Theatre

Mojstrovina arhitekta Jožeta Plečnika, ki si jo je treba ogledati od zunaj in od znotraj. Blizu NUKA so tudi Križanke, nekdanji samostan, ki ga je Plečnik preuredil v eno najlepših koncertnih prizorišč v Ljubljani. Both masterpieces of architect Jože Plečnik, which must also be see within. The Križanke theatre, a former monastery was reformed by Jože Plečnik into one the most beautiful concert venues in Ljubljana. It is located next to the National Library. 15

Mestni muzej Ljubljana City Museum Ljubljana

Domuje v Turjaški palači iz leta 1642 in hrani večtisočletno kulturno dediščino ljubljanskega prostora. V njem pripravljajo razstave in druge dogodke za obiskovalce vseh starosti, ponujajo pa tudi Krožno arheološko pot po rimski Ljubljani. Housed in the Turjaška palace built in 1642 and holds local cultural heritage going back several thousand years. It is also home to exhibitions and events for visitors of all ages and runs a circural archeological trail of Roman Ljubljana. 16

Osrednja mestna tržnica Central City Market

V Plečnikovih pokritih tržnicah iz leta 1944 so danes majhne restavracije in kavarne z raznovrstno ponudbo in prijetno atmosfero. Pogled na tržnico obvezen tudi z nasprotnega brega Ljubljanice. Built in 1944, Jože Plečnik’s food market now houses small restaurants and cafe’s offering a pleasant and diverse environment. The view of the market from across the Ljubljanica river is also a must.

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KURATORJI IN SODELAVCI/CURATORS & COLLABORATORS

ITALIJA/ITALY Elisabetta Bisaro Deluje na področju načrtovanja programov in vodenja projektov za sodobni ples in uprizoritvene umetnosti v treh državah. V Dublinu je za Dance Ireland šest let vodila umetniški program in različne mednarodne projekte, vključno s štirimi evropskimi. Od leta 2013 je odgovorna za mednarodno področje centra La Briqueterie – CDC du Val-de-Marne v Franciji. Je tudi predsednica organizacije za umetnost žensk v Trstu. Has worked in a programming and managerial capacity in the fields of dance and the performing arts across 3 countries. After her initial steps in Italy, she worked as Programme Manager of Dance Ireland in Dublin for 6 years. She was responsible for curating and managing the organisation’s artistic programming and all international projects, including 4 EU-funded projects. Since 2013, she has been responsible for the international development of La Briqueterie – CDC du Val-de-Marne in France. She is the president of PlanTS, an all-women arts organisation based in Trieste. Elena Carlini Arhitektka. Fulbrightova štipendistka na Univerzi Columbia. Profesorica arhitekture v Ferrari, gostujoča profesorica na Univerzi Syracuse (NY). Sodeluje pri uresničevanju javnih, stanovanjskih in poslovnih objektov ter razstav, kot je bila na primer »Marzona Villa Manin« na beneškem bienalu. Objavlja v mednarodnih revijah. Architect and Columbia University Fulbright Scholar, a visiting professor at Syracuse University (NY), and a professor at the School of Architecture in Ferrara. She has realised public, residential and commercial projects as well as exhibitions such as "Marzona Villa Manin" (Venice Art Biennale). Her writing has been published in international magazines. Elisabetta Gottardo Od leta 1997 zposlena na Mestni občini Čedad na Oddelku za kulturo, komunikacijo in mednarodne odnose. Specializirana je za področje kulturne organizacije, založništva, knjižnične dejavnosti, kulturnega turizma, promocije in mladinskih politik. Has been employed since 1997 at the Municipality of Cividale del Friuli as a Project Manager and from April 2012 at department of Culture and Communi-

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ty Policy – External Relations. She specialises in cultural organization, publishing, library management, cultural tourism, promotion and youth policies. Ennio Guerrato Režiser, urednik in avtor različnih dokumentarnih oddaj, promocijskih filmov za podjetja in kulturne institucije ter glasbenih videov. Svojo gledališko pot je začel kot igralec/lutkar pri oživljeni skupini »I Nuovi Piccoli di Podrecca« stalnega gledališča v Trstu. Deluje/razstavlja tudi na področju nekonvencionalnih gledaliških postavitev, kjer se med drugim izraža tudi z videoinstalacijami. Director, editor and author of RAI and historical documentaries, music videos, promotional films for companies and Italian cultural institutions. Began his theatrical career in 1984 as an actor/puppeteer of the company "I Nuovi Piccoli di Podrecca" with Teatro Stabile FVG. He is also active also in the field of unconventional theatrical staging and he produces and exhibits video installations. Barbara Della Polla Igralka, pisateljica. Avtorica in režiserka številnih radijskih iger in lutkovnih predstav, vključno z »Od 3 do 93. Veličastna stvaritev«, ki se poklanja Vittoriu Podrecci. Deluje na področju vizualnih umetnosti in projektov instalacij, povezanih z ženskami, delom, oblačili in s telesom. Actress, writer and director. Author and direcor of numerous radio and puppet plays, including a hommage to Vittorio Podrecca “From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention”. Works in the field of visual arts and installation projects related to women, work, dress and the body. Tiziana Guarrini Zgodovinarka, raziskovalka in ljubiteljska igralka. V lutkarstvo je vstopila s sodelovanjem pri predstavi »Od 3 do 93. Veličastna stvaritev.« Raziskuje življenje in delo Vittoria Podrecce, skrbi za zbirko, pred kratkim pa je sodelovala tudi pri restavriranju izbranih lutk gledališča »I Piccoli«. Historical researcher, non-professional actress. Entered the world of puppetry with the show “Dai 3 ai 93. Una meravigliosa invenzione”. Envestigates the life and work of Vittorio Podrecca and takes care for the recollection of materials. Recently also took part in the restoration of the selected "Teatro dei Piccoli" puppets.

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SLOVENIJA/SLOVENIA Zala Kalan Restavratorka, oblikovalka lutk, ilustratorka in avtorica več likovnih razstav/instalacij. Zaposlena v Lutkovnem muzeju Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana, kjer se specializira za področje restavriranja lutk in o tem objavlja strokovne prispevke. Restorer-conservator, designer of puppets, illustrator and author of several art exhibitions/ installations. Currently employed in the Museum of Puppetry department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, where she specialises in, and writes about, the field of puppetry restoration. Nadja Ocepek Umetnostna zgodovinarka, vodja projektov. V preteklosti zaposlena na Zavodu za varstvo kulturne dediščine Slovenije. Soavtorica stalne razstave lutk na Ljubljanskem gradu. Trenutno vodi oddelek Lutkovni muzej v Lutkovnem gledališču Ljubljana, kjer se zavzema za prepoznavnost slovenske lutkovne dediščine. Art historian, project manager. Previously employed at the Institute for Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia. Co-curator of the permanent exhibition of puppets at the Ljubljana Castle. Currently a Museum of Puppetry department manager at the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre and committed to recognition of Slovenian puppetry heritage. Tjaša Tomšič Umetnostna zgodovinarka, rusistka, kustosinja pedagoginja. V preteklosti je poučevala ruski jezik in zgodovino umetnosti, prevedla in uredila številne strokovne publikacije. Zaposlena je v Lutkovnem muzeju Lutkovnega gledališča Ljubljana, kjer vodi izobraževalne dejavnosti, pripravlja razstave, objavlja strokovne prispevke. Art historian, Russianist, curator pedagogue. Worked as a professor of Art History and the Russian language, translated and edited several academic publications. Currently employed in the Museum of Puppetry department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, where she is responsible for educational activities, curates exhibitions, writes articles.

Iz zaodrja: pionirji evropskega lutkarstva


BILTEN/BULLETIN Publikacijo je izdalo/Published by: Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana V sodelovanju z/In Collaboration with: Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Títeres Etcétera, Umjetnička galerija u Osijeku, Cooperativa Cassiopea Zanjo/On Behalf of: Uroš Korenčan

ŠPANIJA/SPAIN

HRVAŠKA/CROATIA

Enrique Lanz Lutkar, vodja lutkovne skupine Títeres Etcétera. Prejemnik številnih nagrad. Svoje delo predstavlja na najpomembnejših lutkovnih in glasbenih festivalih. Filmski ustvarjalec in kurator več lutkovnih razstav. Puppeteer, director of the company Títeres Etcétera. Received important awards, presents his work at major international puppet and music festivals. Video maker and curator of several puppets exhibitions.

Dr. Livija Kroflin Docentka in predstojnica Katedre za dramske umetnosti na Umetniški akademiji v Osijeku. Uresničuje program lutkarstva ter predava o zgodovini in estetiki lutkarstva. Selektorica festivala PIF. Članica nadzornega odbora UNIME. Objavlja publikacije in članke o lutkarstvu. Assistant Professor and Head of Department of Dramatic Art at the Academy of Arts in Osijek. Head of the Puppetry Programme. Lectures about history and aesthetics of puppetry. Selector for the PIF Festival. Member of the UNIMA Executive Committee. Writes articles and contributes to publications on puppetry.

Yanisbel V. Martínez Lutkarica in raziskovalka. Izobraževala se je na Kubi in v Franciji. Sodelovala je s številnimi lutkovnimi skupinami po vsem svetu. Od leta 2007 deluje v skupini Títeres Etcétera kot pomočnica direktorja, producentka, lutkarica in igralka. Piše strokovne članke ter predava o gledališču in lutkarstvu. Puppeteer and researcher with an academic education from Cuba and France. Worked with several theatre companies all over the world. Since 2007 acts as director assistant, producer, puppeteer and actress in the company Títeres Etcétera, writes academic articles, and lectures about theatre and puppetry.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Igor Tretinjak Gledališki teoretik in kritik. V preteklosti profesor hrvaščine, novinar spletne revije tportal.hr in urednik revije za kulturo »Vijenac«. Trenutno zaposlen na Umetniški akademiji v Osijeku kot asistent za program lutkarstva. Theatre theoretician and critic. Worked as a professor of Croatian, a journalist at the web magazine tportal.hr and as editor of culture magazine “Vijenac”. Currently working at the Academy of Arts in Osijek as the puppetry programme assistant.

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 Bulletin

Uredili/Edited by: Nadja Ocepek, Tjaša Tomšič Jezikovni pregled/Proofreading and Translation: Lingula, d. o. o., Nadja Ocepek, Tjaša Tomšič Oblikovanje/Design: Jernej Stritar, IlovarStritar Fotografija na naslovnici /Cover Photo: Teatro dei Piccoli: Baletka/Ballerina, Teatro Stabile del Friuli Venezia Giulia Fotografije/Photographs: Ada Hamza, Archivo Lanz, Cooperativa Cassiopea, Fondo Maria Signorelli, Tiziana Guarrini, Goriški muzej, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Slovenski gledališki inštitut, SOMSI Cividale del Friuli; Zasebni lastniki/Private Owners: Mirko Kambič Tisk/Print: Grafex, d. o. o. Naklada/Circulation: 1000 izvodov/copies September 2016

RAZSTAVA/EXHIBITION Avtorji razstave/Exhibition Curated by: Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana (LGL), Títeres Etcétera, Umjetnička galerija u Osijeku, Cooperativa Cassiopea Avtorji besedil/Text by: Tiziana de Guarrini, Ennio Guerrato, Enrique Lanz, Yanisbel V. Martínez, Nadja Ocepek, Barbara Della Polla, Tjaša Tomšič, Igor Tretinjak Restavriranje gradiva/Artefacts Restoration: Lutkovni muzej LGL (Zala Kalan) Kopije lutk Vittoria Podrecce/ Copies of Vittorio Podrecca Puppets: Lutkovna delavnica LGL (Zoran Srdić, Iztok Bobić, Polona Černe, Marjeta Valjavec), Slobodan Djordjević, Hermina Pavšič, Maja Peterlin, Smrekca, d.o. o. Jezikovni pregled in prevod/Proofreading and Translation: Lingula, d. o. o., Nadja Ocepek, Tjaša Tomšič Avtorica arhitekturne opreme/ Interior Design: arch. Elena Carlini Celostna grafična podoba/Visual Identity: Jernej Stritar, IlovarStritar Koncept animacij, interaktivne stene/Animations, Interactive Wall Concept: Lutkovni muzej LGL, Jernej Stritar Animacije, ilustracije/Animations, Illustration: Lea Zupančič, Jernej Stritar Tehnična uresničitev/Technical Realization: Cooperativa Cassiopea, Carlo Furlan, Títeres Etcétera, RPS, d. o. o., Ljubljana Interaktivna stena/Interactive Wall: Solution (Thibault Brevet, Johannes Lohbihler, Tilen Sepič) Viri fotografij/Photography Sources: Archivo Lanz, Cooperativa Cassiopea, Fondo Maria Signorelli, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Goriški muzej, Slovenski gledališki inštitut, SOMSI Cividale del Friuli, Títeres Etcétera; Zasebni lastniki/Private Owners: Mirko Kambič Avtorji fotografij/Photographs by: Žiga Koritnik Videogradivo/Video Materials: Ennio Guerrato, CassiopeaTeatro, Títeres Etcétera, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana Zahvale/Thanks: Archivo Lanz, Elisabetta Bisaro, Fausta Braga, Italo Braga, Goriški muzej, Katarina Klančnik Kocutar, Mojca Klemenčič, Matjaž Loboda, Edi Majaron, Miha Robida, Teatro Stabile del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Slovenski gledališki inštitut, Mateja Veble, Zavod za varstvo kulturne dediščine RS.

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All Strings Attached Bulletin #1  

Bulletin is a special newspaper about Creative Europe project All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes. Mor...

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