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Osijek JE 1930-ih BIO vrlo jako središte/1930s OSIJEK: A NOTABLE CENTRE OF PUPPETRY Početke lutkarstva u Osijeku trebat će pomnije istražiti./The beginnings of puppetry in Osijek will have to be investigated more closely.

Muzej na pozornici/ MUSEUM ON STAGE Klemenčičev „Doktor Faust“ je najveća vrijednost slovenske lutkarske povijesti./ Klemenčič's "Doctor Faustus" is the greatest treasure of Slovenian puppetry history.

Bilten Bulletin ISSN 2464-031X  Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva

TEATRO DEI PICCOLI: iZNIMNO KAZALIŠTE/AN EXCEPTIONAL THEATRE „Vittorio Podrecca bio je najveći stvaratelj talijanske umjetnosti.“/"Vittorio Podrecca was the finest expression of Italian art."

OSIJEK 16. 11.—30. 11. 2016 Besplatni primjerak Free copy

All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Lutkarstvo u prvoj polovici dvadesetog stoljeća/ Puppetry in the first half of the 20th century Vrijeme bitnih promjena i uvođenje novih oblika izražavanja./ Time of significant changes, introducing new forms of expression.

Lutkarstvo Umjetnost Povijest Očuvanje baštine Glazba Puppetry Art History Preserving Heritage Music

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Program: Kreativna Europa

Natječaj: EACEA 32/2014

Vodeća ustanova: Gradska općina Cividale del Friuli, Italija

Kategorija: Projekti sudjelovanja manjeg opsega

Trajanje: 30. rujna 2015. – 30. rujna 2017

Partneri: Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana, Slovenija, Títeres Etcétera, Španjolska, Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku, Hrvatska

Kontakt: Elisabetta Gottardo cultura@cividale.net

O projektu Sudjelovanjem u projektu uspostavlja se zanimljiva veza četiriju partnera: gradske općine Cividale del Friuli, Lutkarskog kazališta Ljubljana, kazališne skupine Títeres Etcétera i Umjetničke akademije u Osijeku. Partneri zajedno djeluju u području lutkarske umjetnosti, jačaju svijest o europskom kulturnom bogatstvu i njegovoj raznolikosti.Svrha projekta je širiti znanje o europskom lutkarstvu u prvoj polovici 20. stoljeća predstavljanjem odabranih pojedinaca u području lutkarske umjetnost, Vittoria Podrecce iz Italije, Milana Klemenčiča iz Slovenije i Hermenegilda Lanza iz Španjolske. Tijekom dvogodišnjeg projekta (2015. – 2017.), putujuća izložba s brojnim pratećim događanjima (stručne radio-

nice i predavanja) posjetit će sve četiri države sudionice. Pristupom lutkarstvu kao umjetnosti koja objedinjuje više drugih umjetnosti kao i razmjenom znanja, ovim se projektom nastoji poboljšati mobilnost različitih stvaratelja u području lutkarstva (glumaca, lutkara, tehničara, restauratora), a naročito mladih generacija. „Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva“ projekt je koji se djelomično financira iz programa EU Kreativna Europa. U hrvatskom dijelu projekta posebna zahvala ide Odsjeku za povijest hrvatskog kazališta Zavoda za povijest hrvatske književnosti, kazališta i glazbe HAZU na izložbenom materijalu.

Programme: Creative Europe

Project Call: EACEA 32/2014

Lead organisation: Municipality of Cividale del Friuli, Italy

Category: Small-scale Cooperation projects

Dates: 30. 9. 2015–30. 9. 2017

Partners: Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, Slovenia, Títeres Etcétera, Spain, Academy of Arts in Osijek, Croatia

Contact: Elisabetta Gottardo cultura@cividale.net

Project "All Strings Attached" is a unique cooperation bringing together four partners active in the puppetry field – Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, Títeres Etcétera and the Academy of Arts in Osijek – to improve awareness and encourage greater appreciation of European puppetry's cultural richness and diversity. The aim of the project is to spread knowledge of European puppetry of the first half of the 20th century by highlighting selected figures, such as Vittorio Podrecca from Italy, Milan Klemenčič from Slovenia and Hermenegildo Lanz from Spain. Over two years (2015–2017), a travelling exhibition will visit Slovenia, Croatia, Spain and Italy and numerous events, such as puppet shows, professional workshops

and lectures will be developed for the larger public. Presenting puppetry as a total work of art, the project aims also to increase the transnational mobility of cultural operators active in the field of puppetry (artists, puppeteers, technicians, restorers) through the exchange of best practices and by offering opportunities to younger generations working in contemporary puppetry. "All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes" is co-funded by the Creative Europe programme of the European Commission. In the Croatian part of the project, special thanks go to the Division for the History of the Croatian Theater at the Institute for the History of Croatian Literature, Theater and Music for providing exhibition material.

Sadržaj projekta isključiva je odgovornost autora te ni na koji način ne predstavlja stavove Europske komisije./The European Commission support for this project does not constitute an endorsement of the contents which reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.


SADRŽAJ/INDEX

Susret tradicije osvježene mladošću i suvremenosti obogaćene baštinom/ When tradition invigorated with youth meets modernity enriched with heritage

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Program Programme

6

Klemenčič, Podrecca i Lanz: pioniri u središtu avangarde/Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz: three pioneers in the heart of the avant-garde

Osvrti/Opinions

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55

Lutkari i njihove lutke: s pozornice i iza pozornice na izložbu i natrag/Puppeteers and their puppets: from the (back)stage to the exhbition and back again 58 Kustosi i osoblje/Curators & Collaborators

36 Zbirka Cook/Marks/The Cook/Marks collection

62

18 Hrvatsko lutkarstvo između dva svjetska rata/ Croatian puppetry during the inter-war period

Osijek je 1930-ih bio vrlo jako lutkarsko središte/1930s Osijek: a notable centre of puppetry

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Hrvatsko lutkarstvo između dva svjetska rata/Croatian puppetry during the Inter-war period

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Poetska širina UAOS/The poetic expression of UAOS

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Milan Klemenčič

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Muzej na pozornici/Museum on stage

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Restauriranje lutaka Milana Klemenčiča/ Restoring Milan Klemenčič's puppets

30

Vittorio Podrecca

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Alfonso Cipolla o Vittoriu Podrecci i „Teatru dei Piccoli“/Alfonso Cipolla on Vittorio Podrecca and "Teatro dei Piccoli"

34

Zbirka Cook/Marks/ The Cook/Marks collection

24

44

36

Muzej na pozornici/ Museum on stage

Títeres de Cachiporra: isprava o osnivanju/Títeres de Cachiporra: a foundational act

Život lutke u Emilia-Romagni/ Puppet life in Emilia-Romagna

40

Hermenegildo Lanz

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Títeres de Cachiporra: isprava o osnivanju/ Títeres de Cachiporra: a foundational act

44

Izvješća/Reports

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LUTKE 2016: kakav grad, takav festival – divan!/ LUTKE 2016: like city, like festival – beautiful!

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Svi kutovi lutkarskih klasika/ All aspects of puppetry classics

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Sljedite nas/Follow us: @eupupts

www.allstringsattached.eu

Uredništvo Biltena/Bulletin Editorial Muzej lutaka/Museum of Puppetry department Kazalište lutaka Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre Krekov trg 2, 1000 Ljubljana, SI muzej@lgl.si, +386 (01) 300 09 75


dr. sc. Livija Kroflin DOBRODOŠLI

W ELCOME

Susret tradicije osvježene mladošću i suvremenosti obogaćene baštinom

When tradition invigorated with youth meets modernity enriched with heritage

L

O

utkarska povijest Osijeka (u hrvatskim okvirima) nije zanemariva. U vrijeme kad su ostali gradovi u Hrvatskoj imali po jedno ili nijedno lutkarsko kazalište, Osijek ih je imao četiri! Danas već o Osijeku govorimo (još uvijek u šali, ali u svakoj šali ima pola istine) kao o malom Charleville-Mézièresu: Osijek ima kazalište s repertoarom na kojem zamjetno mjesto zauzimaju lutkarske predstave, lutkarski festival, akademiju, a radi se i na osnivanju muzeja lutkarstva. Iako svjesni da ni akademije ne bi bilo bez povijesti, bez kazališta i bez festivala, lutkari su ipak najviše ponosni na akademiju, i to zato što se pojavila nakon dugih godina iščekivanja, želja i nastojanja. Desetljećima se (još u ondašnjoj državi, Jugoslaviji) govorilo o nužnosti sustavnog školovanja lutkara, čeznutljivi su se pogledi slali prema praškoj DAMU i ostalim lutkarskim visokim školama, organizirali su se tečajevi i radionice, dovodila se najbolja lutkarska dostignuća na međunarodni festival kazališta lutaka PIF u Zagreb i na festival u Šibenik... da bi sve to rezultiralo osnivanjem Umjetničke akademije u Osijeku kao jedine visokoškolske ustanove ne samo u Hrvatskoj nego i u susjednim državama na kojoj je ustrojen studij i glume i lutkarstva. I sada je ta i takva akademija, još uvijek mlada („rođena“ 2004.) partner u europskom projektu „All Strings Attached: Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes“ (ili „Svi su konci na mjestu: Pioniri europskog lutkarstva iza scene“). Naši par-

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tneri – talijanski grad Cividale del Friuli, kao nositelj projekta, te Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana iz Slovenije i Títeres Etcétera iz Granade (Španjolska) – donose svoju bogatu lutkarsku tradiciju s osnovnom idejom očuvanja i promocije tradicije lutkarstva iz prvih desetljeća 20. stoljeća, s naglaskom na tri važna lutkarska opusa nastala u tri različite sredine u isto vrijeme. Lutkarsku baštinu Italije predstavlja čuveni Vittorio Podrecca, Slovenija se diči velikim umjetnikom Milanom Klemenčičem i njegovim malim marionetskim kazalištem, a Španjolska nas upoznaje sa svojim lutkarskim majstorom Hermenegildom Lanzom. Počeci umjetničkog, autorskog kazališta lutaka u Hrvatskoj datiraju iz istog vremena kao Klemenčičevo kazalište u Sloveniji (1920. godine), no Hrvatska u ovaj projekt ne unosi toliko prošlosti i tradicije koliko mladosti i novosti. Svjesni da ni akademije ni studenata ni sadašnjosti ne bi bilo bez tradicije, jednako smo tako svjesni da je i tradicija mrtva bez nastavljača, bez oponenata, bez komunikacije. Naši studenti 2. godine diplomskoga studija pokazat će kako komuniciraju s tradicijom – što iz nje uzimaju, čime se inspiriraju, protiv čega se bune... Tu će komunikaciju prikazati predstavom koju pripremaju sa svojim mentorima, a predstava će gostovati u gradovima partnerima projekta. Prigoda za sastanak partnera, razmjenu iskustava, prikazivanje dosadašnjeg rada na projektu te predstavljanje cjelokupnog

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sijek's history of puppetry is not insignificant (in a Croatian context). At a time when other Croatian cities had one or no puppet theatres, Osijek had four! Today Osijek is spoken of as a small Charleville-Mézières (in jest of course, although there is a grain of truth in every joke): Osijek has a theatre with a repertoire that notably includes puppet shows, a puppet festival and an academy, and work is underway to establish a museum of puppetry. Puppeteers are aware that the academy itself would not be here had it not been for such a rich puppetry history, puppet theatre and puppet festivals; they are still most proud of it because it emerged after years of anticipation, desire and effort. For decades (even during the Yugoslav era) a need for systematic training of puppeteers was spoken of, and those wishing to learn were sent to the Theatre Faculty of the Academy of Performing Arts in Prague (DAMU) and other puppetry colleges, while puppetry courses and workshops were organised and the best of these were presented at the International Puppet Theatre Festival in Zagreb and the Šibenik Festival… all of which resulted in the Academy of Arts in Osijek being the only higher education institution, not only in Croatia but also neighbouring countries, with established courses in acting and puppetry. And this young academy (it was "born" in 2004), is now a partner in the European Project "All Strings Attached: Pioneers of European Puppetry behind the Scenes". Our Partners – the City of Cividale del

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Friuli in Italy as the leading Partner, the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre in Slovenia and the Títeres Etcétera Company in Granada, Spain – bring together their rich traditions of puppetry with the aim of preserving and promoting the tradition of puppetry which dates back to the early decades of the 20th Century, placing a special emphasis on the three important opuses created in three different environments at the same time. Italy's puppet heritage is presented by the famous Vittorio Podrecca, Slovenia's includes the great artist Milan Klemenčič and his small puppet theatre, and Spain introduces us to its puppet master Hermenegildo Lanzo. The beginnings of puppet theatre in Croatia date from the same time as those of the Klemenčič Theatre in Slovenia (1920), but Croatia does not bring history and tradition so much as youth and innovation. It is self-evident that the Academy, the students and the present success would not exist without tradition, but we are also aware that this tradition would be dead without proponents, antagonists and dialogue. Our second year graduate students will demonstrate how to communicate with this tradition – what they take from it, what inspires them, what they are rebelling against... This dialogue will be presented in a performance prepared with their mentors, to be shown in all the Project's partner cities. This is an opportunity for the Project partners to meet and exchange experiences, display Project work and present the

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Izložba „All Strings Attached“ u Ljubljani/"All Strings Attached" exhibition in Ljubljana

projekta javnosti – nakon prvog takvog događanja u rujnu u Ljubljani – pruža se u Osijeku u studenome ove godine, a vezano uz međunarodnu reviju lutkarstva Lutkokaz. Ciljevi Lutkokaza, koji se održava od 2010. godine, jesu javnosti pokazati najbolje završne i diplomske ispite iz lutkarstva studenata UAOS te tako popularizirati lutkarsku umjetnost i upoznati javnost sa, za većinu, potpuno novim mogućnostima lutkarstva. Također, radionice koje drže nastavnici s drugih akademija prigoda su za stjecanje novih znanja i vještina, a obogaćivanju znanja i iskustva pridonose gostujuće predstave, izložbe i predavanja.

Slovenski partner, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, izvest će mnogo nagrađivanu predstavu „Patka, smrt i tulipan“, a u sklopu projekta, malo nakon završetka Lutkokaza, i čuvenu, više puta obnavljanu Klemenčičevu predstavu „Doktor Faust“. Partneri u projektu, pak, vidjet će najbolje ispite studenata UAOS i prezentaciju rada na radionicama. Dobro došli u Osijek, grad koji voli kulturu i njome se ponosi (dapače, bio je ozbiljan kandidat za europsku prijestolnicu kulture 2020.), na Umjetničku akademiju, na susret tradicije osvježene mladošću i suvremenosti obogaćene baštinom!

Ove godine Lutkokaz je obogaćen projektom „All Strings Attached“ te će ugostiti izložbu o radu velikih „pionira europskoga lutkarstva“ Podrecce, Klemenčiča i Lanza, radionice o lutkarskoj tehnologiji, prezentaciju kazališta Títeres Etcétera „Duh lutkarske prošlosti“ ter predstavu kazališta Teatro Cassiopea iz Italije „Od 3 do 93. Veličanstveno djelo“.

Project in its entirety to the public – after the first event in Ljubljana in September – and all of this shall take place in Osijek in November in association with the "Lutkokaz", an International Puppetry Show. "Lutkokaz" has, since 2010, publicly shown the best graduation and dissertation pieces from UAOS students, and in turn popularises puppetry and acquaints the public with the new, and until now, unprecedented possibilities that puppetry can provide. Additional workshops run by teachers from other academies provide an opportunity to acquire new knowledge and skills and enrich one"s knowledge and experience through guest performances, exhibitions and lectures. This year "Lutkokaz" will be enriched by the "All Strings Attached" Project and will host the exhibition about Podrecca, Klemenčič and Lanz, the "Pioneers of European Puppetry", a workshop on puppet technology, a show by Títeres Etcétera entitled "The Soul of the People" and a show by Teatro Cassiopea from Italy entitled "From 3 to 93. A Marvellous

Invention". The Slovenian partner, the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, will perform the multi award-winning "Duck, Death and a Tulip" and, as part of the Project but a little after the end of "Lutkokaz", the famous, repeatedly revived Klemenčič play "Doctor Faustus". Partners in the Project will see the best examination pieces prepared by the UAOS students and a presentation of work completed in workshops. Welcome to Osijek, a City which loves culture and is proud of its own (the City was a serious contender for the 2020 European Capital of Culture) and welcome to the Art Academy, where tradition invigorated with youth meets modernity enriched with heritage!

www.allstringsattached.eu

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Program/PROGRAMME 16. 11.—30. 11. 2016

WOR K SHOP Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana: Održavanje lutaka — Materijali i tehnologija/Preserving Puppets — Materials & Technology

Inovativnost u lutkarskoj tehnologiji kao put do publike/Innovations in Puppet Technology as a Way to Reach Audiences

16.11.—17. 11. 2016, 9.00−12.00, 14.00−16.00 Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku

18. 11. 2016, 9.00—12.00 Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku

R A DIONIC A

IZLOŽB A EX HIBITION

SEMINA R

Putujuća izložba, Galerija Waldinger/ Travelling Exhibition, Waldinger Gallery 17. 11.—30. 11. 2016 Vođeni ogledi/Guided Tours 18. 11. 2016, 10.00, 16.00

Pioniri europskog lutkarstva/ The Pioneers of European Puppetry PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

CassiopeaTeatro, Italija/Italy za odrasle/for adults, 80 min 17. 11. 2016, 18.00 Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku

Od 3 do 93. Veličanstveno djelo/ From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention 6

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Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Títeres Etcétera, Španjolska/Spain za odrasle/for adults, 80 min

PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

19. 11. 2016, 18.00 Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku

Duh lutkarske prošlosti/ The Soul of People Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana, Slovenija/Slovenia 12+, za odrasle/for adults, 60 min

PR EDSTAVA PER FOR M A NCE

30. 11. 2016, 18.00, 20.00 Galerija Waldinger

Doktor Faust/Doctor Faustus Program/PROGRAMME Festival Lutkokaz

Srijeda/Wednesday, 16. 11.

LUTKOKAZ Otvaranje festivala/Festival Opening  Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Od 3 do 93. Veličanstveno djelo/From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention Teatro Cassiopea (Italija/Italy)

Četvrtak/Thursday, 17. 11.

WOR K SHOPS

R A DIONICE

19.00

19.30

Galerija Waldinger, Osijek Kuma smrt/Godfather Death Studenti uključeni u All Strings Attached projekt/ Students included in t he All Strings Attached project, Umjetnička akademijau Osijeku (Hrvatska/Croatia)

Petak/Friday, 18. 11.

WOR K SHOPS

R A DIONICE

PER FOR M A NCES

PR EDSTAV E

WOR K SHOPS

R A DIONICE

9.00−12.00, 14.00−16.00

9.00−12.00, 14.00−16.00

9.00−12.00

 mjetnička akademija u Osijeku U P. Uher: Principi crnoga kazališta/Priciples of the Black Theatre A. Pachinger: Animacija javanke/Rod Puppets Animation E. Lindtnerova: Scenski pokret/Stage movement Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana: Održavanje lutaka − Materijali i tehnologija/Preserving Puppets − Materials & Technology

 mjetnička akademija u Osijeku U P. Uher: Principi crnoga kazališta/Priciples of the Black Theatre A. Pachinger: Animacija javanke/Rod Puppets Animation E. Lindtnerova: Scenski pokret/Stage movement Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana: Održavanje lutaka − Materijali i tehnologija/Preserving Puppets − Materials & Technology

 mjetnička akademija u Osijeku U P. Uher: Principi crnoga kazališta/Priciples of the Black Theatre A. Pachinger: Animacija javanke/Rod Puppets Animation E. Lindtnerova: Scenski pokret/Stage movement Títeres Etcétera: Inovacija u lutkarskoj tehnologiji kao put do publike/Innovations in Puppet Technology as a Way to Reach Audiences

PR EDSTAV E

IZLOŽB A

12.00−13.30

PER FOR M A NCES

EX HIBITION

18.00

19.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku, Baletna dvorana Putovanje u središte sebe/Journey to the Center of the Self Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska/Croatia)

Otvaranje izložbe/Exhibition Opening  Galerija Waldinger, Osijek Pioniri europskog lutkarstva/Pioneers of European Puppetry

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku Prezentacija radionica/Workshops presentation

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MEETING

S ASTA NA K

Petak/Friday, 18. 11.

Srijeda/Wednesday, 30. 11.

14.00

 mjetnička akademija u Osijeku U All Strings Attached: radni sastanak/Project Meeting PR EDSTAV E

PER FOR M A NCES

PER FOR M A NCES

PR EDSTAV E

PER FOR M A NCES

PR EDSTAV E

10.00

17.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Duh lutkarske prošlosti/The Soul of People Títeres Etcétera (Španjolska/Spain)

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Ti loviš!/You Catch! Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana (Slovenija/Slovenia)

13.00

18.00, 20.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Dvoje/Two Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska/ Croatia)

Zatvaranje izložbe/Exhibition Closure Galerija Waldinge Doktor Faust/Doctor Faustus Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana (Slovenija/Slovenia)

10.00

Galerija Waldinger, Osijek Uspavanka za Uspavanka/Lullaby for Lullabyman Teatar To Go (Hrvatska/Croatia)  16.00

Galerija Waldinger, Osijek ±∞1/8 Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska/Croatia)  18.00, 20.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Patka, smrt i tulipan/Duck, Death and Tulip Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana (Slovenija/Slovenia) VOĐENI OGL EDI

GUIDED TOUR S

14.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Svečano zatvaranje/Grand Closure Faust/Faustus Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska/ Croatia) 18.00

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Europska noć kazališta u Dječjem kazalištu/ European Night inthe Children's Theatre

10.00, 16.00

20.00

Galerija Waldinger, Osijek Pioniri europskog lutkarstva/ Pioneers of European Puppetry

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku Zeko, zriko i janje/Bunny, Cricket and Lamb Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska/Croatia)

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* Program u sklopu projekta „All Strings Attached“/"All Strings A  ttached" project programme * Sva događanja su besplatna/All events are free

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Milan Klemenčič (1875—1957)

Vittorio Podrecca (1883—1959)

Hermenegildo Lanz (1893—1949)

Yanisbel V. Martínez POZ A DINA

STORY

Klemenčič, Podrecca i Lanz: pioniri u središtu avangarde

Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz: three pioneers at the heart of the avant-garde

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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utkarsko kazalište, uvijek vjeran odraz društva, u dvadesetom je stoljeću doživjelo velike promjene i to ponajprije u Europi. Takve korjenite promjene možemo najbolje opisati jednom riječju - metamorfoza. Sve od razdoblja prapovijesti, maske, lutke i animirani predmeti bili su dio narodnog kazališnog stvaralaštva. Početkom 20. stoljeća lutkarstvo je krenulo na dug i zahtjevan put kako bi doseglo svoj vrhunac u suvremenoj umjetnosti. U prvoj trećini 19. stoljeća europski su kontinent potresale duboke krize: Prvi svjetski rat (1914. – 1918.) i Oktobarska revolucija (1917.). Krize su budile nadu u drugačiji gospodarski sustav koji više poštuje radnika. Promjene su se odražavale u umjetničkom stvaralaštvu i poimanju društva. U umjetnosti je sve staro zamijenjeno novim i dotada neviđenim, izvornim i tehnološki naprednim. U želji za nadmašivanjem svega dotad doživljenoga, sentimentalnoga, za uveličavanjem neosviještenoga, racionalnoga, slobodnoga, strasnoga i individualističkoga, u prvim se desetljećima 20. stoljeća rodila avangardna umjetnost. Pojavili su se različiti umjetnički pokreti: impresionizam, ekspresionizam, fovizam, kubizam, futurizam, dadaizam, nadrealizam i mnogi drugi i, iako je svaki od njih zagovarao svoje estetske ideale, imali su nešto zajedničko: odbacivanje tradicije, ostvarivanje slobode pojedinca, inovativnost, eksperimentiranje i brz razvoj ideja. Umjetnost je takve ideje preuzela iz drugih područja poput marksizma i Freudove psihoanalize. „Treba biti potpuno suvremen“, rekao je Arthur Rimbaud, dok je Karl Marx tražio „potpunu promjenu“. Promjene su potakle pojavu nove umjetničke prakse i u kazalištu. Na kraju devetnaestog i početkom dvadesetog stoljeća u kazalištu se pojavio scenograf (fr. metteur en scène), što je promijenilo cijeli koncept kazališta. Na našem kontinentu kazalište je tražilo načine kojima bi nadmašilo naturalizam. Model gradskog kazališta s jednim glavnim glumcem („zvijezdom“), izvještačenom glumom i pretjerivanjem je napušten. Pojavili su se glumci s izražajnim pokretom koji su se mogli uživjeti u cjelokupan koncept predstave. Pozornica nije više bila samo mjesto glumčeve igre, već je postala usklađena cjelina različitih elemenata. Redatelj je postao važniji od autorova dramskog djela jer je on odlučivao o svjetlima, glazbi, scenografiji, koreografiji, rekvizitima i bojama. Tehnološki napredak omogućio je drugačije osvjetljenje. Scenski je prostor postao dinamičniji, sa stepenicama i rampama kojima se mogla postići razgibanost i ritam i u kojem je stajao glumac i njegovo tijelo. Najviše novina na ovo su područje unijeli: Konstantin Stanislavski i njegovo moskovsko kazalište, rad Antona i Mihaila Čehova, Vsevoloda Mejerholda i Mauricea Maeterlincka, Lugné-Poe, Paul Claudel, Alfred Jarry, Antonin Artaud, Jacques Copeau, Max Reinhardt, Adolphe Appia, Edward Gordon Craig, Bertold Brecht i mnogi drugi. Kazališni stvaraoci, za razliku od drugih grana avangardne umjetnosti koje su željele odlučno raskinuti s prošlošću, na svoju su kazališnu prošlost gledali drugačije: za njih je ona predstavljala rituale, komediju dell"arte, sajamsko kazalište, cirkusku umjetnost i različite azijske tradicije. Bilo je to, između ostalog, i razdoblje procvata orijentalizma. Azijski umjetnici, primjerice Sada Yacco i Mei Langfang, nadahnjivali su reformatore kazališta i mijenjali njihove poglede na kazališnu umjetnost. Zamislimo samo kakav je utjecaj imala predstava plesačica s Balija na Antonina Artauda godine 1931. u Parizu. Redateljima je bilo jasno da im trebaju sposobni, disciplinirani i iskusni glumci s izbrušenom tehnikom, koji bi svoje vještine razvijali bez pretjerivanja. Lutkarska umjetnost je kao alternativu glumcima od krvi i mesa mogla ponuditi umjetno i dehumanizirano tijelo. Lutke su postale ideal glumca jer su mogle glumiti potpuno ravnodušno, bez pokazivanja bilo kakvih emocija. Craigova teorija o „nadmarioneti“ govori baš o tome. Kod tog britanskog redatelja upravo je rad s animiranim predmetima naglašavao intiman odnos kazališta i smrti. I baš bi u tome sve ono arhetipsko i prvobitno koegzistiralo s avangardnim i s njime ostvarivalo nove poveznice i umjetničke jezike. Koncept „nadmarionete“ postao je estetski ideal za novi tip glumca.

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n the twentieth century, puppetry, which has always been a true reflection of society, experienced great changes, notably in Europe. If a single word were to be used to describe these significant changes, the best word would be "metamorphosis", because European puppetry was transformed into something completely different. Dating from prehistoric times, masks, puppets and animated objects have been a part of the theatre for centuries, particularly in the popular milieu. However, in the twentieth century puppetry stepped on a long and winding road leading to its culmination in the heart of contemporary artistic creation. In the first third of the previous century, the principal European powers opposed each other. The continent was struck by a major crisis that had been triggered by the First World War (1914—1918) followed by the Russian Revolution (October 1917). Both historical events revived the hopes for a different economic system more suited to the proletariat. Artistic creation clearly reflected these changes and also new ways of understanding society. The arts brought modernity, and everything that was old and obsolete was replaced by concepts that were original, hitherto unknown and technologically more advanced. In the first decades of the twentieth century, the determination to cut ties with the old, to fight against sentimentalism, to glorify the unconscious, and everything that is rational, and celebrate freedom, passion and individualism led to the birth of the avant-garde art movement. Multiple art movements such as Impressionism, Expressionism, Fauvism, Cubism, Futurism, Dadaism and Surrealism soon emerged. Although each of these movements defended its own aesthetic foundations, they shared several common characteristics: the fight against traditionalism ensuring the exercise of individual freedom and innovation, the audacity in terms of forms, experimentation and the rapid pace in terms of new concepts. This was supported by ideas originating from other areas, such as Marxist philosophy and Sigmund Freud's research. "One must be absolutely modern," said Arthur Rimbaud, while Karl Marx required that "the world must be changed". These innovations were echoed in the performing arts. At the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the twentieth century, the role of director (metteur en scène) was established, leading to complete transformation in how the dramatic arts were structured. The performing arts in our continent attempted to find new ways to openly defy naturalism. The model of the bourgeois theatre led by divas with poor interpretation and a tendency to exaggerate was abandoned. Better actors who were trained and specialised in the art of expressive body language and who were able to identify with the overall concept of the scene came to the fore. The stage was no longer a place for individual performances but a harmonious whole composed of different elements. Playwrights ceded their previously key roles to the director, who now assumed the major responsibility for the whole, and contributed to decisions about lighting, music, set design, choreography, colours and props. Everything was supported by technological advances allowing different means of illumination. The stage gained in significance by including dynamics, stairs and ramps used to create a more flexible atmosphere and rhythm, where the actor and their body assumed the principal role. Great protagonists contributing to these reforms in Europe were Constantin S. Stanislavsky and his Moscow Art Theatre, the oeuvre of Anton and Michael Chekhov, Vsevolod Meyerhold and Maurice Maeterlinck, Lugné-Poe, Paul Claudel, Alfred Jarry, Antonin Artaud, Jacques Copeau, Max Reinhardt, Adolphe Appia, Edward Gordon Craig and Bertold Brecht, among others. In these new endeavours, unlike other avant-garde movements which tried to make a clear break with the past, theatre artists took a different view of the past dramatic creations, seeing it as a kind of ritual inheritance, the "Commedia dell'arte", which is the theatre of fairs and circuses and certain Asian traditions. This was also the period when Orientalism blossomed. Asian artists such as Sada Yacco or Mei Langfang fascinated great reformers and changed the way they saw. Consider for example the influence of Balinese ballet dancers on Antonin Artaud in 1931 in Paris. For the directors of the time, it became evident they needed capable, disciplined and trained actors with well-honed techniques, who would be able to develop their abilities without becoming overexaggerated.

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Teatro dei Piccoli: El retablo de maese Pedro, 1956

„Zbog svoje specifičnosti lutka je dodirna točka dviju različitih realnosti (žive i nežive, predmeta i glumca, tijela i duše); i iako je to uglavnom nevidljivo i ponekad zbunjujuće, lutka omogućuje – za razliku od neugodnih iznenađenja – nepredvidljive i uspješne promjene koje si želimo od davnina.“ 1 Početkom 20. stoljeća u lutkarstvu su se, usporedo s klasičnim i tradicionalnim, pojavili i novi umjetnički i eksperimentalni oblici, vezani uz tadašnje modernističke i avangardne ideje. Lutkarstvo je kroz stoljeća bilo dio obiteljske tradicije koja se prenosila s generacije na generaciju i prikazivala na trgovima, plažama, sajmovima i u karavanama. Iako su mnogi tradicionalni oblici očuvani do danas, npr. likovi Puncha, Pulcinelle, sicilijanska „Opera dei Pupi“ i dr., jedni su u 20. stoljeću bili na rubu izumiranja (npr. portugalski Dom Roberto), dok su drugi (npr. španjolski Don Cristóbal), potpuno izumrli. Usprkos svemu tome tradicionalno lutkarstvo nije bio jedini put kojim je lutkarstvo 20. stoljeća nastavilo – na obzoru su se pojavile i mnogobrojne nove mogućnosti. Poljski povjesničar Henryk Jurkowsky zabilježio je da su za „preporod lutkarske umjetnosti zaslužni umjetnici, slikari i kipari koji po svom pozivu nisu bili lutkari. Radove bliske lutkarskoj umjetnosti stvarali su u svojim dramama (Picasso), baletima (Léger) i filmovima (Aleksandra Ekster). Futuristi Fortunato Depero i Enrico Prampolini su u Rimu surađivali s Vittorijem Podreccom. Nadahnuće za izradu lutaka pronašli su u geometriji i mehaničkim modelima. U lutkarskom kazalištu iz Züricha su Sophie Tauber – Arp i Otto Morach osmislili dadaističke i kubističke lutke jednostavnog oblika, jednostavno su nadigrali snažne i žive boje i na lutkama ostavljali tragove korištenih alata. Neki od njih osnovali su svoja lutkarska kazališta, dok su drugi učvršćivali svoj vlastiti umjetnički izraz u okviru različitih kazališta.“2 Lutkarsko je kazalište pobudilo veliko zanimanje brojnih stvaratelja (glazbenika, pjesnika, koreografa, slikara, kipara i drugih) koji su vlastitim izražajem oplemenili lutkarstvo i učinili ga umjetnošću. Tradicionalni repertoar se proširio, dramsko je pisanje počelo utirati nove

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Puppetry was able to offer an artificial and dehumanized body as an alternative to flesh and blood actors. Puppets became the ideal actor because they were able to perform on stage without being carried away by their emotions and who could all perform any physical action required of them perfectly every time. Craig's theory of the "Über-Marionettes" was one of the referential theoretic discourses illustrating these ideas. For this British director, working with animated objects emphasized the intimate relationship between the theatre and death, where archetypal and primitive concerns lived side by side with the avant-garde, leading to the creation of new ties and new artistic languages. This made the "Über-Marionette" an aesthetic ideal that contributed to a new perspective on traditional actors. "Due to its unique position, a puppet is a point of contact between different realities (animate and inanimate, object and actor, body and soul); and even if this condition makes it imperceptible and therefore rather unsettling, it also occasionally results in an unpredictable and rich exchange desired for years, rather than in surprising encounters."1 As a result, traditional and popular forms of European puppetry in the early twentieth century began to co-exist by side the more artistic and experimental forms associated with the avant-garde movements. Through the centuries, traditional puppets were part of the family heritage passed down from parent to child, and appeared in specific environments such as squares, beaches, cafés, and fairs. Although many traditional performances survived up until to the present day, e.g. Punch, Pulcinella, Sicilian "Opera dei Pupi", it is true that some of them were in danger of disappearing in the twentieth century. Some were on the verge of extinction, such as Portugal's Dom Roberto, and some had disappeared completely, like Spain's Don Cristóbal.

1 Brunella Eruli, Puck Flower, in: Puck, No. 1, Avant-Garde and Puppets, Charleville-Mézières, 1988, p. 3.

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putove. Avangardno lutkarstvo crpilo je sadržaje iz različitih literarnih i glazbenih predložaka. Proširio se i spektar tehničkih animacija te oblikovanja lutaka i scene korištenjem materijala, boja, prostornog oblikovanja i rasvjete. Lutkarske su se igre s gradskih trgova i sajmova preselile na velike i male pozornice i različita prizorišta na kojima su predstave bile tehnički izvedive. Odnos između glumaca, predmeta i animacije omogućavao je nove načine izražavanja. Lutkarstvo se profesionaliziralo i time se podiglo na novu razinu. U europskim državama poput Slovenije, Italije i Španjolske, koje su krajobrazno i kulturno međusobno vrlo različite, nalazimo pojedince koji ne potječu iz lutkarskih obitelji, ali su se ipak dobro snašli u svijetu lutkarske umjetnosti i odigrali ključnu ulogu u lutkarskoj povijesti svoga naroda: Milan Klemenčič (1875. – 1957.), slovenski fotograf i slikar, pionir fotografije u boji, scenograf i osnivač slovenskog lutkarstva; Vittorio Podrecca (1883. – 1959.), talijanski odvjetnik, ljubitelj glazbe, osnivač kazališta „I Piccoli“ – jednog od najvećeg kazališnih i lutkarskih ansambala svih vremena i Hermenegildo Lanz (1893. – 1949.), španjolski profesor crtanja, fotograf i scenograf koji je sudjelovao u realizaciji mnogobrojnih lutkarskih predstava važnih za kazališnu povijest Španjolske, Europe i Latinske Amerike. Sve njih povezuje lutkarstvo koje je u prvi plan stupilo upravo početkom 20. stoljeća u vrijeme procvata avangardne umjetnosti. Klemenčič, Podrecca i Lanz personificiraju vrijeme promjena i traganja koje je omogućilo razvoj današnjega lutkarstva. Milan Klemenčič svojim je minijaturnim marionetama postavio temelje razvoja slovenskog lutkarstva. Godine 1920. osnovao je prvo profesionalno lutkarsko kazalište, a istovremeno je bio i veliki inovator na području scenografije i oblikovanja svjetla. I kao što je sam rekao: „Moje glavno slikarsko umjetničko djelo bilo je lutkarsko kazalište, a moje slikarske izložbe bile su moje lutkarske predstave“. Njegov je rad obilježio prošlost i budućnost lutkarstva ovoga naroda na području Srednje Europe. Danas je lutkarska umjetnost u Sloveniji na vrlo visokoj razini. Država i lokalne zajednice podupiru različita kazališta i lutkarske stvaraoce. Odličan primjer je Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana i njegov nedavno otvoren Lutkarski muzej. U velikoj se mjeri ovdje radi o izravnim nasljednicima Milana Klemenčiča. Kad je Vittorio Podrecca u Rimu vidio nastup „Ballets Russes“ Sergeja Djagileva bio je toliko oduševljen da je poželio osnovati nešto slično, ali manje. Zato je godine 1914. osnovao „Teatro dei Piccoli“ – no njegov naziv „piccoli“ („maleni“) ni u kom slučaju ne umanjuje veličinu i predanost ove iznimne lutkarske skupine. Na suradnju je pozvao poznate avangardne umjetnike, kako bi skladali glazbu, kreirali lutke i izradili scenografiju – i u tome je bio vrlo uspješan. Tijekom 50 godina „I Piccoli“ su proputovali pola svijeta. Njegove marionete i brojna glumačka postava bili su kozmopolitski i predstavljali su primjer kako se ovakvim radom može stvoriti zajednički jezik koji prelazi zemljopisne, kulturne i političke granice. Podrecca je postao kazališni producent svjetskih razmjera, a utjecaj njegova rada na druge međunarodno priznate umjetnike bio je mnogo veći od njegove slave. Dvojica takvih umjetnika su Ramón del Valle-Inclán, poznat kao jedan od ključnih španjolskih književnika 20. stoljeća i Jacques Chesnais, znameniti francuski lutkar i kolekcionar. Hermenegildo Lanz napravio je lutke i dio scenografije za premijeru predstave „El retablo de maese Pedro“ u Parizu. Lutkarska opera Manuela de Falle jedno je od remek djela španjolske glazbe prošloga stoljeća i jedno od najvećih postignuća avangardnog lutkarstva ove južnoeuropske države. Lanz je bio i pionir kada se radi o priznavanju „papirnatog kazališta“ kao vrste umjetnosti, a uvelike je utjecao i na njemačke i mnoge druge lutkare svog doba.

Nevertheless, traditional puppetry was not the only path open to this genre in the twentieth century; many new opportunities were opening up. According to the Polish historian Henryk Jurkowsky, "the continued existence of puppetry lies in the hands of artists, painters and sculptors who are not professional puppeteers. They introduced artefacts that were similar to puppets in plays (Picasso), ballet (Léger) or films (Alexandra Exter). The futurists Fortunato Depero and Enrico Prampolini worked for Vittorio Podrecca in Rome. Their inspiration for creating puppets came from geometry and mechanical models. In the puppet theatre in Zürich, Sophie Tauber - Arp and Otto Morach created Dadaist and Cubist puppets with simple forms, and played without limitations, which had simple forms, and played about with them freely, leaving marks on the puppets from the tools they had used. Some of them established their own puppet theatres, while others formed ties with theatres and claimed their artistic identity."2 Musicians, poets, choreographers, dancers, painters and sculptors, all of them showed an interest in puppets and enriched this art from their differing points of view, thus driving progress in the art of puppetry Traditional puppetry repertory became more diverse, and playwrights explored new directions, both in terms of theme and form. The novel avant-garde puppet theatre was based on diverse literary and musical sources. The spectrum of animation and aesthetic techniques used to create puppets and scenery, including figurines, materials, colours, spatial concept and lighting, also became broader. Puppet performances were no longer limited to town squares or fairs, but also other large or small stages, auditoriums and other spaces where a different type of performance was technically feasible. The relationship between the body of the actor and the object, and the animation that was visible produced unusual means of expression. Puppetry became professional and reached a new level. In the distinct geographical and cultural environments of Slovenia, Italy and Spain, there were individuals without any family tradition in this field who approached the art of the country's puppet theatre: Milan Klemenčič (1875—1957), a Slovenian painter, a pioneer in colour photography, set designer and the father of the puppet theatre in the country; Vittorio Podrecca (1883—1959), an Italian lawyer, and music lover, the founder of the "Teatro dei Piccoli", one of the greatest theatre and puppet ensembles of all times, and Hermenegildo Lanz (1893—1949), a Spanish drawing teacher, photographer and set designer, who took part in several major puppet performances in terms of Spanish, European and Latin American theatre history. What these three individuals have in common is puppetry, which came to the forefront in the early twentieth century when the avant-garde art movement was blooming. Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz are a good representation of this time transformation and of the experiments that opened new horizons for the theatre of puppets. With his small marionettes, Milan Klemenčič laid the foundations for the development of puppetry in his country. In 1920, he established the first professional puppet theatre and was a great innovator in the field of lighting and set design. As he said, "my main work as a painter was in the marionette theatre and the performances there were my exhibitions." His work had a major influence on the past and future of this Central European nation. Today, puppetry in Slovenia has attained a very high level of artistry. The art of creating puppet scenery is supported by the state, and there are several companies that are using these funds and human resources. An excellent example is the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre and its recently opened museum. To a large extent, they are the direct heirs of Milan Klemenčič.

Svoj pečat ostavio je i u djelima svog prijatelja Federica Garcíe Lorce, s kojim je 1923. godine sudjelovao u realizaciji predstave „Títeres de cachiporra.“ Lorca je također jedan od ključnih protagonista lutkarske povijesti cijele Latinske Amerike.

Vittorio Podrecca who was fascinated by the performance of Sergei Diaghilev's Ballets Russes, which he saw in Rome, wanted to emulate this artistic company by creating something similar, but on a smaller scale. So he founded, in 1914, "Teatro dei Piccoli", but the name "piccoli" (small) does not in any way reduce the magnitude and commitment of this exemplary company. He employed major avant-garde artists who composed music, made puppets and scenography, and was highly successful, touring around half the globe for fifty years. His marionettes and the numerous personnel who were part of the company were cosmopolitans, and set an example of how this profession was able to create a

Milan Klemenčič, Vittorio Podrecca i Hermenegildo Lanz nisu jedini koji su utjelovili promjene u lutkarstvu 20. stoljeća. Mogli bismo nab-

2 Henryk Jurkowski, Metamorphosis. Puppetry in the 20th century. CharlevilleMézières 2000, p. 21.

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Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Hermenegildo Lanz: Veliko kazalište života/The Grand World Theatre, Granada, 1927

rojiti i mnoge druge. O ovim izabranim protagonistima govorimo zato što su, u projektu u kojem sudjeluju, europske institucije neposredno povezane s njihovom ostavštinom i zato što širem krugu posjetitelja želimo predstaviti njihov rad i djelo. Izložbe, predstave, konferencije i prisutne strane žele podići svijest o njihovom važnom doprinosu lutkarskoj umjetnosti. Njihov rad bitan nam je kako bismo razumjeli tko smo i odakle dolazimo, kako bismo mogli pronaći svoje mjesto u sadašnjosti i smoći snagu koja nam je potrebna da otvorenim očima dočekamo budućnost.

universal language that went beyond geographical, cultural and political borders. Podrecca became a theatre producer of global dimensions, but the influence of his work on many other internationally acclaimed artists was larger than his reputation. Two of these artists were Ramón del Valle Inclán, known as one of the key authors of Spanish literature in the twentieth century, and Jacques Chesnais, a renowned French puppeteer and collector, among others. Hermenegildo Lanz made puppets and part of the set for the première of the "El retablo de maese Pedro" in Paris. This opera by Manuel de Falla is one of the masterpieces of Spanish music from the previous century, and a major contribution from this Southern European country to the avant-garde movement in puppetry. Lanz was also a pioneer in introducing paper theatre into the arts, which highly influenced German creators and contemporary international puppeteers. His left his mark on the literary and artistic works of his friend Federico Garcia Lorca, with whom he collaborated in 1923 on the "Títeres de cachiporra" performance. Lorca was also a key individual in terms of understanding Latin America's puppet theatre history as a whole. Milan Klemenčič, Vittorio Podrecca and Hermenegildo Lanz are not the only individuals who embody the transformation of puppetry in the twentieth century. There are others who could be mentioned also. But we are talking about them today because several European organisations related to these pioneers and who are the direct heirs or legatees have assembled here to showcase their life and work. Exhibitions, performances, conferences and the following pages are intended to raise public awareness of their important contributions to the art of puppetry. Their paradigmatic work is essential for understanding who we are and where we come from, for finding our place in the present and finding the strength to walk towards the future with our eyes wide open.

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UmjetniÄ?ka akademija u Osijeku

Academy of Arts in Osijek


Osnivači Pionirskog kazališta: Julije Njikoš, Ivan Marton i Ivan Balog/The founders of the Pioneering theater: Julius Njikoš, John Marton and Ivan Balog

Igor Tretinjak IN TERVJU

IN TERV IEW

Osijek je 1930-ih bio vrlo jako lutkarsko središte

1930s Osijek: a notable centre of puppetry

JASMINKA MESARIĆ, PREDSJEDNICA HC UNIMA o počecima osječkoga lutkarstva.

JASMINKA MESARIĆ, PRESIDENT OF THE CROATIAN UNIMA, ABOUT THE BEGININGs of OSIJEK PUPPETRY.

Na početku razgovora možete li nam približiti početke lutkarstva u Osijeku, koji se zasad smještaju u 1930-e godine? Početke lutkarstva u Osijeku trebat će pomnije istražiti jer postoji mogućnost da je lutkarska umjetnost bila u nekim oblicima razvijena i prije trećeg desetljeća prošloga stoljeća o čemu iscrpno piše Antonija Bogner Šaban u svojoj knjizi „Tragom lutke i pričala“. U prilog

At the outset of this interview can you tell us about the beginnings of puppetry in Osijek which is known to have started in 1930? The beginnings of puppetry in Osijek will have to be investigated more closely, as it is quite possible that the art of puppetry had developed in different forms even prior to the 1930s, which is elaborated exhaustively by Antonija Bogner Šaban in her book "On the Trail of Puppets and

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ovom promišljanju idu sjećanja Zlatka Boureka, velikog hrvatskog lutkara i likovnog umjetnika, koja je vrlo iscrpno opisao, a kao svoj doprinos ideji osnutka Muzeja hrvatskog lutkarstva u Osijeku. Bourek se prisjeća putujućih lutkarskih družina koje su redovito prikazivale svoje predstave u različitim javnim prostorima Osijeka. Kako su te putujuće družine bile u prolazu, nitko nije bilježio ili najavljivao njihove izvedbe. Možemo se nadati da su putujuće lutkarske družine i ranijih godina redovito gostovale u Osijeku, ali kao što sam napomenula preostaje nam potkrijepiti ove teze.

Yarn Spinners". Support for this line of thought can be found in the recollections of Zlatko Bourek, which have been extensively documented as part of his contribution to establishing a museum of Croatian puppetry in Osijek. Bourek recalls travelling puppetry troupes that regularly performed in various public spaces in Osijek. Apparently these travelling troupes passed through without anybody recording or announcing their performances. We can only hope that these travelling puppet troupes were regularly hosted in Osijek, but as I mentioned before, this theory needs to be substantiated.

Ono što se zasad zna je činjenica da je 30-ih godina prošlog stoljeća Osijek imao čak četiri lutkarske scene, što ga čini jedinstvenim u Hrvatskoj. Koja su to scene? Riječ je o Katoličkom gospojinskom društvu koje je djelovalo u franjevačkom samostanu u Tvrđi, lutkarskoj sceni Židovske zajednice Wiso, lutkarskom kazalištu Sokolskog društva i lutkarskom kazalištu češke dijaspore.

What is currently known is that during the 1930s Osijek had four puppet theatres, which makes it unique within Croatia. Which theatres were they? We are certain that 1930s Osijek was a notable centre of puppetry and that it had four different puppet theatres. There was the Catholic Ladies" Society, which put on performances in the Franciscan Monastery in the Citadel, the "Wiso" Jewish Community Puppet Theatre, the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") and the Czech Diaspora Puppet Theatre.

Koje se kazalište pokazalo najustrajnijim i najvažnijim za budućnost osječkog lutkarstva? Istaknula bih kazalište Sokolskog društva o čijoj ambicioznosti i ozbiljnosti govori i podatak da je njegov predstavnik sudjelovao na Saveznom lutkarskom tečaju koji je održan u Novom Sadu od 6. do 17. kolovoza 1934. godine. U programu ovog tečaja polaznici su učili povijest lutkarstva, lutkarsku režiju, scenografiju, tehničke izvedbe ginjola i marionete. Predavači su bili tada ugledni stručnjaci koji su došli uglavnom iz Slovenije. Da bi zadovoljili svoje vrlo visoko zacrtane umjetničke kriterije članovi sokolskog kazališta 1935. godine na suradnju pozivaju još jednog umjetnika iz Slovenije Stanislava Hočevara. Što je osječko lutkarstvo dobilo dolaskom Stanislava Hočevara u Sokolsko kazalište? Možemo reći da s njegovim dolaskom počinje novo razdoblje za ovo kazalište. Osigurana su sredstva za izradu lutaka, scenografija, nabavku tehničke opreme. Hočevar je držao predavanja i praktičnu nastavu glumcima animatorima, prevodio je tekstove, većinom sa češkog i slovačkog jezika. Predstave su izvođene u tehnici marioneta. Prva izvedena predstava je „Car i detektiv“ u okviru novogodišnjeg programa 1935. godine, dok je izvedbom predstave „Zlatna ruža“ 19. siječnja 1936.godine svečano otvoreno Sokolsko kazalište lutaka. Hočevar je potekao iz Klemenčičeve škole. Može li se preko te veze procijeniti koliki je utjecaj Milana Klemenčiča na osječko lutkarstvo? Hočevar 1937. godine režira predstavu „Doktor Faust“ u obradi Milana Klemenčića. S obzirom da je ovo zadnja zabilježena predstava Sokolskog kazališta lutaka teško je odgovoriti na pitanje koliki je bio utjecaj Milana Klemenčića na razvoj lutkarstva u Osijeku, tim više što je istovremeno i potpuno neovisno djelovalo lutkarsko kazalište češke dijaspore. Vrlo je dobro organizirano te od samog početka djelovanja redovito subotom i nedjeljom daju predstave u Svečanoj dvorani Tvornice šećera (koja postoji i danas). Dokad traje „proljeće osječkog lutkarstva“? Ne dugo. Početkom 1938. godine s radom prestaje i Sokolsko lutkarsko kazalište i češko lutkarsko kazalište i sve do početka pedesetih godina prošloga stoljeća u Osijeku nema kazališne scene koja bi njegovala lutkarstvo ili umjetnost namijenjenu isključivo djeci. Na tragu prijašnjeg bogatog kazališnog života početkom pedesetih godina gotovo istovremeno počinju s radom Lutkarsko kazalište, koje je kontinuirano radilo punih šest godina, Pionirsko kazalište, Dječje kazalište Radost, a i Narodno kazalište na svom repertoaru povremeno ima predstave za djecu.djelovanja redovito subotom i nedjeljom daju predstave u Svečanoj dvorani Tvornice šećera (koja postoji i danas). Koja je daljnja sudbina lutkarstva i kazališta za djecu u Osijeku? Jedino kazalište koje je nastavilo s kontinuiranim radom je Pionirsko kazalište koje je 1958. dobilo profesionalni status te postalo Dječje kazalište „Ognjen Prica“. Njemu je pripojeno i Lutkarsko kazalište, dobili su prostorije za rad u zgradi u Donjem gradu, u kojima i danas rade. Koga biste istaknuli kao najvažniju osobu ranog lutkarstva u Osijeku? Vizionarom osječkog lutkarstva možemo nazvati Ivana Baloga, jednog od utemeljitelja Pionirskog kazališta, čovjeka koji se zdušno zalagao da amatersko kazalište dobije profesionalni status, izborio se da kazalište ima svoju dvoranu i ostale prateće prostorije nužne

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Which theatre proved to be the most resilient and important for future Osijek puppeteers? It should be emphasised that the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") showed such ambition and persistence, and that a representative was invited to attend the Federal Puppetry Course which was held in Novi Sad from 6th to 17th August 1934. On this course students were taught the history of puppetry, puppet directing, set design, Gignoli technical performance and marionettes. Lectures were given by renowned experts who came mostly from Slovenia. In 1935, in order to meet the extremely high artistic criteria, members of the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") appointed the Slovenian Artist Stanislav Hočevar. What did Osijek puppetry gain from the arrival of Stanislav Hočevar at the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre")? We can say that this began a new era for the Theatre. Funds were earmarked for the creation of puppets, set design and the procurement of technical equipment. Hočevar held lectures and practical training for actors and animators and translated texts from Czech and Slovak. Performances included marionette techniques. The first of these was the play "Car i detektiv" ("Tsar and Detective") which was performed within the New Year"s programme of 1935, while a performance of the play "Zlatna ruža" ("Golden Rose") officially opened the "Sokolsko kazalište" (The Falcon Theatre) on 19th January 1936. Hočevar came from the Klemenčič School. Through this connection can you assess the influence of Milan Klemenčič on puppetry in Osijek? In 1937 Hočevar directed the play "Doctor Faustus", as interpreted by Milan Klemenčić. Given that this is the last recorded performance of the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") it is difficult to define the impact Milan Klemenčić had on the development of puppetry in Osijek, especially considering that, at the same time, the totally independent Czech Diaspora Puppet Theatre was also operating. It was extremely well organised and gave regular Saturday and Sunday performances in the Ceremonial Hall of the Osijek Sugar Factory (which still exists today). How long did the "proljeće osječkog lutkarstva" ("Osijek Puppetry Spring") last? Not long. In early 1938 the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") and the Czech Diaspora Puppet Theatre stopped performing and it wasn't until the early 1950s that a theatre in Osijek would exclusively nurture children's puppetry or art. In the early 1950s, in the aftermath of this previously rich theatrical scene, work simultaneously began on the Puppet Theatre (which operated continuously for six years), the Pioneer Theatre, the Children's "Radost" ("Joy") Theatre and the National Theatre which occasionally included performances for children. How does the future of children"s theatre and puppetry in Osijek look? The only theatre which has continued to operate is the Pioneer Theatre which received professional status in 1958 and became the "Ognjen Prica" (Children's Theatre). It merged with the Puppet Theatre and moved to different premises in the Lower Town, where it still operates to this day. Who do you consider the most important person in the early history of puppetry in Osijek? Ivan Balog can be considered the visionary of puppetry in Osijek, as he was one of the founders of the Pioneer Theatre, a man who zealously

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za rad. Od samog početka rada u Dječjem kazalištu pokazivao je veliko zanimanje za lutkarstvo, ali kako nije imao velikog iskustva u tom području, stvorio je vrlo prisnu suradnju s Državnim lutkarskim kazalištem iz Bratislave i njihovim umjetnicima Bohdanom Slavikom, Janom Ozabalom, Vladimirom Predmerskim i mnogim drugim. Ova suradnja je utjecala i na razvoj lutkarstva u drugim hrvatskim lutkarskim središtima jer su ovi umjetnici počeli surađivati i u tim kazalištima, a vrlo brzo je uspostavljena suradnja i u razmjeni predstava.

advocated that amateur theatre should gain professional status and fought for the troupe to have its own hall and other ancillary facilities required for performances. From the outset of the Children's Theatre he showed a great interest in puppetry but lacking experience in this area, he established a close collaboration with the State Puppet Theatre in Bratislava and the artists it employed, such as Bohdan Slavik, Jan Ozábal, Vladimir Predmerski and many others. This collaboration influenced the development of the art in other Croatian centres of puppetry as the artists began to work in these theatres and very quickly established performance exchanges.

Iza paravana lutkarskog kazališta/Behind the screen of the puppet theatre

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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dr. sc. Antonija Bogner-Šaban

O d s j e k z a p ov i j e s t h r v a t s ko g k a z a l i š t a / T h e D i v i s i o n f o r t h e H i s t o r y of the Croatian Theatre, HAZU U FOKUSU

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Hrvatsko lutkarstvo između dva svjetska rata

Croatian puppetry during the inter-war period

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Početak hrvatskog lutkarstva seže u 1916. godinu, kada je izvedena bajka u tri čina „Ivica i Marica“ Adelheid Wette, popraćena glazbom Engelberta Humperdincka. Riječ je o marionetskoj predstavi izvedenoj u stolnoj, sklopivoj kutiji-pozornici i lutkama veličine od 10. do 15. centimetara. Kasnijih godina izvedba je glasovno snimljena, očuvane su originalne lutke (vještica), prenosivo-marionetsko kazalište kao i fotografije obitelji Deželić (Velimir, Mladen, Zlata, Antonija) incijatora koji su, zajedno s učiteljicom Marijanom Kralj, tvorci ove prve lutkarsko-pedagoške predstave u Zagrebu namijenjene javnom prikazivanju. Situiranje lutkarstva kao umjetničkog i scenskog izraza započinje osnutkom Teatra marioneta 1920. kada je u dvorani Hrvatskog glazbenog zavoda ostvarena predstava „Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel“ prema igrokazu Dragutina Domjanića, nacrtima lutaka i skicama dekora Ljube Babića i u organizaciji Velimira Deželića. Modernistički interes za lutku i kajkavski idiom Domjanićeva igrokaza koji obiluje slojevitim (često vremenski sočnim aluzijama) navodi Zlatka Boureka da Petricu Kerempuha u obradi Hrvoja Hitreca, uvrsti u svoj ginjol teatar figura-grdača u Zagrebačkom kazalištu lutaka 1996., zatim u Varaždinu 2006., posredno odajući priznanje toj ishodišnoj predstavi hrvatskog suvremenog lutkarstva. Stoga Domjanićev „Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel“ postaje poveznica povijesnog slijeda kajkavske književnosti sve do Krležinih Balada „Petrice Kerempuha“ i nedjeljiva jesvojina nacionalne kulture. Velimir Deželić, pravnik i ekonomist, stručno se specijalizirao u Műnchenu te je ondje neposredno, kao i Babić, stekao uvid u modernističke nazore o lutkarstvu. Deželiću se priključuju Stjepan Širola i Mladen Širola, koji entuzijastički nastoje razviti i profesionalizirati djelovanje Teatra marioneta. Njegove predstave održavaju se subotom i nedjeljom prije podne u kino dvoranama (Helios kino, Metropol kino) zatim u Jerolimskoj dvorani (danas Zagrebačko kazalište lutaka) sve do 1937. godine, a sadržajno su vezane za prerade narodnih priča i Grimmovih bajki, uvijek realizirane u marionetskoj tehnici. Stekavši stanovitu popularnost i uspjevši sačuvati kontinuitet djelovanja i pritom nametnuti kvalitetu svojih predstava prema mjerilu europski srodnih lutkarskih rezultata Mladen Širola učlanjuje Hrvatsku, zapravo „svoj“ Teatar marioneta, u svjetsku strukovnu organizaviju – UNIMA – odmah po njezinom formiranju 1929. godine. Marioneta je uzor buđenju lutkarstva i Splitu (1933. – 1940.), Osijeku (1934. – 1936.) i Sušaku (1935. – 1937.) i vremenska je osnova njegovoj profesionalizaciji nakon Drugog svjetskog rata. Za razliku od zagrebačke lutkarske priče koja počiva na njemačkoj tradiciji (osim Műnchena očit je utjecaj Berlina i Reinhardtovog pa i ekspresionističkog Jessnerovog principa te likovno-svjetlosnih inovacija E. G. Craiga) ovdje je presudna romanska, napose talijanska scenska estetika, a budući da sva kazališta osniva Sokolsko društvo nazočna je i temeljna ideja češkog lutkarstva – uspomoć predstava buditi svijest o nacionalnoj i kulturnoj samobitnosti. Svako je lutkarsko središte imalo svog „glumačkog“ junaka (Split – Malog Marinka, Sušak – Ju-

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he beginnings of Croatian puppetry date back to 1916, when a three act version of the fairy-tale "Ivica i Marica" ("Hansel and Gretel"), written by Adelheid Wette with music by Engelbert Humperdinck (1854—1921, German composer), was first performed. This marionette play was performed with a table set, foldable box-stage and 10 to 15 cm puppets. Audio recordings were made of later performances and the original puppets (the witch), the portable puppet theatre and photographs of the Deželić Family (Velimir, Mladen, Zlata and Antonija) were also preserved. The family, along with the teacher Marijana Kralj, created this first educational puppet performance intended for public performance in Zagreb. Positioning puppetry as an artistic and theatrical expression began with the creation of the Puppet Theatre in 1920, when the Croatian Music Institute hall hosted a performance of the "Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel" ("Petrica Kerempuh and the Smart Donkey"), a play written by Dragutin Domjanić, with puppet and set designs by Ljubo Babić and directed by Velimir Deželić. Domjanić's Modernist interest in puppetry and the Kajkavian idiom, evident in elaborate (and often rich, time-related allusions), encouraged Zlatko Bourek to include Hrvoje Hitrec's interpretation of "Petrica Kerempuh" into his guignol figure theatre at the Zagreb Puppet Theatre in 1996, and later in Varaždin in 2006, indirectly paying homage to the original play in contemporary Croatian puppetry. Through this "Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel" ("Petrica Kerempuh and the Smart Donkey") follows a historic link to Kajkavian literature and the symbolic poem "Petrica Kerempuh" by Miroslav Krleža, and becomes an indivisible characteristic of Croatian culture. Velimir Deželić, a Lawyer and Economist professionally specialised in Munich where he, alongside Babić, gained direct insight into Modernist attitudes towards puppetry. He continued the management of the Puppet Theatre and was joined by Stjepan Širola and Mladen Širola in their enthusiastic search for development and professionalism in the work of the newly formed Puppet Theatre. Until 1937, his performances were initially held on Saturdays and Sunday mornings (in the Helios and Metropol Cinemas), and then the Jerolimski Hall (today the Zagreb Puppet Theatre). Their themes related to interpretations of folk tales and Brothers Grimm fairy tales and always incorporated puppetry techniques. Having acquired popularity, preserved a certain continuity of performances and succeeded in positioning the quality of performances as a measure against similar European puppetry, Mladen Širola registered Croatia, i.e. his Puppet Theatre into UNIMA – upon its incorporation in 1929. A marionette was an idol for the revival of puppetry in Split (1933—1940), Osijek (1934—1936) and Sušak (1935—1937) and these periods became a breeding ground for its professionalisation after the Second World War. In contrast to the Zagreb puppet story that originates in German tradition (in addition to Munich, strong influences can be noticed, not only from Berlin and Reinhardt, but also from the Expressionist Jessner's principle and the visual art and light innovations of E. G. Craig), here the prevailing performance aesthetic is Roman, in particular Italian. Considering that all theatres were established by "Sokolsko društvo"

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rića, Osijek – Gašparčeka) koji su u okviru bajkovitih tema (na Sušaku modernistički dramatičar Viktor Car Emin posebno se posvećuje lutkarstvu) postaju kao i zagrebački Petrica Kerempuh glasnogovornici i duhoviti kritičari različitih društveno (negativnih) pojava. Iako je tretirano kao lagodna zabava za dječji uzrast, bez ikakvog utjecaja na stilska kretanja na „velikoj“ pozornici, rasprostiranje lutkarstva, napose tridesetih godina proteklog stoljeća, donosi prve međusobne kontakte koji brišu jezične barijere i ponajprije su zasnovani na razmjeni iskustava. U Osijeku u trećem desetljeću istodobno egzistiraju četiri lutkarske scene, a Stanislav Hočevar, voditelj Sokolskog kazališta, prema fragmentarno dokumentiranim podatcima, poklonik je postignuća Milana Klemenčiča i slovenskog lutkarstva općenito, te valja govoriti o kulturalnom posredovanju dviju tradicija koje će sljedećim naraštajima donijeti vidnu kreativnu dobrobit. Premda hrvatsko lutkarstvo između Dvaju svjetskih ratova ostvaruje svoje prve korake, bitnost umjetničkih postignuća otvorilo mu je put sudjelovanja i mjerodavnog dioništva u svijetu kazališnih događanja.

("The Falcon Society") the concept of Bohemian puppetry, performances used to raise consciousness about national and cultural awareness, is also integrated within. Each puppet theatre had its own ʻhero-actor" (Split – "Mali Marinko", Sušak – "Jurić", Osijek – "Gašparček") who, as part of a fairy-tale topic (with Viktor Car Emin of Sušak who devoted his work to puppetry), just like "Petrica kerempuh" become the heralds and the critics of different (negative) social phenomena. Although considered as entertainment for children, without any influence on stylistic movements on "grand" stages, the spread of puppetry, especially during the 1930s, resulted in contacts that crossed language barriers as those were first and foremost based on the exchange of experience. In 1930s Osijek there were four puppetry stages that existed at the same time, and Stanislav Hočevar, Head of the "Sokolsko kazalište" ("The Falcon Theatre") was, according to partially documented material, a great fan of Milan Klemenčič's achievements and Slovenian puppetry in general. This resulted in cultural exchange between the two traditions which would bring significant creative benefit to future generations. Although Croatian puppetry made its first steps during the inter-war period, the significance of its artistic achievements has created a path to its collaboration and competent share in the world of theatre events.

Grupa članova Umjetničkog kluba Teatar marioneta/Group members of the Artistic Society Marionette Theatre, 1923

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Igor Tretinjak U FOKUSU

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The poetic expression of UAOS

Poetska širina UAOS

Od klasike do istraživanja novih vidova animacije

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rojekt „All Strings Attached“ prvenstveno je okrenut povijesti lutkarstva, no bez (izvedbeno) žive sadašnjosti njegovi rezultati ostali bi tek tragovi na papiru u nekom mračnom arhivu. Kako bi prašnjavu sudbinu zamijenila živa i potentna, važan dio projekta čini izvedbeni most između povijesti i sadašnjosti s pogledom na budućnost. Taj izazovan zadatak omatanja važnog isječka lutkarske povijesti suvremenim scenskim ruhom dobila je Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku. Iako mlada, osječka je akademija u desetak godina odškolovala lutkare različitih poetika i stremljenja, ukazavši širinom njihova izraza na silne mogućnosti i bogatstvo suvremenog lutkarstva. Te poetike kreću se od preplitanja i preispitivanja tradicionalnog lutkarstva preko osluškivanja suvremenosti do traganja za novim mogućnostima animacije u prostoru, zvuku i tijelu. Ovaj kratak pregled bazira se na uglavnom završnim i diplomskim ispitima koji su svoju kvalitetu potvrdili na festivalima, međunarodnim gostovanjima i repertoarima profesionalnih kazališta. Na početku krenimo s predstavama koje paravanskom igrom prizivaju tradicionalni koncept, uranjajući u njega i(li) polemizirajući s njim. Jedna od vrlo poticajnih lutkarskih tehnika za studente brzi su, zaigrani i simpatično zločesti ginjoli, a ogledni primjer uspješne ginjolske predstave je munjevita i duhovita predstava „U potrazi za dijamantnom suzom“, Vanje Jovanovića, Ivana Pokupića, Gorana Vučka i Marijane Matoković u mentorstvu Maje Lučić Vuković i Tamare Kučinović. Paravanska tradicija prisutna je i u Božićnoj priči u kojoj je Petra

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From the Classics to Research of New Forms of Animation

Blašković uspješno kombinirala razne lutkarske tehnike, dok se isključivo javanke pojavljuju u uglavnom vrlo kvalitetnim ispitima 2. godine BA, poput oglednog „Ni'ko kao ja“. Ispit praizveden 2014. godine u izvedbi Mateje Bublić, Matka Buvača, Andra Damiša, Stipe Gugića, Sare Ipše, Jakova Jozića, Anne Jurković, Nikole Kerkeza, Srđana Kovačevića, Tene Milić Ljubić, Gordana Marijanovića i Mirne Ostrošić pod mentorstvom Hrvoja Seršića i Nenada Pavlovića čini niz etida u kojima studenti preispituju odnos lutkara i lutke. Taj izuzetno složen odnos predstavlja stalni izazov osječkim studentima lutkarstva, a kao uspješne primjere možemo istaknuti završni rad Jadrana Grubišića u predstavi Pikolo, u kojoj je razvio emocijom ispunjen odnos s lutkom sicilijankom imena Kekec te ispite Irene Bausović i Matka Knešaureka koji su u predstavama Zvijezda te U dvoje je lakše stvarali dinamične odnose sa zijevalicama. (Plesni) korak dalje u istraživanju odnosa animatora i lutke napravile su Hana Kunić i Sara Ipša koje su u predstavama „O Tolstoju i lavovima i pustim otocima“ te „Minaluš“ propitivale odnos između lutke i vlastita tijela u plesnom pokretu. Tvrtko Štajcer, Justina Vojaković-Fingler, Lidija Kraljić, Selma Mehić i Ivana Gudelj u predstavi „Početak kraja“ otplovili su u svijet bunraku lutaka, rijetko prisutan na hrvatskim lutkarskim scenama, u kojemu je žarište s odnosa animator-lutka prošireno na međuodnos samih lutkara. Giulio Settimo i Peđa Gvozdić razvili su u Najboljim prijateljima zanimljiv i dinamičan odnos s balonima, udahnuvši im scenski život i otvorivši novo poglavlje

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he Project "All Strings Attached" is primarily orientated to the history of puppetry, but without its live (performing) presence its achievements would merely remain traces on paper stored in a dark archive. To circumvent such a fuliginous fate and remain vital and potent, an important part of the Project is a bridge between the past and the present with an eye on the future. This challenging task of wrapping an important historical part in the history of in contemporaneous garments has fallen to the Academy of Arts in Osijek. Although founded relatively recently, the Academy of Arts in Osijek has, in the ten years of its existence, educated puppeteers in different poetic styles and trends and, with their elaborated expressions, presented countless possibilities and the tremendous wealth of modern puppetry. These poetics begin with the interweaving and questioning of traditional puppetry and continue on to listening to the contemporary and to search for new possibilities in animation in space, sound and the body. This brief selection is mostly based on graduation papers and examinations, the quality of which has been confirmed at festivals, international guest performances and their position in in professional theatrical repertoires. Let us start with shows that utilise screen performances to evoke the traditional concept, plunging into and (or) entering into discourse with it. One puppet technique which is extremely stimulating for students is the quick, playful, cute and naughty Guignol puppet, and a prime example of a successful Guignol play is the clever and witty "U potrazi za dijamantnom suzom" ("Looking for a Diamond Tear") devised by Vanja Jovanović, Ivan Pokupić, Goran Vučak

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and Marijana Matoković which was mentored by Maja Lučić Vuković and Tamara Kučinović. The screen tradition is present in the "Božićna priča" ("Christmas Story"), in which Petra Blašković successfully combined various puppet techniques, and Javanese shadow puppets are used in almost all of the high-quality examination pieces produced by second year students, e.g. the exemplary "Ni'ko kao ja" ("Nobody Like Me"). This examination piece was originally performed in 2014 by Mateja Bublić, Matko Buvač, Andro Damiš, Stipe Gugić, Sara Ipša, Jakov Jozić, Anna Jurković, Nikola Kerkez, Srđan Kovačević, Tena Milić Ljubić, Gordan Marijanović and Mirna Ostrošić and mentored by Hrvoje Seršić and Nenad Pavlović, and represents a sequence of studies in which students analyse the relationship between the puppeteer and the puppet. This exceptionally complex relationship is a constant challenge for the Osijek Academy puppetry students, and the most successful examples are exams like the graduation exam of Jadran Grubišić in Pikolo, in which he developed an emotional relationship with the Sicilian puppet called Kekec and the examination pieces of Irena Bausović and Matko Knešaurek whose plays "Zvijezda" ("The Star") and "U dvoje je lakše" ("Two Makes it Easier") created dynamic relationships with "muppets". Hana Kunić and Sara Ipša took a (dancing) step forward in the relationship between the animator and the puppet and in their plays "O Tolstoju i lavovima i pustim otocima" ("Tolstoy, Lions and Deserted Islands") and "Minaluš" questioned the relationship between the puppet and their own body through dancing. In

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


u našem pregledu – kazalište predmeta. Ono je također vrlo zastupljeno u studentskim promišljanjima, a kao primjer možemo uzeti diplomski rad „Čovjek koji je nosio poljubac“ čiji je scenski svijet Nenad Pavlović satkao od kišobrana u ulozi scenografije i živih stolnih lutaka. Stolne lutke, tu danas sveprisutnu lutkarsku tehniku, na mudar su način iskoristili Ivana Vukićević, Antonio Jakupčević i Krešimir Jelić pod mentorstvom Hrvoja Seršića i Katarine Arbanas, u poetičnoj ih predstavi „Kuma Smrt“ pretočivši u lampice čije svjetlo život znači. Male stolne lutke i sicilijanke Katarina Arbanas i Giulio Settimo spojili su u predstavi „Mala sirena“, na zanimljiv način oblikujući dva zasebna svijeta, onaj dubine i površine, spojena šavom ljubavi.

Ova kratka šetnja kroz odabrane naslove pokazala je tek dio široke lepeze pristupa osječkih studenata suvremenom lutkarstvu, što će osigurati zanimljiv izvedbeni pristup životima i djelima velikog „All Strings“ trija Podrecca-Klemenčič-Lanz, ali i izvedbeno bogatu budućnost hrvatskog lutkarstva.

"Početak kraja" ("The Beginning of the End") Tvrtko Štajcer, Justina Vojaković-Fingler, Lidija Kraljić, Selma Mehić and Ivana Gudelj sailed to the world of Bunraku puppet theatre which is rarely seen on Croatian puppet stages and in which the focus of the animator-puppet relationship is extended to the mutual relationship among the puppeteers themselves.

the graduation paper "Čovjek koji je nosio poljubac" ("A Man Who Carried a Kiss"). Table puppets, this omnipresent technique of today, which was wisely used by Ivana Vukićević, Antonio Jakupčević and Krešimir Jelić, who were mentored by Hrvoje Seršić, and Katarina Arbanas who, in a poetic play "Kuma Smrt" ("Godmother Death"), transformed them into lamps whose light means life. Small table puppets and Sicilian puppets were successfully joined in "Mala sirena" ("Little Mermaid") by Katarina Arbanas and Giulio Settimo, and in an interesting way formed two separate worlds, the world of the deep and the world of the surface joined by a seam of love. A step further in analysing and researching animation was taken in the graduation performances directed by Tamara Kučinović and mentored by Maja Lučić Vuković, who expanded animation to space, sound, stage scenery and the body. This was shown in a very successful play "Kabanica" ("The Raincoat") performed by Mateja Grabić, Ivana Gudelj, Lidija Kraljić Zavišić, Selma Mehić, Martina Stjepanović, Tvrtko Štajcer, Justina Vojaković Fingler and Dina Vojnović, and in the award-winning play by the Academy of Arts "Duga" ("The Rainbow") performed by Nikša Eldan, Filip Eldan, Kristina Fančović, Nino Pavleković, Luka Bjelica and Petra Šarac. These can be accompanied by the blockbuster based on body animation, "Pekel na zemli" ("Hell on Earth") from 2013, the graduation exam by Filip Eldan, Nikša Eldan and Nino Pavleković mentored by Ljudmila Fedorova and Tamara Kučinović and "Dječak koji me vidio" ("The Boy Who Saw Me") in which Ivan Pokupić and Marijana Matoković use space animation to form the invisible leading character.

Korak dalje u propitivanju i istraživanju animacije učinjen je u diplomskim predstavama u režiji Tamare Kučinović i mentorstvu Maje Lučić Vuković, koje animaciju šire na prostor i zvuk, scenografiju i tijelo. Riječ je o vrlo uspješnoj predstavi „Kabanica“ u izvedbi Mateje Grabić, Ivane Gudelj, Lidije Kraljić Zavišić, Selme Mehić, Martine Stjepanović, Tvrtka Štajcera, Justine Vojaković Fingler i Dine Vojnović te najnagrađivanijoj predstavi Umjetničke akademije, „Duga“ u izvedbi Nikše Eldana, Filipa Eldana, Kristine Fančović, Nine Pavlekovića, Luke Bjelice i Petre Šarac. Njima možemo pridružiti hit-predstavu naslonjenu na animaciju tijela, „Pekel na zemli“ iz 2013. godine, završni ispit Filipa Eldana, Nikše Eldana i Nine Pavlekovića u mentorstvu Ljudmile Fedorove i Tamare Kučinović te predstavu „Dječak koji me vidio“ u kojoj Ivan Pokupić i Marijana Matoković animacijom prostora oblikuju naslovnog nevidljivog junaka.

Ni'ko kao ja/Nobody like me In "Najbolji prijatelji" ("Best Friends"), Giulio Settimo and Peđa Gvozdić developed an interesting and dynamic relationship with balloons, by breathing life into them on stage and by opening a new chapter in our appreciation of the theatre - the theatre of objects. This theatre is very highly represented in students' analyses, e.g.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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This short walk through these selected plays has shown only a small part of a wide range of approaches that the Osijek Academy students use in modern puppetry, which will result in an interesting performance approach when it comes not only to the lives and work of the great "All Strings" Trio, Podrecca-Klemenčič-Lanz, but also to the rich future of performance within Croatian Puppetry.

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Lutkarsko kazaliĹĄte Ljubljana

Ljubljana Puppet Theatre


Milan Klemenčič Solkan, 1875. – Ljubljana, 1957. Slikar, lutkar, scenograf i fotograf.

painter, PUPPETEER, SET DESIGNER AND PHOTOGRAPHER.

Malo kazalište marioneta Šturje kod Ajdovštine, 1910. – 1914.; Graz, 1917.

Small Marionette Theatre Šturje near Ajdovščina, 1910—1914; Graz, 1917

22. prosinca 1910. Klemenčič je postavio svoju prvu predstavu „Mrtvac u crvenom plaštu“ i tako je Šturje postalo rodnim mjestom slovenskog lutkarskog kazališta. Predstava je očarala gledatelje i Klemenčiča nadahnula da se još predanije prihvati posla. Uslijedile su predstave s dovitljivim Gašparčićem u glavnoj ulozi: „Začarani princ“ (1911.), „Kralj Lavrin“ (1911.), „Kraljević Karanfil i kraljevna Ljiljana“ (1913.), „Gašparčić slikar“ (1913.) i „Trojica iz Damaska“ (1913.). Iako je kreativnost mladog kazališta prekinuo svjetski rat, Klemenčič je i iz Graza, gdje je bio raspoređen tijekom rata, naručio pozornicu i lutke i uprizorio dvije predstave: „Tajno ogledalo“ (1917.) i „Čarobne gusle“ (1917).

The Small Marionette Theatre's very first performance, which took place on 22 December 1910, cemented Šturje as the birthplace of the Slovenian marionette theatre. The performance enthralled the audience and encouraged Klemenčič to pursue his work with even greater fervour. Next, he staged plays starring the sly hero Kasperle Larifari, i.e. "The Enchanted Prince" (1911), "King Lavrin" (1911), "Prince Rose-Red and Princess Lily-White" (1913),

veća od one u mjestu Šturje, no lutke i sama scena bili su mnogo preciznije izrađeni, a sama pozornica je bila cjelovito osmišljena. Predstave je istovremeno moglo gledati najviše trideset uzvanika, većinom iz ljubljanskih kulturnih krugova, kojima su predstave tog malog kazališta bile pravi kulturni doživljaj. Postavljanjem predstave „Doktor Faust“, Klemenčič je 1938. godine dosegao svoj vrhunac kreativnosti. I kada se 1948. godine u Ljubljani osni-

Slovensko lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana, 1920. – 1924. Nakon rat a Klemenčič se preselio u Ljubljanu, gdje je postao voditeljem opreme svih scena Slovenskog lutkarskog kazališta, prvog profesionalnog lutkarskog kazališta. U nekoliko mjeseci pripremio je skice za pozornicu, izradio 47 marioneta, školovao nove glumce, režirao, glumio… 20. siječnja 1920. u dvorani Gradskog doma (današnjega Lutkarskog kazališta Ljubljana) premjerno su izvedene „Čarobne gusle“. Predstava je prihvaćena s oduševljenjem, no Klemenčič, usprkos istinskoj podršci koju je imao, nije dobio nikakvu konkretnu podršku za rad kazališta. Na svoj četvrti rođendan kazalište je zbog financijskih poteškoća zatvorilo svoja vrata, a majstor se posvetio slikarskim platnima. Kazalište Minijaturne lutke Ljubljana, 1936. – 1957. Klemenčičeva dnevna soba ponovno je postala kazališna dvorana tek 1936. godine, kada je u njoj prikazao predstavu „Sovin dvorac“. Pozornica je bila tek nešto

(1917) and "The Magic Violin" (1917). Slovenian Marionette Theatre Ljubljana, 1920—1924 Following the war, Klemenčič relocated to Ljubljana, where he was appointed as the Head of the Slovenian Marionette Theatre – the first professional puppet theatre in Slovenia. In a few months, he produced set designs, made 47 marionettes, trained four new actors, and took over directing, acting etc. On 20 January 1920, the Civic Hall hosted the premiere of Pocci's "The Magic Violin". The performance was received with great enthusiasm, but Klemenčič was denied concrete support for the theatre's operations. On its fourth anniversary the theatre had to close down due to financial pressures and the disheartened puppet master returned to painting canvases. Miniature Puppets Theatre, Ljubljana, 1936—1957

Autoportret „Moj studio"/Self-portrait called "My studio", 1907

valo Gradsko lutkarsko kazalište, Klemenčič je podržao inicijativu i sudjelovao u njegovu nastajanju. Pripremio je nacrte za novu lutkarsku pozornicu i likovnu podlogu za „Čarobne gusle", dok je samu realizaciju prepustio novoj generaciji lutkara.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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"Kasperle: The Portrait Painter" (1913) and "Triplets of Damascus" (1913). World War I put an end to the creative drive behind the new theatre. While Klemenčič was stationed in Graz, he sent for his stage and puppets and prepared two plays: "The Mysterious Mirror"

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After a long break, Klemenčič returned to his puppets in 1935. The silk curtain was lifted on 26 April 1936 for Pocci's "The Castle of Owls" and the Klemenčič living room was once again transformed into a theatre. The stage was scarcely bigger than the one in Šturje, but it was more sophisticated, the puppets and set design were more intricate and the stage setting more elaborate. The performance of "Doctor Faustus" in 1938 marks the pinnacle of Klemenčič. In 1948, the City Puppet Theatre was established in Ljubljana. Klemenčič endorsed the new theatre and was involved in its creation. He made plans for a new marionette stage and took over the visual design of "The Magic Violin", however, he left the stage realization to the new generation of puppeteers.

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Nadja Ocepek, Tjaša Tomšič IN TERVJU

IN TERV IEW

Muzej na pozornici

Museum on stage

Jelena Sitar i Igor Cvetko priredili su slavnu Klemenčičevu predstavu „Doktor Faust“ iz 1938. godine. Predstavu su u Lutkarskom kazalištu Ljubljana (LGL) prvi puta obnovili 12. studenoga 1982., a njena najnovija obrada iz prošle je godine s potpuno novom postavom. Ova predstava iz generacije u generacijuo doživljava nove preobrazbe. Pri tom autori Jelena Sitar i Igor Cvetko tvrde da obnova uvijek predstavlja susret dvaju vremena: prošloga, u kojem je predstava nastala, i sadašnjega, u kojem se predstava ponovno predstavlja gledateljima. Muzeji čuvaju prošlost, a kazalište može živjeti i u sadašnjosti. Kada se radi o povijesnim predstavama kakav je „Doktor Faust“, najveći izazov uvijek je onaj kako sačuvati integritet autorskog rada i istovremeno djelo povezati sa suvremenošću – kako ta dva aspekta uravnotežiti i na pozornici prikazati vjerodostojnu osuvremenjenu predstavu? O tome kako uvijek iznova oživljavati jednu takvu predstavu, razgovarali smo s Jelenom Sitar Cvetko.

Jelena Sitar and Igor Cvetko are the masterminds behind the adaptation of the famous play "Doctor Faustus" that was first put on stage by Milan Klemenčič in 1938. The first revival took place on 12 November 1982 at the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre (LGL). Last year's revived play had a new cast. In between generations the play has undergone several transformations. Sitar and Cvetko add that a revival is always the intersection of two eras: the past, in which the show was conceived, and the present, in which the show is reintroduced to the modern audience. Museums endeavour to conserve our past, while the theatre lives explicitly in the present. With historical plays, such as "Doctor Faustus", the biggest challenge is to retain the integrity of original work while linking it to the present – how can we balance out both of these aspects and stage an authentic modernisation of the play? We interviewed Jelena Sitar Cvetko about what it takes to revive such a show.

Zašto bi nam i danas bilo zanimljivo gledati tako staru predstavu? Klemenčičev „Doktor Faust“ je posebno blago, najveća dragocjenost slovenske lutkarske povijesti i dobro je da ga ljudi vide. U kazalištu može

Why should we be interested in seeing a historic play like this one? "Doctor Faustus" by Milan Klemenčič is a special treasure – the crown jewel in the history of Slovenian puppetry – and it is only right that people are

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Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


opstati samo ukoliko ga gledamo kao predstavu. Ako bismo postavili izložbu, to ne bi bilo kazalište. Pa je tako i ideja Edija Majarona, ondašnjeg umjetničkog ravnatelja LGL-a koji me zajedno s Igorom Cvetkom pozvao na suradnju u predstavi, bila muzejska predstava. Nije bilo zamišljeno da će predstava postati uspješnica, više se radilo o obnavljanju nečega što je nekada bilo veoma dragocjeno. Radilo se o očuvanju nacionalne povijesti.

able to see it. In the theatre it can only exist if it is put on as a performance. It wouldn’t be theatre if we only held an exhibition about it. Edi Majaron, who was the artistic director of LGL at the time of the first revival, invited me and Igor Cvetko to take part in the performance which he envisioned as a museum play. We didn’t set out to make a hit per se; it was more about reviving something that used to be very precious. It was about conserving national history.

Može li gotovo stotinu godina stara predstava uopće živjeti u sadašnjosti? Prije oživljavanja bilo koje stare predstave, potrebno je razriješiti nekoliko ključnih pitanja. Glavni izazov ovakve predstave je što gledatelji žive „ovdje i sad“, dok je povijest bila „tamo i nekad“. Dva vremena i prostora potrebno je spojiti na način da nastalo novo biće živi poštivajući ono što je bilo ranije uz komunikaciju primjerenu današnjici. Kod toga je svakako nužno da se – kao što slikari retuširaju određene dijelove slika – predstava prilagodi senzibilnosti moderne publike i vremenu koje danas prolazi drugačije i pokuša iz toga napraviti „dobar teatar“. Naime, predstava će biti onoliko dobra koliko su dobri glumci koji ju u tom trenutku izvode. Budemo li predstavu, usprkos njenoj prekrasnoj likovnoj slici i Klemenčičevom dovršenom scenariju loše prikazali, budu li uloge loše interpretirane… učinit ćemo majstoru Klemenčiću vrlo lošu uslugu.

Can an almost century old show live in the present? Before we venture into reviving historical plays, there are some key issues that need to be addressed. The main challenge of such a production is that theatre lives “here and now”, whereas history was “there and then”. Thus, we have to combine two eras and two spaces so that the new entity lives in sympathy with that which was before, and adopts a style of communication to resonate with modern times. Of course, it is essential to adapt the performance to the sensibilities of the modern crowd and to the time, which moves differently today, in an attempt to make good theatre out of it. It is sort of like painters who retouch parts of their paintings after the fact. The quality of any performance depends on the quality of the cast that is performing it. It would be a disservice to master Klemenčič if we did a poor job with the play with lacklustre interpretations of roles, considering the play’s remarkable visuals and the brilliant script penned by Klemenčič.

Vezano uz Klemenčičeva Fausta, rado bih spomenula još jednu značajnu obnovu stare lutkarske predstave iz vremena kada sam i sama bila umjetnička ravnateljica LGL-a. Predstavu „Zvezdica Zaspanka“ iz pepela smo uzdigli u sezoni 2008./2009. prigodom 60. obljetnice kazališta. Lutaka koje su izgorjele 1970.-tih nije više bilo. Što se tiče Uprizorenje „Doktora Fausta“ u korežiji s Igorom Cvetkom bila je prva profesionalna predstava Jelene Sitar Cvetko 1982. godine. LGL-u je donijela brojne nagrade i međunarodne reference. Gospođa Sitar je predstavu za novu postavu godine 2015. priredila već peti put. S Faustom se susrela još kao studentica, a na Akademiji za kazalište, radio, film i televiziju u Ljubljani diplomirala je u području dramaturgije na temu “Faust među lutkama“.

ostaloga, kao i kod Klemenčiča, ostao je mit da bez svoje Zvezdice Zaspanke slovenska djeca ne mogu odrasti pa smo zato lutke rekonstruirali koristeći skice, film i fotografije. Sjećam se da sam tada inzistirala da rekonstrukcija izvedbe u cijelosti prati izvornu predstavu. Na mostiću se igralo po starom, bez mikrofona, s animatorima iznad i govornicima dolje ispred ogledala, s dovoljno tehničara koji su upravljali scenografijom na dvije usporedne tekuće vrpce… Odmah je postalo vidljivo da će to biti predstava koja će za izvođenje trebati dvojnu pos-

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Going off on a slight tangent, I feel the need to mention another puppet play revival which took place when I was LGL’s artistic director. "The Little Sleepy Star" rose from the ashes in the 2008/2009 season, marking the 60th anniversary of LGL. The original puppets were lost to a fire in the Co-directed by Igor Cvetko, the 1982 production of "Doctor Faustus" was the first professional play of Jelena Sitar Cvetko. It garnered numerous awards and international credentials. In 2015, Jelena Sitar remade the play for the fifth time with a NEW cast. She came across Faust as a student whilst working on her graduation paper "Faust among puppets" at the Academy of Theatre, Radio, Film and Television in Ljubljana, where she graduated in dramaturgy.

1970s. But unlike with Klemenčič, there was a pervasive myth that children should not grow up without this show. The puppets were reconstructed based on the old drafts, photos and the movie. I recall insisting on reconstructing the performance by copying the original production down to the smallest detail. The bridge was old-school: there were no microphones, the animators were up on the bridge, the narrators were below in front of a mirror and there were enough technicians to control the set design

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Beskonačna sreća je u profesionalno lutkarstvo krenuti s Klemenčičem. Ne samo zato što vas on odmah suoči s pravim pitanjima, već i zato što je sam bio umjetnik. Imao je poseban stav. Lutkarstvo je za sve kasnije generacije odredio kao umjetnost. Mogli smo za prvu režiju dobiti bilo koju drugu lutkarsku predstavu, no dobili smo Klemenčičevog „Fausta“. Možda i zato jer nisu dobro znali što nam zapravo daju (smijeh). Učiti iz tih izvora beskrajna je sreća za svakog lutkara.

It is a great privilege to enter into professional puppetry with Klemenčič. Not only because you are faced with the right questions from the get-go, but also because he was an artist. HE DEFINED Puppetry for all later generations as art. For OUR first direction we could have been given any other puppet production, and yet we were given Klemenčič. Perhaps because those in charge were not really aware they PRESENTED us to (laughter). It is an immense privilege to learn right at the roots.

tavu, onako kako je to bilo u vrijeme slavnog umjetničkog ravnatelja i redatelja Jože Pengova (1916—1968), jer će svi glumci, tehničari i ostali suradnici u kazalištu biti toliko zauzeti da će im biti gotovo nemoguće igrati bilo što drugo. Sve je to lijepo i dobro, ali se pokazalo da smo zajedno s redateljem premalo razmišljali o tome da su vremena danas drugačija i da će djeca tijekom dugih obraćanja izgubiti koncentraciju. Kod „Fausta“ Igor i ja smo to mnogo bolje razradili.

on two parallel moving belts. It was instantly clear that once it was on the programme, this play would require a double cast. This was exactly the case back in the time of Jože Pengov (1916—1968), the renowned artistic director and director. All actors, technicians and other theatre associates would be so busy that it would be almost impossible to play anything else. That’s all very well, but it turns out that the director and I failed to consider how differently time moves today and that children have a difficult time holding their attention during longer prologues. In "Faustus", Igor and I were able to sort out this issue.

Kako ste pripremili predstavu za današnje vrijeme? Čovjek treba znati čega se prihvatio i zadaću treba izraditi pažljivo. Čini mi se da bih se vrlo teško uhvatila u koštac s ovakvim zadatkom da se s Faustovim motivom nisam susretala već ranije. Time sam već ranije obavila većinu istraživačkog rada na području dramaturgije i kazališne povijesti. Kada sam s Igorom započela raditi na predstavi o Klemenčičevim lutkama znala sam samo ono što je o njima bilo zapisano. Neki su se još sjećali predstave iz 50.-tih, a lutke sam osobno prvi puta vidjela kad sam došla u „Cukrarnu“, zgradu u kojoj je LGL nekada imalo svoje radionice i skladište za lutke. Praćenjem različitih predstava o Faustu zaključila sam da je prva dramska pjesma Fausta, engleskog renesansnog dramatičara Christophera Marlowa iz 1588. „Tragična povijest života i smrti doktora Fausta“ uvijek na neki način prisutna u različitim izvedbama. Podjela na dva svijeta, uvođenje lutkarskog šaljivca i komičnih prizora.. Uočava se također da je njemačka prozna osnova narodnog podrijetla. Nakon majstora Marlowa drama Faust prešla je na kontinent gdje je nastavila živjeti. U lutkarskim tekstovima o Faustu prisutni su elementi narodnog lutkarskog kazališta. Njemački tekst iz kojega je inspiraciju crpio Milan Klemenčič, u ruke sam dobila tek kasnije. Igor i ja smo tada predstavu, zasnovanu na tradiciji salonski lutkarskih uprizorenja, već dovršili. Ona se u „Doktoru Faustu“ odražava na više razina: u tome kako je predstava napravljena, uprizorena i kakvoj je publici bila namijenjena. Klemenčič ju je prikazao kod kuće, u dnevnom boravku, za pozvanike.

How did you adapt the play to be in tune with the times? First, you have to know what you are getting into. Next, you have to go about it very carefully. I feel that by examining the "Faustus" motif in a wider context beforehand, I was better prepared for the task ahead. I put a lot of effort into the research. When Igor and I set out to make the adaptation, I only knew about Klemenčič’s puppets what I had learnt from written accounts about them. Although there were some people around who still had a memory of the production from the 1950s, I first saw the puppets when I went to Cukrarna (a repurposed sugar factory) where LGL used to have its workshops and a puppet storage. While I was reading the different retellings of "Faust", it jumped out at me how the first dramatised version of "Faustus" by Renaissance dramatist Christopher Marlowe, which was penned in 1588 as "The Tragical History of the Life and Death of Doctor Faustus", has always been present in one form or another. Meanwhile, the division into two worlds, i.e. introducing the jester stock character and comedic scenes is also an integral part of folk puppet theatre. There is notable that the German version is based on folk origins. After master Marlowe, "Faustus" as a drama play continued to live on the continent. The characteristics of folk puppet theatre are also present in the puppet texts about "Faustus". The German text that inspired Milan Klemenčič came to me only later. By that point, Igor and I had already finished the adaptation and based it on the tradition of drawing-room puppet plays. This is echoed in "Doctor Faustus" on several levels: how the play is made, how it is staged and what audience it caters to. Klemenčič played it at home, in his living room to invited guests.

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Mislim da smo Igor i ja jedni od rijetkih osoba koje svake godine posjećujemo Klemenčičev grob. Otići ćemo i ove godine. Ima lijep spomenik, ništa previše raskošno. Na spomeniku, u posebnoj niši je svijeća, koja kada se upali predstavlja prizor iz Faustovog laboratorija. Ili se to barem nama tako čini.

I think that WE ARE one of the few who pay a yearly visit to Klemenčič’s grave. We plan TO GO this year as well. His headstone is elegant, not too lavish. It has a special niche with a candle. When it lights up, it is something like from Faust’s laboratory. Well, at least we think so.

Kako se u predstavi odražava salonska tradicija lutkarskih predstava? Na njih se primjerice vezao sadržaj koji bi zanimao publiku koja je posjećivala takve salone. Budući da se radilo o intelektualcima, Gašparov dio bio je manji, a Faustov veći. Duge, kontemplativne monologe o svijetu publika je pratila bez većih poteškoća. Zahvaljujući prenošenju predstave u suvremeno vrijeme, nama je prvi kriterij bio uravnotežiti svijet duhovnog traženja dr. Fausta te svijet običnog čovjeka koji treba jesti, piti i preživjeti – ukratko svega onoga što radi Gašpar i njegovu životnu radost. I upravo je Gašpar taj koji vraga, kako i sam kaže: „napraši“, dok istovremeno Faust završi onako kako i sami znamo da je završio. Dakle, povučemo li usporedbu razvoja oba lika: kako je u predstavi bila

How is the drawing-room tradition reflected in this puppet play? For instance, there were specific thematic accents that interested the audience who attended such drawing-room plays. Considering that it was mostly intellectuals, Gašperček had a minor part compared to "Faustus". Back then, the long, contemplative monologues about the world fairly easily held the audiences' attention. But in a modern-time setting, our first criterion was to find a balance between the world of Doctor Faustus’s spiritual quest, and the world of the common man, i.e. Gašperček, who has to eat, drink and survive, and his zest for life. In fact, it is Gašperček who, as he puts it himself, bamboozles the Devil. By now, we all know what is in store for "Faustus". If one draws a comparison between the development of both figures from beginning to end in

različita njihova sudbina te kako su se suočavali s problemima, vidjet ćemo da je za uravnoteženu dramaturgiju i ritam predstave vrlo bitno da među njima stvorimo ravnotežu. Ne prepustimo prednost ni jednoj ni drugog strani.

light of their very different fates, both facing their specific issues, we see that it is essential to have a tie between them to keep the dramaturgy and pacing of the play on an even keel. Neither side should be at an advantage.

Kako ste onda uravnotežili ova dva suprotna lika? Kod Fausta je sve jako ozbiljno, kod Gašpara smiješno. To je načelo po kojem funkcioniraju sve komedije. Željeli smo naglasiti ovu suprotnost, a kako je podloga za to postojala u literarnoj, odnosno, kazališnoj povijesti, smatrali smo da bi bio veliki grijeh Faustu dati više teksta nego Gašparu. Kada smo ujednačili odnose među glavnim junacima, pokazalo se da vražja moć nije ujednačena. Skupinavragova, s izuzetkom Mefista, kod Klemenčiča nije imala naročito bitnu ulogu. Povremeno, kada kod Klemenčiča nije bilo dovoljno ruku koje bi sve napravile, vragove su u danom trenutku postavili na posebno tehničko pomagalo – „dizalicu“ i zatim ih sve skupa automatski podizali gore dolje, „Perlicke – Perlocke!“. Ovdje smo se odlučili za promjenu i to takvu da ćemo svakim vragom posebno rukovati, voditi, čime smo postigli bolju dinamiku. Kod toga se nije radilo o tome da bismo se osjećali genijalniji od Klemenčiča, već nam je na raspolaganju bio veći broj glumaca. Dok je kod Klemenčiča u sceni u kojoj se ismijava s vragovima, Gašparček bio u apsolutnoj prednosti, barem u smislu animacije i mizanscene, Igor i ja smo pokušali stvoriti ravnopravniji i razigraniji dijalog. U skupini vragova (Mefisto, Viclipucli, Asmodeus) posebnu smo ulogu namijenili Asmodeusu kao

How did you balance the two contrasting characters? With Faustus everything is gravely serious, and with Kasperle everything a joke. It is a classic comedy principle. We wanted to focus on this juxtaposition. Since we were grounded in literary and theatrical tradition, we felt it wouldn’t be too outrageous if we cut more of Faust’s lines in favour of Kasperle. However, it turned out once we found the balance between the two protagonists that the daemon story line is unbalanced. The chorus of daemons, with the exception of Mephisto, had a minor role in Klemenčič’s version. Sometimes, when the Klemenčič family was short of hands to do everything, the daemons were fixed to a special lifting jack, and moved up and down automatically, exclaiming "Perlicke – Perlocke!" Here, we opted for a departure from the original: each of the daemons was manipulated separately, to make the scene more dynamic. It was not because we felt we were more brilliant than Klemenčič, it was because we had more actors at hand. In the scene, where Kasperle mocks the devils, in Klemenčič's version he is in an absolute advantage, at least in tearms of animation and mizanscene. We changed that to create a more equal and diverse dialogue. In terms of the chorus of daemons (Mephistopheles, Vitzliputzli, Asmodeus), we

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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vragu ljubavi. U prvoj postavi igrala ga je Berta Bojetu Boeta i od tada nadalje uvijek ga igraju žene. Time smo željeli u ovu mušku priču unijeti nešto mekše, osjećajnije i toplo. I publika je na to dobro reagirala. Još i danas mi se čini da je ideja bila prilično uspješna, jer je publici čak i žao, kad ga Gašpar lanternom udari u usta… S Asmodeusom su se likovi konačno uspjeli ujednačiti i dobili smo dvije paralelne priče. U izvornoj predstavi igra je trajala dulje nego danas … Predstava je trajala gotovo dva i pol sata, a skraćena je na nešto više od sat vremena, dok smo tekst prepolovili. Kako ste odlučili što iz izvornika može ostati, a što se više „ne razumije“? Je li odluka bila teška? Možemo li kod donošenja takve uloge uvijek biti pravedni? Uza svo znanje koje imamo, na kraju se radi prije svega o osjećaju, jer između autora i vas postoji veliki vremenski razmak. Vrlo je bitno pokušati predstavu prirediti za vrijeme u kojem živite. Važno je da ju razumiju i ljudi vašeg vremena. Nakon toga o tome više ne treba razmišljati.Predstavu pripremate kao režiju, razmišljate o logici na pozornici koja je sada drugačija od ondašnje… I iako ste proučili režijsku knjigu i znate točno koje su tada bile pozicije glumaca, to vas više ne brine, ako vam se u tom trenutku nešto drugo čini bolje. Ne radi se o izravnoj snimci. Jeste li se dugo pripremali za prvu premijeru koncem jeseni 1982.? Naravno, pripreme su trajale nekoliko mjeseci. Već u proljeće, u ožujku ili travnju, kad se u kazalištu uobičajeno priprema nova sezona, Edi Majaron nas je pozvao na suradnju. Raditi smo počeli odmah nakon toga. Sjećam se da je tijekom praznika (krajem kolovoza) režijska knjiga za novu predstavu već bila spremna. Kakva je razlika između režiranja stare i nove predstave? Vrlo velika. Kod nove predstave stvaramo novi svijet, dok je oživljavanje stare predstave dvostruki posao. Za takvu predstavu vam je potrebno više vremena i imate manje umjetničke slobode. Treba provesti fazu

decided for Asmodeus to stand out as the daemon of love. In its first rendition, it was played by Berta Bojetu Boeta, and has been played by a woman ever since. This choice allowed us to infuse this masculine story with a softer element, something more emotional and warm. It was well received with the public as well. Looking back, I still think this was a brilliant move; it even happens that the audience pities the naive daemon, when Gašperček smacks him with a lantern. With Asmodeus everything fell into place: we had two parallel story lines. The original play was longer. Indeed, the original had a running time of almost 150 minutes and was condensed to 60 minutes. This required us to cut the content by half. How did you decide what to keep from the original and what is no longer understood today? Was it a difficult decision? And can one always be objective making it? For all the knowledge, it ultimately boils down to one’s gut feeling, because there is such a temporal gap between the author and you. It is vital that you try to adapt the play to the times you live in, so that your contemporaries will understand it. Then you have to stop overthinking it. You prepare it from a director’s standpoint, you think about the stage logic which differs from the one used in the past etc. Even though you studied the director’s book and know exactly where the actors stood back then, you let go of it all if you come up with something better. So this wasn’t a direct copy. Did you prepare long for the original opening in the fall of 1982? We prepared for months, that’s for sure. It must have been March or April, spring at any rate, when theatres are normally preparing for a new season, when Edi Majaron got in touch with us, inviting us to collaborate. We immediately set to work. I remember that the director’s book for the new play was done and dusted by the end of August, i.e. it was finished over the summer break.

Igor Cvetko je etnomuzikolog, kustos, lutkar i ilustrator. Kao likovni umjetnik i glazbenik od 1982. surađuje s profesionalnim kazalištima u Sloveniji i inozemstvu u pripremi brojnih predstava. Priređuje tekst, piše glazbu, kreira likovni izgled i, u suradnji s Jelenom Sitar, režira. Cvetko je zajedno s gospođom Sitar pripremio izvedbu predstave „Doktor Faust,“ a osmislio je i novu, ujednačeniju glazbenu dramaturgiju.

Igor Cvetko is an ethnomusicologist, curator, puppeteer and illustrator. Since 1982 he has been collaborating with professional theatres at home and abroad. Dividing his time between adapting texts, composing music, conceiving the visuals, he has also made forays into directing, together with Jelena Sitar. Together WITH Sitar HE made a remake of "Doctor Faustus", for which Cvetko designed more uniform music dramaturgy.

analize. Gradivo treba pregledati s velikim poštovanjem, i to je ključno. Vrlo bitnim smatram činjenicu da u svemu tome treba postojati i određena doza skromnosti, da ne pokušavate biti pametniji od autora koji je samo djelo i stvorio.Morate biti svjesni svoje odgovornosti. Zanimljivo je također da se kroz predstavu na poseban način susrećete s autorom i zajedno s njim gradite dijalog.

What is the difference between directing a vintage play and a new one? There is a big difference. With a new play, we create a whole new world, whereas reviving an old play basically doubles the work. You spend more time on it and have less creative licence. You have to go through an analysis stage. The source material has to be examined with due respect, which is key. I also feel that it is very important to have a sense of humility and responsibility in the whole undertaking; you should avoid trying to be smarter than the author. Another fascinating aspect is that through such a play you somehow meet the author and strike up a dialogue.

Odakle ideja da glazbeni lajtmotiv predstave bude Stravinski? Klemenčič je za svojega „Fausta“ odabrao drugačiju glazbu... Klemenčič je glazbu izvodio pomoću pomno odabranih ploča. Radilo se o nizu različitih stvari koje bi danas, ako bi se izvodile u jednoj predstavi, zvučale prilično neobično, posebno za ukus glazbenika (Igora Cvetka), koji razmišlja da predstavu treba povezati s glazbom. Neki su zvukovi ostali (grom, vjetar), ali ih je Igor povezao u novu zvučnu priču. Činilo nam se da je takvih zvukova premalo, zato je svaki od vragova dobio svoj mali instrument koji ga je pratio. Igor je glazbenu podlogu predstave želio poistovjetiti sa Stravinskim, koji je zapravo Klemenčićev suvremenik. Stravinski ima u „Posvećenju proljeća“ i u „Priči o vojniku“ usklađene lirske i dramatične trenutke i unosi u predstavu nešto slavenskoga. Igor je odabrao određene motive iz spomenutih skladbi i povezao ih u smislenu cjelinu. Drugi analogni zvukovi–zvončići, „marake“, izvađeni su ravno iz njegove torbe. Najprije ste igrali s Klemenčičevim lutkama, a kasnije ste ih zamijenili kopijama… Ja sam se strašno bojala te zamjene. Ranije smo preko lutaka bili neposredno povezani s Klemenčičem. Lutka je naime bila taj magičan predmet kojeg je napravio Klemenčič. Činilo mi se da bi predstava zamjenom lutaka mogla mnogo izgubiti, mogla bi izgubiti svoj osnovni duh. Bilo mi je jako teško. Bila sam prestrašena i žalosna. Klemenčičeve su lutke bile naše prijateljice i to od trenutka od kad smo ih izvukli iz

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How did you come up with the idea to pick Stravinsky as the musical leitmotif? Klemenčič chose a different musical accompaniment. Indeed, Klemenčič put on carefully selected records to accompany the play. It was a highly varied mix of pieces which would sound odd today if they were to be put on all together in a single play. This aspect was especially important for our musician (Igor Cvetko) who believes that the play should mesh with the music. Some sounds remained the same (thunder, wind), but were bundled into a new sound narrative. He felt that these sounds were too few, so he also made one for each of the daemons gets his own instrument. Igor’s choice of Stravinsky – a contemporary of Klemenčič, by the way – was carefully thought out to unify the musical model. Stravinsky in "The Rite of Spring" and "The Soldier's Tale" strikes all the right notes with his lyrical and dramatic moments, and also adds a Slavic touch. Igor picked out specific parts and integrated them into a meaningful whole. In terms of other analogous sounds, e.g. grelots and maracas, we took a cue right from the master himself. Initially you went on stage with Klemenčič’s puppets which were later replaced with copies. In all honesty, I was terrified of this switch. Before, we had a direct link with Klemenčič via his puppets. Puppets are these magical objects that were

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prašine… Vrlo zanimljivo jeda na koncu predstava nije nimalo izgubila na svojoj snazi. Izgleda da je sva ona energija uspostavljena oko predstave postala toliko snažna da smo preživjeli. I predstava je nastavila dalje. Danas predstavu izvodi već peta postava. Kako su se one međusobno razlikovale? Kad glumac oblikuje ulogu, važno je da ona vrši određenu funkciju u drami, u čemu glavnu riječ imaju autor i režiser, dok je u oblikovanju karaktera lika puno slobodniji. Nakon prve postave, u kojoj su igrali Nace Simončič, Blaž Vižintin, Berta Bojetu, Božidar Jokić, Jože Zalar i Marko Velkavrh, činilo mi se da predstava nikada više ne može biti toliko dobra. No bila je, ali na drugačiji način. Jednom je određena uloga bila snažnija, drugi put je to bila neka druga, ovisno o tome tko ju je igrao. Svatko je bio drugačiji. Karel Brišnik i Iztok Jereb u trećoj postavi bili su primjer slavnih govornika. Njihove naracije bile su iznimno dramatične, a uz to i čarobne. Često ih je ponio zanos, no to smo sve uzeli u zakup. Vidjeli smo različite interpretacije uloga, neke su mi bliže od drugih. Svaka ekipa je imala neku svoju boju. Prošla je bila dramatičnija te bila nešto tamnijih tonova. Sad sam, jasno, uzbuđena oko najnovije postave i njene interpretacije. Ova je svjetlija i zaigranija. Posljednja postava je posebna i zbog godina, budući da je mlađa od predstave. Baš zato je rad s njima drugačiji. To je potrebno uzeti u obzir jer oni traže drugačije informacije i naputke. Svatko tko zaviri iza pozornice čudi se koliko spretni moraju biti glumci za vrijeme predstave... Uopće nemaju izbora, moraju se vremenski i fizički uskladiti, jer se svi zajedno kreću po vrlo maloj površini pozornice. Isprepliću im se noge, ruke, moraju se brzo sklanjati, istovremeno udarati u gong, puhati, mijenjati kulise,, često se nađu u neuobičajenim pozama … Ako postava nije povezana iznutra, u takvoj je predstavi vrlo teško nastupati. U najnovijoj postavi postali su tako dobri prijatelji, da čak i navijaju jedan za drugoga, kaže inspicijent Emil, koji navija za njih i divi im se što sve mogu. To je poosebno kazalište. „Doktor Faust“ se i nakon 34 godine još uvijek prikazuje s namjerom obnavljanja nacionalne kulturne baštine i Klemenčičeve lutke uvijek iznova kreću na putovanja širom svijeta. Zbirka Klemenčičevih lutaka koje je njegova kći poklonila LGL-a može se od svibnja 2015. vidjeti na stalnoj izložbi Lutkarskog muzeja u LJUBLJANI, u sklopu projekta „ALL STRINGS ATTACHED“, a ovi će dragocjeni predmeti biti predstavljeni i u Hrvatskoj, Španjolskoj i Italiji.

Možemo li reći da ova predstava označava „lutkarski prestiž“? Mnogo se osoba potpisalo na kraju ove predstave. Svima njima bilo je važno igrati baš u toj predstavi. Na neki način radi se zaista o prestižu. Najnovija postava, a taj sam dojam upravo stekla, predstavi je pristupila s iznimnim poštovanjem. Njima je velika čast da nastupaju u „Faustu“. Prilagođen „Doktor Faust“ uspješno nastupa na lutkarskoj pozornici već više od tri desetljeća. Jeste li očekivali ovakav uspjeh? To naravno nitko nije očekivao. Kad smo pripremali predstavu, mnogo se energije usmjeravalo na Bourekovu „Božansku komediju“. U to smo vrijeme u „Kulturnici“ živjeli nekako u sjeni svega onoga što se događalo u kazalištu. Imali smo nebeski miru kojem smo uspjeli stvoriti mali biser. Da je predstava vrlo važna, postalo je jasno tek kasnije. Na prvo gostovanje otišli smo u Bugojno gdje smo, između ostaloga, osvojili nagradu za obnavljanje baštine. Igora i mene obradovala je ta nagrada, jer smo se zaista za nju potrudili. Mogu li lutke živjeti na pozornici? Prije nego smo se počeli igrati kopijama, uvjerili smo se da su lutke namijenjene samo za pozornicu. Na neki način još uvijek mislim da je tome tako. Čak i stara freska gubi svoj čar kad se restauriranjem rad prvog majstora popravlja drugim potezom kista. Sve su to pitanja na koja nemamo prave odgovore.

crafted by Klemenčič. I felt as though the production could lose a lot on account of this switch – its spiritus agens so to speak. I felt really bad about it. I was scared and sad. Klemenčič’s puppets had been our friends ever since we had rescued them from the dust. What I find intriguing though is that ultimately the show did not lose any of its power. It seems that all the energy that has been generated in connection with the show was strong enough that we could keep going. The show went on. This is the fifth cast to date that has created the play. How are the casts different? When the actor forms his role, he has to take care that it suits a specific function in drama. By this he is committed to the author and the director, while by building the character of the role he is usually more free. Again, there are compromises. I'm talking about the classical building on the role. After the first cast, which consisted of actors Nace Simončič, Blaž Vižintin, Berta Bojetu, Božidar Jokić, Jože Zalar and Marko Velkavrh, I thought that we could never make a play with such a level of quality again. But we did, just in a different way. Sometimes one role was stronger, other times another one, depending on who played it. Every actor is different. Karel Brišnik and Iztok Jereb from the third cast were exceptional narrators. Their recitations were very dramatic and magical. Sure, they got carried away once or twice, but we took it in our stride. We have seen different interpretations of the roles, some I prefer more to others. Each cast had its own colors. The previous one it was more dramatically inspired and chose a slightly darker tone. Right now I am very enthusiastic about the latest cast and the its interpretation, which is lighter and more playful. The last cast is also very special because of its age, as it is younger than the performance. That is why working with them is different. This must be considered, since they need other information and guidance. Taking a glimpse backstage, one has to admire the level of skill required from the actors during the play. They have no choice: they must synch up spatially and match their timing, because they move around in such a confined stage area. Feet and arms "Doctor Faustus" is still running after 34 years, keeping our national cultural heritage alive. Klemenčič’s puppets incessantly tour the world. A selection of Klemenčič’s puppets donated to LGL by Klemenčič’s daughter Mojca has been on display since May 2015 at the Museum of Puppetry IN LJUBLJANA; in the context of the "ALL STRINGS ATTACHED project" the valuable artefacts will tour Croatia, Spain and Italy.

intertwining, they have to move quickly, and at the same time strike the gong, blow, change the scenography; often they have to strike awkward poses. If the cast is not internally coherent, it is very difficult to play such a show. The most recent cast are such good friends that they cheer each other on. It is also noteworthy that the most recent cast is younger than the play. This is what makes working with them different. I have to consider that they need different types of information and instruction. Would you say that this play is something "prestigious"? Quite a few people are attached to this play. Everyone involved in it today has said how important it was for them when they were hired. In a sense, it does lend some prestige. The most recent cast, and I am still impressed by it, approached the play with great respect. They find it a great honor to star in "Doctor Faustus". The remade "Doctor Faustus" has been successfully featured on the puppet stage for over three decades. Did you expect such a hit? It was quite unexpected, to be fair. As we were working on the adaptation, lots of the energy was channelled into Bourek’s "Divine Comedy". We at the Kulturnica venue were somehow in the shadow of the theatre. We were left in peace and managed to create a little gem. How important the show truly was, was revealed only later. Our first tour took us to Bugojno in Bosnia. There we received a heritage award, among others. Igor and I were delighted, because we put so much effort into this. Can puppets live only on stage? Before we started using copies, I would have said that puppets were meant exclusively for the stage. In a way, I still stand by this. Even a fresco loses something when the work of the original master is restored by the brushstroke of someone else. These are questions we are unable to adequately answer.

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Zala Kalan B A ŠTINA

L EG ACY

Restauriranje lutaka Milana Klemenčiča

Restoring Milan Klemenčič's puppets

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Za potrebe putujuće izložbe u sklopu međunarodnog projekta „Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva“ dio Klemenčičeve ostavštine je konzerviran, odnosno restauriran. Budući da su u kazalištu u prošlosti već bile izrađene kopije lutaka iz scenskih elemenata dviju Klemenčičevih kasnijih predstava „Sovinog dvorca“ (1936.) i „Doktora Fausta“ (1938.) odlučili smo, da ćemo na izložbama, gdje to bude moguće, njegovo posljednje stvaralačko razdoblje predstaviti kopijama lutaka i tako one izvorne zaštiti od mogućih oštećenja. Kod konzerviranja – restauriranja u najvećoj smo se mjeri držali načela minimalnih i reverzibilnih zahvata u predmete.

A portion of Klemenčič"s legacy was conserved and restored for the travelling exhibition showcased within the international project "All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes". In the past, the theatre had made replicas of the puppets and set elements of two of Klemenčič's later shows, i.e. "The Castle of Owls" (1936) and "Doctor Faustus" (1938). This prompted our decision to use replicas in the exhibition, wherever possible, to illustrate the final stage of the master's artistic career, in order to spare the originals from any possible damage. During conservation and restoration, artefacts were

utkarski opus osnivatelja slovenskog lutkarstva Milana Klemenčiča čuva se u Lutkarskom kazalištu Ljubljana, dok se arhivska građa i nekoliko scenografija nalazi u Slovenskom kazališnom institutu. Bogata je to zbirka koju osim oko 100 lutaka iz različitih razdoblja njegova stvaralaštva od 1910. do 1940. čine i različite scenografije, brojna scenska pomagala i jedna od izvornih pozornica. Lutke su u prosjeku visoke 10 cm, a iznimku čine one iz razdoblja Slovenskog lutkarskog kazališta (1920. – 1924.), visine oko 30 cm. Iako malene, iznimne su po savršenosti svojih detalja i tehnologiji. Način njihove izrade nije ni najmanje tipičan, jer bi autor crtež profila prenio na mjedenu ploču, izrezao ploču i postavio je u sredinu osnovnog kalupa te potom zalio gipsom. Iz njegovih je bilješki razvidno da se odljevak nakon toga po liniji mjedi obrezivao dlijetom i fino obrađivao.

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he puppet opus of Milan Klemenčič – the pioneer of Slovenian puppetry – is held in trust at the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, while the archival material and some stage sets are held at the Slovenian Theatre Institute. The extensive collection features around 100 puppets from various stages of his artistic career (from 1910 to 1940), as well as stage sets, numerous set implements and one of the original stages. With the notable exception of the 30cm tall puppets from the Slovenian Marionette Theatre (1920–1924), the puppets only average 10cm. The impressively intricate detailing and sophisticated technology however fully make up for their small size. The creator"s approach to the construction of puppets was very atypical; first, a drawing of the profile was transferred to a brass sheet, cut out and placed at the centre of the base mould and filled with plaster of Paris. Notes reveal that the cast was then cut out with a chisel along the brass line and carefully handcrafted.

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Scena za „Tajno zrcalo“/Scenography for "The Mysterious Mirror", 1917

Prije samih zahvata, u suradnji sa Zavodom za zaštitu kulturne baštine Slovenije, na odabranim smo predmetima proveli osnovna prirodoslovna istraživanja (optičku mikroskopiju, FTIR i i Ramanovu spektroskopiju), kako bismo se uvjerili u stvarni sastav i vrste materijala. Uzeli smo mikro-uzorke lutaka i utvrdili vrstu pigmenata, veziva i tekstila. Na temelju rezultata izradili smo dokumentaciju o stanju lutaka, koja nam je omogućila temeljitiji uvid u očuvanost zbirke. Očuvanost Klemenčičevih lutaka ovisi prije svega od vremena u kojem su nastale; manje očuvane lutke svakako su one iz razdoblja njegovih početaka, tzv. „šturskog razdoblja“. Uzorci su različiti – svemu su potpomogli i neizbježni procesi starenja, a možemo naslutiti i da nisu bile primjereno čuvane. Od materijala koji su se koristili najlošije se očuvao tekstil koji je ponegdje iznimno loš ili se potpuno raspao. Iako najčešće oštećenje zbirke lutaka čine površinske nečistoće, njih je zapravo malo jer su se tijekom posljednjih godina lutke čuvale u kutijama u kojima su bile zaštićene. Lutke odabrane za izložbu minimalno smo očistili, najčešće mehanički, koristeći četkice. Premda je sloj boje na lutkama općenito dobro očuvan, boja na olovnim ekstremitetima počela se ljuštiti s podloge i otpadati. Za učvršćivanje na tim dijelovima upotrijebili smo otopinu paraloida B67 u bijelom špiritu („white spirit“). Dijelove koji su najviše propali retuširali smo i to bojama na bazi laropala A 81. Veličina lutaka uvelike nam je otežavala posao. Skidanjem odjeće prouzročili bismo još veću štetu na krhkom tekstilu, zato smo tamo gdje to nije bilo nužno tekstilne dijelove ostavili u postojećem stanju, dok smo ih na drugim mjestima obložili svilenim krepelinom ili tankom svilom koje smo po potrebi prethodno odgovarajućim bojama obojili u željenu nijansu. Lutke iz „šturskog razdoblja“ nisu pričvršćene na vodilice za upravljanje pa će na temelju izvornih skica biti potrebno izraditi kopije mjedenih vodilica i lutke ponovno pričvrstiti.

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subject to minimum and reversible treatment. Before setting out to work, a few selected items underwent rudimentary scientific analyses (optical microscopy, FTIR and Raman spectroscopy), in collaboration with the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia, to establish their composition and type of material. We took micro samples from the puppets and determined the types of pigment, binders and textiles used. The results were compiled to provide a record of the puppets' condition, giving us a deeper insight into the overall state of the collection. The level of preservation of Klemenčič's puppets very much corresponds to the point in time when they were created; the earlier puppets he created in the "Šturje period", when he was younger, fared worse than the rest. Their state of deterioration can be attributed to different causes such as inevitable aging and, presumably, inadequate storage. Of all the materials used, the textile elements have suffered the most and are extremely weak in some areas or have completely disintegrated in others. The most common damage to puppet collections is usually caused by surface impurities. In this case, the puppets have been stored in boxes for the last few years which protected them from significant impurities. The puppets selected for the exhibition thus required minimal cleaning; in most cases they were cleaned merely by mechanical means, i.e. a brush. Although generally in good condition, the layer of paint on the puppets' lead limbs had started to chip off and become exfoliated from the substrate. To consolidate the paint on such sections, a solution of paraloid B 67 in white spirit was applied. The most compromised parts were retouched with paints based on laropal A81. The small size of these puppets made for a challenging task. Taking the puppets' clothing off could potentially further damage the frail textiles, so we left the textiles as they were, in those places where restoration wasn't absolutely necessary. In other places, they were lined with silk crepeline or thin silk which had been previously colour-matched (if necessary) with the appropriate colouring. The puppets from the "Šturje period" are not on control bars and we will eventually have to consider replicating the brass controls based on the original blueprints to reattach the puppets.

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GRADSKA OPĆINA CIVIDALE DEL FRIULI

Municipality of Cividale del Friuli


Vittorio Podrecca Cividale del Friuli, 1883 – Ženeva/Geneva, 1959 Odvjetnik, pisac, novinar i političar, osnivač najpoznatijeg lutkarskog kazališta 20. stoljeća.

LAWYER, WRITER, JOURNALIST, POLITICIAN, FOUNDER OF THE MOST FAMOUS MARIONETTE THEATRE IN THE 20TH CENTURY.

Godine 1905. preselio je u Rim gdje je diplomirao pravo, no tim se zvanjem nije nikada bavio. S 28 godina pokrenuo je dječji časopis „Primavera“ koji je izlazio do 1913. Dok je bio tajnik glazbene gimnazije u Rimu, ruski novinar Alessandro Amfiteatro donio mu je opere za djecu koje je za Lenjingradsko lutkarsko kazalište skladao ruski skladatelj César Kjuj. Razmišljajući o lutkarskim predstavama, kojima se oduševio još u mladosti, sve svoje slobodno vrijeme posvetio je ideji o vlastitom lutkarskom kazalištu. U veljači 1914. godine, s predstavnikom glazbene zaklade Casa Ricordi - Luigijem Fornaciarijem, napuljskim lutkarom i voditeljem tada već slavnoga lutkarskog kazališta „I Fantocci di Santoro“, osnovao je lutkarsko kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“. Fornaciari je financijski potpomogao projekt i kao prostor za novo kazalište unajmio nekadašnju konjušnicu u palači Odescalchi. Santoro se pobrinuo za premijerni repertoar s različitim varijetetskim točkama i opernim djelima. Sam Podrecca nije bio umjetnik ali je bio iznimno nadaren producent i redatelj, otvoren za novosti, a surađivao je i sa slavnim lutkarskim družinama i animatorima (Striuli, Salici, Braga, Gorno-Dall'Acqua), glazbenicima (Respighi), slikarima i scenografima (Depero, Prampolini). Lutkarski spektakli ubrzo su postali svjetski fenomen. S više od tisuću marioneta, od kojih su mnoge karikirale i slavne osobe poput Grete Garbo, Charlija Chaplina, Betty Boop, pijanista Piccolowskog i druge, izvodili su različita glazbena djela: opere, balete i varijetetske točke… Gledatelji predstava uzdisali bi nad neobično raskošnim kostimima i scenografijom, dok su glazbenu kulisu uživo izvodili pjevači i glazbenici na instrumentima. Tijekom Drugog svjetskog rata skupina je u Argentini boravila više od jednog desetljeća, a po povratku Podrecca je osnovao još jedan lutkarski ansambl koji je izvodio operna djela. U pedeset

godina svog djelovanja „I Piccoli“ je proputovao cijeli svijet. Hvalile su ga poznate osobe: Eleonora Duse, grčka kraljica Federica, Arturo Toscanini, Charlie Chaplin, George Bernard Shaw, Walt Disney i drugi. U Hollywoodu su se prikazivali brojni kratki filmovi o njihovim predstavama, a među najuspješnijim točkama družine „I Piccoli" bile su: „Rumba“, „Akrobati“, „Ples nojeva“… Koristeći

He moved to Rome in 1905 where he graduated in law, but he never practised. At the age of 28 he established the children's magazine "Primavera", which was published up until 1913. While working as the secretary at the music conservatory in Rome, he met the Russian journalist Alessandro Amfiteatrov. The latter provided him with the scores of operatic fairy tales for children that Russian composer

tehniku animacije upotpunjavali bi nastup dueta, sopranistice Sinforoso Strangolini i pijanista Piccolowskoga, koji bi obično nastupali na kraju programa. Njihova najpoznatija predstava je 'Varietà'.“

César Cui had composed for the Leningrad Puppet Theatre. Fondly remembering the puppet shows that made an impression on him in his early years, he spent all of his leisure time thinking about starting his own marionette theatre. In February 1914 he founded "Teatro dei Piccoli" together with Lugi Fornaciari, who worked for the music publishing company

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Casa Ricordi, and Giovanni Santoro, the Neapolitan marionettist and head of the by then well-established puppet theatre "I Fantocci di Santoro". Fornaciari funded the undertaking and leased the former stables of Odescalchi Palace to serve as the venue. Santoro prepared the opening-night repertoire which features a melange of vaudeville acts and operatic pieces. While not an artist himself, Podrecca was a very talented producer and director eager to embrace novelties; he struck up collaborations with prominent puppet troupes and talented animators (Striuli, Salici, Braga, Gorno-Dall'Acqua), musicians (Respighi), painters and set designers (Depero, Prampolini). The marionette and musical spectacles of the new theatre soon became a worldwide phenomenon. With several thousand marionettes that frequently parodied celebrities such as Greta Garbo, Charlie Chaplin and Betty Boop, pianist Piccolowski, the theatre put on a wide range of musical pieces – operas, ballets, variety shows etc. The audience gasped in awe at the lavish costumes and sets, and the score was always performed live. While on tour in South America, the outbreak of the Second World War extended the troupe"s stay in Argentina for a good decade. After its return to Europe, Podrecca went on to found a puppet troupe that performed only operatic works. In its fifty years of operation, "I Piccoli" travelled the world. They were lauded by many: Eleonora Duse, Federica (queen of Greece), Arturo Toscanini, Charlie Chaplin, George Bernard Shaw, Walt Disney and others. Hollywood even screened several shorts of their performances. Thier biggest hits included: "Rumba", "Acrobats" and "The Ostrich Dance". The programme was usually wrapped up by a duet from soprano Sinforosa Strangolini and pianist Piccolowski, and this was praised on account of the highly sophisticated puppet animation. The so-called "Varietà" is also their most famous show.

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Ennio Guerrato, Fabio Parente, Barbara Della Polla IN TERVJU

IN TERV IEW

Alfonso Cipolla o Vittoriju Podrecci i „Teatru dei Piccoli“

Alfonso Cipolla on Vittorio Podrecca and "Teatro dei Piccoli"

Intervju s Alfonsom Cipollom sastavni je dio filma „Vittorio Podrecca i Teatro dei Piccoli“ u produkciji Tico Film i COOP CASSIOPEA. Za transkript intervjua pobrinuo se Odjel za kulturu Gradske općine Cividale del Friuli.

The interview with Alfonso Cipolla, the Director of THE Istituto per i Beni Marionettistici e il Teatro Popolare iN TORINO, was featured in the movie "Vittorio Podrecca and Teatro dei Piccoli" produced by the Tico Film and Coop Cassiopea. The transcript was provided by the Municipality OF Cividale del Friuli.

Kako je započela Podreccina umjetnička karijera? Podrecca je svoju karijeru započeo idejom ulaska u dječji svijet pri čemu mu je vrlo važno iskustvo bio rad u časopisu „Primavera“ (Proljeće). U časopisu je radio nekoliko godina prije nego je krenuo u svoju kazališnu pustolovinu. U kazalištu „Teatro dei Piccoli“ susreo se sa starim suradnicima iz časopisa. Jedan od njih bio je Bruno Angoletta (1889. – 1954.), talijanski ilustrator i crtač stripova. Upravo je to iskustvo bilo ključno za Podreccu koji je uspio zamijeniti tiskovni medij i usredotočiti se na trodimenzionalno komunikacijsko sredstvo- kazalište. U kazalištu Odescalchi u Rimu je 21. veljače 1914. izvedena prva predstava kazališta „Il Teatro dei Piccoli“ odvjetnika Vittoria Podrecce i Luigija Fornaciarija. Rat i futurizam: kako je Podrecca – kojeg su poslali na front – mogao upravljati svojim novim kazalištem? Pustolovina u kombinaciji s futurizmom nešto je posebno i zahtijeva detaljnije proučavanje; naime, u to je vrijeme Podrecca bio na frontu i nije osobno upravljao kazalištem „Teatro dei Piccoli“. Taj je posao trebao prepustiti lutkarskoj skupini Dell'Acqua. Skupina je osmislila učinkovita tehnička rješenja kojima bi se, primjerice, lutke Fortunata Depera (1892. – 1960.; talijanski slikar, kipar, dizajner, jedan od

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potpisnika manifesta „Manifesto dell'aeropittura“ i predstavnik tzv. drugog futurizma) i Enrica Prampolinija (1884. – 1956.; slikar, kipar, scenograf i jedan od najvažnijih predstavnika futurizma) prilagodile za predstavu „Balli plastici“. Iako je Podrecca bio na frontu, morao je održavati kontakte sa skupinom koja je u njegovoj odsutnosti vodila kazalište. Treba naglasiti da je lutkarsko kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ tada bilo jedino kazalište koje je nudilo tehničku i umjetničku podršku za takvu novu vrstu eksperimenta kakav je bio futurizam. To je, također, bio jedan od razloga zbog kojih su kreatori, koji su svoje avangardne umjetničke projekte željeli realizirati u nešto zaista spektakularno, dolazili u „Teatro dei Piccoli“. Zašto je Podreccino kazalište bilo tako iznimno? S Podreccom su surađivali mladi kreatori, skladatelji i dirigenti koji su klasičan glazbeni repertoar (npr. Respighijevu „Trnoružicu“ ili „Seviljskog brijača“) znali prilagoditi suvremenom ukusu. S raskošnom scenografijom i kostimografijom stvorili su čudesne prizore kakve u lutkarskom svijetu nitko nije očekivao. Veličina Podreccinog kazališta bila je upravo u tome da je klasični repertoar znao prilagoditi suvremenosti, da se bavio svim glazbenim vrstama, od narodne glazbe do jazza. Nitko u Italiji nije bio sposoban učiniti ništa slično.

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How did Podrecca's artistic career come about? Podrecca started his career in arts with the idea of entering the children's world; the experience he had acquired during his stint at the magazine "Primavera" (spring), where he had worked for some years before venturing into theatre, seems very relevant. During his time at the magazine, he worked together with some of the future associates of the "Teatro dei Piccoli"; of which it is worth mentioning the Italian illustrator and cartoonist Bruno Angoletta (1889–1954) at the very least. This experience brought Podrecca to the switch from the printed media to the three-dimensional means of communication, i.e. the theatre. On 21st February 1914, the Odescalchi Theatre in Rome saw the inaugural performance of the "Il Teatro dei Piccoli" which was led by attorney Vittorio Podrecca and Luigi Fornaciari. War and futurism: how was Podrecca – who was sent to the front – able to run his new theatre? His venture into futurism was quite remarkable and requires further and detailed investigation, as Podrecca, who was indeed at the front at that time, was not personally running the "Teatro dei Piccoli". Instead, he left this task to the marionette troupe Dell'Acqua that came up with ingenious technical solutions on how to adapt the

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puppets designed by Fortunato Depero (1892–1960; Italian painter, sculptor, designer, as well as signee of the Manifesto of Aeropainting and member of the Second Futurism) and Enrico Prampolini (1884–1956; painter, sculptor, scenographer and one of the most notable Futurist artists) for the production of Balli Plastici. Despite serving at the front, Podrecca kept in touch with the creators and the troupe that ran the theatre in his absence. It is worth mentioning that the marionette theatre "Teatro dei Piccoli" was the only theatre at that time that was able to provide technical and artistic support for a novel type of artistic experimentation such as Futurism. This was one of the reasons why the artists, who aspired to turn their avant-garde artistic projects into something truly spectacular, choose to frequent the "Teatro dei Piccoli". What made Podrecca's theatre so exceptional? Podrecca collaborated with young artists, composers and conductors who had the ability to adjust the classical music repertoire (e.g. Respighi's opera "The Sleeping Beauty" or "The Barber of Seville") to modern sensibilities, with artful sets and splendid costumes in magnificent scenes that no one had expected from a puppet play. The greatness of Podrecca's theatre was in that it was able to adapt the repertory of classical music to

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Podrecca je svoje kazalište odveo u inozemstvo. Kakve su bile njihove turneje? Turneje su bile gotovo faraonske. Bile su to prave migracije koje su zahtijevale angažiranje mnogobrojnih glazbenika, pjevača, lutkara, scenografa, kostimografa. Osim toga, opseg rekvizita korištenih u predstavama bio je ogroman. Kazalište Odescalchi nije moglo preživjeti samo od prodaje ulaznica pa je Podrecca odlučio gostovati u inozemstvu. Kako bi preživjelo, kazalište je moralo zaraditi mnogo novaca. No to nije bila jedina prepreka: ne samo da je sa svojom ogromnom prtljagom i mnogobrojnim suradnicima moralo stići i do najudaljenijih dvorana, već je uvijek moralo priređivati nove predstave za publiku u dvoranama s više od 2000 mjesta. Podrecca je uspio i zato što je čudesne predstave uspio realizirati po cijelom svijetu. Kako su njihova gostovanja prihvaćena u različitim gradovima? Kakav je bio njihov odnos s publikom? Gostovanja u talijanskim, europskim i američkim gradovima bila su unaprijed dobro osmišljena jer je upravo Podrecca bio taj koji je sa svojim kazalištem prvi začeo ovu ideju. Bio je umjetnik, dirigent i pravi čarobnjak. Sve je to utjecalo na njegovu iznimnu kazališnu avanturu: bio je vrlo uspješan u izravnom kontaktu s publikom koja je na to jako dobro reagirala. Bio je društven i ljubazan, jednostavno je uspostavljao vezu sa svakom osobom – muškarcem, ženom ili djetetom – koja bi prisustvovala u njegovoj predstavi i to je bila njegova najvažnija osobina. Značajka Podreccinih predstava bila je pjevanje i sviranje uživo tako da su se zapleti i suglasje s publikom mogli koristiti u predstavama. Postojao je nevjerojatan sklad između pjevača/glazbenika i lutkara pa su zato i predstave bile živahne i zanosne. A to je nešto što može nadjačati sve. Rođenje Nuclea i povratak u Italiju. Koliki je uspjeh postigla ova nova Podreccina kazališna skupina? Povratak kazališta „I Piccoli“ u Italiju bio je izuzetno uspješan, iako se poklopio s početkom Po-

dreccinih zdravstvenih tegoba. S vremenom su se počeli javljati i financijski problemi zbog visokih troškova realizacije novih i modernih predstava pa je zato Podrecca, 12. ožujka 1956. u kazalištu Piccola Scala u Milanu, osnovao još jedno kazalište – „Il Nucleo“. Prvi nastup pod nazivom „Visioni Sinfoniche“ („Simfonijske vizije“) bio je jedan od najvažnijih za skupinu. Kazalište „Il Nucleo“ izvodilo je operne predstave u minijaturnoj verziji kako im ne bi trebalo veliko kazalište i kako bi se izbjegli s njim povezani troškovi. Poznat talijanski kazališni kritičar i teoretičar Silvio D"Amico mnogo je pisao o Podrecci. Kakvo je njegovo mišljenje o Vittoriu Podrecci i njegovom „Teatru dei Piccoli“?

modern times, tackling all musical genres from ethnic music to jazz. No other theatre in Italy was able to pull off a feat like that. Podrecca also took his theatre abroad. What were the tours like? The tours took place on an epic scale. They were almost like migrations and involved a lot of people: musicians, singers, puppeteers, set designers and costume designers. The amount of props required for the plays was massive. The Odescalchi Theatre was not able to support its operations solely with its box-office revenue, spurring Podrecca's decision to tour abroad. To keep its doors open, the theatre needed to make more money, but, alas, that was not its only obstacle: not only did the company have to travel to the most remote halls

Vittorio Podrecca u Ekvadoru s kovčezima za marionete Teatra dei Piccoli/Vittorio Podrecca in Ecuador and Teatro dei Piccoli's marionette trunks

Silvio D'Amico (1887. – 1955.) Podreccu je smatrao najvećim stvarateljem talijanske umjetnosti. Svojim je lutkama Podrecca uspio potpuno revolucionarizirati glumačko kazalište, a njegovo je iskustvo postalo priznato i u inozemstvu.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

with its massive amount of sets, props and cast in tow, it also had to come up with fresh performances for the audiences in halls occasionally seating 2,000 people and more. Podrecca's success was also down to his ability to stage splendid performances anywhere in the world. How were the tours received across the world? How did the audience relate to them?

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Tours across Italy and other European and American cities were carefully planned in advance, as Podrecca's theatre was essentially blazing a new trail. Podrecca was an artist, conductor and a true magician. All this influenced his theatre extraodinaire: he excelled at making contact with the audience and making them feel comfortable. His most important personality trait was that he was an outgoing and affable person able to connect with anyone attending his incredible performances – be it man, woman or child. Podrecca's performances stood out because of the live singing acts and the music, so that any slip-ups and interactions with the crowd could be used to the advantage of the play. The singers/musicians and puppeteers were incredibly in tune, which made the plays vivacious and charming. And this is what it boils down to in the end. Let us focus on the birth of "Il Nucleo" and the return to Italy. How successful was Podrecca's fledgling troupe? The return of "I Piccoli" to Italy was triumphant, but sadly coincided with the onset of Podrecca's health issues. Over time, Piccoli was faced with financial issues that were partly down to the high realization costs associated with staging new and modern plays. This led Podrecca to found another theatre, the "Il Nucleo", on 12th March 1956 in the Milan-based Piccola Scala theatre. The inaugural performance of "Visioni Sinfoniche" ("Symphonic Visions") was a landmark for the troupe. The focus of "Il Nucleo" was on scaled-down operatic performances to keep costs at bay by operating a smaller theatre. The famous Italian theatre critic and theorist Silvio D"Amico wrote frequently about Podrecca. What was his view of Vittorio Podrecca and "Teatro dei Piccoli"? Silvio D'Amico (1887–1955) considered Podrecca to be the finest expression of Italian art. Podrecca succeeded in revolutionizing the actors' theatre through puppets, and his feat found worldwide recognition.

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Nadja Ocepek IN TERVJU

IN TERV IEW

Zbirka The Cook/ Marks

The Cook/Marks Collection

PRIVATNA Zbirka The Cook/Marks je zbirka iz američke savezne države Kalifornije s nekoliko tisuća lutaka i knjiga o lutkarstvu. Nazvana je po Alanu Cooku i donirana centru „Northwest Puppet Centre“. Dio zbirke čini i nekoliko lutaka kazališta „Teatro dei Piccoli“ koje je Cook preuzeo izravno od slavne umjetnice i kolekcionarke Marie Signorelli koja je nakon smrti Vittoria Podrecce pokušala sačuvati njegovo naslijeđe. O zbirci i sjećanjima na kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ razgovarali smo s Alanom Cookom i Dmitrijem Carterom, ravnateljem centra „Northwest Puppet Centre“.

The Cook/Marks Collection is a private collection from California with several thousand puppets and puppetry books. The collection named after Alan Cook and Jacqueline Marks has been donated to the Northwest Puppet Center. In the collection there are also some puppets of Teatro dei Piccoli which Cook acquired directly from the famous artist and collector Maria Signorelli who, after Vittorio Podrecca's death, tried to save his legacy. We talked about the collection and memories of the Teatro dei Piccoli with Alan Cook and Dmitri Carter, the director of Northwest Puppet Centre.

Recite na nešto o centru „Northwest Puppet Centre“. g. Carter: „Carter Family Marionettes“ začeti su kao gostujuća družina koju su činili moji roditelji, moja sestra i ja. Nakon višegodišnjih gostovanja, moji su roditelji odlučili otvoriti stalno mjesto održavanja predstava u našem rodnom gradu Seattleu i tako je stvoren centar „Northwest Puppet Center“. I dalje je to mala neprofitna umjetnička organizacija, ali čuva veliku zbirku lutaka i knjiga. „Northwest Puppet Centre“ čuva važnu zbirku lutaka. Kako je centar nabavio tu zbirku? g. Carter: „Northwest Puppet Center“ čuva nekoliko zbirki. Moji roditelji, Chris i Stephen Carter, izrađivali su vlastite lutke za naše predstave, ali bi oni i na svakom od gostovanja sakupili po nekoliko lutaka. Naša obitelj naručila je i neke lutke od prijatelja koji su bili školovani umjetnici i lutkari, a ogledali su se u drugim stilovima. Tako su stvoreni temelji nečega što je danas možda najveća lutkarska zbirka na prostoru zapadne polutke. Tijekom godina, mnogi su ljudi donirali lutke u naš muzej i on se postepeno širio, kao i knjige za našu knjižnicu namijenjenu istraživanjima. Prva veća donirana zbirka bila je „The Lettie Connell Schubert Collection“. Ona je odmah udvostručila fundus naše knjižnice i muzej obogatila s nekoliko važnih lutaka. Nakon što je naša organizacija dobila ovaj poklon,

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vjerojatno su i drugi kolekcionari počeli ozbiljno razmišljati o tome kamo bi se njihove lutke i knjige mogle konačno smjestiti. Zbirku „The Josie Robins Collection“ i njenih nekoliko stotina knjiga donirao je lokalni Muzej povijesti i industrije. Josie je volontirala u tom muzeju, ali je umrla prije nego je lutkarski centar bio osnovan. I sasvim slučajno, baš je Josie Robins bila ta koja je Alanu Cooku spomenula našu obitelj. Alan nas je pozvao da odigramo predstavu na našem prvom lutkarskom festivalu u Kaliforniji. Nakon što je našu obitelj poznavao nekoliko desetljeća i prepoznao našu posvećenost lutkarstvu, Alan nam je povjerio svoju zbirku. U idućih nekoliko godina bilo je potrebno nekoliko kamiona koji su vozili stotine sati kako bi lutke prenijeli iz Južne Kalifornije u Seattle. Ova ogromna donacija postala je tako „The Cook/Marks Collection“, a njome se odaje priznanje Alanu Cooku za njegov dugogodišnji trud uložen u očuvanje lutkarstva i Jacqueline Marks koja je sa Alanom blisko surađivala dugi niz godina. Jacqueline je bila vizionarka jer je uvidjela važnost ove zbirke i velikodušno podržavala sav trud koji se ulagao u brigu o lutkama u Kaliforniji i sada u Seattleu. Koliko lutaka broji zbirka i odakle one potječu? Zbirku čini više od 5.000 lutaka iz cijelog svijeta i obuhvaća razdoblje od nekoliko stoljeća. Iako lutkarstvo pripada davnim vremenima, vrlo se rijetko mogu naći primjerci iz 18. stoljeća i ra-

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Tell us about the Northwest Puppet Centre. Mr Carter: Carter Family Marionettes began as a touring company with my parents, myself and my sister. After several years of touring, my parents decided to establish a permanent venue in our hometown of Seattle and the Northwest Puppet Center was created. It remains a very small non-profit arts organisation but also houses large collections of puppets and books. Northwest Puppet Centre holds an important collection of puppets. How did it receive this collection? Mr Carter: The Northwest Puppet Center is home to several collections. My parents, Chris and Stephen Carter, created their own puppets for our shows but they also collected a few puppets whenever we toured. Our family also commissioned some puppets from friends who were accomplished artists or puppeteers working in other styles. This became the foundation of what is now perhaps the largest puppetry collection in the Western Hemisphere. Over the years, many other people donated puppets for our gradually growing museum and donated books for our puppetry research library. The Lettie Connell Schubert Collection was the first major collection donated. This instantly doubled our research library and added some important puppets

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to our museum. When our organisation received that gift, perhaps other collectors began thinking seriously about where their puppets and books would eventually go. With several hundred more books, The Josie Robbins Collection was donated by the local Museum of History and Industry. Josie was a volunteer there and passed away before we established the puppet centre. Coincidentally, it was Josie Robbins who first told Alan Cook about our family. Alan invited us to perform at our first puppet festival in California. After knowing our family for decades and recognizing our dedication to puppetry, Alan entrusted us with his collection. Over the last few years, it has taken eight truckloads and hundreds of hours driving to bring the puppets from Southern California to Seattle. This massive donation became The Cook/Marks Collection, recognising both Alan Cook for his lifetime efforts to preserve puppetry and Jacqueline Marks who has worked closely with Alan for many years. Jacqueline has been visionary because she saw the importance of this collection and has generously supported efforts to care for these puppets in California and now in Seattle. How many puppets are in the collection. What are their origins? The Cook/Marks Collection features over 5,000 puppets from around the world and spans a couple of centuries. Although puppetry is ancient, it is very rare to find

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


nije. Veliki dio zbirke „The Cook/ Marks Collection“ čine američke lutke iz 19. st. pa sve do polovice 20. st. jer je Alan spašavao lutke kada ostale umjetničke ustanove nisu uopće pokazivale zanimanje za lutkarstvo. Osim američkih lutaka, brojne su i one azijske, možda zato što Alan potječe sa Zapadne obale. Azija je tek s druge strane Tihog oceana, pa je zbog useljavanja te kulturne i trgovinske razmjene, ovaj dio države s njom uvijek bio jače povezan. Iako su malobrojnije od azijskih lutaka, postoji i nekoliko lijepih primjera europskih lutaka. Neke je Alan nabavio u SAD-u, a neke je kupio dok je bio u Europi na festivalu UNIMA-e u Bukureštu, ali o tome ćemo više reći kasnije. I na kraju „The Cook/Marks Collection“ posjeduje i nekoliko lijepih primjeraka iz Južne Amerike i Afrike, iako oni nisu toliko brojni kao oni iz drugih dijelova svijeta. Dio zbirke su i lutke kazališta „Teatro

Gospodine Cook, možete li nam reći nešto više o sebi. Kako ste se počeli baviti ovim zanimanjem? g. Cook: Četvrtog Božića mojeg života, na poklon sam dobio igračku-marionetu malog Nizozemca. U ono vrijeme, u trgovinama su se uz igračke često mogle kupiti i lutke. Kad sam bio mali postojale su prave robne kuće s odjelima s knjigama, odjećom pa čak i odjelom za numizmatičare i tamo su se uživo izvodile lutkarske predstave. Moja prva sjećanja tako su ona o lutkarskim predstavama u robnoj kući. Walt Disney je pokrenuo promotivnu lutkarsku predstavu „Snjeguljica“ koja se izvodila u robnim kućama čak i prije prikazivanja filma 1938. godine, dakle moralo je to biti 1937. A godina dana se malom djetetu čini kao strašno puno vremena. Predstava s marionetama započela bi kratkim filmom u kojem su bili predstavljeni likovi i to samo

Tijekom šest desetljeća, Alan Cook je sakupio MEĐUNARODNO poznatu zbirku s više od 5.000 lutaka. Zbirku čine lutke iz različitih kultura svijeta i radovi slavnih lutkara iz prošlih nekoliko stoljeća.

dei Piccoli“. Ima li, osim lutaka, i nekih drugih predmeta koji se odnose na Vittoria Podreccu (dokumenata, fotografija)? U zbirci nalazi se i jedan od sanduka za turneje koji je Piccoli koristio na posljednjoj turneji. Nisam još pregledao sve kutije s različitim sitnicama, tako da bi tu moglo biti i postera, programa ili fotografija koje samo čekaju da budu otkrivene. Ovaj je projekt prilično zahtjevan i bit će potrebno nekoliko godina da se sve temeljito prouči.

slikom svakog patuljka i drugih likova koji se javljaju u animiranom filmu. Nakon što bi lutkarska predstava započela, pojavila su se dva prizora na okretnoj pozornici, tako da se scena pomicala dok je Snjeguljica hodala kroz šumu. Bob Baker bio je u to vrijeme mladi lutkar. Ne znam je li on bio stvarno zaposlen, ali uvijek je bio tamo i pomagao. Wayne Barlow izrađivao je lutke. Waynea nikad nisam upoznao, samo sam čuo za njega. Wayne bi se s vremena na vrijeme sam prijavio u psihi-

Alan Cook je poznati svjetski kolekcionar lutaka, povjesničar, osnivač Međunarodnog muzeja lutkarstva i bivši stop motion animator. Šezdesetih godina prošloga stoljeća radio je televizijsku emisiju „David i Golijat“ s Artom Clokeyom, koji je prvi započeo s korištenjem lutaka za stop-action animaciju (uključujući i „Gumby"). Uz to je i držao predavanja o lutkarstvu i na lutkarskim festivalima postavljao izložbe.

Je li zbirka otvorena za javnost? Izložbeni prostor ima svoja ograničenja tako da se može prikazivati samo mali dio zbirke. Lutkari, istraživači i ostali znatiželjnici mogu se slobodno u svakom trenutku obratiti centru „Northwest Puppet Center“ i dogovoriti dolazak kako bi vidjeli lutke koje možda u tom trenutku nisu izložene. Osim toga, mi fundus šaljemo i na posudbu drugim muzejima, kako bi ljudi u drugim dijelovima svijeta mogli uživati u lutkama.

jatrijsku bolnicu, a jednom mu je gazda bacio na ulicu stvari iz stana. René Zendejasa nazvao je njegov prijatelj koji je radio kao sakupljač otpada i ovaj je požurio spasiti brojne Wayneove lutke. Ovo je samo jedan od izazova očuvanja povijesti lutkarstva, no vrlo je zanimljivo promatrati kako je sve međusobno povezano.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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examples from the 18th century and earlier. The largest portion of The Cook/Marks Collection is late 19th through mid 20th century American puppets because Alan was rescuing puppets when other arts institutions did not have any interest in puppetry. After American puppets, there is a large number of Asian puppets, perhaps because Alan is from the West Coast. Asia is just across the Pacific Ocean so this side of our country has always had more connections through immigration, trade and cultural exchanges. Although fewer than the Asian puppets, there are many fine examples of European puppets. Some were acquired by Alan in the USA and others he purchased while in Europe for the UNIMA festival in Bucharest but more about that later. Lastly The Cook/Marks Collection also has some fine examples from South America and Africa, altho-

Mr Cook, could you tell us a little bit about yourself. How did you come to this profession? Mr Cook: For my 4th Christmas I got a toy marionette of a little Dutch man. Along with the toys, it was common in those days to find puppets for sale at the stores. When I was little, we had true department stores with a book department, a clothing department, even sections for stamp collectors and they would feature live puppet shows. Some early memories are watching puppet shows at department stores. Walt Disney commissioned a promotional marionette show of "Snow White" to be performed in the department stores before the film was released in 1938 so that must have been 1937. An entire year seems like a long time to a little kid though. The marionette show started with a short film which introduced the characters with just a still image

Over the six decades, Alan Cook has acquired an internationally acclaimed collection of over 5,000 puppets. The collection includes puppets from various traditions around the world and works by prominent puppeteers from the past few centuries.

ugh not as numerous as from the other parts of the world. In the collection there are also some puppets of Teatro dei Piccoli. Are there other objects besides puppets connected to Vittorio Podrecca (documents, photos)? The Cook/Marks Collection does include one of the touring trunks used by Piccoli on their final tour. I have not gone through all the boxes of ephemera so there may

of each of the dwarves and all the other characters which would be in the animated film. Once the marionettes began, it was two scenes with a turntable stage so the scenery moved while Snow White was walking through the woods. Bob Baker was a young puppeteer at the time. I'm not sure if he was actually hired but he was always there and helping out. Wayne Barlow made the puppets. I never met Wayne, just knew of him. Every once in a while,

Alan Cook is a world renowned puppet collector, historian, a founder of the International Puppetry Museum and a former stop motion animator. He worked on the 1960s "Davey and Goliath" TV show with Art Clokey, who pioneered using puppets for stop-action animation (including "Gumby"). He also has taught puppetry and mounted exhibits at puppetry festivals.

be some posters, programmes or photos waiting to be rediscovered. This project has been rather overwhelming so it will be several years to carefully go through everything. Is the collection open to public? Exhibition space is limited so only a small percentage is ever on view. Puppeteers, scholars and other curious people are welcome to contact the Northwest Puppet Center to arrange access to see puppets which may not currently be on display. We also lend to other museums so people in other areas of the world can enjoy the puppets.

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Wayne would check himself into a mental hospital and one time his landlord threw his stuff out. René Zendejas got a phone call from his friend who was a garbage man and rushed down to save many of Wayne's puppets. This is one of the challenges of preserving puppet history but it is also interesting to see how everything is interconnected. At my school, there was a puppet club and you had to be 8 years old to join. I was only 7 1/2 at the time but my mother wrote 8 so I could join. Through the puppet club, I was able to participate in a puppetry class during the summer

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U mojoj školi postojao je lutkarski klub, ali morali ste imati najmanje 8 godina kako biste se mogli upisati. Ja sam u to vrijeme imao samo 7 i pol godina, no moja je majka napisala da imam 8 i upisala me. Kao član lutkarskog kluba mogao sam u ljeto 1939. sudjelovati na satovima lutkarstva koje je organizirala Uprava za napredak rada (Works Progress Administration). Tim vladinim programom lutkarstvo se tijekom Velike depresije približilo milijunima ljudi. Benzin se mogao kupiti po cijeni od samo 15 centi za galon, pa gostovanja nisu predstavljala problem i mnogo je ljudi živjelo od održavanja lutkarskih predstava. Mnogi slavni lutkari održavali su turneje po Kaliforniji, ali meni je zaista žao da nikada nisam vidio Tonyja Sarga. Sarg je bio vrlo utjecajna osoba u svijetu američkog lutkarstva, čak i za Johnnyja Fausta (rođenog kao John Faustman). Johnny Faust je u kući imao tiskarski stroj i objavio je vlastitu knjigu o lutkarstvu kad mu je bilo samo 14 godina. Prije mnogo godina postavljao sam izložbu lutaka u lokalnoj knjižnici i knjižničarka mi je dala primjerak ove vrlo rijetke knjige. Rekla mi je da sam ja jedina osoba koja se ikada do tad, a vjerojatno i ubuduće interesirala za tu knjigu. I tako se, kao što vidite, jedno nadovezalo na drugo, s lutkarstvom kao niti vodiljom. Kada ste upoznali Mariu Signorelli? Što Vam je ostalo u sjećanju vezano uz nju i njezinu obitelj? g Cook: Mariu Signorelli sam prvi put upoznao na festivalu UNIMA 1965. godine u Bukureštu. Da toga nije bilo, možda ne bih niti imao priliku ići u Rim gdje sam bio na večeri kod nje i njezine obitelji. Svi su se okupili na večeri ali su se kasnije raspršili u raznim pravcima jer je bilo vrlo jasno da svakoga od njih zanimaju drugačije stvari. Činilo se da Mariu Signorelli zanima uvođenje modernističkog pristupa u lutkarstvo, ali je jednako tako cijenila i ono tradicionalno. Stekla je sve što je mogla od kazališta Teatro dei Piccoli, a dio toga ja sam stekao izravno od nje. Operna pjevačica još uvijek ima kostim koji nije diran, ali ostali likovi nisu imali kostime. Imam i zbirku modernih ručnih lutaka Marie Signorelli. Ona je pokušavala spasiti sve što je mogla i u pravom se trenutku našla na pravom mjestu, kako bi sačuvala neke. Kako je kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ bilo prihvaćeno u SAD-u? g. Cook: Tridesetih godina proš-

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log stoljeća kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ izvodilo je predstave u New York Cityju i sigurno je bilo dobro prihvaćeno. Objavljivani su i novinski članci, a kritike su bile pozitivne. Nisam siguran jesu li u sklopu turneje ikada bili u Kaliforniji. Mogli su biti u vrijeme kad su snimali „Ja sam Suzana“. Skupina „Yale Puppeteers“ odnosno kasnije „Kazalište Turnabout“ izrađivala je i lutke za taj film, a očito je da je tijekom snimanja filma između talijanskih i američkih lutkara postojala blaga konkurencija.

of 1939 organised by the Works Progress Administration. This government programme brought puppetry to millions during The Great Depression. Gas was only 15 cents a gallon so touring was possible and many people made their living doing puppet shows. Many great puppeteers toured through California, but I'm sorry that I never saw Tony Sarg. Sarg was very influential in American puppetry, including Johnny Faust (born John Faustman). Johnny Faust had a letterpress at home and published his own puppetry book at the age of 14. Many years ago,

Alan Cook s prvom marionetom koji je napravio kao dijete 1939. godine/ Alan Cook with the first marionette he made as a child in 1939 Kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ upoznao sam mnogo kasnije kad su mjesec dana nastupali u Los Angelesu. Ceh lutkara organizirao je za njih prijem u „Turnabout house“. Tamo su svi bili ljubazni pa ako je tijekom snimanja i postojao rivalitet tamo ga više nije bilo. Bob Mason na prijemu je izvodio Punch i Judy. On je bio poznat kao jedan od najboljih izvođača Puncha u Americi. Tko je Jimmy Gorno? Poznavali ste ga? Recite nam nešto o njemu. On se nije vratio u Italiju s ostalim članovima Piccolisa. Što Vam je o njima rekao? Što je radio nakon što su se oni vratili? g Cook: Jimmyja Gornoa prvi sam put upoznao kada je Piccoli izvodilo predstave u Los Angelesu. Kad se skupina vratila, on je ostao u Americi. Kasnije je radio za revi-

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when I was putting together an exhibit of puppets at the local library, the librarian gave me a copy of this very rare book. She said I was the only person who ever borrowed it and probably nobody else would. So as you can see, one thing led to another and puppetry has been a continuous thread. When did you meet Maria Signorelli? What memories do you have of her and her family? Mr Cook: I first met Maria Signorelli at the 1965 UNIMA festival in Bucharest. If not for that, I may not have had the opportunity to go to Rome where I had dinner with her and her family. Everyone gathered for dinner but then scattered in different directions because it seemed each person had different interests. Maria Signorelli seemed to be interested in bringing a more

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modernist approach to puppetry but she also appreciated the more traditional. She acquired what she could of Teatro dei Piccoli and it was directly from her that I acquired a few pieces. A female opera singer has the costume still intact but other characters were without costumes. I also have in the collection a modern style hand puppet by Maria Signorelli. She was trying to save what she could and I was there at the right time to acquire a few. How was "Teatro dei Piccoli" accepted in the USA? Mr Cook: "Teatro dei Piccoli" performed in New York City in the 1930s and it must have been well received. There are news clippings with favourable reviews. I"m not sure if they ever came to California on that tour. This may have been when they filmed "I Am Suzanne". The Yale Puppeteers/Turnabout Theatre also worked puppets for that film and apparently there was a little rivalry between the Italian and the American puppeteers during the filming. I met Teatro dei Piccoli much later when they were performing in Los Angeles for one month. The puppet guild hosted a reception for them at the Turnabout House. At that time everyone was friendly so whatever rivalry existed during the filming was long gone. Bob Mason performed Punch and Judy at the reception. He was known as one of the best Punch showmen in America. Who is Jimmy Gorno? You knew him? Tell us about him. He didn't return to Italy when most of the Piccolis did. What did he tell you about them? What did he do after they left? Mr Cook: I first met when Jimmy Gorno when Piccoli was performing in Los Angeles. He stayed in America after the rest of the troupe left. Later we worked together for Sid and Marty Krofft's burlesque marionette revue on Bourbon Street in New Orleans. It is funny because the Krofft"s claimed to be 5th generation puppeteers for publicity purposes but Jimmy Gorno actually was a 5th generation puppeteer. Jimmy Gorno was one of the puppeteers for Teatro dei Piccoli when they started their tour in Argentina and went on to Mexico. They neglected to pay the publicist in Mexico so left some puppets behind in lieu of payment. When they arrived in Los Angeles, they did not have as many puppets as when they started their tour

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


ju marioneta Sida i Marty Krofft u ulici Bourbon u New Orleansu. Krofftovi su u svrhu bolje promocije tvrdili da su oni 5. generacija lutkara, a što je najsmješnije, lutkar 5. generacije zapravo je bio Jimmy Gorno. Jimmy Gorno bio je jedan od lutkara u kazalištu „Teatro dei Piccoli“ kad su oni krenuli na turneju iz Argentine i otišli u Meksiko. Zanemarili su plaćanje usluga publicista u Meksiku i umjesto plaćanja ostavili su nekoliko lutaka. Kad su se vratili u Los Angeles nisu imali onoliko lutaka koliko su ih imali na početku pa nisu mogli izvoditi

drugi zeleni. Pretpostavljalo se da boja ukazuje na raspoloženje u kadru i bila je prilično uobičajena u nijemim filmovima, ali ovaj je film bio jedan od posljednjih koji su koristili ovu tehniku.

so they couldn't perform some of their routines. I often wonder what happened to those puppets in Mexico. I heard from Jimmy that when Vittorio Podrecca ran the company, they would all stay in nice hotels if it was a successful tour. Also, they would all stay at less luxurious accommodations when needed. When Podrecca passed away, his stepson, Carlo Farinelli, tried to manage the company. He was a travel agent so didn't really have the experience to run a puppet company. He would usually book better accommodation for himself and cheaper

Je li kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ utjecalo na razvoj lutkarstva u SAD-u, Južnoj Americi? Kako? g. Cook: Kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ je u to vrijeme na neki način moglo utjecati na lutkare u Americi. Svaki put kad bi bio snimljen film s lutkama, svaki lutkar poticao je njegovo gledanje. Vjerojatno je njihov utjecaj

Marionete Teatra dei Piccoli iz zbirke The Cook/Marks/Marionette of Teatro dei Piccoli from The Cook/Marks Collection, Northwest Puppet Center. neke svoje uobičajene predstave. Često se pitam što se desilo s tim lutkama u Meksiku. Od Jimmyja sam čuo da su oni, kad je Vittorio Podrecca vodio kompaniju, svi odsjedali u dobrim hotelima, ako je turneja bila uspješna. Također, ako je bilo potrebno odsjedali bi i u manje luksuznom smještaju. Kad je Podrecca umro, njegov posinak, Carlo Farinelli, pokušao je voditi kompaniju. On je vodio putničku agenciju i nije zapravo imao iskustva u vođenju lutkarske skupine. On bi obično rezervirao bolji smještaj za sebe, a jeftiniji za izvođače, tako da oni nisu bili svi zajedno. Tako je Carlo bio taj koji je organizirao ostavljanje lutaka u Meksiku. I Piccoli su nastupali i u različitim filmovima. Gdje? Kakvi su to bili filmovi? g. Cook: „Ja sam Suzana“ je jedini kojeg znam. Čudan je to film s elementima nijemog filma, poput, primjerice, obojenih kadrova. Ti su filmovi bili crno-bijeli, a u neke se kadrove dodavala boja pa bi tako jedan kadar bio plavi, a

na lutkarstvo bio mnogo manje izravan nego stvarno poseban. Recite nam nešto o trenutnim projektima centra Northwest Puppet Centre? g. Carter: Trenutno je najveći projekt organiziranje zbirke „The Cook/Marks Collection“ i odabir predmeta kojima je potrebna obnova. S dodatnom financijskom potporom to bi se moglo i malo brže obaviti, no pronalaženje stručnjaka, školovanih lutkarskih stručnjaka koji posjeduju vještine konzervatora, pravi je izazov. Lutkarski centar i dalje prikazuje predstave, iako ja nemam vremena pripremati nove predstave i vrlo rijetko nastupam sam. Prije nego je projekt muzeja preuzeo moj život, marionetske opere izvodili smo svake godine i ja se nadam da ću opet pronaći vremena i pripremiti nekoliko novih produkcija. Upravo smo dobili neobjavljene note za lutkarsku operu iz 1920. i radujem se prevođenju libreta. Možda ćemo uskoro uspjeti ovu produkciju pripremiti za scenu.

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lodgings for his performers so there was a distance between them. It was Carlo's arrangement to leave the puppets in Mexico. I Piccoli performed in various movies. Where? What were these movies like? Mr Cook: "I Am Suzanne" is the only one I know about. It is a strange film with some conventions of silent films like tinting scenes. It was black and white film but they would give it a colour tint for one scene, like make one scene a little blue and another scene green. It was supposed to indicate the mood of the scene and was fairly common for silent films but this was one of the last films to use this technique. Did Teatro dei Piccoli influence the development of puppetry in the USA and South America? How? Mr Cook: Some way or another Teatro dei Piccoli may have influenced the puppeteers in America at the time. Whenever a film came out with puppets, every puppeteer made a point of going see it. There are probably more indirect

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influences than any specific one. The Carter Family Marionettes have been active in puppetry ever since 1976. Has there been any influence of Teatro dei Piccoli in terms of puppetry technology and design, animation, dramaturgy ... Mr Carter: Of course, we knew about Teatro Piccoli but we were not directly influenced. I never had a chance to see them perform. It is interesting that they actually had a theatre in Seattle during the 1962 World's Fair but that was before my time.

Tell us about current projects in the Northwest Puppet Centre? Mr Carter: Currently, the biggest project is organising The Cook/ Marks Collection along with assessing conservation needs. This initial assessment will take a few years and it could take decades to address all the conservation needs. With additional financial support, it might be a little faster but finding people with the puppetry knowledge and conservation skills is also a challenge. The puppet centre continues to present shows, although I have not had time to create new shows and seldom perform. Before this big museum project took over my life, we staged marionette operas every year so I hope to start finding time to create some new productions. We just received an unpublished score for a puppet opera from the 1920s so I am excited to translate the libretto. Perhaps we will stage this production in the near future.

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Nadja Ocepek IN TERVJU

IN TERV IEW

Život lutke u Emilia-Romagni

Puppet life in Emilia-Romagna

S Robertom Colombo i Andreom Monticellijem o Cassa Delle Marionette i FESTIVALU adm!

WITH ROBERTA COLOMBO AND ANDREA MONTICELLI ABOUT CASSA DELLE MARIONETTE AND FESTIVAL ADM!

Koje aktivnosti pripremate u „Casa delle Marionette“ i na kojim projektima trenutno radite... Muzej organizira različite aktivnosti i to naročito za škole, djecu i roditelje. Posjetiteljima nudimo vođena razgledavanja, radionice izrade lutaka i predstave. Cilj muzeja „Casa delle Marionette“ jest postati mjestom sastajanja i odgoja, učenja i znanja, dinamičnog prostora koji vrvi životom za razliku od „statičnog“, na što bi nas mogla asocirati riječ „muzej“, budući da je upravo život lutkarskog kazališta taj koji potiče dijalog među ljudima. Ovdje se održavaju i kulturne aktivnosti u području književnosti, pjesništva i oblikovanja. Muzej surađuje s mrežom muzeja regije Emilia-Romagna i priznat je kao povijesno-kulturna, tradicionalna značajka predstava uživo u Italiji.

Tell us about Casa delle Marionette. What kind of activities you run and what projects are you working on currently? The Museum organizes various activities, particularly for schools, children and their parents. Visitors can take part in guided tours, puppet-making workshops and shows. Casa delle Marionette aims to be a place of meeting and of growth, of learning and knowledge, dynamic and full of life rather than "static", as the term "museum" might suggest, since it is the very life of the puppet theatre which encourages a dialogue between human beings. The museum also stages cultural activities linked to literature, poems and training. The Museum is connected to the Museum System of the Emilia-Romagna Region and is recognised as a historical-cultural living tradition from our country.

U muzeju „Casa delle Marionette“ čuva se važna talijanska zbirku lutaka. Koliko lutaka broji zbirka? Odakle potječu? „Casa delle Marionette“ je muzej u kojem se čuvaju profesionalni materijali obitelji Monticelli, jedne od najstarijih skupina u Italiji koja je svoje predstave izvodila uživo. Ova bogata zbirka antikvitetnih materijala odražava neprestanu aktivnost obitelji, koja je započela u prvim desetljećima devetnaestog stoljeća radom njena osnivatelja Ariodante, rođenog u Cremoni 1822. godine (umro je oko 1910.). Njegov rad obogaćen je idućim generacijama koje su ojačale njegovu povijesnu, kulturnu i umjetničku baštinu i učinile je poznatom širom svijeta. U zbirci obitelji Monticelli okupljeni su na jednom mjestu dragocjeni materijali s pozornice koji su pripadali obiteljskom kazalištu. Čine je 63 marionete, 150 zijevalica, 132 scene od papira, 130 rukopisa i mnogo na papiru izrađenog materijala koji se odnosi na različite turneje (postera, pisama, najava i dozvola), kao i različiti sitni materijali (drvene glave, ruke, kostimi za lutke i marionete). Jedinstven je to „živi“ materijal koji je brusio kazališne Casa delle Marionette, Ravenna daske više od dva stoljeća; materijal koji su izradile i prikazivale iste ruke koje su ga i s koljena na koljeno prenosile do današnjeg dana, vraćajući tako talijanskoj kulturi jedan dio povijesti. Zbirka čuva tri vrste marioneta: Yambo, Monticelli i Picchi marionete, ali nemamo marionete kazališta Podrecca. Obitelj Monticelli radila je za kazalište „Teatro dei Piccoli“ i zato imamo mnogo letaka, brošura, fotografija iz tog razdoblja.

Casa delle Marionette has an important Italian collection of puppets. How many puppets are in the collection? Where did they come from? Casa delle Marionette is a museum housing the professional puppetry collection of the Monticelli family, one of the oldest artistic live performance troupes in Italy. This rich collection of antique materials represents the incessant activity of the Monticelli family in this field, which began during the first decades of the nineteenth century through the work of its founder Ariodante, born in Cremona in 1822, and who died around 1910. His collection was enriched by successive generations increasing its historic, cultural and artistic heritage, now recognised throughout the world. The Monticelli collection brings together valuable puppet works created by this family company. It namely consists of 63 marionettes, 150 glove puppets, 132 paper backdrops, 130 handwritten manuscripts and numerous paper materials relating to various tours (posters, letters, announcements and licenses), as well as miscellaneous materials (wooden heads, hands and costumes for puppets and marionettes). It is a unique "living" archive, which has "trodden" the boards of the stage for more than two centuries; it has been crafted and maintained by the same hands which have handed it down to the current day, giving a piece of history back to Italian theatre.

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Kako je obitelj Monticelli povezana s kazalištem „Teatro dei Piccoli“ Vittoria Podrecce? Otello Monticelli, djed Maura i Andree Monticellija, novih ravnatelja ovog obiteljskog poduzeća koje danas, odnosno od 1979. godine, znamo pod nazivom „Teatro del Drago“, svoju suradnju s Podreccom započeo je prije Drugog svjetskog rata i, sa sinovima Mirkom i Williamom, pridružio se posljednjoj velikoj turneji Podreccinog kazališta od 1955 do 1961. Je li zbirka otvorena za javnost? Muzej je otvoren cijelu godinu, ali je potrebno rezervirati posjet. U listopadu, studenome, prosincu i u proljeće (ožujak, travanj, svibanj) otvoren je od 10,00 do 13,00 sati i od 15,00 do 18,00 sati te nudi predstave, radionice i razgledavanje u pratnji stručnog vodiča. Prošle godine pripala Vam je važna misija – organizirati najstariji lutkarski festival regije Emilia-Romagna – Međunarodni festival lutaka i figura (Arrivano dal Mare!). Kakav je to bio izazov? Bila je to svakako velika čast, ali i velika obveza prema našim kolegama u svijetu talijanskog lutkarstva. Zahtijevan zadatak u svim aspektima ali i ogromna i poticajna prilika za profesionalni razvoj i kulturnu razmjenu. Kao i obično, financijska sredstva su uvijek manja od onih koja su vam potrebna i tu nastaju problemi, ali Festival je bio velika prilika za profesionalni razvoj nas kao umjetnika i kao organizatora. Mnoge lutkarske priče još uvijek nisu otkrivene i njihovi majstori još uvijek čekaju na red za interpretaciju. Što se po Vašem mišljenju može učiniti, kako bi se istakli važni lutkari i lutkarska baština sačuvala za budućnost? Zaista ne znamo. U Italiji trenutno razdoblje nije baš sigurno za sve one koji rade u kulturi i teško je raditi bilo kakve planove za budućnost. Ono što možemo reći jest da je važno svakodnevno osluškivati bilo društva, mišljenje mlade generacije, jer su lutkari uvijek obrađivali aktualne teme, nisu se bavili prošlošću već sadašnjošću. Lutkari su radili na trgovima, po ulicama i osjećali da je komunikacija koju imaju sa svojom publikom neposredna, popularna. Stoga je važno biti živ i oživljavati sadašnjost, pa čak i kada izučavamo prošlost trebamo pokušati pronaći vezu sa suvremenim društvom. Na taj način možemo privući publiku, kako mlade tako i starije generacije. Otello Monticelli običavao je govoriti da su njegove predstave namijenjene djeci od 5 do 95 godina.

There are three types of marionettes in the collection: Yambo, Monticelli and Picchi Marionettes, but we don't have any marionettes that come from Podrecca's Company. Monticelli's family worked for Teatro dei Piccoli and for this reason we have a lot of flyers, brochures, and photos from that period. How was the Monticelli family connected to Podrecca's Teatro dei Piccoli? Otello Monticelli, the grandfather of Andrea and Mauro Monticelli, the new directors of the Family Company, now called Teatro del Drago (since 1979), started to work with Podrecca before the Second World War and together with their sons Mirko and William, participated in the last big international tour of Podrecca's Company, from 1955 until 1961. Is the collection open to public? The Museum is open all year round through bookings and, during the months of October, November, December and during the springtime (March, April, May) is open from 10am to 1pm and from 3pm to 6pm, with a range of performances, workshops and guided tours. Last year you received an important mission – to organise and host the oldest puppet festival in Emila-Romagna – The International Festival of Puppets and Figures ADM! (Arrivano dal Mare!). How did you find such a challenge? It was definitely a great honour but also a great commitment to our colleagues in the world of Italian puppetry. A difficult commitment from every point of view but also a great and stimulating opportunity for professional growth and cultural exchange. As usual, the financing is always a little under what you really could do with, and this increases the difficulties, but the Festival remains a real opportunity to grow up as artists and as organisers. There are many stories and much history of puppetry that has yet to be heard and which is still waiting to be interpreted. What do you think we can do to preserve puppetry heritage and to help and highlight the work of important puppeteers in the future? We really don't know. In Italy we are going through a difficult period, so it is difficult to make plans for the future in the context of people

that work in the cultural sphere. What we can say is that it is very important every day to listen to what society has to say, and what the next generation think because puppeteers have to stay with the times, and reflect what is happening currently, instead of looking to the past. Puppeteers traditionally worked in town squares, and in the streets, so there was direct interaction with the audience, they were popular. So it's important to stay alive, to stay current. Even when we study the past, we have to try to find a connection with our contemporary society. This is the way we'll attract the public, both the younger and the older generation. Otello Monticelli was used to say that his shows were for children from 5 to 95 years. Teatro dei Piccoli: plakat/poster, Casa delle Marionette, Ravenna

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Títeres Etcétera


Hermenegildo Lanz Sevilja/Sevilla 1893. – Granada, 1949. PROFESOR CRTANJA, SLIKAR, GRAFIČAR, LUTKAR, SCENOGRAF, GRAFIČKI DIZAJNER, FOTOGRAF.

PROFESSOR OF DRAWING, PAINTER, PRINTMAKER, SET DESIGNER, GRAPHIC DESIGNER, PHOTOGRAPHER.

Iako nije bio lutkar, ovaj je svestrani umjetnik izuzetno bitan za razvoj španjolske lutkarske umjetnosti. Godine 1923. zajedno sa skladateljem Manuelom de Fallom i pjesnikom Federicom Garcíom Lorcom priredio je predstavu s ručnim lutkama pod nazivom „Títeres de Cachiporra“, čime je ovu važnu španjolsku predaju povezao u dijalog s tadašnjom avangardom. Lanz je uvođenjem novog likovnog izraza i proporcija koje je uspješno povezao s glazbom, scenografijom, lirskim izražajem, tematskom raznolikošću i podizanjem ljudskog izražaja na razinu visoke kulture, ostvario nadasve avangardno lutkarsko kazalište. Dio predstave „Misterij sveta tri kralja“ bio je primjerice uprizoren u tehnici papirnatog kazališta, koje je on iz jednostavnog dvodimenzionalnog medija podigao na novu umjetničku razinu, što se smatralo revolucionarnim potezom u ondašnjem lutkarskom kazalištu u Španjolskoj. Predstava u Granadi je tako bila proba za lutkarsku operu „El retablo de maese Pedro“ koja se izvodila nekoliko mjeseci kasnije u Parizu. Komponirao ju je Falla, a Lanz je osmislio ručne i plosnate lutke te scenske elemente. Za premijeru u Sevilli (1925.) i gostovanja po Španjolskoj, Lanzova je tehnička izvedba bila od iznimne važnosti. Iz sačuvanih dokumenata vidljiva je njegova svestranost u području scenografije, mehanike i organizacije kazališta. Osmislio je lutke u ljudskoj veličini s tehnički zahtjevnim i neobičnim polugama za animiranje. Lanzov život nepopravljivo je obilježio Španjolski građanski rat. Izgubio je posao i snašli su ga financijski problemi. Na nagovor de Falle, godine 1938. izradio je jedanaest glava za ručne lutke s kojima je namjeravao zarađivati za život. Pod utjecajem talijanskih lutkara godine 1942. je izradio marionetu – klauna zvanog Totolín. Klaun nije nikad nastupio na pozornici, već je u očima javnosti živio u španjolskom časopisu „La estafeta literaria“, razmišljajući o životu i svijetu.

He was a versatile artist and, although he was not a puppeteer, his contributions to puppetry are major in terms of Spanish history. In 1923, together with Manuel de Falla and Federico García Lorca, he was the man behind the legendary show "Títeres de Cachiporra", a masterpiece which attempted to restore the Spanish tradition, and to place it alongside the avant-garde of the time. Lanz gave the puppets new expressions and proportions that blended harmoniously with music, the design and poetry of the play, varied themes

Zahvaljujući domišljatim kazališnim projektima, poput oživljavanja španjolskih misterija, Lanz se smatra suvremenim španjolskim scenografom. U okviru različitih inicijativa zauzimao se da obrazovanje i kultura budu dostupni svakome, bez obzira na društveni status. Iako je Francov režim njegovo djelovanje potisnuo u zaborav, od 1978. njegovo ime dobiva sve više na važnosti. Umjetnikovo bogato naslijeđe sačuvala je njegova obitelj, a u Granadi su po njemu nazvali ulicu, Institut za politehničke studije, natjecanje školskih

Hermenegildo Lanz, Madrid, 1915 kazališta i putujuću knjižnicu. Zahvaljujući velikoj važnosti za povijest Granade, Španjolske i našeg doživljavanja kazališta, njegov je rad svake godine dio važnih izložbi diljem Španjolske i inozemstva.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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and an explosion of colours on the set; by elevating puppetry from the fields of popular culture to the classical level, he created an immensely innovative puppet theatre in Spain. At the time, The "Mystery of the Magi" was performed using principles from paper theatres. Drawing from a medieval flat work, increasing the scale and

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giving it a stage dimension was a revolutionary idea in European puppet theatre. The work he did in Granada was like a preparation for the première of de Falla's opera "El retablo de maese Pedro" in Paris a few months later. Lanz created glove and flat puppets, as well as set designs. Lanz's technical work was of great importance for the 1925 Spanish première in Seville, and the subsequent tour to various towns. Preserved documents give a sense of how he worked as a set designer, his knowledge of mechanics and his many talents as a man of theatre. He created human-size puppets manipulated using techniques that were not in common use at the time. The Spanish Civil War had a big impact on his life; he lost his employment and faced severe financial problems. In 1938, de Falla encouraged him to make 11 heads for glove puppets. With these he intended to tour the villages to make a living. In 1942, he created Totolín, a clown marionette, which never appeared on stage but nevertheless existed in the public eye through the journal "La estafeta literaria". Lanz also contributed to other major theatrical experiences, such as the the revival of Spanish morality plays. He designed sets for many shows and gained a reputation due to modernity of his work. In addition to his artistic contributions, he was also notable for his civil commitments, making efforts to bring education and culture to everyone, regardless of their social class. Even though his name was silenced for many years by Franco"s dictatorship, from 1978 onwards his work has gradually become more widely known because his family preserved his legacy and various institutions have organised exhibitions and published articles celebrating him. In Granada, a street, a polytechnic, a school theatre competition and a mobile library have been named after him. Every year, his work is exhibited in major museums. His oeuvre is indispensable for an understanding of the history of Granada, of Spain and of our theatrical heritage.

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Yanisbel V. Martínez U FOKUSU

IN FOCUS

Títeres de Cachiporra: isprava o osnivanju

Títeres de Cachiporra: a Foundational Act

Uvod Povijest lutkarstva u Španjolskoj nedvosmisleno je utrla svoj put u 20. stoljeću predstavom „Títeres de Cachiporra“ koju su Manuel de Falla, Federico García Lorca i Hermenegildo Lanz izveli u Granadi, 6. siječnja 1923. Ta je predstava bila jedan od najvećih doprinosa koje je Španjolska dala avangardnom pokretu u umjetnosti diljem Europe. Imala je snažan odjek koji je nadmašio trenutak u kojem je nastala, Granadu kao mjesto, i svoja tri lika, a traje još i danas i ostavila nam je veliku količinu materijala koji o tome svjedoči. Sačuvane su sve lutke-rukavice (njih sedam) zajedno s kostimima i mnogo plošnih lutaka, dio malog kazališta i scene, glazbene note, program, neki novinski članci, fotografije, različite zabilješke, sjećanja različitih osoba koje su tada živjele itd. „Títeres de Cachiporra“ – predstava u kojoj je premijerno izveden tekst „Djevojke koja zalijeva bosiljak i znatiželjnog princa“, stare andaluzijske priče, prema zapisu i u obradi Federica Garcíe Lorce – čak i danas neupitno utječe na hispano-američki lutkarski krug. Ipak, mnoštvo netočnosti i pogrešaka koje su se zadržale tijekom povijesti, ograničavaju mogućnost izučavanja i širenja znanja o ovoj temi. Iznenađuje kako je samo jedna predstava mogla stvoriti toliko legendi i lažnih vjerovanja te da se njeno ozbiljno istraživanje još uvijek iščekuje. O njoj su napisani različiti radovi i eseji, ali mi mislimo da, čak i ako ih i ima tako mnogo, većina ne pogađa namjere koje su imali Falla, Lorca i Lanz u vrijeme lutaka i kazališta u Španjolskoj i Europi toga vremena, a

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još manje ti radovi mogu pratiti utjecaj izvedbi. Enrique Lanz San Román, ravnatelj kazališta Etcétera, neprestano se trudio dublje upoznati djedov rad; Hermenegildo je bio jedan od autora koji je proživio svo to iskustvo. Izvedbi predstave održane 6. siječnja 1923. dao je dio sebe, ostavio moralno i kulturno naslijeđe, i u nju, na neki način, ugradio genezu kazališta Etcétera. Stoga su ideje koje ovdje iznosimo rezultat istraživanja Lanza San Romána, koji je odrastao slušajući svog oca, Enriquea Lanza Durána, koji je govorio da „moramo ispričati istinu priče“. Lanz Durán bio je predani čuvar Hermenegildove arhive. Sačuvao ju je sa čitavim odjeljkom o povijesti lutkarskog kazališta u Španjolskoj, zahvaljujući stalnoj borbi koju je vodio kako bi uspomenu na rad svoga oca obranio od višegodišnjih napada. Ovim tekstom nastavljamo dobar primjer koji nam je ostavio i trudimo se rasvijetliti predstavu odigranu 6. siječnja 1923., i Djevojku koja zalijeva bosiljak. Ova tema nam otkriva tajne različitih područja i karaktera; mnogo je aspekata koje još treba istražiti, informacija koje treba povezati, pitanja na koja treba potražiti odgovore. Ovo je jedno potpuno otvoreno istraživanje. Počet ćemo tako da zamislimo Granadu iz tog vremena i društveno-kulturni kontekst predstave. Granada, 1920-tih Palača Alhambra u tim je godinama iskusila snažno kulturno komešanje nakon Prvog svjetskog rata i pojave avangardnog

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Precedents he history of puppets in Spain has an incontestable milestone in the twentieth century: the performance called "Títeres de Cachiporra" that Manuel de Falla, Federico García Lorca and Hermenegildo Lanz played in Granada, on January 6, 1923.

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That only performance was one of the biggest Spanish contributions to the artistic avant-garde movement that happened across Europe. It had a great repercussion that transgressed its time, the location of Granada and its three main characters, and that is still felt today and leaves us not just a few materials that testify about it. All the glove puppets (seven) are preserved with their costumes, and many plane figures, a part of the little theatre and the set, the scores with musical annotations, the programme, some press articles, photos, different notes, correspondence, the memories of various persons who were present, etc. "Títeres de Cachiporra" – the performance where the text "The girl who waters the basil and the inquisitive prince", an old Andalusian tale scripted and adapted by Federico García Lorca was premiered – has even today an unquestionable influence in the Hispanic American puppetry sphere, but also a jumble of inaccuracies and mistakes dragged along the history limit its study and knowledge. It is surprising how just one performance has generated so many legends and false beliefs, and the fact that a rigorous study of it is still pending. There are various articles and essays about it, but we think that, even though there are so many, the majority of these works can't place Falla,

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Lorca and Lanz"s intentions, with the reality of puppets and theatre in Spain and Europe during these years, and much less can these works follow the impact of the performance. Enrique Lanz San Román, director of the theatrical company Etcétera, has always tried to know his grandfather's work intimately; Hermenegildo was one of the authors of that experience. The performance that took place on January 6, 1923, is a part of his blood, moral and cultural legacy and inside of it is placed somehow the genesis of Etcétera. So, the ideas that we express here are the result of an investigation led by Lanz San Román, who grew up listening his father, Enrique Lanz Durán, saying "we must narrate the truth of the tale". Lanz Durán was a tenacious guardian of Hermenegildo's archive. It is preserved, with a complete section on the history of the puppet theatre in Spain, thanks to his battle to keep his father's memory and work, so battered along the years. These lines are good to carry on with his example and to try to shine some light on the performance played out on January 6, 1923, and "The girl who waters the basil". This matter that has created and will continue to pose a challenge to researchers, provides clues about various fields and characters; a lot of aspects remain to be investigated; pieces of information to be connected, questions to be answered. It is a completely open investigation. We are going to start imagining the Granada of those days and the social and cultural context of the performance.

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


pokreta u umjetnosti. Svima su znani plodovi susreta umjetnika i intelektualaca u Granadi dvadesetih godina prošloga stoljeća. Društvena okupljanja Rinconcillo – u starom kafiću „Alameda“ na trgu Campillo – postala su kolijevkom novih začetaka španjolske kulture. Jedno takvo bilo je i natjecanje „Cante Jondo“, svečanost održana u lipnju 1922.1 Smatramo da je važno naglasiti duh zajedništva tipičan za ove inicijative koji je prenesen i na avangardne europske trendove toga doba i koji je Hermenegildo Lanz izrazio na vrlo dobar način opisujući ugođaj tadašnjega vremena: „Nismo gubili ni trenutka, oponašali smo inicijative jedni drugih i pokušavali predvoditi druge i sami sebe. Uzeli bismo od svakog nešto i napravili nešto novo; u trenu bi se pojavila nova inicijativa i stvari su se ponavljale uvijek iznova, bez stanke i odmora, poput vode koja buja iz izvora kako bi stvorila rijeku, a mi bismo poput izvora prepunih ideja stvarali rijeke ideja; stvorili smo impulzivne struje koje su nestale u moru čovječanstva nakon što bi oplodile tlo kojim su prošle. (…) A zapravo, ti tašti i sebični ljudi koji su sebi zamišljali da samo oni, poput kakvih bogova umjetnosti, zavrjeđuju divljenje javnosti, nisu mogli biti članovi skupine“.2

Federico García Lorca napisao je i premijerno prikazao „El maleficio de la mariposa“ („Zle čari leptira“) 1920. godine, a napravio je i druga kratka djela te stekao nešto kazališnog iskustva. U nekim pismima svojim prijateljima spomenuo je svoje zanimanje za popularne lutke koje je gajio još iz djetinjstva. Tako primjerice, 2. kolovoza 1921. u Asquerosi piše Adolfu Salazaru: „Detaljno istražujem lutku Cristobala (…). Ne može se više naći u ovim selima, ali ono čega se stariji stanovnici sjećaju je prilično drsko i nasmijalo me do suza“.4

Granada, 1920s The city of the Alhambra enjoyed a great cultural upheaval during those years, after the end of the First World War and with the peak of the artistic avant-garde movement. The fecund fruits of the encounters between artists and intellectuals in the Granada of the 1920s are well–known. The "Rinconcillo's" social gatherings, that took place in the old Alameda Café on the Campillo Square, were the cradle of seminal initiatives for Spanish culture, like the "Cante Jondo Competition", celebrated in June 1922.1

A constant search for these initiatives was the dialogue between tradition and modernity, between the cultured fact and the popular fact, between the people's language and the new language that was emerging from the most energy of the most transgressive artists. The performance "Títeres de cachiporra" crystallises those searches and collective ways of collaboration. Theatre and puppets weren't unconnected to these three creators who were responsible for this historical performance. Manuel de Falla had collaborated with Gregorio Martínez Sierra and María Lejárraga in different shows, and with Sergei Diaghilev's Russian Ballet, the height of theatrical modernity of those years. We also know Falla was a fan of puppets; he enjoyed them when he was a kid in his native Cádiz, with La tía Norica's traditional shows. Roland Manuel also says the composer was interested in puppets: "When the future musician of the Master Peter's is nine years old, he plays for her sister, in a little theatre, the adventures of Don Quijote".3

Kontinuirano traganje za takvim inicijativama predstavljalo je dijalog tradicije i suvremenosti, kulturnih i popularnih činjenica, jezika ljudi i novog jezika koji se rađao iz najtransgresivnije energije umjetnika. Predstava Títeres de cachiporra kristalno jasno prikazuje takva traganja i zajedničke načine suradnje. Kazalište i lutke povezivane su s navedena tri stvaratelja odgovorna za ovu povijesnu izvedbu. Manuel de Falla je surađivao s G re g o r i o m M a r t í n e zo m Sierrom i Maríjom Lejárraga u različitim predstavama, kao i s Ruskim baletom Serguija Diaguileva, koji predstavlja kazališnu suvremenost toga vremena. Znamo također da je Falla bio obožavatelj lutaka; uživao je u njima kao dijete u rodnom Cádizu, u klasičnim predstavama kazališta La tía Norica. I Roland Manuel je govorio da su kompozitora zanimale lutke: „Kad je budući skladatelj Gazde Petra imao osam godina, svojoj je sestri u malom kazalištu svirao Pustolovine Don Quijota“.3

lead others and ourselves. We took each one, from everyone, and we made it; immediately another initiative had emerged, and that happened over and over again, without a pause and without a break, like water, when it rises from the spring to create the river, so we, springs full of ideas, created currents of ideas; we made impulsive currents that were lost in the human sea after irrigating the lands where they crossed. (…) In effect, those vain and selfish people who thought they were only reserved for the public admiration, like gods of art, couldn't be a part of the group".2

Títeres de Cachiporra: dio kazališnog programa/playbill fragment, 1913 U istom tom pismu govori i liku zvanom „Currito er der Puerto“. U zbirci pisama iz tog doba (1921. – 1922.) likove poput Cristobica je spominjao više puta.5 Hermenegildo Lanz je, kako u svom životopisu i sam kaže, tijekom boravka u Lisabonu (između 12. i 16. godine života) radio u kazalištu Dona Maria II, u radionici za oslikavanje scene. U to vrijeme lutke su bile dio njegove kulturne izobrazbe. Kako saznajemo iz njegovih

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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We consider it is important to emphasise the collective spirit of these initiatives, that is also obvious in the avant-garde European trends of this period and that Hermenegildo Lanz expresses in a very good way when he remembers that atmosphere: "We didn't lose an instant, we emulated each other in initiatives and we tried to 1 This competition was organised by Miguel Cerón, Fernando Vílchez, Manuel Jofré, Manuel de Falla, Federico García Lorca, Hermenegildo Lanz, and others.

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Federico García Lorca had written and premiered "El maleficio de la mariposa" in 1920, and he had created other short pieces and had theatrical experiences as a youngster. In some letters to his friends he mentions his interest in popular puppets since his childhood. For example: on August 2, 1921, from Asquerosa, he writes to Adolfo Salazar: "I'm crushing the Cristobical (…). They 2 Hermenegildo Lanz, "Pequeña historia de los autos sacramentales representados en Granada. Años 1923, 1927, 1928 y 1935", in Juan Mata, Apogeo y silencio de Hermenegildo Lanz, Sección de publicaciones Diputación de Granada, 2003, pp.149-150. 3 Roland Manuel, Manuel de Falla, Éditions Cahiers d´Art, París, 1930, p. 15.

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kratkih bilješki, dok je, od 1912. – 1917. studirao umjetnost, u Maridu se upoznao s tajlandskim lutkarskim majstorom i s još jednim koji je kao vrlo mlad živio u Argentini. Uz to, gdje god da se našao, redovito je posjećivao kazališne predstave. Europsko je kazalište u ono vrijeme bilo središte promjena; uloga scenarista bila je u središtu kazališne prakse, a istraživali su se i načini izražavanja drugačiji od naturalizma. U žarištu traganja, pred umjetnikovim je očima izronila lutka i ponudila svoje umjetničko i dehumanizirano tijelo kao alternativu čovjeku-glumcu. Zato su između ostalih reformatora, Edward Gordon Craig, Maurice Maeterlinck i Alfred Jarry pali pod snažan utjecaj lutkarskog kazališta. Nova generacija umjetnika plastičnog izražaja osvježila je lutkarsku pozornicu, lutke usmjerila novim putovima ili glumčevo tijelo transformirala u lutku i svoje plastično izrađeno djelo integrirala u radove kompozitora, pisaca i stvaratelja toga doba.6

vio se već u predstavi „Títeres de Cachiporra“. Iako je predstava izvedena na Sveta tri kralja i prema programu bila „zabava za djecu“, lutkarska predstava nije bila samo zabava za djecu, već potpuno osmišljeno remek djelo trojice umjetnika. Manuel de Falla bio je njena os i središte, kao što je to bio i za mnoge kulturne inicijative pokrenute u ondašnjoj Granadi, jer taj je sićušan čovjek, odmjerena i mirna govora, mogao oko sebe okupiti druge umjetnike i ljude dobre volje.7

have already disappeared from these villages, but the things the old men remember are extremely cheeky and they made me laugh till I cried".4 And in the same letter he talks about a character called "Currito er der Puerto". In his collected letters of those years (1921-1922) the Cristobicas are mentioned on some occasions.5 Hermenegildo Lanz worked in the Dona Maria II Theatre, in the scene painter's workshop, while he was in Lisbon (when he was aged between 12 and 16 years old), as he put in his curriculum vitae. Puppets were also a part of his cultural referen-

"Títeres de Cachiporra", the performance A variety of interests drove Falla, Lorca and Lanz to put together their talents and energies in that performance in 1923. One of their great contributions was this performance that became the theatrical laboratory of "El retablo de maese Pedro", the opera that Manuel de Falla performed for the first time few months later in Paris (25 June).

Falla, Lorca i Lanz povezali su se u tu umjetničku i scensku revoluciju. Tako je Falla svoj „El sombrero de tres picos“ („Trokutasti šešir“), kojeg je prvi puta Londonu 1919. godine izveo Ruski balet, postavio sa scenom i kostimima Pabla Picassa i koreografijom Leonide Massine. „Títeres de Cachiporra“, PREDSTAVA Veliko zanimanje nagnalo je Fallu, Lorcu i Lanza da svoj talent i energiju 1923. godine ujedine u ovu predstavu. Jedna od njenih velikih vrijednosti bila je to što je ova predstava postala kazališni laboratorij za „El retablo de maese Pedro" („Lutkarska predstava majstora Pedra“), operu koju je Manuel de Falla prvi puta izveo nekoliko mjeseci kasnije u Parizu (25. lipnja). Falla je bio svjestan velike obveze koju je preuzeo prvim izvođenjem „Majstora Pedra“ u Palači Princa Edmond de Polignac pred većinom prestižnih glazbenika, slikara, pisaca i novinara onoga doba. Princ je od Falle naručio ovu operu i dobio je ekskluzivno pravo na premijeru. Budući da se opera nije smjela ranije izvoditi, predstavu je trebalo napraviti kao generalnu probu. Veliki dio teksta, glazbe i plastičnih elemenata Lutkarske predstave majstora Pedra poja-

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in front of the artist's eyes and offered his artificial and dehumanised body as an alternative to the human actor. Because of that, Edward Gordon Craig, Maurice Maeterlinck, Alfred Jarry, among other reformers, were strongly attracted to puppet theatre. The puppet scene also was rejuvenated through a new generation of plastic artists who proponed new ways for puppets, or transformed the actor's bodies into puppets and integrated his plastic work with the works of composers, writers and creators from the moment.6 Falla, Lorca and Lanz were connected with this artistic and scenic revolution. In fact, Falla had composed "El sombrero de tres picos", performed for the first time in London in 1919, by the Russian Ballets, with Pablo Picasso's sets and costume design and Leonide Massine's choreography.

Los dos habladores: dio scenografije/part of the scenography

Predstava je izvedena u kući koju su gospodin Federico García Rodríguez i gospođa Vicenta Lorca Romero posjedovali u centru Granade (Acera del Casino, 31). Posjetitelji su se mogli smjestiti u prostranom salonu u kojem je Lanz izradio lutkarsku pozornicu. Na sceni je oslikao lûk proscenija: tri pauna okružena cvjetnim vazama na kojima se moglo iščitati natpis: Kazalište za djecu. Iza ove pozornice odvijala se kazališna igra s malim pomičnim zastorom; pretpostavljamo da kulise nije trebalo mijenjati pred gledateljima. Ovaj mali zastor bio je izrađen od dva popularna, crveno bijela platna poznata kao „lubenica“, sjeća se Francisco García Lorca, pjesnikov brat.8 Večernja predstava počela je

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ces during those years. We know because of his short manuscripts that he had contact with a Thai puppet master in Madrid when he was studying art (1912–1917), and with another puppet master, when he was so younger, in Argentina. He was also a regular spectator at theatrical shows wherever he was. European theatre was, those years, in the middle of a metamorphosis; the role of the scene director was at the centre of theatrical praxis, and ways of expression that moved away from naturalism were being researched. In the middle of these searches, the puppet emerged 4 Federico García Lorca, Epistolario completo, Ediciones Cátedra, Madrid, 1997, p. 124. 5 Piero Menarini, Federico y los títeres: Cronología y dos documentos, in: Boletín de la Fundación FGL.

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Falla was conscious of the great responsibility he assumed performing for the first time his "El retablo de maese Pedro" in the Princess Edmond de Polignac's palace, in front of the most prestigious musicians, painters, writers and journalists of this era. The Princess commissioned Falla this opera and she had the exclusivity of the premiere. Because the opera couldn"t be performed earlier, it was evident they needed to play a rehearsal to take a look at the subsequent staging. A big part of the literary, musical and plastic ingredients from "El retablo de maese Pedro" were already present in "Títeres de cachiporra". Even though the performance was played on Epiphany Day and according to the programme it was "a party for children", that puppet performance wasn't 6 We have to think of works like "Parade" (Paris, 1917), "Russian Ballets", with music by Erik Satie, story by Jean Cocteau and sets by Pablo Picasso; or "La boîte à joujoux" (Zurich, 1918) with text by André Hellé, music by Claude Debussy and puppets by Otto Morach; or "Balli Plastici" (Roma, 1918) by Fortunato Depero, for the Teatro dei Piccoli de Vittorio Podrecca, or the experiments of the theatrical workshop Bauhaus, 1922 and 1924.

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


s „Los dos habladores“(„Dva brbljivca“), interludijem ranije posvećenom Miguelu de Cervantesu. Gledatelji su prvi puta u Španjolskoj čuli dva isječka iz Priče o vojniku Igora Stravinskog, u aranžmanima s klarinetom, violinom i klavirom. Ovo remek djelo 20. stoljeća prvi puta izvedeno 1924. godine, stiglo je u Španjolsku godinu dana ranije s lutkarskom predstavom! Prema programu – a program je bio poslan i nekim međunarodnim umjetnicima poput Debussyja i Ravela – na kraju se pojavio vragolasti Cristobica, a dokaz o tome možemo potkrijepiti fotografijom na kojoj se vidi slavni španjolski junak sa svojom palicom koji nastupa tijekom pauze između činova. Drugi dio činila je predstava Djevojka koja zalijeva bosiljak i znatiželjni princ, stara narodna priča u Federicovoj kazališnoj adaptaciji. Glazba, čiji je aranžman napravio Falla i izvodio ju s još tri svirača, obuhvaćala je djela suvremenih skladatelja poput Clauda Debussyja, Isaaca Albéniza i Maurica Ravela i jedno djelo anonimnog autora iz 17. stoljeća koje je prepisao Felipe Pedrell. Za oba dijela Hermenegildo Lanz je glave ručnih lutaka izradio od drva. Iste figure koristile su se na dva mjesta pa su tako neke od njih oživljavale više od jednog lika. Ruke ovih lutaka bile su jednostavno istokareni komadići drva, jednaki na svim lutkama. Nije poznato zašto je sve bilo tako jednostavno; možda zato što nisu imali mnogo vremena. Kostime i ostale dodatke, poput kruna ili cvjetnih ukrasa, izradila je Vicenta Lorca prema Lanzovim modelima. Hermenegildo je napravio i kulise od papira i gvaša. U programu je to navedeno kao rad Federica Garcie Lorce. Bila je to greška koja je izazvala popriličnu zbunjenost. Vjerojatno je to pjesnik imao namjeru napraviti, no u ono vrijeme tiskarski strojevi radili su sporo i narudžbe su se davale mnogo ranije pa nije bilo dovoljno vremena za ispravak ovog navoda o autoru. U posljednjih nekoliko godina su istraživači Mario Hernández, José Miguel Castillo i Juan Mata ispravili ovu pogrešku, no još uvijek je uobičajeno nailaziti na zbrku u povijesnoj ikonografiji kada se radi o ovoj predstavi, jer izvori kažu jedno, a istraživanja drugo.9

Tre ć i d i o ovo g ve če r n j e g d o g a đ a n j a b i o j e i zg l e d a najneočekivaniji i najimpresivniji, ključni dio događanja, „remekdjelo“, kako ga je nazvao Francisco García Lorca.10 U programu je pisalo: „Pažnja! Sada slijedi ono najveće! Igrat ćemo Sveta tri kralja“ . Ovo kratko anonimno djelo iz 12. – 13. stoljeća najstariji je kazališni tekst koji postoji na kastiljanskom jeziku. Izvodili su pjesme Alfonsa X. Mudrog, koje je uglazbio Pedrell za dva gostujuća pjevača i Božićnu pjesmu s glazbom P. Luisa Romea, a za sve pjesme aranžmane je napisao Falla. On je prilagodio i klavir obitelji García Lorca, kako bi njegov zvuk bio sličniji čembalu (glavnom instrumentu lutkarskih predstava). Hermenegildo Lanz je za ovaj dio izveo pravi umjetničko-tehnički pothvat: izrezao je i obojio više od stotinu plosnatih kartonskih figurica inspiriranih srednjovjekovnim djelom O prirodi stvari, u vlasništvu Sveučilišta Granada; dizajnirao je i scenu, kulise te rasvjetu. Nazvali su ga iz „Teatro planista“ i, prema pismu koje je napisao majci, bio je to „element koji se publici najviše svidio zbog svoje rijetkosti i originalnosti. Uspjeh je bio golem i nadoknadio je sav naporan rad koji sam morao uložiti kako bih napravio ovo malo kazalište“.11 Predstava „Sveta tri kralja“ izvodila se prema načelima kazališta sjena s lutkama maketnog kazališta. Ova vrsta zabave, pojavila se u Engleskoj u 19. stoljeću i u Španjolskoj nakon 1865., zahvaljujući slikama „Paluzie Engraving“ i bila je nešto sasvim drugo od uobičajene kazališne prakse kakvu poznajemo danas. Korištenje načela maketnog kazališta, ali uvećanog, jer se pretpostavlja da je zastor bio visok 90 cm i dugačak 120 cm, s likovima veličine 20 – 30 cm, bilo je nešto veoma inovativno. Činjenica da su ravne srednjovjekovne slike dobile kazališnu dimenziju, bile pokrenute i uljepšane glazbom i pjesmama, smatrala se revolucionarnim pothvatom u svijetu španjolskog lutkarskog kazališta. Enrique Lanz Durán rekao je da je njegov otac, Hermenegildo, uvijek govorio kako su u to vrijeme svjetlosni efekti izazivali najveće iznenađenje. Predstavom Sveta tri kralja u ovom kazalištu, ova su trojica Andalužanina otvorila novi smjer europskog lutkarstva. Pokrenuli su suvremeno make-

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only entertainment for children, but a complete and conscious masterpiece by these three artists. Manuel de Falla was its centre and axis, as he was for a lot of cultural initiatives in Granada during those years, because this little man, with measured and rested speech, was capable of making other artists and men with good intentions revolve aroundhim.7 The performance took place in the house that Mr. Federico García Rodríguez and Mrs. Vicenta Lorca Romero had in the centre of Granada (Acera del Casino, 31). The salon was a big space that permitted the admission of guests, and there Lanz built a puppet stage. He painted on this stage the proscenium arch: three peacocks surrounded by flower vases where everyone could read Kid's Theatre. Behind this stage the theatrical game was developed, with a little moving curtain; we imagine it wasn't necessary to change the scenery in front of the audience. This little curtain was made by two popular kerchiefs in red and white they called "watermelons", according to the memories of Francisco García Lorca, the poet's brother.8 The evening event started with "Los dos habladores", an interlude attributed in the past to Miguel de Cervantes. The audience listened for the first time in Spain to two fragments from "The Soldier's Tale" by Igor Stravinsky, with clarinet, violin and piano arrangements. A twentieth century masterpiece performed for the first time in 1924 was introduced in our country one year before through a puppet performance! According to the programme –by the way, this programme was sent to some international artists like Debussy or Ravel–, the rascal Cristobica appeared at the end, a fact that we can corroborate by observing a photo where we can see the popular Spanish hero, with his truncheon during the interlude. The second part was "The girl who waters the basil and the inquisitive prince", Federico's theatrical adaptation of an old popular tale. The music, arranged by Falla and played with another 7 M. de Falla's biographical note by H. Lanz in: Pequeña historia de los autos sacramentales representados en Granada. Years 1923, 1927, 1928 y 1935, in Juan Mata, op. cit., pp. 149–153. 8 Francisco García Lorca, Federico y su mundo, Madrid 1981, p.274.

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three instrumentalists, included pieces from Claude Debussy, Isaac Albéniz and Maurice Ravel, among the most contemporary composers, and an anonymous Spanish work from the seventeenth century transcribed by Felipe Pedrell. For both parts Hermenegildo Lanz sculpted in wood the heads of the glove puppets. The same figures were used in two pieces, so some of them gave life to more than one character. These puppet's hands were simple wooden turned pieces, identical to all puppets. We don't know the reason for this simplification; maybe they hadn't much time. The costumes and other accessories like crowns or floral ornaments were made by Vicenta Lorca according to Lanz's designs. Hermenegildo also built the set in paper and gouache. In the programme this work resembled a work of Federico Garcia Lorca's; that was a mistake that has created a lot of confusion. The poet probably had the intention to do it, but we think that in the past printing houses worked slowly and the orders were made in advance and because of that they couldn't correct the authorship on the document in time. For some years some researchers (Mario Hernández, José Miguel Castillo, Juan Mata) have amended this mistake, but it is still usual to find a certain chaos in the historical iconography of this performance, from the base in one sense and manipulated in other.9 The third part of the evening event seemed like the most unexpected and impressive, the main part of the performance or "pièce de resistance", as Francisco García Lorca described it.10 The programme announced: "Attention, now comes the biggest thing! We are going to play 'The Mystery of the Magi'. This brief anonymous piece from the twelfth to thirtheenth centuries, is the oldest theatrical text we have in Castillian. It was played in the songs of Alfonso X the Wise, harmonised by Pedrell, two invitatories, and a Christmas song harmonised by P. Luis Romeu, all the songs arranged by Falla. He adapted the piano of the García Lorcas to bring its sound closer to that of the harpsichord (the main instrument of the "Reta9 Y. V. Martínez: Hermenegildo Lanz y los títeres, in: Títeres, 30 años de Etcétera, Parque de las Ciencias de Granada 2012, pp. 28–47. 10 Francisco García Lorca, op. cit., p. 274.

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tno kazalište koje su od njegovih osnova preobrazili u umjetnički kazališni objekt, otvoren povijesnim analizama i s jasnim odjecima u trenutku kada je nastajao. Avangardni izazov ove predstave leži više u kombiniranju, nego u vrijednostima izoliranih elemenata. Stoga, ako je želimo pravedno ocijeniti, moramo je promatrati u kontekstu španjolske kazališne realnosti onoga vremena. U usporedbi s tada uobičajenim lutkama ove su sa svojim velikim glavama izgledale gotovo groteskno i na poseban su način prepričavale popularne priče. Predstave su se održavale na seoskim trgovima, na festivalima, na različitim pozornicama, a u gradovima poput Barcelone, u obiteljskim kućama i kavanama „Els quatre gats“. Sve je vrvilo od scena s „rukavicama“, palica i komičnih skečeva. Lutkarski majstori popularni u ono doba bili su Alfredo Narbón, Juli Pi, obitelj Vergés i obitelj Anglés. Predstava u Granadi oživjela je kombinaciju starih i modernih trendova, kao kulturno priznanje popularnoj lutki Cristobicu u literarnom i glazbenom smislu te plastičnosti. Tako su, za razliku od drugih avangardnih europskih iskustava koja su pokušavala „krenuti od nule“, naši umjetnici željeli spasiti nešto što je nestajalo. I, kako je to opisao Piero Menarini, pojavilo se „nešto što bismo mogli nazvati instinktom obnavljanja vrlo popularne baštine koja se našla na rubu nestanka: instinkt koji naravno ne obuhvaća samo arhiviranje usmene predaje, već i njenu uporabu u izvornim, novim produkcijama suvremene kulture“.12 Mora Guarnido je napisao: „Čista umjetnost, stara i moderna, jer u Španjolskoj smo zaboravili svoju davnu, čistu umjetnost, tako da svaki pokušaj njenog obnavljanja mnogi prate jednakim uzbuđenjem kao da se radi o najuzbudljivijoj novini. (…) Federico García Lorca na lutkarsku pozornicu dovodi popularnog, vragolastog Cristobica po prvi puta odjevenog u crvenu svilu (…) i sve izgleda kao kubistička pjesma“.13 Ova novina materijalizirana je i na licu lutke s trokutastim očima i uglatim oblicima, koje je Lanz oblikovao u skladu s andalužanskom osobnošću uz note Stravinskog, a prema aranžmanu Falle. Uz ponovno otkrivanje Don Cristóbala bio je tu i nov izraz te

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dimenzije koje je Hermenegildo Lanz dao ostalim likovima u skladu s odabirom glazbe Manuela de Falle, raznolikošću tema, kazališnim konceptom, eksplozijom boja na sceni, rasvjetom, poetičnošću izvedbe... Ovim su elementima stvorili iznimno inovativno lutkarsko kazalište u Španjolskoj. Pronađen je i Hermenegildov rukopis pod nazivom Lutke. Radi se o neobjavljenom članku iz četrdesetih godina prošloga stoljeća koji započinje riječima: „Tijekom 1922. i na Sveta tri

blo"). Hermenegildo Lanz created for this part a laudable artistic and technical work: he cut out and painted more than one hundred cardboard plane figures inspired by the medieval codex "De natura rerum", that belonged to the University of Granada; he also did set the design, scenery, and lighting. "Teatro planista" called him, and according to the letter he wrote to her mother, that was "the element the audience most loved because of its originality and rarity. The success was enormous and compensates for all the work I had to do and assemble the little theatre".11

very innovative. The fact of giving to plane medieval images a theatrical dimension, putting them into movement and embellishing them with music and song was a revolutionary venture in the world of Spanish puppet theatre. Enrique Lanz Durán said his father, Hermenegildo, had always said that the use of the light was one of the more surprising things during those years. With the "The Mystery of the Magi" in plane theatre, these three Andalusians opened a new way for European puppetry. They started the modern paper theatre, that was transformed, from its editorial origins, into a theatrical art object, opened up to other historical references and with clear contemporary repercussions. The avant-garde challenge of this performance resides in its combination more than in the value of its isolated elements, and if we want to analyse it fairly we have to set it in the context of the Spanish theatrical reality of those years. In comparison with the usual puppets of those years, their look was a little bit grotesque, with big heads, and it was especially how popular tales were narrated through words. The shows were played in village squares, in festivals, in variety performances, and in some cities like Barcelona, in private houses and coffee shops, like the emblematic Els quatre gats. Glove scenes, truncheons and comical sketches were abundant. The puppet masters who were very famous in those decades were Alfredo Narbón, Juli Pi, the Vergés Family and the Anglés Family.

Cristobica: glava ručne lutke/glove puppet head, 1922—1923

kralja 1923. godine, slavni glazbenik, pjesnik i slikar je posebno u Granadi izradio i predstavio zanimljivo lutkarsko kazalište koje budi uspomene i od tada se prikazuje na španjolskim pozornicama. Inspirirano tradicijom i zvrkastim Cristobicom, pravim Andalužinonom, pod ravnanjem „poduzetnika Currita del Puerta“ koji je svojim „teatrom planista“ (kazališni stil koji koristi plosnatu i ravnu scenu i likove) obnovio lokalne običaje, više od tri stotine figurica koje su pratile likove u predstavi, ovo je djelo bilo predigra nečemu što će se iste godine (25. lipnja) premijerno izvesti u Parizu pod nazivom Lutkarska predstava

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"The Mystery of the Magi" was played with the principles of paper theatre. This form of entertainment, with editorial origins rose up in England during the nineteenth century and in Spain from 1865 because of the printing of the Paluzie Engraving wasn"t something usual as a theatrical practice like it is today. Using the principles of paper theatre but on a bigger scale - we think the curtain was about 90 centimetres high and 120 centimetres long, and the characters about 20 and 30 centimetres-, was something 11 Carta de Hermenegildo Lanz a su padre y hermanos, Granada, 14 de enero de 1923, photocopy letter, Archivo Lanz.

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In Granada performance was reformist the voluntary combination of old and modern trends, this cultured recognition of the popular Cristobicas from the literary, musical and plastic level. While other avant-garde European puppet experiences were trying to "start with a clean slate", our artists wanted to rescue things that were disappearing. Like Piero Menarini expresses, here appears "something we can call a recovery instinct of a very rich popular heritage on the path to extinction: an instinct that, of course, don"t consist only in archive oral documents, but in their use in original and cultured new productions".12 Mora Guarnido wrote: "Pure art, old and modern, because in Spain 12 Piero Menarini, op. cit., p. 104.

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Majstora Pedra. Ovo malo kazalište debitiralo je samo jednom predstavom, ali je postiglo ogroman uspjeh i postalo prvo od mnogobrojnih ozbiljnih pokušaja u drugim regijama i državama u razdoblju 1927. – 1928., drugačijima od predstava lutkara Berlinske škole, koja je koristila istu vrstu lutaka i njima rukovala na način jednak onom u Granadi i Parizu, a koje su njemačku publiku privlačile različitim kratkim, ali odabranim izložbama“.14

više precizni. Razlog je to zašto i dalje nastojimo naglašavati njenu važnost pa tako i činjenicu da je potrebno napraviti ispravke. Povijest umjetnosti zaslužuje da učinimo sve što je potrebno kako bi se ispravile pogreške, kako bi se stvarnim autorima pripisala njihova autorska prava i kako bi se ovoj predstavi, pioniru u kreiranju nacionalne lutkarske scene koji je vratio tradiciju i povezao se s međunarodnim avangardnim kretanjima, osiguralo njeno središnje mjesto.

Utjecaj koji je ova predstava u imala u Granadi izvan granica Španjolske, u Europi pa čak i u Južnoj Americi, kontinuitet izvođenja, san o stvaranju Andaluzijskog lutkarskog kazališta koje bi putovalo svijetom, obogatili su ovo iskustvo i kazalištu osigurali značajno mjesto u španjolskoj povijesti.

Umjetničko bogatstvo koje su nam ostavili Manuel de Falla, Federico García Lorca i Hermenegildo Lanz je neprocjenjivo. Radi se o samo jednoj predstavi, ali predstavi koja je rasvijetlila toliko mnogo toga i čiji odraz predstavlja nedjeljiv dio naše kazališne sadašnjosti.

Opisi predstave „Títeres de Cachiporra“ sadržani u do sada objavljenim studijama nisu pre-

we have forgotten our ancient pure art and every attempt to bring back this art is watched by the multitude with the same amazement that brings the most adventurous novelty. (…) Federico García Lorca, bringing to his puppet stage the mischievousness of the popular Cristobica dressed for the first time in silk (…) seems new like he had made a cubistic poem".13 This novelty was materialised in the face with triangular eyes and angular shapes that Lanz sculpted on the Andalusian character and in Stravinsky's notes arranged by Falla.

was premiered in Paris under the name of "El retablo de maese Pedro" in the same year (June 25). That little theatre only debuted one performance but achieved remarkable success and became the first serious, very serious, of several attempts in other regions and countries in 1927 or 1928 to distinguish performances by puppet actors of the "Berlin Artists and Writers Group" with the same style of puppets, articulated in the same fashion as in Granada and Paris, German audiences were intrigued by the various short but select exhibitions." 14

Beyond this recovery of Don Cristóbal, the new expressions and dimensions that Hermenegildo Lanz gave to the other figures, in tune with the musical selection made by Manuel de Falla, the diversity of themes, the theatrical concept, the colour explosion in the set, the use of lighting, the poetic sense of the performance; with these elements they created a tremendously innovative puppet theatre in Spain.

The influence beyond our frontiers, in Europe and even in all Latin America, of this performance in Granada, and the continuity project, that dreamt of creating an Andalusian Puppet Theatre to travel around the world, also give to this experience an important place in our history.

There is a manuscript by Hermenegildo called "Puppets". It is an unpublished article from 1940s and starts like this: "During the year 1922 and the day of the Epiphany 1923, a great musician, a great poet, and a painter expressly built and presented in Granada, the most evocative and interesting puppet theatre, which has ever been exhibited on Spanish stages. Inspired by the tradition of the restless Cristobica, a genuinely Andalusian character, his own boss, under the direction of "the entrepreneur Currito del Puerto" who reinvented local customs with a presentation of "teatro planista" (a style of theatre using flat or panelled sets and characters) with more than three hundred figures, in addition to its cast of characters, which proved to be a preface to what 13 José Mora Guarnido, El teatro "cachiporra" andaluz, in: La voz, Madrid 1923.

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The relevance of the performance "Títeres de Cachiporra" has been tackled with very little rigour inthe majority of studies about it. Because of that, we continue reclaiming its importance and consequently the fact that it need corrections. The history of our art deserves our work to offset the mistakes as much as possible, to return to the real authors their authorships and to put in an essential place that performance, a pioneer in the configuration of a national puppet imaginary, that restarted the tradition to interconnect it with the international avant-garde movements. The artistic riches that Manuel de Falla, Federico García Lorca and Hermenegildo Lanz left us is beyond priceless. It was only one performance, but it had so much influence and its mark is still an indelible part of our theatrical present.

14 This article has two versions, original manuscript, Archivo Lanz.

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Izvješća/REPORTS

Veleposlanica Republike Hrvatske u Republici Sloveniji Vesna Terzić na otvorenju izložbe u Ljubljani/Ambassador of the Republic of Croatia in the Republic of Slovenia Vesna Terzić at the opening of the exhibition in Ljubljana

9. 9. – 13. 9. 2016

Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre

Festival Lutke 2016 Festival

Tijekom pet dana, na različitim je scenama redom prikazano više od 25 predstava iz 14 zemalja (SAD-a, Australije, Francuske, Nizozemske, Belgije, Izraela, Norveške, Danske, Češke, Italije, Španjolske, Estonije i Slovenije). U sklopu festivala održan je i skup „Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva“. Otvorena je putujuća izložba, izvođene su lutkarske predstave, održana je restauratorska radionica i seminar na temu privlačenja publike, organizirana su razgledavanja u pratnji vodiča i radionice za djecu. More than 25 performances from 14 countries (USA, Australia, France, Netherlands, Belgium, Israel, Norway, Denmark, Czech Republic, Italy, Spain, Estonia and Slovenia) took place over the course of five days at various venues. The festival also introduced the project "All Strings Attached: The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind The Scenes". We launched a travelling exhibition, staged puppet plays, carried out a restoration workshop and an audience building seminar and conducted guided tours and children's workshops.

12. 9. 2016

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Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre

Konzervacija lutaka/Preserving Puppets Stručna radionica Masterclass Workshop Predavatelji/Lecturers: Violaine Blaise, Francija/France, Zala Kalan (Muzej lutkarstva/Museum of Puppetry, Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana/Ljubljana Puppet Theatre)

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Na predavanju i radionici s konzervatoricomrestauratoricom Violaine Blaise pokušali smo predstaviti problem raznolikosti korištenih materijala i neodgovarajućih popravaka na lutkama i sličnim predmetima baštine, s naglaskom na tekstilu. Promatrali smo različita oštećenja i rješenja izvedena na muzejskim eksponatima na kojima je radila naša gošća, konzervatorica-restauratorica. U praktičnom dijelu radionice na lutkama s različitim stupnjevima oštećenja prikazali smo mehaničko uklanjanje nečistoća (kistovima, usisivačima niske usisne snage). Razgledali smo odgovarajuće materijale koji se upotrebljavaju za pakiranje muzejskih eksponata i opreme te kutije za lutke.

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Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


Restauratorska radionica za djecu u vrtiću u Gambettoli/Restoration workshop in the kindergarten in Gambettola

The lecture and workshop led by Violaine Blaise, conservator-restorer, pointed out the issues that arise due to the diversity of the materials used on puppets and similar heritage items, and those that occur due to poor repair work, with a special focus on textiles. The conservator-restorer showed us some museum artefacts that she had worked on and the different types of damage she has repaired. The practical part of the workshop demonstrated how to remove mechanical impurities from puppets with different levels of damage (i.e. with brushes and a low-suction vacuum cleaner). We looked at the materials that are appropriate for packing museum artefacts and filled the puppet boxes.

19. — 25. 9. 2016.

Emilia-Romagna, različite lokacije/ various locations

Lutkarski festival u Italiji/ Puppet festival in Italy – Festival internazionale dei Burattini e delle Figure "Arrivano dal Mare" Festival

Španjolski i slovenski projektni partneri sudjelovali su na najstarijem, 41. lutkarskom festivalu u Italiji „Arrivano dal Mare“. Događanje se odvijalo na više lokacija u pokrajini Emiglia-Romagna. Od 20. do 25. rujna gradove poput Ravenne, Gambetolla, Cervia, Gatteoa, Longianoa i Montianoa preuzele su lutke. Na festivalu su sudjelovali lutkari, direktori festivala, kazališni organizatori, kritičari i drugi lutkarski entuzijasti, kako bi raspravljali o tradicionalnoj i suvremenoj lutkarskoj umjetnosti. Skupina Títeres Etcétera predstavila se „Duhom lutkarske prošlosti“, a Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana u obližnjim je vrtićima pripremilo restauratorski laboratorij za najmlađe. The project partners from Spain and Slovenia attended the 41st edition of the oldest puppet festival in Italy called "Arrivano dal Mare". The programme was played in several venues across Emilia-Romagna. From 20 to 25 September, puppets took over Ravenna, Gambetolla, Cervia, Gatteo, Longiano and Montiano. The festival brought together puppeteers, festival directors, theatre organizers, critics and other puppet aficionados to discuss traditional and contemporary puppetry. Títeres Etcétera performed "The Soul of People" and the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre went around the local kindergartens with its children's restoration lab.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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LUTKE 2016: kakav grad, takav festival – divan!

Od pepela do svemira u par lutkarskih koraka

Bijenalni lutkarski međunarodni festival Lutke 2016. teško je promatrati odvojeno od grada domaćina – Ljubljane, s kojom raste i razvija se. Na svakom se koraku kroz grad, u interijerima ili eksterijerima, uočava predanost i rad. Parkovi, zgrade, tvrđava, kazalište i njegova okolica... svaki detalj je pametno osmišljen i izgleda kao da se niti u jednom aspektu nije štedjelo i radilo napola. Ta slika grada savršeno je preslikana na festival koji je, iako bogatog programa i pratećih događaja, u svakom trenutku djelovao besprijekorno. Osim odlične organizacije, festival je ponudio gledateljima veliki broj zanimljivih predstava, a mi ćemo dati pregled predstava koje su nas se posebno dojmile – što pozitivno, što negativno. The biennial international Lutke 2016 Puppetry Festival is difficult to analyse separately from its host city – Ljubljana, with which it grows and develops. Each step taken inside the City, both within its closed and open spaces, one notices devotion and hard work. Parks, buildings, the Castle, the theatre and its surroundings… every detail is smartly designed and shows that none of the aspects were neglected or scrimped and that the works have not been partially completed. This image of the City has been perfectly copied over to the Festival which, despite its dense programme and accompanying events, showed perfectionism every minute. In addition to its excellent organisation, the Festival offered to the public numerous interesting plays, of which those presented here have garnered special attention - both positive and negative.

TEKST su pripremili Hana Kunić, Ana-Marija Jurišić, Krešimir Jelić i Ines Zmazek, studenti Umjetničke akademije u Osijeku pod mentorstvom Igora Tretinjaka.

THE TEXT WAS PREPARED BY Hana Kunić, Ana-Marija Jurišić, Krešimir Jelić i Ines Zmazek, students OF ACADEMY OF ARTS IN OSIJEK UNDER GUIDANCE OF Igor Tretinjak.

OPINIONS

LUTKE 2016: like city, like festival beautiful! From ashes to space in a few puppetry steps

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„ M I S I JA X“ je predstava pri dnu naše top-liste. Velika očekivanja prilikom samog početka tijekom predstave su se, nažalost, smanjivala. Jako animabilna lutka i zanimljiva scenografija pali su u drugi plan zbog vrlo loše dramaturške konstrukcije same predstave.

N a sa m om v rhu top-liste ovogodišnjeg festivala je predstava „Pepeo“ koja tinja emocijama, a o gledatelju ovisi hoće li ih pretvoriti u vatru ili ugasiti. Predstava nudi mnoštvo asocijacija i metafora. Pored njih nevjerojatno je tehnički točna. Preciznost animacije i tempo-ritma te spretnost i koncentracija zadivljujući su. Lutke su toliko žive na sceni da su i nakon što su ih animatori ostavili, nastavile živjeti. Osim odličnih glumaca i animatora, treba spomenuti tehničare koji su podizali funkcionalnost ove predstave i lutkarske tehnologe koji su lutke učinili vizualnim magnetima za publiku i silno animabilnim i praktičnim za animatore. Također, majstori svjetla izvanzemaljski su pratili i pokrivali radnju cjeline, a glazba je bila još jedan pouzdan partner koji je dodatno osnaživao poantu predstave i empatiju publike. Sve u svemu, ovo je predstava koja inspirira i uz potpuno dramaturško pokriće nadrasta granice tradicionalnog lutkarstva. At t h e v e ry to p of this year's Festival chart is "Ashes", a play simmering with emotions. Whether these will break out into fire or be extinguished is at the discretion of the viewer. The play is rich in associations, metaphors and its technical accuracy is impeccable. The precision of animation, rhythm and pace, skills and concentration are astonishing. The puppets become so alive on the stage that they remain living even after the animators abandon them. The excellent actors and animators are supported by technicians who have successfully managed to raise the level of functionality and puppetry technologists who have turned puppets into visual magnets for the audience and made them animator-friendly and highly flexible for animation. Masters of light, as if from outer space, followed and covered the story and the music became a reliable partner that additionally highlighted the point of the play and raise the empathy of the audience. All in all, this play is inspiring and with its dramatic narration surpasses the borders of traditional puppetry.

"Mission X" is a play listed close to the bottom of our chart. High expectations at the beginning and during the play were, unfortunately, became lower and lower as the play developed. A highly articulated animation puppet and interesting scenery were overshadowed by the poor dramatic structure of the play itself.

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P ri sa mom vrhu je i predstava „Logor“. Snažna i potresna, ovo je predstava koja ne jednom izazove fizičku mučninu, ali uz potpuno redateljsko pokriće. Tijekom gotovo cijele predstave izvođači su držali pažnju i empatiju publike. Istina, neki kadrovi bili su predugi, i to upravo pri najpotresnijim scenama, što pretpostavljamo da je namjerno naglašavanje patnje kako bi ona još više dotaknula gledatelja, no nama su pomalo narušavali cjelinu. Intrigantna je hladnoća kojom animatori pristupaju lutkama dok one rade toliko strašne stvari jedne drugoj, a s obzirom na nacizam o kojem se ovdje radi, ta hladnoća je točna. Sve u svemu, predstava je potresna, prenosi snažnu poruku i dopire do publike, ali nije jedna od onih koja se uvuče pod kožu, možda upravo zbog velike količine nasilja i jezivosti koju posjeduje. C lose to t he top is "Camp". A strong and emotional play that cause nausea on several occasions but all well-balanced by the director. The performers kept the audience alert and engaged throughout the entire play. To be honest, some scenes were too long, and these were also the most emotional ones, which can be recognised as deliberate emphasis on suffering to move the audience even more, but for us, it was only breaking the unit. The coldness with which the animators handle the puppets that do the most appalling things to each other is intriguing, but considering that the story is about Nazism, this coldness is just right. All in all, the play is emotional, conveys a strong message and touches the audience but is not one of those catchy ones, maybe due to so much violence and the creepy things that it expresses.

R a m e uz r a m e s „Pepeo“ je odlična ginjolska predstava „Kuća“, tragikomedija koja nikog u publici ne ostavlja ravnodušnim. Uz prekrasno morbidan humor, spretnost, animacijske vještine, estetsku privlačnost lutaka i scenografije, nevjerojatno točan tempo-ritam cijele predstave, potom prvoklasnu dramaturgiju s mnoštvom iznenađenja, kreativnih zapleta i raspleta, nemamo ništa drugo reći nego – kapa dolje!

„ M I J E ŠA M z ra k“ predivna je predstava koja spaja duh starog lutkarstva, fizike i moderne tehnologije. Iako tekstualno nerazumljiva jer je igrana na francuskom jeziku i samo neki kratki fragmenti bili su prevedeni na engleski, vizualno je bila silno jaka. Uvela nas je u život strojeva, fizike, mraka u kojem sve vidiš i želje da se jednom zaista poleti kao ptica. "Mixing the Air" is a beautiful play that interconnects the spirit of old puppetry, physics and cutting edge technology. Although we could not understand the text, as it was played in French with only a few, short segments in English, the play was visually extremely strong. It led us into the lives of machines, physics, darkness in which one can see everything and desire to just once really fly like a bird.

S i de-by-s i de with "Ashes" is the excellent guignol play "House", a tragic comedy that leaves no one in the audience indifferent. Showing beautiful, morbid humour, witty, with high animation skills, aesthetically attractive puppets and scenery, unbelievably precise space and rhythm of the entire ply, first class drama with numerous surprises, creative plots and endings … there is nothing more to say but "well done"!

V r lo j e z a n i m l j i va predstava „Plastični junaci“ koja je na drugačiji način oživjela male zelene vojnike što su dio gotovo svake kutije igračaka. Predstava je odlična kritika na trenutne događaje u svijetu. Rat koji nanosi ljudima toliku nesreću i bol zapravo je sažet od sitnih detalja koje sama vojska živi i proživljava, a u ovoj predstavi to je preneseno na jednostavan i komičan način. Na početku predstave zadan je kod igre i ako ga gledatelj prihvati, ulazi u svijet u kojem sve ratne igračke žive svoj život pun emocija, a koje animator proživljava u njihovo ime. O n e v e ry i n t e r e st i n g play is "Plastic Heroes" which, in a completely different way has brought to life the little green soldiers that can be found in almost every toy box. The play demonstrates an excellent criticism of what is currently happening around the globe. War, bringing misery and pain to people, consists of tiny details which the army lives through and experiences itself, but is presented in a simple and funny way. At the beginning of the play the audience is given a specific code of the play and if the viewer accepts it, he/ she enters the world in which all war toys live their lives full of emotions which the animator experiences on their behalf.

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„u zavjetrini vremena“ bila je atmosferski interesantna i vrlo vješta u pokretu i fizičkoj spremnosti izvođačice, no osim toga, moramo priznati da nas ni na koji drugi način nije dirnula. "In the back of time" was interesting for its atmosphere and skilful in its movements and the fitness of the female performer, but apart from that we were not intrigued in any other way.

Aps o lu tni p o bjed ni k dna naše top-liste je „Milje“. Tko? Što? Zašto? Pojma nemamo. Iako je osvojila razne nagrade, predstava je po svojoj vizualnosti samo dobar koncept. Za početak, lutkar je sebe postavio u fizičku poziciju iz koje je nemoguće animirati marionetu. Ležao je iznad lutke na tankim daskama, bio u direktnom svijetlu, disao je pretjerano od nemogućnosti da se on sam kao animator osjeća udobno. Sve to se odrazilo na predivnoj i tako animabilnoj luki koja je na žalost bila lomljena, vrćena, bacana, samo ne animirana. Moramo priznati, bilo je nekoliko dobrih efekata u predstavi, ali kao cjelina, ništa nije bilo jasno. Th e o u tr i g h t w i nner of the "wooden spoon" at the bottom of our chart is "Milieu". Who? What? Why? No idea! This play won different awards, but for all its visuality it is just a play with a good idea. First, the puppeteer took a position in which it was impossible for him to animate the puppet. He was lying above the puppet on thin wooden boards, in direct light, breathing loudly because he himself, as the animator, did not feel comfortable. All this threw a shadow on a beautiful and highly articulated puppet which was unfortunately broken, spun, thrown, everything but animated. To be fair, there were few good effects in the play, but as a whole, nothing was clear.

„He adspace“ instalacije koje su stajale ispred kazališta bile su divne i izuzetno kreativne. Svaka čast autorima na tehničkim vještinama i izradi tih mehanizama. Kratke, ali slatke i unikatne predstavice. "Headspace" installations that were placed in front of the theatre were beautiful and extremely creative. Congratulations to the authors, especially for the technical skills and construction of the mechanisms. Short but sweet and unique little plays. P os j e t L j ub l ja n i i festivalu Lutke 2016 ostat će nam u divnom sjećanju. Grad je tako pitom i osjećali smo se predivno. Također, cijeli festival Lutke bio je iznimno dobar zbog šarolikosti predstava koje su se mogle vidjeti. W e s h a l l ke e p our visit to Ljubljana and the Lutke 2016 Festival as a beautiful memory. The City is so cute and we felt great. Also, the entire Lutke 2016 Festival was exceptionally good due to the variety of shows one could visit.

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Svi kutovi lutkarskih klasika

TEKST su pripremili Hana Kunić, Ana-Marija Jurišić, Krešimir Jelić i Ines Zmazek, studenti Umjetničke akademije u Osijeku pod mentorstvom Igora Tretinjaka.

Projekt „All strings attached“ u sklopu festivala LUTKE 2016., Ljubljana

U s k lo p u b i j e n a l n og lut k a rs ko g međunarodnog festivala Lutke 2016., koji se održao od 9. do 13. rujna 2016. u Ljubljani, započeo je službeni, onaj vidljivi dio velikog europskog projekta „All Strings Attached – pioniri europskog lutkarstva iza scene“. Centralni događaj bilo je otvaranje vrlo zabavno i edukativno osmišljene izložbe koja nas na zanimljiv način vodi kroz povijest lutkarstva i uvodi u koncept i ideju projekta. Izložba je na prvi pogled, već s ulaznih vrata, vizualno vrlo privlačna. Osim s estetskog, i s edukativnog aspekta bilo je poučno i zanimljivo vratiti se na početak dvadesetog stoljeća i pobliže upoznati lutke i životne putove lutkarskih velikana Klemenčića, Podrecce i Lanza koji su svojedobno pomicali granice svojom kreativnošću. Na izložbi smo shvatili kako je i tada vrijedilo pravilo „manje je – više“. Iako se po mehanizmima njihove lutke ne čine pretjerano „izvanzemaljskim“, učinile su upravo „izvanzemaljske“ korake za lutkarstvo svojih sredina i šire.

OPINIONS

All Aspects of Puppetry Classics The "All strings attached" project as a part of LUTKE 2016 festival, Ljubljana

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

T h e b i e n n i a l i n t e r n at i o n a l p up p e t ry festival Lutke 2016, held in Ljubljana from 9th to 13th September 2016, started the official, visible part of the large European project "All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes". The central event was the opening of a very interestingly designed and educative exhibition that guides us through the history of puppetry and introduces the concept and the idea of the project. The exhibition is attractive at first sight, as soon as one enters the hall. Apart from the aesthetical and educational aspect, it was quite instructional and interesting to go back into the early 20th Century and learn more closely about the puppets and lives of the grand puppeteers like Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz, whose creativity at the time constantly shifted boundaries. At the exhibition, we also realised that the current rule, "less is more", applied even then. Although the mechanisms of these puppets did not make them "extra-terrestrial", they managed to take "extra-terrestrial" steps in the puppetry of their communities and beyond.

Da j e to m e ta ko, p ot v r đuj e predstava Milana Klemenčiča, „Doktor Faust“, bazirana na jednoj od najznačajnijih priča koja postavlja ključna pitanja o čovjekovim moralnim vrijednostima. Tako nas je i Klemenčičev „Faust“, u redateljskoj obnovi Jelene Sitar Cvetko, potaknuo na razmišljanje i propitkivanje. Predstava je smještena u mali starinski okvir. U njemu igraju malene marionete koje su nas oduševile estetski i animacijski. Sitnih dimenzija, još su više plijenile pažnju i divljenje prema animatorima koji su ih vrlo točno animirali. Iako nas se predstava izuzetno dojmila i razumijemo zašto još uvijek živi punim kazališnim plućima, možda čak više od nje same zaintrigirao nas je način na koji je nastala. Klemenčić ju je napravio za zabavu sa svojim prijateljima, a to nas uči nešto vrlo važno – kako je jedna od svrha lutkarstva uživanje i zabava u procesu nastanka predstave. Nakon predstave imali smo priliku opipati i animirati lutke, te saznati da se iza malog zastora krije prava mala tvornica mehanizama. T h e p r o of o f t hat is the play by Milan Klemenčič, "Doctor Faustus", based on one of the most significant stories questioning human moral values. Klemenčič's "Faustus", revived by the director Jelena Sitar Cvetko, also made us think and question ourselves. The play was set in a small, old frame performed with tiny marionettes of thrilling aesthetics and animation. So small, the marionettes drew our attention even more and increased our admiration for the animators who handled them with precision. We were quite impressed with the play and understand why it never leaves the theatrical stages, but maybe even more were we impressed by the way it was created. Klemenčič made this play to entertain his friends, and this teaches us something very important - one of the purposes of puppetry is to enjoy and to have fun when creating a play. After the play we could touch and animate the puppets and we learned that behind the little curtain there was a true little factory of mechanisms.

THE TEXT WAS PREPARED BY Hana Kunić, Ana-Marija Jurišić, Krešimir Jelić i Ines Zmazek, students OF ACADEMY OF ARTS IN OSIJEK UNDER GUIDANCE OF Igor Tretinjak.

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Os i m kroz „Doktora Fau sta“, Klemenčiča smo upoznali i kroz njegov slikarski opus koji nam se svidio i upoznao nas s jednim umjetnikovim aspektom koji nismo dobro poznavali. Tek nam je žao da nismo uspjeli vidjeti slike uživo kroz posjet njegovom muzeju. Apart from "Doctor Fau stu s" , we learned more about Klemenčič through his paintings, which we liked and which disclosed to us an aspect of the artist that we had not been so familiar with. If only we had been able to see his painting "in vivo", by visiting his museum!

Z a sa m kr a j ostavili smo posjet zaista predivnom, edukativnom i zabavnom Lutkarskom muzeju koji svoje posjetitelje mami da iskušaju lutke i zaigraju se s njima, budeći ono najljepše u sebi – dijete. Partne ri iz Gra na de , Títeres Etcétera , u svom se predavanju „Duh lutkarske prošlosti “, koji bismo tek uvjetno mogli nazvati predstavom, nisu usmjerili na njihovog lutkarskog velikana Hermenegilda Lanza. Umjesto njega, u žarištu je bio dugogodišnji projekt Títeres Etcéterae u sklopu kojega skupljaju građu o počecima lutkarstva u svijetu. Iako je predavanje bilo ispunjeno zanimljivim video-zapisima. Članica Títeres Etcétera, Yanisbel V. Martinez u predavanju je o publikama rekla mnogo dobrih i pametnih stvari, no, nažalost, ne i primjenjivih na malo tržište poput Hrvatske. Također, restauratorska radionica kao i predavanje o restauriranju Klemenčičevih slika, iako su bile vrlo zanimljive, nisu nas, buduće glumce-lutkare, u potpunosti pogodile. No svako znanje dobro dođe. The project part ners f r o m G ranada , Títeres Etcétera, and their show "The Soul of People", which can only conditionally be called a play, did not focus on their grand puppeteer Hermenegildo Lanz. Instead, the focal point was a long-term project of Títeres Etcétera by which they collect material on the beginnings of puppetry in the world. Although the lecture included interesting videos. In her lecture Yanisbel V. Martinez, a member of Títeres Etcétera, named many good and intelligent things about audiences which, unfortunately cannot be applied to a small market like Croatia. The restoration workshop and the lecture on the restoration of Klemenčič paintings were interesting but for us, future actor-puppeteers, not impressive enough. However, any new knowledge is gratefully received.

A n d l a st b ut n ot l e a st was the visit to the beautiful, educational and entertaining Puppet Museum that invites its visitors to try the puppets, play with them and rediscover what is most beautiful in themselves – the child.

Zb og o bjekt ivnih ra z lo ga nažalost nismo bili u prilici pogledati predstavu „Od 3. do 93. Veličanstveno djelo“, partnera iz Italije te ćemo o njoj više reći u sljedećem biltenu. Obj ect ive re a s ons prevented us from watching "From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention", by the project partner from Italy, so we'll elaborate on this one in our next newsletter.

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Izložba „Pioniri europskoga lutkarstva“ u meni je probudila djevojčicu koja kopa po bakinim ladicama, pokušava unaprijed pogoditi što se u njima skriva i oduševljena je pronađenim. Izložba me privukla svojim neposrednim pripovijedanjem, zaigranošću i kreativnošću; svojim duhovitim i uspješno nacrtanim animacijama – upravo primjerene duljine – te vlastito oblikovanom drvenom pločom na kojoj sam mogla birati „postaje“ na umjetničkom putu Milana Klemenčiča, Vittoria Podrecce i Hermenegilda Lanza... S jednostavnom i učinkovito oblikovanom osnovom, tri drvena kazališna sanduka (za svakog „pionira“ po jedan), koji naglašavaju međunarodnu, putujuću prirodu izložbe, u konačnici omogućuju i jednostavnije „pakiranje“ izloženih predmeta, dok istovremeno odražavaju duh kazališta. Ah, bilo je lijepo ponovno kopati po ladicama. mr. Tea Rogelj, viša kustosica, SLOVENSKI GLEDALIŠKI INŠTITUT

The exhibition All Strings Attached brought out in me the little girl that would ransack her grandmother's drawers, trying to guess what was in them and then get all excited over what she had found. It enthralled me with its direct expressiveness, playfulness and imaginativeness: the witty and ingenious, just long enough, animation sequences, and the wood board that allowed me to pick the stops along the artistic path of Milan Klemenčič, Vittorio Podrecca and Hermenegildo Lanz. I was also captivated by the simple yet effective overall design, i.e. the three wooden theatre chests (one for each pioneer) that emphasised the international, globetrotting nature of the exhibition (and conveniently make for easier packing of the displayed artefacts) and imbued the place with the scent of the theatre. Indeed, it was wonderful to go through those drawers again. MAG. Tea Rogelj, Senior Curator, Slovenian Theatre Institute

U rujnu sam sudjelovala na radionici Održavanje lutaka, koju su u Lutkarskom kazalištu Ljubljana pripremile Violaine Blaise, samostalna konzervatorica-restauratorica, specijalizirana za tekstil iz Francuske i Zala Kalan, konzervatorica-restauratorica iz Lutkarskog kazališta. Radionica je bila podijeljena u dva dijela. U teoretskom dijelu Violaine je predstavila konzerviranje i restauriranje lutaka u Francuskoj danas. Predstavila nam je materijale i postupke za sigurno i pasivno konzerviranje predmeta i pokazala kako se izrađuje detaljna dokumentacija izvršenih radova. Prikazala je i primjere dobre prakse, od minucioznog rada na pojedinim predmetima do pasivnog restauriranja čitave zbirke skupocjenih crkvenih tekstilija. Konzervatorima-restauratorima posebno je koristila prigoda u kojoj su mogli pogledati uzorke materijala i podatke o proizvođačima i dobavljačima. U drugom, praktičnom dijelu, Violaine i Zala su ponudile praktične vježbe rukovanja čudesnom i krhkom skupinom lutaka od različitih materijala koji su već počeli propadati. Elegantnim, jednostavnim pomagalima koje svaki konzervator-restaurator može sam izraditi, pomagali smo si pri razgledavanju, premještanju i čišćenju lutaka od prašine i njihovoj imobilizaciji. Upoznali smo 'šaroliki' nabor korištenih materijala i promišljali o najboljim načinima njihova održavanja. U radionici s Violaine i Zalom saznala sam mnogo korisnih podataka i ideja koje ću uključiti u svoj rad.

Usprkos dugogodišnjem iskustvu u radu s tekstilom najrazličitijih vrsta, uvijek se iznova susrećem s nečim novim: novim materijalima, kombinacijama, oštećenjima... Radionica o restauriranju lutaka bila mi je vrlo zanimljiva prije svega sa stajališta etičkih dilema jer lutke po mnogo čemu podsjećaju na etnološku baštinu kojom se i sama bavim. Naime, igračke i obredni predmeti često su, kao i lutke, izrađeni od neobičnih i nepostojanih materijala, više puta preoblikovani i imaju različite funkcije. Stoga su i odluke koje treba donositi ponekad mnogo problematičnije od samog posla.

MR. IRMA LANGUS HRIBAR, Narodni muzej Slovenije, Odsjek za konzervaciju i restauraciju

MR. Ana Motnikar, KonZervatoricarestauratorica tekstila, Slovenski etnografski muzej

In September, I attended the workshop on puppet preservation that was held in the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre and prepared by Violaine Blaise, an independent conservator-restorer and textile specialist from France, together with Zala Kalan, conservator-restorer from the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre. The workshop consisted of two parts. In the first, theoretical part Violaine introduced the state of puppet conservation and restoration in France today. She showed us the materials and procedures for safe and affordable passive artefact conservation, and demonstrated how to prepare meticulous documents that outline the work that was carried out. She highlighted best practices, from the minutiae of handling individual items to the passive conservation of an entire collection of precious church textiles. It was especially welcome for the conservators-restorers to be able to see material samples, and receive some information about manufacturers and suppliers. In the second part, Violaine and Zala gave us the opportunity to handle a charming yet frail group of puppets made from diverse decaying materials. Nifty implements that any conservation and restoration specialist can create themselves helped us to inspect, move, dedust and immobilise puppets. We got to know a wide range of materials and discussed the best ways for preserving them. The workshop with Violaine and Zala equipped me with useful information and ideas that I will gladly incorporate into my own work.

Despite having a long professional track record of working with various types of textiles, every now and then I stumble upon a new challenge: whether it is a new type of material, a combination of textiles new to me, highly specific damages etc. The workshop regarding puppet restoration particularly spoke to me because it addressed ethical dilemmas; in many ways, puppets are similar to the ethnological heritage that I am accustomed to working with. Much like puppets, toys and ceremonial items are often made from unusual and impermanent materials that might have been reused and repurposed; and sometimes the decision on how to go about the process can be more challenging than the work itself. MAG. Ana Motnikar, Conservatorrestorer of textiles, Slovene Ethnographic Museum

MAG. Irma LANGUS HRIBAR, National Museum of Slovenia, Department of Conservation and Restoration OPINIONS

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Dr. Bojana Rogelj Škafar

S l ove n s k i e t n o g r a f s k i m u z e j , L j u b l j a n a

OSV RTI

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Lutkari i njihove lutke: s pozornice i iza pozornice na izložbu i natrag

Puppeteers and their puppets: from the (back)stage to the exhibition and back again

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vi mi koji smo već ranije ili upravo sad surađujemo na različitim projektima sufinanciranim sredstvima iz projekta Kreativna Europa razmišljamo o dobrim i lošim stranama naše suradnje. Postižemo uspjeh jer si, zajedno s kolegama iz partnerskih država Europe širimo obzore u područjima u kojima djelujemo, a naša saznanja privlače i našu publiku.

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Projekt „Iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva“ u kojem sudjeluje Gradska općina Cividale (Italija), Lutkarsko kazalište Ljubljana (Slovenija), kazališna skupina Títeres Etcétera (Španjolska) i Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku (Hrvatska) na sredini svog razdoblja (2015. – 2017.) iskazao se kao sadržajno iznimno osmišljen projekt čiji nas rezultati u pojedinačnim

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veryone, who is or ever has been involved in projects receiving funding from the Creative Europe programme, reflects on the advantages and disadvantages that this collaboration brings. Success is when we expand our horizons in our specific fields of operation, together with colleagues from partner countries across Europe, and when our findings resonate with our audience.

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"All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes" is a collaboration of the Municipality Cividale del Friuli from Italy, the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre from Slovenia, the theatre troupe Títeres Etcétera from Spain and the Academy of Arts in Osijek, Croatia. This project, currently at its halfway point (2015—2017), stands out with its highly sophisticated concept,

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


aspektima nadahnjuju. Do sad smo realizaciju ovog projekta pratili u Ljubljani (razgledavanja u pratnji vodiča, predavanja, stručna radionica, eksperimentalne radionice, predstave participirajućih partnera i izložbe) iza čega slijedi jednako sadržajem bogato događanje u Hrvatskoj, Španjolskoj i Italiji. Dobro je što se projekt posvuda povezuje s lutkarskim festivalima (npr. u Ljubljani s festivalom Lutke 2016, u Cividaleu s Mittelfestom 2017.) i – ono što se u europskim projektima iznimno potiče – da se razmjenjuju stručna znanja i iskustvo. U tom projektu prije svega je to stručno znanje u području restauracije lutaka odnosno izrade kopija lutaka što pridonosi očuvanju krhke materijalne baštine lutaka. Autori projekta zadali su si zadatak istražiti i predstaviti početke i razvoj suvremenog lutkarstva, odnosno njegovu avangardnu ulogu, prikazom opusa triju eminentnih europskih stvaratelja na području lutkarstva: Slovenca Milana Klemenčiča (1875. – 1957.), Talijana Vittoria Podrecce (1883. – 1959.) i Španjolca Hermenegilda Lanza (1893. – 1949.). Njima je posvećena putujuća izložba „Pioniri europskog lutkarstva“ koja pomno odabranim predmetima i drugim vizualnim gradivom predstavlja njihovu uključenost u vrijeme i umjetničke smjerove te njihovu suradnju s drugim umjetnicima. Posebno nam je korisna vremenska crta s podacima o lutkarskim predstavama te vremenu i mjestima njihova prikazivanja kao i interaktivni zid po kojem šećemo, prateći njihove živote i kreativni put. Dragocjeni i informativni su i video isječci na malim zaslonima umetnuti između informacija navedenih na vremenskoj crti. Lutke, lutkarske pozornice, alati i materijali za njihovu izradu nedvojbeno su najprivlačniji dio izložbe. Lutke i prizori iz lutkarskih predstava autora kojima je ova izložba i posvećena predstavljaju nam svijet skriven iza pozornice u kojem nastaju lutke i scenografija. Promatramo ih u kreativno oblikovanim kutijama na kotačima s ugrađenim vitrinama za lutke i ladicama koje vas pozivaju da ih izvadite i u njima otkrijete skice za lutke i za scene kao i ostalu arhivsku i dokumentarnu građu koja govori o neiscrpnoj kreativnosti lutkarskih majstora; poseban dokaz je fotografska građa na stražnjim stranama vitrina. Tu su i lutke slikara i fotografa Milana

Klemenčiča, pionira kazališta marioneta u Sloveniji koji je ovo kazalište smatrao slikarskim djelom, zatim kopije lutaka svjetski poznatog kazališta „Teatra dei Piccoli“ Vittoria Podrecce s kojim su surađivali poznati europski avangardni umjetnici i s kojim je on proputovao pola svijeta. Tu su i primjerci Hermenegilda Lanza, europskog pionira maketnog kazališta. On je surađivao sa skladateljem Manuelom de Fallo i pjesnikom Federicom Garcíom Lorcom. Postajemo

and its results in their specific guises are impressive. Up to this point, we have been able to follow the realisation of the project in Ljubljana (guided tours, lecture, expert workshop, experiential workshops, plays by participating partners and an exhibition), which will continue with a diverse range of events in Croatia, Spain and Italy. It is commendable that the project connects with other puppet festivals (e.g. Lutke 2016 in Ljubljana, Mittlefest 2017 in Cividale) and that the exchange

Kratki animirani film o Vittoriju Podrecci/Short animated film about Vittorio Podrecca svjesni činjenice da svjedočimo izvorima suvremenog europskog lutkarskog kazališta koje su utemeljili Klemenčič, Podrecca i Lanz i postavili ga rame uz rame ostalim suvremenim vrstama umjetnosti. Crpili su ideje iz prošlosti i poput pravih vizionara postavili temelje suvremenog i budućeg stvaralaštva koje je za svoj izražaj odabralo lutkarsku umjetnost. Izložba je zaista pravo otkriće, i to ne samo za lutkarske sladokusce. Iznimno je zanimljiva i informativna najširoj publici, kako djeci tako i odraslima. Tome pridonose i smisleno umetnuti interaktivni sadržaji, animacije, suptilna i minimalistička grafička obrada i simpatične ilustracije. Za one znatiželjnike koji žele saznati nešto više o projektu, koji žele pratiti i obnavljati informacije o sudionicima izložbe preporučujemo posjet simpatičnoj mrežnoj stranici projekta. A njenim autorima samo bih prišapnula neka na stranici objave i fotografije aktualnih događaja. I na kraju bih zaključila: živjeli lutkari i lutke!

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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of expert knowledge and experience takes place, which is highly promoted in European projects. In this particular project, this applies to knowledge in the field of puppet restoration and copy making in order to preserve the delicate material of puppetry heritage. The project creators set out to explore and present the origins and development of modern puppetry and its avant-garde by focusing on the body of work of three illustrious European artists from the field of puppetry: Milan Klemenčič of Slovenia (1875— 1957), Vittorio Podrecca of Italy (1883 – 1959) and Hermenegildo Lanz of Spain (1893—1949). The travelling exhibition "All Strings Attached" pays homage to these three figures. Featuring carefully selected material artefacts and visuals, it presents their place within a specific era and art movements, as well as showing their collaborations with other artists. Very informative are the timelines that give information about the time and place of their puppet plays, as well as the interactive wall that allows us to follow their respective lives and creative journeys. The videos that play out on small screens

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installed in between the information on the timeline are both valuable and educational. Puppets, set elements, tools and crafting materials are certainly the most attractive part of the exhibition. You get a glimpse of the mysterious world behind the scenes and into the creation of puppets and sets through the puppets and scenes from plays staged by the very authors that this exhibition is dedicated to. Artefacts are placed in ingenious chests on wheels, with built-in puppet displays and drawers inviting visitors to take a peek inside and be amazed at the puppet sketches and other archival and documentary materials stored in there, attesting to the endless creativity of the puppet masters. The photos on the back of the displays are especially meaningful. You will find the puppets of painter and photographer Milan Klemenčič, the trailblazer of the marionette theatre in Slovenia, who approached it from a painter's perspective. Next, you have puppet copies of the world renowned, globetrotting Teatro dei Piccoli by Vittorio Podrecca who collaborated with the most important avant-garde artists in Europe of his time. And finally, artefacts by Hermenegildo Lanz, the European paper theatre pioneer, who had teamed up with composer Manuel de Falla and poet Federico García Lorca. The realisation sets in that we are in fact witnessing the roots of modern European puppet theatre that Klemenčič, Podrecca and Lanz through their artistry put on a par with other contemporary art forms. Drawing from the past, these visionaries set the cornerstones for contemporary and future creative endeavours that use puppetry as their expressive outlet. Thus, the exhibition is a revelation not only for puppetry connoisseurs, as its broad appeal and informative character also cater to the public at large, both children and adults. The embedded interactive elements, animated segments, subtle and minimal graphic design coupled with delightful illustrations, make the exhibition a crowd-pleaser. For those curious to find out more about the project or those who wish to follow it or refresh their knowledge of the exhibition's protagonists, I recommend to pay a visit to the charming project website. As an aside, a small suggestion to the creators: putting up photos of recent project events could be a nice addition to the site. Long live the puppeteers and puppets!

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NJS Zavirimo BARAiza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


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Trg Ante Starčevića (glavni trg)/ Ante Starčević's square (main square)

Glavni trg u Gornjem gradu nosi ime dr. Ante Starčevića, hrvatskog političara iz 19. stoljeća. Uz njegov spomenik na trgu se nalazi Osječanima omiljena skulptura „Grupa građana“. The Main Square in the Upper Town is named after Dr Ante Starčević, a 19th Century Croatian politician. His monument in the Square is a favourite sculpture of the "Grupa građana" . 2

Kon-katedrala sv. Petra i Pavla St. Peter's and St. Paul's co-cathedral

Izgrađena je 1898. Građena je od crvene fasadne opeke, u neo-gotičkom stilu, a graditelji su bili Franz Langenberg i Richard Jordan. Autor freski je poznati hrvatski slikar Mirko Rački. It was built in 1898 with a red brick façade in a Neo-gothic style by Franz Langenberg and Richard Jordan. The frescoes were created by the famous Croatian painter Mirko Rački. 3

Hrvatsko narodno kazalište u Osijeku The Croatian national theatre in Osijek

Osnovano je 1907. Zgradu je projektirao Karlo Klausner u historicističkom stilu uz elemente maurske arhitekture. Gledalište ima oblik potkove te je izgrađeno u tri razine. Founded in 1907, the building was designed by Karlo Klausner in the Historicist style which incorporated elements of Moorish architecture. The auditorium is horseshoe-shaped and built on three levels. 4

Muzej likovnih umjetnosti/Museum of fine arts

Nastao je izdvajanjem djela likovne umjetnosti iz Muzeja Slavonije, a od 1963. nalazi se u neorenesansnoj palači izgrađenoj 1895. g. Fundus čine slike, crteži, grafike, skulpture i medalje od 18. st. do danas. It was founded by separation of a part of the fine art works from the Museum of Slavonia. Since 1963 these have been located in a Neo-renaissance palace dating from 1895. The Museum's holdings comprise paintings, drawings, graphics, sculptures and medals that date from the 18th Century to today. 5

Europska avenija/European avenue

Veličanstvene gradske palače u Europskoj av. građene su početkom 20. st. u stilu tzv. „bečke secesije“. U istoj ulici nalazi se niz klasicističkih zgrada iz 19. st. s monumentalnom Sudbenom palačom. The magnificent palaces located on the Europska Avenija/European Avenue were built in the early 20th Century in the so called "Viennese Secession" Style. On the same street there are a number of Classicist buildings that date from the 19th Century, one of them being the monumental Palace of Justice. 6

Viseći most i secesijski zdenac/Suspension bridge and the secessionist style fountain

Izgrađen je 1980. g., a danas je omiljen među zaljubljenim parovima koji na njegovu ogradu stavljaju „ljubavne lokote“. Veliki secesijski zdenac poklon je obitelji Pejačević gradu Osijeku iz 1903. g.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

Built in 1980, today this is popular among couples who place "love padlocks" on the bridge railings. This great Secession Style Fountain was gifted by the Pejačević Family to the City of Osijek in 1903. 7

Crkva sv. Mihovila Arkanđela/St. Michael the Archangel's church

Barokna crkva iz 18. st. s dva 47 metara visoka tornja dominira panoramom Tvrđe, a njena zvona svakoga petka u 11 sati podsjećaju na trenutak oslobođenja od Turaka 29. rujna 1687. godine. This Baroque Church dates from the 18th Century and its two 47 metre steeples dominate the Fortress"s panorama and their bells peal out every Friday at 11 a.m. and recall the moment of liberation from the Turkish occupation on 29th September, 1687. 8

Trg sv. Trojstva/Holy Trinity square

Glavnim trgom u starom gradu, Tvrđi, dominira barokni kip Sv. Trojstva, izgrađen 1729. godine, kao zavjetni kip Osječana Bogu da se kuga koja je prethodno poharala grad više nikada ne vrati. Situated on the main square in the Old Town, the Fortress is dominated by the Baroque Statue of the Holy Trinity, which was built in 1729 as a votive statue by the inhabitants of Osijek as a plea to God that the plague that had previously devastated the City should never return. 9

Galerija Waldinger/Waldinger Gallery

Sastavni dio ustanove Gradske galerije Osijek, osnovane 2005. godine, čiji je program namijenjen razvoju novomedijske kulturne scene i uključuje različite forme i vidove umjetničkog stvaralaštva. An integral part of the Osijek City Gallery, which was founded in 2005, this programme aims to develop new media and create a cultural scene that includes different forms and aspects of artistic creativity. 10

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Umjetnička akademija u Osijeku The Academy of Arts in Osijek

Osnovana 2004. g. Sastoji se od odsjeka za kazališnu, glazbenu i likovnu umjetnost te Katedre za interdisciplinarnost. Jedina je akademija u Hrvatskoj i regiji sa studijem lutkarstva. Founded in 2004, the Academy consists of a Theatre, Music and Visual Arts Department and an Interdisciplinary Chair. It is the only Academy in Croatia and the Region that offers a course in Puppetry. 13

Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku/Branko Mihaljević children's theatre

S radom je započelo 1950. g. kao Pionirsko kazalište u Osijeku, da bi se 1958. profesionaliziralo i dobilo ime Dječje kazalište „Ognjen Priča“. Od početka njeguje lutkarstvo kao izvedbeni izraz. The Theatre began its operation in 1950 to build the Pioneer Theatre in Osijek, was professionalised in 1958 and was named after "Ognjen Prica" where, from the outset, it fostered puppetry as a method of expression 14

Rondel velikana/Sculpture garden

Podignut 2006. g. na južnom ulazu u Tvrđu. U središtu je fontana uokolo koje se nalaze biste poznatih Osječana, biskupa J. J. Strossmayera i dvaju kemičara i nobelovca, Lavoslava Ružičke i Vladimira Preloga. Built in 2006 at the southern entrance of the Fortress. Around the fountain in the centre are placed the famous citizens of Osijek, among others bishop J. J. Strossmayer and two chemists and Nobel Prize winners, Lavoslav Ružička, and Vladimir Prelog.

Gradske zidine i vodena vrata/City walls and moat gate

Osječke zidine izgrađene su 1722. g. zbog obrane od Turaka. Gradnju je vodio general Johann Stephan von Beckers, a vjeruje se da je njegovo tijelo po smrti zazidano u zidine uz Vodena vrata. Osijek's walls were built in 1722 as a defence against Turkish invasion. The construction was led by Johann Stephan von Beckers, and it is believed that his body was walled up next to the moat gate after his death. 11

Eurodom i žalosna kapelica Eurodom and the chapel of sorrows

Trgovačko-kulturni centar Eurodom stakleni je neboder visok 61 metar. Pored Eurodoma nalazi se „Žalosna kapelica“, omanja barokna građevina iz 1780. g., poznata po legendi o „osječkim Romeu i Juliji“. The Eurodom Business and Shopping Centre is a glass tower 61 metres high. Alongside the Eurodom is the "Chapel of Sorrows" which was built in 1780 and is known for the legend of "the Osijek Romeo and Juliet".

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Kustosi i osoblje/CURATORS & COLLABORATORS

ITALIJA/ITALY Elisabetta Bisaro Djeluje u području planiranja programa i upravljanja projektima suvremenog plesa i scenske umjetnosti u trima državama. Šest je godina za Dance Ireland u Dublinu vodila umjetnički program i različite međunarodne projekte, uključujući i četiri europska projekta. Od 2013. je odgovorna za međunarodno područje centra La Briqueterie – CDC du Val-de-Marne u Francuskoj. Uz to, predsjednica je organizacije za žensku umjetnost u Trstu. Has worked in a programming and managerial capacity in the fields of dance and the performing arts across 3 countries. After her initial steps in Italy, she worked as Programme Manager of Dance Ireland in Dublin for 6 years. She was responsible for curating and managing the organisation's artistic programming and all international projects, including 4 EU-funded projects. Since 2013, she has been responsible for the international development of La Briqueterie – CDC du Val-de-Marne in France. She is the president of PlanTS, an all-women arts organisation based in Trieste. Elena Carlini Arhitektica, Fulbrightova stipendistica na Sveučlištu Columbia. Profesorica arhitekture u Ferrari, gostujuća profesorica na Sveučilištu Syracuse (NY). Sudjeluje u realizaciji javnih, stambenih i poslovnih objekata i izložbi, poput „Marzone Villa Manin“ na venecijanskom bijenalu. Svoje radove objavljuje u međunarodnim časopisima. Architect and Columbia University Fulbright Scholar, a visiting professor at Syracuse University (NY), and a professor at the School of Architecture in Ferrara. She has realised public, residential and commercial projects as well as exhibitions such as "Marzona Villa Manin" (Venice Art Biennale). Her writing has been published in international magazines. Elisabetta Gottardo Od 1997. godine zaposlena je u Gradskoj općini Cividale u Odjelu za kulturu, komunikaciju i međunarodne odnose. Specijalizirana je za područje kulturne organizacije, nakladništva, bibliotekarstva, kulturnog turizma, promocije i politika mladeži. Has been employed since 1997 at the Municipality of Cividale del Friuli as a Project Manager and from April 2012 at department of Culture and Community Policy – External Relations. She specialises in cultural organization, publishing,

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library management, cultural tourism, promotion and youth policies. Ennio Guerrato Redatelj, urednik i autor različitih dokumentarnih emisija, promocijskih filmova za poduzeća i kulturne institucije i glazbenih video uradaka. Svoj kazališni put započeo je kao glumac/lutkar u obnovljenoj skupini „I Nuovi Piccoli di Podrecca“ stalnog kazališta u Trstu. Djeluje i izlaže i u području nekonvencionalnih kazališnih postava u kojima se, između ostaloga, izražava i video instalacijama. Director, editor and author of RAI and historical documentaries, music videos, promotional films for companies and Italian cultural institutions. Began his theatrical career in 1984 as an actor/puppeteer of the company "I Nuovi Piccoli di Podrecca" with Teatro Stabile FVG. He is also active also in the field of unconventional theatrical staging and he produces and exhibits video installations. Barbara Della Polla Glumica, spisateljica, autorica i redateljica brojnih radio drama i lutkarskih predstava, uključujući i predstavu „Od 3. do 93. Veličanstveno djelo“ posvećenu Vittoriju Podrecci. Djeluje na području likovne umjetnosti i projekata instalacija povezanih sa ženama, radom, odjećom i tijelom. Actress, writer and director. Author and direcor of numerous radio and puppet plays, including a hommage to Vittorio Podrecca "From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invention". Works in the field of visual arts and installation projects related to women, work, dress and the body. Tiziana Guarrini Povjesničarka, istraživačica i amaterska glumica. Lutkarstvom se započela baviti sudjelujući u predstavi „Od 3. do 93. Veličanstveno djelo“. Istražuje život i rad Vittoria Podrecce, brine o zbirci, a nedavno je sudjelovala i u restauriranju odabranih lutaka kazališta „I Piccoli“. Historical researcher, non-professional actress. Entered the world of puppetry with the show "From 3 to 93. A Marvellous Invetion". Envestigates the life and work of Vittorio Podrecca and takes care for the recollection of materials. Recently also took part in the restoration of the selected "Teatro dei Piccoli" puppets.

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SLOVENIJA/SLOVENIA Zala Kalan Restauratorica, kreatorica lutaka, ilustratorica i autorica više izložbi/instalacija. Zaposlena je u Lutkarskom muzeju Lutkarskog kazališta Ljubljana, u kojem se specijalizirala za područje restauracije lutaka i o tome objavljuje stručne radove. Restorer-conservator, designer of puppets, illustrator and author of several art exhibitions/ installations. Currently employed in the Museum of Puppetry department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, where she specialises in, and writes about, the field of puppetry restoration. Nadja Ocepek Povjesničarka umjetnosti, voditeljica projekata. Ranije je bila zaposlena u Zavodu za zaštitu kulturne baštine Slovenije. Koautorica je stalne izložbe lutaka u Ljubljanskom dvorcu. Trenutno vodi Lutkarski muzej koji čini odjel Lutkarskog kazališta Ljubljana, gdje se zauzima za prepoznatljivost slovenske lutkarske baštine. Art historian, project manager. Previously employed at the Institute for Protection of Cultural Heritage of Slovenia. Co-curator of the permanent exhibition of puppets at the Ljubljana Castle. Currently a Museum of Puppetry department manager at the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre and committed to recognition of Slovenian puppetry heritage. Tjaša Tomšič Povjesničarka umjetnosti, rusistica, kustosica, pedagoginja. Ranije je predavala ruski jezik i povijest umjetnosti, prevela i uredila brojne stručne publikacije. Zaposlena je u Lutkarskom muzeju Lutkarskog kazališta Ljubljana, gdje vodi obrazovne aktivnosti, priprema izložbe, objavljuje stručne radove. Art historian, Russianist, curator pedagogue. Worked as a professor of Art History and the Russian language, translated and edited several academic publications. Currently employed in the Museum of Puppetry department of the Ljubljana Puppet Theatre, where she is responsible for educational activities, curates exhibitions, writes articles.

Zavirimo iza pozornice: pioniri europskog lutkarstva


BILTEN/BULLETIN Nakladnik/Published by: Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana U suradnji s/In Collaboration with: Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Títeres Etcétera, Umjetnička galerija u Osijeku, Cooperativa Cassiopea Za nakladnika/On Behalf of: Uroš Korenčan

ŠPANJOLSKA/SPAIN

HRVATSKA/CROATIA

Enrique Lanz Lutkar, voditelj lutkarske skupine TíteresEtcétera, koji je za svoj rad primio brojne nagrade. Radove predstavlja na najvažnijim lutkarskim i glazbenim festivalima. Filmski stvaratelj i kurator brojnih lutkarskih izložbi. Puppeteer, director of the company Títeres Etcétera. Received important awards, presents his work at major international puppet and music festivals. Video maker and curator of several puppets exhibitions.

dr. sc. Livija Kroflin Docentica i pročelnica katedre za dramske umjetnosti na Umjetničkoj akademiji u Osijeku. Realizira program lutkarstva i predaje povijest i estetiku lutkarstva. Selektorica je festivala PIF. Članica je nadzornog odbora UNIMA-e. Objavljuje publikacije i članke o lutkarstvu. Assistant Professor and Head of Department of Dramatic Art at the Academy of Arts in Osijek. Head of the Puppetry Programme. Lectures about history and aesthetics of puppetry. Selector for the PIF Festival. Member of the UNIMA Executive Committee. Writes articles and contributes to publications on puppetry.

Yanisbel V. Martínez Lutkarica i istraživačica koja se školovala na Kubi i u Francuskoj. Surađivala je s brojnim lutkarskim skupinama širom svijeta. Od 2007. djeluje u skupini Títeres Etcétera kao asistentica direktora, producentica, lutkarica i glumica. Piše stručne članke i drži predavanja o kazalištu i lutkarstvu. Puppeteer and researcher with an academic education from Cuba and France. Worked with several theatre companies all over the world. Since 2007 acts as director assistant, producer, puppeteer and actress in the company Títeres Etcétera, writes academic articles, and lectures about theatre and puppetry.

Igor Tretinjak Teatrolog i kazališni kritičar. Ranije je radio kao profesor hrvatskoga jezika, novinar i urednik. Kazališne kritike objavljuje desetak godina. Zaposlen na Umjetničkoj akademiji u Osijeku kao asistent na programu lutkarstva. Theatre theoretician and critic. Worked as a professor of Croatian, a journalist and as an editor. Currently working at the Academy of Arts in Osijek as the puppetry programme assistant. Antonija Matić Voditeljica Odjeljka za programe i projekte EU i međuinstitucijsku suradnju na Umjetničkoj akademiji u Osijeku. Radila u bankarstvu kao financijska savjetnica. Na Ekonomskom fakultetu u Osijeku drži seminare u naslovnom zvanju asistenta. Head of the Department for EU Programmes and Projects and Inter-institutional Cooperation at the Academy of Arts in Osijek. She worked in banking as a financial advisor. At the Faculty of Economics in Osijek holds seminars in the title as an external associate. Barbara Balen Kulturologinja i menadžerica u kulturi. Voditeljica Odsjeka za međunarodnu suradnju i Erasmus na Umjetničkoj akademiji u Osijeku. Koordinatorica više međunarodnih festivala u organizaciji osječke akademije. Culturologist and manager in culture. Head of the Department for International Cooperation and Erasmus at the Academy of Arts in Osijek. Coordinator of several international festivals organized by the Osijek Academy.

The Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes

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Urednici/Edited by: Nadja Ocepek, Tjaša Tomšič, Kourednik/Coeditor: Igor Tretinjak Prijevod i lektura/Proofreading and Translation: Lingula, d. o. o., Igor Tretinjak Grafička i likovna oprema/Design: Jernej Stritar, IlovarStritar Fotografija na naslovnici /Cover Photo: Petrica Kerempuh i spametni osel: marioneta iz predstave/ marionette from the show, arhiv/archive HAZU Fotografije/Photographs: HAZU, Dječje kazalište Branka Mihaljevića u Osijeku, Archivo Lanz, Cooperativa Cassiopea, Fondo Maria Signorelli, Tiziana Guarrini, Goriški muzej, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, The Cook/Marks Collection, Northwest Puppet Center (Dmitri Carter), Slovenski gledališki inštitut, SOMSI Cividale del Friuli, Mirko Kambič, UAOS, Ana-Marija Jurišić, Ines Zmazek, Antonio Jakupčević. Tisak/Print: Grafex, d. o. o. Naklada/Circulation: 600 izvodov/copies November 2016 ISSN 2464-031X IZLOŽBA/EXHIBITION Autori izložbe/Exhibition Curated by: Comune di Cividale del Friuli, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana (LGL), Títeres Etcétera, Umjetnička galerija u Osijeku, Cooperativa Cassiopea Autori tekstova/ Text by: Tiziana de Guarrini, Ennio Guerrato, Enrique Lanz, Yanisbel V. Martínez, Nadja Ocepek, Barbara Della Polla, Tjaša Tomšič, Igor Tretinjak Restauriranje građe/Artefacts Restoration: Lutkovni muzej LGL (Zala Kalan) Kopije lutaka Vittoria Podrecce/Copies of Vittorio Podrecca Puppets: Lutkarska radionicaLGL (Zoran Srdić, Iztok Bobić, Polona Černe, Marjeta Valjavec), Slobodan Djordjević, Hermina Pavšič, Maja Peterlin, Smrekca, d.o. o. Prijevod i lektura/Proofreading and Translation: Lingula, d. o. o., Igor Tretinjak Autorica arhitekturne opreme/Interior Design: arch. Elena Carlini Cjelovita grafička obrada/Visual Identity: Jernej Stritar, IlovarStritar Koncept animacija, interaktivne stijene/Animations, Interactive Wall Concept: Lutkovni muzej LGL, Jernej Stritar Animacije, ilustracije/Animations, Illustration: Lea Zupančič, Jernej Stritar Tehnička realizacija/ Technical Realization: Cooperativa Cassiopea, Carlo Furlan, Títeres Etcétera, RPS, d. o. o., Ljubljana Interaktivna stijena/Interactive Wall: Solution (Thibault Brevet, Johannes Lohbihler, Tilen Sepič) Izvori fotografija/Photography Sources: HAZU, Archivo Lanz, Cooperativa Cassiopea, Fondo Maria Signorelli, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana, Goriški muzej, Slovenski gledališki inštitut, SOMSI Cividale del Friuli, Títeres Etcétera, Mirko Kambič Video materijal/Video Materials: Ennio Guerrato, CassiopeaTeatro, Títeres Etcétera, Lutkovno gledališče Ljubljana Zahvale/Thanks: Odsjek za povijest hrvatskog kazališta Zavoda za povijest hrvatske književnosti, kazališta i glazbe HAZU, Archivo Lanz, Elisabetta Bisaro, Fausta Braga, Italo Braga, Goriški muzej, Bojana Rogelj Škafar, Jelena Sitar Cvetko, Igor Cvetko, Roberta Colombo, Andrea Monticelli, Dmitri Carter, Alan Cook, Mojca Klemenčič, Matjaž Loboda, Teatro Stabile del Friuli Venezia Giulia, Tea Rogelj, Irma Langus Hribar, Ana Motnikar, Slovenski gledališki inštitut, Zavod za varstvo kulturne dediščine RS.

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All Strings Attached Bulletin #2  

Bulletin is a special newspaper about Creative Europe project All Strings Attached: the Pioneers of European Puppetry Behind the Scenes. Mor...

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