Issuu on Google+

March 28, 2013

$4.99


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Table of Contents Map of Tana Toraja Mind Map of Torajan Funeral Rites The Tana Toraja: Ritual and Death in Indonesia by Andrea Bissonnette The Rites of the Dead: Aluk to Mate by Andrea Bissonnette Extravagant Funeral Feasts by Karina Andersson A Home Where the Buffalo Roam by Milan Gaida Tau Tau: The Wooden Gatekeepers of Tana Toraja by Deanna Williams Quiz: What Torajan Symbol best represents you? Buried in the Wind: Baby Trees of Tana Toraja by Karina Andersson Hanging Graves: Final Resting Place or Tourist Attraction? by Karina Andersson Where’s  Your  Head  At? by Milan Gaida The Walking Dead of Tana Toraja by Shawn Curé If  It  Ain’t  Broke,  Don’t  Fix  It by Deanna Williams


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Tau Tau

   

The wooden gatekeepers of Tana Toraja

     

Deanna Williams, UVIC 

                               

Wood carving is a major form of cultural expression in Toraja culture. It has been passed on through  generations with such specificity that even modern wood carvers can perform carvings with exacting  mathematical proportions and curves without intention. This cultural phenomenon has been termed  ethnomathematics ‐ geometry and precision without intent. Modernization has largely replaced general use  wood carving with manufactured goods like plastic, but the practice has persisted in architecture and  agriculture and remarkably, in the creation of the tau tau. 

               

Tau tau means “person‐like” or “little person”. They are carved wooden statues or effigies that play a large  part in many funeral rituals. According to traditional beliefs they house the souls of those that have passed,  and are carved specifically to depict deceased ancestors in their live form. It has been suggested that tau tau  indicate status, wealth, heritage – though this is represented more so in colours and clothing adorning the  effigy, rather than effigy itself. Traditionally, tau tau were only created for those of high status and wealth,  though technology and lowering time and money costs have made the practice more universal in recent times.   


Tau  tau  are  a  fond  reminder  to  the  still  living  of  those  they  resemble. Their purpose is to contain and reveal the identity (in  life) of their deceased counterpart. They have increased in detail  over  the  years  from  less  stylized  to  more  realistic.  Could  this  have occurred as a response to the pillaging of Toraja grave sites  for foreign showcasing? The increasing likeness of the statues to  those they memorialize may indicate  the desire of the locals to  bring  more  meaning  to  the  rituals  that  tourism  seems  to  be  diluting.  An  alternate  explanation  may  be  due  to  the  influx  of  Christianity.  Older,  stylized  effigies  that  do  not  specifically  resemble a deceased individual or appear human in general may  give the impression of paganism in the eye of the Church. Global  modernization  also  plays  a  role.  Due  to  changing  technology,  wood carvers are now more likely to carve effigies in their own  workshops  with  the  assistance  of  a  recent  photo.  Photography  has allowed for more realistic  carvings but has taken away the  time  a  wood  carver  spends  with  the  family  of  the  deceased;  a  description of appearance is no longer required for the deceased  to be properly memorialized. Though efficiency and quality have  increased,  modernizing  wood  carving  may  have  a  negative  impact on kinship ties within the communities of Tana Toraja.  What  does  this  mean  for  those  phony,  manufactured  effigies  (souvenirs)  that  are  created  strictly  for  tourist  consumption?  This  author  believes  that  these  effigies  are  not  tau  tau  as  they  commemorate  no  one,  and  rather  are  watered  down  pieces  of  culture stolen for the rest of the world to share. Some locals do  not  agree,  though  those  on  defense  are  likely  the  shopkeepers  gaining monetary benefit in exchange for borrowed traditions. 

Steps of making an effigy:  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

wait for death in the family to happen  search out and cut down a jackfruit tree  sacrifice a dog and a chicken  feast on the meat  treat the wood  make limbs and body  make head and insert wooden eyes,  wide open  8. sacrifice a pig  9. feast again  10. for the funeral, dress the effigy in  traditionally appropriate attire  11. following the funeral and grave prep,  place the effigy at the burial site   

Arms and legs of the effigy are removable,  and  the  wood,  originally  yellow,  darkens  over  time  to  resemble  Torajan  skin  tone.  For  Christian  tau  tau  carving,  animals  sacrifice  is  skipped.  Tau  tau  are  traditionally  placed  to  overlook  the  remains  of  those  that  they  commemorate,  though the rise of tourism and subsequent  grave  robbing  in  the  1980s  of  tau  tau  for  souvenir,  artifact,  or  art  trade  have  initiated  safer  storage  of    many  effigies  within  the  tombs  themselves.  During  ma’nene’ (page xx), tau tau of the long dead  ancestors  are  repaired  and  redressed  alongside their organic muses. 


QUIZ! What Torajan Symbol Best Represents You?

6) What genre of movie do you prefer? A. B. C. D. E.

Action Classics Family channel Rom Com War

7)  What’s  your  favourite  type  of  music? 1) In school, what were your favourite activities? A. B. C. D. E.

Working in the student body government Career and life management class Volunteering in the community Home economics, art, and design Playing on a full contact sports team

2)  What’s  your  favourite  colour? A. B. C. D. E.

Purple, like royalty. Green, like money. Yellow, calm and neutral. Pink – pretty! Red,  the  colour  you  “see”  often.

3)  Who’s  your  favourite  character  on  television? A. B. C. D. E.

Donald Draper, Mad Men Mr Burns, The Simpsons Rev. Eric Camden, Seventh Heaven Carrie Bradshaw, Sex and the City Sterling Archer, Archer

4) What food would you most prefer to eat? A. Anything as long as its fed to you by your serving staff B. The most expensive caviar you can buy C. Pizza so you can share a meal with your family D. A salad with daintily cut ingredients presented well E. STEAK AND POTATOS. You might even eat with your hands. 5) Your friends rely on you most for your: A. Dictating. You are the one that organizes plans. B. Money. You fund trips and cover when your roommates are short on rent. C. Generosity. You commonly cook group dinners and chauffeur people around. D. Sensitivity. You are always there to listen and offer courteous advice. E. Protection. You are the first to stand up for your friend and get kicked out of the bar.

A. B. C. D. E.

Rock and roll Hip Hop Folk music Classical Heavy Metal

8) What would be your ideal vacation? A. Fly to Europe to view the castles and do as the royals do. B. Fly to New York City, so Wall Street can teach you how to enhance your wealth. C. Road trip with the family to your cabin. D. Paris, France so you can shop at fancy boutiques and pamper yourself. E. A trip to Spain to run with the bulls. 9) How do you exercise? A. Weightlifting – you gotta be the biggest. B. Yoga – Encompasses both the mind and body for the long term. C. Team sports – you challenge one another to be better and work together. D. Dance class. E. Extreme sports – nothing like an adrenaline rush. 10) What are your hobbies? A. B. C. D.

Racetrack betting. Investment banking. Camping with a group of family and friends. Going to the spa.

Fight club. 11) What would you chose to eat for dessert? A. B. C. D. E.

Whatever you want, you can have Champagne and strawberries Grandma’s  homemade apple pie Chocolate mousse with fancy whipped cream Flambé (your dessert, on fire)

12) What position do you take on group projects? A. B. C. D. E.

Boss everyone around Pay someone else to do your work for you The mediator. You resolve conflicts. You edit for appearances and flow. The creator of new ideas


13) At a party, where would you most likely be found? A. B. C. D.

At the center of attention Paying the doorman for the pizza In a drum circle Doesn’t  matter,  you’re  still  the  best  looking  one   there. E. Trying to find a way back in. You got kicked out an hour ago. 14) What periodicals do you keep up with? A. B. C. D. E.

Forbes Magazine Investment Weekly Canadian Living Vogue Magazine Extreme Sports Magazine

15) What type of student are you? A. The president. B. A straight A student. All your doors are open, and you get scholarships. C. You tutor and volunteer. D. A feminist. E. A procrastinator, you leave everything until the last minute. Now, add up your results and count how many of each letter you have.

Mostly As? You are pa’tedong, the water buffalo. You are characterised by virility, strength, prestige, and power. Mostly Bs? You are rice grasses. You represent life and prosperity. Mostly Cs? Your symbol  is  branches  of  intertwined  moss.  This  means  your  life’s  focus  is  on  daily   cooperation and family. Mostly Ds? A bird head is your symbol. It dictates elegance and femininity. Mostly Es? Your symbol is the fighting cock and rising sun. This represents aggressiveness and fearlessness, equally masculine and feminine.


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If It Ain’t Broke, Don’t Fix It  an exposé on the impact of tourism on culture in Tana Toraja 


Tourism websites advertise Tana Toraja as an undiscovered paradise with dark secrets. Methods of  discovery and travel to grave sites are described like they are classified information, despite being available  on numerous travel sites across the web. Some websites are written in broken English, signifying the  likelihood they are the product of a local entrepreneur. Many websites use sensationalized phrases to hone  in on an outsider’s curiosity for the eccentric. “Tau‐tau stand up high, as if they were alive”, “baby trees..and  graves [that] are [a] hundred years old”, “way of life has not changed much in the last 100 years”. A source  states you can even witness “buffalo fights in which the bulls, quite rightly agitated by the insertion of chilli  up their behind, lock horns and strain against each other”. Sites that lack direct ties to funeral practices have  descriptions that seem like an apology – forgive our hot springs, for they are not HOT SPRINGS OF DEATH  (maybe an exaggeration, but this is the vibe). The area is touted as being “home to a people whose love of  religious spectacle is equaled only by their hospitality”. Are the Toraja people really that eager to share their  sacred funerary rites with hoards of strangers? Research has led this journalist to believe that desire for  Toraja tourism is dictated more by politics than the general public is lead to believe.  Dutch colonization was the first step for the modernization and globalization of Tana Toraja. Nobles  traditionally lived distant from one another in their hilltop tongkonans until Dutch leaders began to threaten  the degree of power these nobles had. They moved closer to Dutch camps in order to maintain hold on their  hierarchal status in the community. After the Dutch colonization period and Indonesian independence,  much of the Toraja population adopted values of Christianity over previous animism beliefs. Families also  began to work outside their communities in high paying industry jobs. The funnelling of wealth back to  Tana Toraja allowed for lower ranking families to afford elaborate life and death rituals normally reserved  for the elite. A cycle begins here, where an increase in general wealth allows for increased ritual (and  publicity of rituals), which gains the interest of tourists and triggers the tourism industry to increase wealth  further. This positive feedback circle has a breaking point, and that breaking point is becoming apparent  through a probable dilution of culture. The question here is: do something, or do nothing?  Tourism is a very profitable and important industry relative to globalization of the modern world. The  involved governments in Indonesia recognized this and set out to form policy for Tana Toraja in the 1960s  and 70s. The policies aimed to create pockets of tourist areas (obyek turis or obyek wisata) to focus tourism  in pre‐determined communities and sites. There were several inherent problems with this. The first was  that the committee members set to decide these locations were not of Toraja descent, and rather were from  rival regions within the Sulawesi. The Buginese, the main contributors to the government in South Sulawesi  are a prominently Muslim community that hold longstanding conflict with Toraja. Historically, the conflict  was between resources for trade of coffee and slaves but was now poised at appeal for tourism assets. Due  to intricate beliefs and traditions, Tana Toraja gained a higher profile for tourism; the fate of which landed  in the hands of a jealous and vindictive counterpart with no respect for differing ideology. The Buginese  remain with their hands in the Toraja cookie jar into modern day; Buginese retailers sell their own Buginese  silk in form of shirts that have been silkscreened with borrowed Toraja symbolism. The Javanese, though  lacking any rivalry, also did not share the belief system of Toraja and thus were inclined to make decisions  based on their own cultural understandings. Another problem lies in the link between the sites proposed for  tourism, and the fact that these sites are not just shelter or a resting place; they are strictly linked with  social hierarchy, heritage, and belief. Your home is not a tourist attraction. This idea is offensive, belittling,  and confusing. Especially when, in Toraja culture, homes and gravesites commonly dictate status and  prestige – by choosing one site over another, entire identities are demeaned and the status hierarchy is  disturbed. A third problem involves the living situation. How does one continue to live a normal life in their  home or community when it is considered a tourist attraction?   


Traditionally,  certain  rituals  are  practiced  during  specified  seasons  of  the  year  and  these  rituals  cannot  be  mixed  or  overlapped.  Additional  tourism  zoning  plans  approached  this  issue  by  suggesting  a  “tradition‐free”  area  where  rituals  would  be  held  out  of  season  solely  for  the  benefit  of  tourists  with  conflicting  schedules.  Rituals would thus be staged, and those involved could charge admission. Performers who sing and dance could  make extra money for their families. Like an indigenous Disneyland that doubles as home. What an insult to a  culture!  Tourism zoning also stated that to maintain authenticity, changes to  tongkonans and burial sites were strictly  not allowed. No adding or removing of structures or renovation of appearances. Culture destroyed by halting it  in its tracks.   

Imagine with me, for a second –  Once upon a time there was an alternate  universe, and in this universe the the  Western world was zoning for tourism. The  outside world was baffled and intrigued by  the way of life of North Americans and  firsthand insight into the ins and outs of  daily life was in high demand. Your  Hometown, Canada has been selected as a  cultural landscape for outsiders to peruse at  their travel convenience. Your freedom of  choice and privacy, and your human desire  to always improve have been stifled by your  government – but they don’t care. They live  in Nowheresville, Ontario and have been  struggling to capitalize on tourism in their  own backyards, so they’re borrowing yours.  You are asked (and essentially told) by law  that you can’t make changes to your homes  or community centres and that you must live  daily life while hoards of strangers  scrutinize your every move. You better be  dead set on that wall colour, it’s never  changing. Shag carpet and wood panelling –  for always. Hope you like that outfit you’re  wearing, and that brand of toothpaste. You  will be with them until the end of days. The  rest of the world gets the new iPhone 5 and  you’re still stuck with that Samsung flip  phone. How do you feel? Stifled? Resentful?  Uncomfortable? There you go. Pigeonholing  an entire culture to suit the fascination of  the outside world is an unfair way to make a  quick buck. Especially when the culture in  question is either uninformed of the pros  and cons or has overall no say in the matter. 

By preserving villages such as Ke’te Kesu’ in Tana Toraja, do‐ good organizations like UNESCO are effectively putting the  cultural evolution of the area to a halt. This status could  potentially bring more harm than good. Stifling of human  growth allows for festering of other human tendencies –  already apparent in the endless rivalry between the Buginese  and Toraja. Bitterness of a lifestyle deemed backwards to  many, and yes, even within the local community of Toraja due  to Dutch colonization and modernization across the globe may  lead to the downfall of the Toraja culture as a whole. 

written by Deanna Williams 


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Article References “A Home Where the Buffalo Roam”  &  “Where’s  Your  Head  At?”  by  Milan  Gaida Adams, R. L. (2004). An Ethnoarchaeological Study of Feastin in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology, 56-78. Hollan, D. W., & Wellenkamp, J. C. (1996). The Thread of Life: Toraja Reflections on the Life Cycle. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. Thompson, R. (2000). Playing the Stockmarket in Tana Toraja. The Australian Journal of Anthropology, 42-58. Tsintjilonis, D. (2000). A Head for the Dead: Sacred Violence in Tana Toraja. Archipel, 27-50. Tsintjilonis, D. (2000). Death and the Sacrifice of Signs: 'Measuring' the Dead in Tana Toraja. Oceania, 1-17. Tsintjilonis, D. (2007). The Death-Bearing Senses in Tana Toraja. Ethnos, 173-194.

“Buried  in  the  Wind:  Baby  Trees  of  Tana  Toraja”,  “Extravagant  Funeral  Feasts”,  &  “Hanging  Graves:  Final  Resting  Place  or   Tourist  Attraction?”  by  Karina  Andersson Adams, K. M. (1993). Club Dead, Not Club Med: Staging Death in Conteporary Tana Toraja (Indonesia). Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science , 21 (2), 62-73. Adams, K. M. (1984). Come to Tana Toraja "Land of the Heavenly Kings": Travel Agents as Brokers in Ethnicity. Annals of Tourism Research , 11 (3). Adams, R. L. (2004). An ethnoarchaeological study of feasting in Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology (23), 56-73. Power, L. (2002, May 11). Dying to meet you. The Age , p. 15. Scarduelli, P. (2005). Dynamics of Cultural Change among the Toraja of Sulawesi. The Commodization of Tradition . Anthropos , 100 (2), 389-400. Tsintjilonis, D. (2000). Death and the Sacrifice of Signs: 'Measuring' the Dead in Tana Toraja. Oceania , 71 (1), 1-17. Waterson, R. (1995). Houses, Graves and the Limits of Kinship Groupings among the Sa'dan Toraja. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land-en Volkenkunde , 151 (2), 194-217. Waterson, R. (1993). Taking the Place of Sorrow: The Dynamics of Mortuary Rites amongthe Sa'dan Toraja. Southeast Asian Journal of Social Science , 21 (2), 73-96.

“The Tana Toraja: Ritual and Death in Indonesia”  &  “The Rites of the Dead: Aluk to Mate”  by  Andrea Bissonnette Nooy-Palm,  C.H.M.  (1975).  Introduction  to  the  Sa’dan  Toraja People and their Country. Archipel (10), 53-91. Palmer, Leo. (2002). Land of the Living Dead. Photographic Society of America Journal. 68 (6), 32. Tsintjilonis, D. (2000). A Head for the Dead: Sacred Violence in Tana Toraja. Archipel, 27-50. Waterson, Roxana.    (1995).  Houses,  Graves  and  the  Limits  of  Kinship  Groupings  among  the  Sa’dan  Toraja.  KITLV, Royal Netherlands Insitute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies. 151 (2), 194-217. Widjaja, Elizabeth A. (1988). Ethnobotany of the Funeral Ceremony of the Torajanese. Economic Botany. 42 (2), 250-254.

“The  Walking  Dead  of  Tana  Toraja”  by  Shawn  Curé Coville, E. (2002). Remembering our dead: the care of the ancestors in tana toraja. In Chambert-Loir, H. & Reid, A. (Eds.).The potent dead – ancestors, saints and heroes in contemporary Indonesia (pp. 69-87).  Honolulu:  University  of  Hawai’i  Press Hollan, D. W. & Wellenkamp, J. C. (1996).The thread of life: toraja reflections of the life cycle.  Honolulu:  University  of  Hawai’i  Press Hollan, D. W. & Wellenkamp, J. C. (1994).Contempt and suffering: culture and experience in toraja. New York: Columbia University Press Nooy-Palm, H. (1986).The  sa’dan-toraja: a study of their social life and religion II – rituals of east and west. Dordrecht, Holland: Fortis Publications Holland Watson, L. (2012, August 24). I wouldn't be seen dead in that! mummies dug up for a change of wardrobe. Retrieved from http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2193132/Mummies-dug-change-wardrobe.html?ito=feeds-newsxml Wellenkamp, J. C. (1991). Fallen leaves: death and grieving in toraja. In D. R. Counts, & D. A. Counts (Eds.). Coping with the final tragedy: cultural variation in dying and grieving (pp. 113-134). Amityville, NY: Baywood Publishing Company, Inc.


“Tau  Tau:  The  Wooden  Gatekeepers  of  Tana  Toraja”  &  “If  It  Ain’t  Broke,  Don’t  Fix  It”  by  Deanna  Williams Zerner, C. (1982). Tourism and the arts in Southern Sulawesi. Cultural Survival Quarterly 6(4): 21-23. Adams, K.M. (1990). Cultural Commoditization in Tana Toraja, Indonesia. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 14(1): 31-34.) Volkman, T. (1982). Tana Toraja: A decade of tourism. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 6(3). Adams, K.A. (2003). The politics of heritage in Tana Toraja, Indonesia: Interplaying the local and the global. Indonesia and the Malay World, 31: 91-107. Palmer, M. A. (2006). The Kira-kira method of the Torajan woodcarvers of Sulawesi to divide a segment into equal parts. Retrieved from www.math.auckland.ac.nz/Events/2006/.../Alberti-paper.doc Adams, K.A. (2006). Art as politics: re-crafting identities, tourism, and power in Tana Toraja, Indonesia. Honolulu, HI: University of Hawai'i Press. Crystal, E. (1989). Myth, symbol, and function of the Toraja house. Tradtional Dwellings and Settlement Review 1: 7-17. Adventure Indonesia. (n.d.). Tana Toraja Tour, South Sulawesi. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.adventureindonesia.com/toraja-welcome.htm Wisesa, A. (2013). Tana Toraja tourism travel guide and tourist attractions. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://www.sulawesiexperience.com/toraja-tourism-guide.html Wikitravel. (2013). Tana Toraja. Retrieved March 22, 2013, from http://wikitravel.org/en/Tana_Toraja

Additional Article Media Links 2 men & corpse picture: http://www.bubblews.com/assets/images/news/1817923157_1358493908.jpg 2 people & female corpse picture: http://daizszyxbqbb5.cloudfront.net/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/Toraja-walking-dead.jpg Baby tree picture: http://www.flickr.com/photos/mattpaish/7400896722/ Cleaning female corpse picture: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/08/24/article-2193132-14AD30BF000005DC-195_964x689.jpg Corpse & coffin picture: http://i.dailymail.co.uk/i/pix/2012/08/24/article-2193132-14ACFD80000005DC-297_964x637.jpg Highlands picture: http://enchantingeden.files.wordpress.com/2010/08/tana-toraja_south-sulawesi-13.jpg Skulls picture: http://lamochiladeltrotamundos.blogspot.ca/2012/09/un-tomate-en-tana-toraja.html Standing suited corpse picture: http://klimg.com/merdeka.com/i/w/photonews/2012/08/24/81786/540x270/ritual-ganti-pakaianmayat-leluhur-toraja-003-debby.jpg?20120825093310 Bracken, Tim (Photographer). (2009). Pioneer Square, Victoria BC [Photograph], Retrieved March 27, 2013, from: http://www.flickr.com/photos/timcbracken/3584365814/ (Pioneer Square picture) Waterson, R. (n.d.). Chapter 4. The Contested Landscapes of Myth and History in Tana Toraja. Retrieved March 27, 2013, from epress: http://epress.anu.edu.au/austronesians/poetic/mobile_devices/ch04.html (map) “Walking  Dead  Zombie  in  Real  World”  Youtube  video:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_detailpage&v=hcEgerTznDw


Archaeology of Death: Tana Toraja