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14 14 15 15 16 16 18 20 21 22 24 25

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2


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58 58 59 61 62 63 64 65 66 68 69 69 71 72 72 75 75

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3


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4


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5


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 < dZq_kl\_ ]b^jhdkb^Z dZebx khhl\_lkl\m_l  hkgh\Zgb_ s_ehqv

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<hijhk Z 0J2 ²hkgh\ghchdkb^623 ²dbkehlguchdkb^ 1) MgO + SO3 = MgSO4; 2) MgO + 2HNO3 = Mg(NO3)2 + H2O; 3) MgO + 2H+ = Mg2+ + H2O; 2RbOH + SO3 = Rb2SO4 + H2O; SO3 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; = SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + H2O. [ 0J 2+ 2 ²hkgh\ghc]b^jhdkb^+2SO4 ²dbkehlguc]b^jhdkb^  0J 2G 2 + H2SO4 = MgSO4 + 2H2O; OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + H+ = H2O;  0J 2G 2 + SO3 = MgSO4 + H2O; SO3 + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; = H2O + 62    + + 3) H2SO4 + Na2O = Na2SO4 + H2O; Na2O + 2H = 2Na + H2O. <hijhk  FZ]gbc ²ijhklh_\_s_kl\h ^eyg_]hoZjZdl_jgZf_lZeebq_kdZy djbklZeebq_kdZyj_r_ldZhgh[eZ^Z_lf_lZeebq_kdbf[e_kdhf we_dljhijh\h^ghklvx Z 0JH2 = 2MgO [ 0J&O2 = MgCl2   0J H 0J  0J H 0J      &O H &O 2  H 2  

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7


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7. Be(OH)2 + H2SO4 = BeSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; G2H

<hijhk Z %H 2+ 2 G+ <_2+ G2H%H 2+ 2 + H2SO4=BeSO4 G2H Be(OH)2 + 2HNO3=Be(NO3)2 G2H [ %H 2+ 2 2Gâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; <_22â&#x20AC;&#x201C; G2H%H 2+ 2 + 2KOH=K2BeO2 + G2H Be(OH)2 + 2NaOH=Na2BeO2 G2H

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GZijbf_j+2SO4; P2O5; CO2. Ghkms_kl\mxl dbkehluh[jZah\Zggu_ f_lZeeZfb GZijbf_j.MnO4 ²i_jfZg]ZgZldZebyD2Cr2O7 ²^bojhfZl dZeby1D3VO4 ²\ZgZ^ZlgZljby1D>Al(OH)4] ²]b^jhdkhZexfbgZl gZljby Lh_klvf_lZeeufh]mllZd`_ijhy\eylvdbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z Hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZoZjZdl_jguijZdlbq_kdblhevdh^eyf_lZeeh\ GZijbf_jNaOH, K2O, LiNO3.

§ 3I_jbh^bq_kdbcaZdhgb i_jbh^bq_kdZykbkl_fZ obfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\>B F_g^_e__\Z

<hijhk I_jbh^bq_kdbcaZdhgF_g^_e__\Z ²h^bgbahkgh\hiheZ]Zxsbo aZdhgh\obfbbFh`ghml\_j`^Zlvqlh\kykh\j_f_ggZyobfby ihkljh_gZgZg_fHgh[tykgy_laZ\bkbfhklvk\hckl\Zlhfh\hlbo kljh_gbyh[h[sZ_lwlmaZ\bkbfhklv^ey\k_owe_f_glh\jZa^_eyy bogZjZaebqgu_]jmiiuZ lZd`_ij_^kdZau\Z_lbok\hckl\Z\ aZ\bkbfhklbhlkljh_gbyb kljh_gb_\ aZ\bkbfhklbhlk\hckl\ Kms_kl\mxl^jm]b_aZdhgug_kmsb_h[tykgyxsmxh[h[sZxsmx b ij_^kdZaZl_evgmxnmgdpbbGZijbf_jaZdhgkhojZg_gbywg_j]bb aZdhgij_ehfe_gbyk\_lZ]_g_lbq_kdbcaZdhgF_g^_ey

<hijhk Jmdh\h^kl\mykvi_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_fhcgZc^_fwe_f_glk gm`guf jZkiheh`_gb_fwe_dljhgh\ b  Wlhlwe_f_gl ²Zahl N: 1s22s22p3. Wlhlwe_f_glh[jZam_lijhklh_\_s_kl\h â&#x20AC;&#x201D; N2, Zahl<h^hjh^gh_ kh_^bg_gb_ZahlZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; NH3ZffbZd<ukrbchdkb^ZahlZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; N2H5. 11


Dbkehlguchdkb^N2O5 ijbjZkl\hj_gbb\ \h^_i_j_oh^bl\ kbevgmxZahlgmxdbkehlm+123. N2O5 + H2O = 2HNO3; N2O5 + BaO = Ba(NO3)2; N2O5 + Ba(OH)2 = Ba(NO3)2 + H2O; 5+ N h[eZ^Z_lkbevgufbhdbkebl_evgufbk\hckl\Zfb 2N2O5 K = 2N2 K22.

<hijhk JZgvr_we_f_gl[_jbeebchrb[hqghhlghkbebd ,,,]jmii_IjbqbgZ wlh]h aZdexqZeZkv \ g_ijZ\bevghf  hij_^_e_gbb Zlhfghc fZkku [_jbeeby \f_klh  __ kqblZeb jZ\ghc   >B F_g^_e__\ ij_^iheh`be  qlh [_jbeebc gZoh^blky \ ,, ]jmii_ hkgh\u\Zykv  gZ obfbq_kdbo k\hckl\Zo we_f_glZ K\hckl\Z [_jbeeby [ueb hq_gv ihoh`bgZk\hckl\Z0Jb KZb kh\_jr_gghg_ihoh`bgZk\hckl\Z$O AgZy qlh Zlhfgu_ fZkku /L b < khk_^gbo we_f_glh\ d <_ jZ\gu khhl\_lkl\_ggh b >BF_g^_e__\ij_^iheh`be qlhZlhfgZyfZkkZ [_jbeebyjZ\gZ <hijhk KZ ²Zlhfm dhlhjh]hwe_dljhgujZkij_^_e_gukh]eZkghjy^m qbk_e We_f_glÂ&#x2039; 7 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; N, we_f_glÂ&#x2039; 8 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; O. MjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbc KZ + N2 KZ3N2, KZ + O2 KZ2 Ijh^mdluj_Zdpbcbf_xlbhgguclbik\yab :ahl b dbkehjh^ bf_xl fhe_dmeyjgh_  kljh_gb_ djbklZeebq_kdbo j_r_lhdZ mdZevpbyf_lZeebq_kdZy djbklZeebq_kdZy j_r_ldZ Ijh^mdlu\aZbfh^_ckl\by ²KZ3N2 b KZ2bf_xlbhggh_kljh_gb_ djbklZeebq_kdhcj_r_ldb <hijhk N, P, As, Sb, Bi â&#x20AC;&#x201D; mkbe_gb_f_lZeebq_kdbok\hckl\ F_lZeebq_kdb_ k\hckl\Z\ ]jmiiZomkbeb\Zxlky <hijhk Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; mkbe_gb_g_f_lZeebq_kdbok\hckl\ G_f_lZeebq_kdb_k\hckl\Z\ i_jbh^Zomkbeb\Zxlky <hijhk Cl2O7, P2O5, SiO2, Al2O3, MgO, Na2O â&#x20AC;&#x201D; mf_gvr_gb_dbkehlguo k\hckl\

12


Dbkehlgu_k\hckl\Z\ i_jbh^Zom\_ebqb\Zxlky +KO24, H3PO4, H2SiO4, Al(OH)3, Mg(OH)2, NaOH â&#x20AC;&#x201D; mf_gvr_gb_ dbkehlguok\hckl\

<hijhk B2O3, BeO, Li2O²\hajZklZgb_hkgh\guok\hckl\ld\ i_jbh^Zo hkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZhkeZ[_\Zxl B(OH)3, Be(OH)2, LiOH â&#x20AC;&#x201D; \hajZklZgb_hkgh\guok\hckl\ B(OH)3 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; keZ[ZydbkehlZ Be(OH)2 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; keZ[h_hkgh\Zgb_ LiOH â&#x20AC;&#x201D; kbevgh_hkgh\Zgb_

<hijhk I_jbh^bq_kdZy  kbkl_fZ we_f_glh\ hljZ`Z_l \aZbfhk\yav obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ :lhfguc ghf_j we_f_glZ jZ\_g aZjy^m y^jZ qbke_ggh hg jZ\_g qbkem ijhlhgh\ Qbkeh g_cljhgh\ kh^_j`Zsboky  \ y^jZo h^gh]h we_f_glZ \ hlebqb_ hl qbkeZ ijhlhgh\ fh`_l [ulv jZaebqguf :lhfu h^gh]h we_f_glZ y^jZ dhlhjuo kh^_j`Zl jZagh_ qbkehg_cljhgh\gZau\ZxlkybahlhiZfb DZ`^uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl bf__l ih g_kdhevdh bahlhih\ ijbjh^guo beb ihemq_gguo bkdmkkl\_ggh  :lhfgZy fZkkZ obfbq_kdh]h  we_f_glZ jZ\gZ kj_^g_fm agZq_gbx ba fZkk \k_o _]h ijbjh^guobahlhih\k mq_lhfbojZkijhkljZg_gghklb 

K hldjulb_fbahlhih\^eyjZkij_^_e_gbywe_f_glh\ih i_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_f_klZebbkihevah\ZlvaZjy^uy^_jZ g_bo Zlhfgu_fZkku

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<hijhk K\hckl\Zobfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\b h[jZah\Zgguobfb\_s_kl\ gZoh^ylky\ i_jbh^bq_kdhcaZ\bkbfhklbhlhlghkbl_evguoZlhfguo fZkkwe_f_glh\  K\hckl\Z obfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\ b h[jZah\Zgguo bfb \_s_kl\ gZoh^ylky \ i_jbh^bq_kdhc  aZ\bkbfhklb hl aZjy^Z Zlhfguo y^_j we_f_glh\ K\hckl\Zobfbq_kdbowe_f_glh\b h[jZah\Zgguobfb\_s_kl\ gZoh^ylky\ i_jbh^bq_kdhcaZ\bkbfhklbhlkljh_gby\g_rgbo wg_j]_lbq_kdbomjh\g_c\ we_dljhgghch[hehqd_ZlhfZ 13


=eZ\ZF_lZeeu § 4<_df_^guc[jhgah\uc`_e_aguc

<hijhk < wihom Zglbqghklb k_fvx qm^_kZfb k\_lZ kqblZeb _]bi_lkdb_ ibjZfb^u \bkyqb_ kZ^u <Z\behgZ klZlmx DhehkkZ Jh^hkkdh]h OjZf :jl_fb^u \ Wn_k_ klZlmx hebfibckdh]h  [h]Z Xibl_jZ fZ\ahe_c \ =ZebdZjbZk_:e_dkZg^jbckdbc fZyd < kha^Zgbb_]bi_lkdboibjZfb^b]jZeZg_fZemxjhevf_^vld^ey khhjm`_gbyibjZfb^ubkihevah\Zebkv bgkljmf_glu ba]hlh\e_ggu_ ba f_^b

=b]ZglkdZyklZlmyDhehkkZJh^hkkdh]h[ueZiheghklvxba]hlh\e_gZ ba[jhgau KlZlmyXibl_jZ[ueZqZklbqghk^_eZgZbaahehlZba[eZ]hjh^gh]h f_lZeeZ[ueba]hlh\e_gieZsXibl_jZ <hijhk K\hckl\Zjlmlbijbh[uqguomkeh\byofh`ghhibkZlvke_^mxsbfb ijbeZ]Zl_evgufb`b^dZyy^h\blZy[e_klysZy []_  <hijhk < hkgh\_h[jZah\Zgbyebl_jZlmjgh]h\ujZ`_gby ŠklZevghc oZjZdl_jªŠ`_e_agu_g_j\uªŠahehlh_k_j^p_ªŠf_lZeebq_kdbc ]hehkªŠk\bgph\ucdmeZdªe_`Zlke_^mxsb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\ l\_j^hklvijhqghklv <hijhk >eyoZjZdl_jbklbdbij_^]jhah\h]hg_[Zfh`ghbkihevah\Zlv ijbeZ]Zl_evgu_k\bgph\h_ly`_eh_ \^  <hijhk >eylh]hqlh[uohjhrhih^]hlh\blvkyd khh[s_gbx\ufh`_l_ \hkihevah\Zlvky^_lkdhcwgpbdehi_^b_cbebwgpbdehi_^b_c bkdmkkl\Z <hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f \hafh`ghklv\ZfkZfbfihnZglZabjh\Zlv gZwlml_fm >ey lh]h qlh[u \Zf e_]q_ [ueh khjb_glbjh\Zlvky  h[hagZqbf g_dhlhju_ \hafh`ghklb  ^ey ijbf_g_gby f_lZeeh\ dhgkljmdpbhggu_ fZl_jbZeu we_dljhl_ogbq_kdb_ fZl_jbZeu `Zjhijhqgu_ fZl_jbZeu

14


§ 5Iheh`_gb_f_lZeeh\\ i_jbh^bq_kdhckbkl_f_ >B F_g^_e__\Zb kljh_gb_boZlhfh\

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§ 6Nbabq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\

KZfuce_]dhieZ\dbcf_lZee ²jlmlvM`_ijbdhfgZlghc l_fi_jZlmj_hgy\ey_lky`b^dhklvx <hijhk < l_ogbd_bkihevamxlkylZdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\dZd we_dljhijh\h^ghklvl\_j^hklvl_jfhmklhcqb\hklv

<hijhk S_ehqgu_f_lZeeubf_xlkZfmxgbadmxwg_j]bxbhgbaZpbbl_ hgbe_]dhhl^Zxlwe_dljhgk ihke_^g_]hkehy>eylh]hqlh[u hlgylvwlhlwe_dljhghlf_lZeeZ^hklZlhqgh^Z`_wg_j]bbk\_lZ nhlhgZ  GZy\e_gbbnhlhwnn_dlZhkgh\Zgh^_ckl\b_nhlhwe_dljbq_kdbo ijb[hjh\ihemqb\rb_jZaghh[jZagh_ijbf_g_gb_\ jZaebqguo h[eZklyogZmdbb l_ogbdb ²nhlhwe_f_glujZ[hlZxsb_gZhkgh\_ nhlhwnn_dlZij_h[jZamxlwg_j]bxbaemq_gby\ we_dljbq_kdmx <hijhk GZlm]hieZ\dhklb\hevnjZfZhkgh\Zgh_]hijbf_g_gb_\ eZfiZo gZdZeb\Zgby

15


<hijhk < ebl_jZlmjguo\ujZ`_gbyoŠk_j_[jygucbg_cªŠahehlZyaZjyª Šk\bgph\u_lmqbªaZdexq_ghk\hckl\hf_lZeeh\hljZ`Zlvk\_lh\u_ emqb\ j_amevlZl_q_]hhgbijbh[j_lZxloZjZdl_jgmxhdjZkdm f_lZeebq_kdbc[e_kd

§ 7KieZ\u

<hijhk ;jhgah\uc \_d ijh^he`Zeky ijb[ebabl_evgh   e_l dhg_p  â&#x20AC;&#x201D; gZqZehlukyq_e_lby^hgw GZa\Zgb_Š[jhgah\uc\_dÂŞh[mkeh\e_gh l_f qlh \ wlhl i_jbh^ rbjhdh bkihevah\Zeky  kieZ\ f_^b b heh\Z dhlhjucihemqbegZa\Zgb_[jhgaZ <hijhk F_evobhj ² kieZ\ kh^_j`Zsbc hdheh   f_^b b   gbd_ey Ihwlhfm^eyijhba\h^kl\Z d]f_evobhjZg_h[oh^bfh \aylv

P &X  P f_evobhjZ â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ď&#x2030; KX \ kieZ\_ = 25â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] P 1L  P f_evobhjZ â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ď&#x2030;(Ni)\ kieZ\_ = 25â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] Hl\_ld]&Xb d]1L

<hijhk G_ljm^gh aZf_lblv qlh keh\Z Še_]bjmxsbc ª b Šijb\be_]bjh\Z ggucª bf_xl h^bgZdh\mx qZklv Še_]bjª \ dhjgyo Hq_\b^ghqlhhgbijhbkoh^ylhlh^gh]hb lh]h`_keh\ZE_]bjmxsb_ we_f_glu^h[Z\eyxl\ kieZ\qlh[umemqrblvbonbabq_kdb_k\hckl\Z ŠIjb\be_]bj h\Zggucª hagZqZ_l Šemqrbcª Š[he__ \ukhdbc q_f m hklZevguoª

§ 8Obfbq_kdb_k\hckl\Zf_lZeeh\

<hijhk AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbch[jZah\Zgby`_e_aghchdZebgu 3Fe + 4H2O = Fe3O4 + 4H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; (1)

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16


)H â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = )H+ + + + H = + 



 

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0J

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oe

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<hijhk >ZghP &D  f] ]Ï&#x2030; = 80 % GZclb: V(H2) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_ZdpbbjZkl\hj_gbydZevpby\ \h^_ ]

&D

 fhev F ]fhev P ]

+2 &D 2+   

+  fhev 9 efhev 9 e

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<hijhk IhijZ\bemdhlhjh_]eZkblqlhf_lZeeuklhysb_\ jy^m gZijy`_gbye_\__\h^hjh^Z\ul_kgyxl_]hbajZkl\hjh\dbkehl \h^hjh^ijbj_Zdpbbk\bgpZk jZkl\hjhfk_jghcdbkehlu^he`_g ihemqblvkyGh^Zggh_ijZ\behkh[ex^Z_lky_keb\ j_Zdpbb f_lZeeZk dbkehlhch[jZam_lkyjZkl\hjbfZykhevZ 3E624 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; g_jZkl\hjbfZykhevIhwlhfm\ kemqZ_k\bgpZb k_jghcdbkehlu ijZ\behg_^_ckl\m_lbke_^h\Zl_evgh\h^hjh^g_evayihemqblv ijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbk\bgpZk jZkl\hjhfk_jghcdbkehlu <hijhk 4Zn + 5H2SO dhgp = 4ZnSO4 + H2Sâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 4H2O =Q  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H =Q     6 H 6  < wlhcj_Zdpbbpbgdijhy\ey_l\hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Z

§ 9Ihemq_gb_f_lZeeh\

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2CuS + 3O2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2CuO + 2SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; Cr2O3 + 2Al â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al2O3 + 2Cr. AZl_fhdkb^ui_j_\h^ylky\ qbklu_f_lZeeuiml_fZfhghl_jfbb

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<hijhk S_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeug_evayihemqblv ]b^jhf_lZeemj]bq_kdbff_lh^hfihlhfmqlh^Zggucf_lh^ hkgh\ZggZ\u^_e_gbbf_lZeeh\bajZkl\hjZih^^_ckl\b_f we_dljbq_kdh]hlhdZ: _kebfubajZkl\hjZ\u^_ebfs_ehqghc f_lZee\ qbklhf\b^_lhhgkjZam`_[m^_l\aZbfh^_ckl\h\Zlvk \h^hch[jZamy]b^jhdkb^ <hijhk

3E6 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3E2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3E 

t



<hijhk )H6

1) 2PbS + 3O2 = 2SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2PbO, t

2) PbO + CO = Pb + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. )H2â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H 62â&#x2020;&#x2019; 62 â&#x2020;&#x2019; +62

t

4FeS2 + 11O2 = 2Fe2O3 + 8SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3; SO3 + H2O = H2SO4; t

Fe2O3 + 3C = 2Fe + 3COâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

<hijhk >ZghP ]hjihj  l d]Ï&#x2030;(Cu2S) = 20 %, W = 90 % GZclb: m(Cu) J_r_gb_GZc^_fkdhevdh&X26kh^_j`blky\ ]hjghcihjh^_ m(Cu2S) = m ]hjihj â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(Cu2S) = 1,2â&#x2039;&#x2026;108]â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,2 = 2,4â&#x2039;&#x2026;107] GZc^_fkdhevdhqbklhcf_^bfh`ghihemqblvl_hj_lbq_kdbba Cu2S: $ U &X

ml_hj(Cu) = m(Cu2S) â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ï&#x2030; &X\ &X2S) = m(Cu2S) â&#x2039;&#x2026; = 0 U &X 6

= 2,4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 107 â&#x2039;&#x2026;

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = 1,92 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 107 ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  + 

GZc^_fkdhevdhqbklhcf_^bihemqbebijZdlbq_kdb mijZdl (Cu) = ml_hj(Cu)â&#x2039;&#x2026;W = 1,92â&#x2039;&#x2026;107â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,9 = 1,728â&#x2039;&#x2026;107 ] l Hl\_l: m(Cu) = 17,28 l 19


§ 10Dhjjhabyf_lZeeh\

<hijhk MjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbdhjjhabbf_^b

&X2  + 2&2   &X2+ &2  fZeZobl

<hijhk S_ehqgu_b s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeufh]mlj_Z]bjh\Zlvk H2, N2, H22b KH2\oh^ysbfb\ khklZ\\ha^moZ 4Li+O2 = 2LiO2; 6Li + N2 = 2Li3N; D H2 D2H2; Li2O+CO2=Li2CO3; 2Na+O2=Na2O2; 2Na2O2+2CO2=2Na2CO3+O2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; Ca(Mg, Ba) + O2 = CaO (MgO, BaO); CaO + CO2 = CaCO3. <hijhk G_j`Z\_xsZyklZev ²kieZ\kh^_j`Zsbc^h ojhfZ % gbd_eyIhwlhfm^ey\uieZ\dbd]g_j`Z\_xs_cklZebgm`gh \aylv P &U  P kieZ\Z â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030; &U  d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] P 1L  P kieZ\Z â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030; 1L  d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] P )H  P kieZ\Z â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030; &U  d]Âąd]Âąd] d] Hl\_lP KU  d]P 1L  d]P )H  d] <hijhk <<FZydh\kdbc]h\hjblh[hpbgdh\Zgghf`_e_a_

<hijhk >mfZx\k_fohjhrhba\_klghqlhlZdh_]Zev\Zgbq_kdbcwe_f_gl >\Zkh_^bg_gguof_`^mkh[hcwe_dljh^ZhimkdZxl\ jZkl\hj we_dljheblZgZh^ghfwe_dljh^_\ j_amevlZl_H<Jijhbkoh^bl hkZ`^_gb_f_lZeeZgZ^jm]hfgZh[hjhljZkl\hj_gb_LZd`_ ihemqbehkvb kdhjZ[e_ffhjkdZy\h^Zku]jZeZjhevjZkl\hjZ we_dljheblZ:exfbgb_\ucdhjimkb f_^gu_aZde_idb ²jhev we_dljh^h\\ j_amevlZl_f_lZeebq_kdbcAl i_j_oh^bl\ Al3+, gZ f_^ghfdhjimk_ \u^_ey_lky\h^hjh^ 2H+ + Â? â&#x2021;&#x2019; + ,

Al0ÂąÂ? â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al3+.

LZdbfh[jZahff_lZeebq_kdbcdhjimkgZr\ZogZqZejZkl\hjylvky b dhjZ[evmlhgme

20


<hijhk

§ 11S_ehqgu_f_lZeeu 

  Z /L  /L2+  /L&O â&#x2020;&#x2019; /L2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; 



1. 4Li + O2 = 2Li2O, /LHG G&O LiCl + H2O, 5. Li2H G&O G2H + 2LiCl. 1D12 



 

2. Li2H G22 /L2G 4. 2Li G2O = 2LiOH + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;,



[ 1Dâ&#x2020;&#x2019; 1D2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1D2â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1D2+â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1D62 

1D32 1. 2Na + O2 = Na2O2; 2. Na2O2 + 2Na = 2Na2O; 3. Na2O + H2O = 2NaOH; 4. 2NaOH + H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + 2H2O; 5. Na2O + 2HNO3 = 2NaNO3 + H2O; 6. 3Na2O + 2H3PO4 = 2Na3PO4 + 3H2O.

<hijhk >ZghP 1D  ]Ï&#x2030; ijbf_kb   %, W = 95 % GZclb: V(H2) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]hgZljby 0 1D  P 1Dijbf_kv ±P 1Dijbf_kv â&#x2039;&#x2026; Ï&#x2030; ijbf_kb  ] ±] â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] ± 0,23 ] ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb ]

1D

 fhev F ]fhev P ]

+2 1D2+ 

oe

+

 fhev 9 efhev 9  e

KhklZ\bf ijhihjpbx b gZc^_f h[t_f \h^hjh^Z dhlhjuc l_hj_lbq_kdb^he`_g[ueihemqblvky\ oh^_j_Zdpbb ] ²e

] ²o e 11, 27 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 22, 4 x= e 46 Vl_hj G2  e Hl\_l: Vl_hj(H2  e Ihmkeh\bxaZ^Zqb\uoh^]ZaZkhklZ\ey_l hll_hj_lbq_kdb \hafh`gh]hIhwlhfmijZdlbq_kdb[uehihemq_gh VijZd G2) = Vl_j G2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;W = 5,488â&#x2039;&#x2026; e Hl\_l: VijZd G2  e

21


<hijhk K_fbwlZ`guc^hf ²i_jbh^bq_kdZylZ[ebpZih^t_a^s_ehqguo f_lZeeh\ ²,]jmiiZwe_f_glh\\Za_ebgh\Zy©rm[Zªkihkh[ ojZg_gbyeblbyih^keh_f\Za_ebgZLZd`_GZlZrZbkihevah\ZeZ om^h`_kl\_ggucyaud^eyhibkZgbyb h[tykg_gbyobfbq_kdbo k\hckl\/L \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_k\hckl\Zj_Zdpbyk dbkehjh^hf 

<hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f  \Zf \hafh`ghklv  ih^mfZlv gZ^ wlbf kZfbf DZd l_fm^eykhqbg_gbyfh`gh\aylvhdjZkdmieZf_gbs_ehqguof_lZeeh\ <hijhk <ajhkeucq_eh\_d\ kmldb^he`_gihlj_[eylvk ibs_c ] bhgh\ dZeby KhklZ\bfijhihjpbx ] dmjZ]b ²] dZeby o ]dmjZ]b ²] dZeby

o   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  

]

Hl\_lP dmjZ]b  ]

§ 12;_jbeebcfZ]gbcb s_ehqgha_f_evgu_f_lZeeu

<hijhk ImklvfZkkZq_eh\_dZo d]Lh]^ZfZkkZ_]hdhkl_c[m^_ljZ\gZâ&#x2039;&#x2026;o Z fZkkZnhknZlZdZevpby â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 0,2â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,2â&#x2039;&#x2026;o â&#x2039;&#x2026;o d] P KZ3 JH4)2) = 0,04â&#x2039;&#x2026;o]^_o ²fZkkZq_eh\_dZ <hijhk =_fhnbeby ²aZ[he_\Zgb_k\yaZggh_k iehohck\_jlu\Z_fhklvx djh\bIjbdjh\hl_q_gbyo\\h^yljZkl\hj&D&O2 ^eyih\ur_gby dhgp_gljZpbbdZlbhgh\KZ2+ \ djh\bdhlhju_kihkh[kl\mxl k\_jlu\Z_fhklbdjh\b <hijhk >ZghP KZKH3  lÏ&#x2030; ijbf_kb   %. GZclbP KZ HG 2) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmKZKH3 [_aijbf_kb P KZKH3)=P h[s â&#x2039;&#x2026;(1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Ï&#x2030; ijbf_kb

2â&#x2039;&#x2026;  (1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

0,25)=2â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,75=1,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] 2. M(CaCO3  ]fhev0 KZ HG 2  ]fhev KhklZ\bf ijhihjpbx ih dhlhjhc gZc^_f dhebq_kl\h ]Zr_ghc ba\_klbdhlhjh_fh`_l[ulvihemq_gh ]fhev â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 1,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 106 ] 22


]fhev ²o ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o  = 1,11 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] l  Hl\_lP KZ HG 2 l <hijhk

  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; FKH  FH  F HG   â&#x2020;&#x2019; 062  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 062





W

FKH3 FH KH2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; FH G2H F HG 2; F HG 2 + Na2SO3 = MSO3 + 2NaOH; 4. MSO3 + H2SO4 = MSO4 + SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; G2H Fh]ml[ulvbkihevah\Zgu%_0J G_fh]ml[ulvbkihevah\ZguKZ<Z <hijhk 











â&#x2020;&#x2019; &D+  â&#x2020;&#x2019; &D HG   â&#x2020;&#x2019; &D&2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; &D2  â&#x2020;&#x2019;&D&O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; &D32  KD  &D2   

KZ G2 = KZG2; KZG2 G2H KZ HG 2 G2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; KZ HG 2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaOH; t

KZKH3 = KZH + KH2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; KZH + 2HCl = CaCl2 + H2O; 6. 3CaCl2 + 2Na3PO4 = Ca3(PO4)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 6NaCl; 7. Ca + 2H2O = Ca(OH)2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; t

KZ H2 = KZH KZH G2H KZ HG 2. t

<hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvih^mfZlvgZ^wlbfkZfbf DZd l_fm ^ey khqbg_gby fh`_f ij_^eh`blv ŠIj_\jZs_gb_ f_lZeebq_kdh]hKZ\ fjZfhjÂŞ <hijhk >ey]bikh\uoih\yahdbkihevamxlZe_[ZkljHgijb^h[Z\e_gbb\h^u ij_\jZsZ_lky \ ieZklbq_kdmx fZkkm dhlhjmx b bkihevamxl ^ey gZeh`_gbyih\yadbFZkkZ\ukuoZ_lb ij_\jZsZ_lky\ l\_j^ucijhqguc ]bik Ihem\h^guc]bikbebZe_[Zklj &D624)â&#x2039;&#x2026;H22ijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bb k \h^hch[jZam_l^\m\h^guc]bik (2CaSO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;H2O + 3H2Oâ&#x2021;&#x2019;2CaSO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;2H2O. 23


WlZj_Zdpbyb^_lk \u^_e_gb_fl_ieZ <hijhk KZKH 3â&#x2C6;&#x2026;KZH KH2â&#x2020;&#x2018;â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Q. >eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kby\ijZ\hd kbkl_f_g_h[oh^bfhih^\_klb l_iehl_mkeh\b_fijh\_^_gbyy\ey_lky\ukhdZyl_fi_jZlmjZb ihgbablv^Z\e_gb_ <hijhk

§ 13:exfbgbc

< Zexfbgb_\hcihkm^_g_evayojZgblvs_ehqgu_jZkl\hjuld ijhbkoh^blke_^mxsZyobfbq_kdZyj_Zdpby 2Al + 2NaOH + 6H2O=2Na[Al(OH)4] + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. Ijhbkoh^bljZkl\hj_gb_Zexfbgby\ s_ehqb <hijhk Kdhj__\k_]hfZl_jbZehf^ey]bi_j[hehb^Zfh]ihkem`blv$O2O3 baaZ_]hbg_jlguok\hckl\ <hijhk ;_g]Zevkdb_k\_qbkh^_j`Zlkf_kvkhklhysmxbaZexfbgb_\uo hibehdhdbkebl_ey â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KNO3 beb.&O24 b de_y Ijbih^`b]Zgbbihy\ey_lkykghibkdjB^_lhdbke_gb_Zexfbgby 8Al .KO24 = 4Al2O3 + 3KCl. t

<hijhk Ijbf_g_gb_Zexfbgby\ l_ogbd_hkgh\ZghgZke_^mxsbo k\hckl\Zoe_]dhklvieZklbqghklv[hevrZywe_dljhijh\h^ghklvb l_iehijh\h^ghklvK ^jm]bfbf_lZeeZfbZexfbgbch[jZam_l ijhqgu_kieZ\u <hijhk Z $O2(SO4)3+6KOH g_^ =2Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;D2SO4; Al3+HGâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; g_^ =Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; [ $O2(SO4)3+8KOH ba[ D>$O 2+ 4@D2SO4; Al3+HGâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; ba[ =[Al(OH)4]â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. <hijhk 2 3 4 5 1 Al  Al(OH)3  Al2O3  NaAlO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; AlCl3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; 5 6 7 8 Al2(SO4)3  Al(OH)3  AlCl3  NaAlO2.  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019;

1. 2Al + 6HCl = 2AlCl3 + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 2. AlCl3 + 3NaOH = Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NaCl; Al3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Al(OH)3;

24


$O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H â&#x2020;&#x2019; $O 

+  H â&#x2020;&#x2019; +  t

3. 2Al(OH)3 = Al2O3 + 3H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;; kieZ\e_gb_W 4. Al2O3 + 2NaOH 2NaAlO2 + H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;; = t

5. 2NaAlO2 + 4H2SO4 = Na2SO4 + Al2(SO4)3 + 4H2O; 6. Al2(SO4)3 + 6NaOH g_^ =3Na2SO4 + 2Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;; Al3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; = Al(OH)3; Al(OH)3 + 3H+ = Al3+ + 3H2O; 7. Al(OH)3 + 3HCl=AlCl3 + 3H2O; 8. AlCl l\ + 4NaOH l\

kieZ\e_gb_W

=

NaAlO2 + 3NaCl + 2H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

<hijhk >ZghP kieZ\Z  ] Ď&#x2030;(Cu) = 20 %, W = 85 %. GZclb: VijZd G2) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmZexfbgby\ kieZ\_ P :O  P kieZ\Z ÂąP kieZ\Z â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030;(Cu) = 0,27â&#x20AC;&#x201C;0,27â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbb gZc^_fh[t_f\h^hjh^Zdhlhjuc l_hj_lbq_kdb^he`_g[ueihemqblvky P ]

$O

 fhev F ]fhev P ]

1D2++2 1D>$O 2+ @  

+   fhev 9 efhev 9 e

] ²e ] ²o  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o  e  Vl_hj G2  e GZc^_fh[t_f\h^hjh^ZdhlhjucihemqbekyijZdlbq_kdb VijZdl G2) = Vl_hj G2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;: eâ&#x2039;&#x2026; e Hl\_l: VijZdl G2  e

<hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f  \Zf k\h[h^m ^ey l\hjq_kl\Z Ij_^eZ]Z_f \ dZq_kl\_ l_fu ^ey khqbg_gby Š:exfhl_jfby  beb [hjv[Z Zexfbgby k ^jm]bfb f_lZeeZfbª

§ 14@_e_ah

<hijhk AZibr_fkgZqZeZko_fm]_g_lbq_kdbo jy^h\

1) Feâ&#x2020;&#x2019;FeCl2â&#x2020;&#x2019;Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x2019;FeO; 25


2) Fe→FeCl3→Fe(OH)3→Fe2O3;  )H+&O⇒)H&OG↑ 

FeCl2 + 2NaOH ⇒ Fe(OH)2↓ + 2NaCl; Fe2+ + 2OH– ⇒ Fe(OH)2↓; t

Fe(OH)2 = FeO + H2O↑. J_ZdpbxjZaeh`_gbygm`ghijh\h^blv\ hlkmlkl\bbhdbkebl_e_c  )H&O⇒)H&O 

FeCl3 + 3NaOH ⇒ Fe(OH)3 + 3NaCl; Fe3+ + 3OH– ⇒ Fe(OH)3↓; t

2Fe(OH)3 ⇒ Fe2O3 + 3H2O.

<hijhk 1) 3Fe2+ + 2[Fe(CN)6]3– = Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2:

3FeSO4 + 2K3 >)H &1  @ = 3K2SO4 + )H>)H &1  @ ↓ ; ]_dkZpbZghn_jjZl ,,,

`_e_aZ ,,

djZkgZy djh\ygZykhev

2) 4Fe3+ + 3[Fe(CN)6]4– = Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3: 4FeCl + 3K 4 [Fe(CN)6 ] = Fe 4 [Fe(CN)6 ]3 ↓ ; `_elZy djh\ygZykhev

3) Fe3+ + 3NCS–

Fe(NCS)3:

FeCl3 + 1D1&6

jh^Zgb^gZljby

<hijhk  DZq_kl\_ggZyj_ZdpbygZ)H2+:

]_dkZpbZghn_jjZl ,,

`_e_aZ ,,,

)H 1&6  jh^Zgb^`_e_aZ ,,,

+ 3NaCl.

3FeCl2 + 2K3[Fe(CN)6] ⇒ Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2↓ + 6KCl; 3Fe2+ + 2[Fe(CN)6]3– ⇒ Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2↓

K3[Fe(CN)6] ²djZkgZydjh\ygZykhev)H3[Fe(CN)6]2 ²lmjg[mee_\Z kbgv  DZq_kl\_ggZyj_ZdpbygZ)H3+: 4FeCl3 + 3K4[Fe(CN)6] ⇒ Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3↓ + 12KCl; 4Fe3+ + 3[Fe(CN)6]4– ⇒ Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3↓

K4[Fe(CN)6] ²`_elZydjh\ygZykhev)H4[Fe(CN)6]3 ²[_jebgkdZy eZamjv 26


 GZa\Zgb_djh\yguokhe_cijhbkoh^blhlf_lh^Z boihemq_gby JZgvr_boihemqZebbahloh^h\gZfykh[hcg_l_ba]hlZ\eb\Zebba djh\bŠ@_elZyªb ŠdjZkgZyª ²baaZjZaebqguohll_gdh\jZkl\hjh\ khe_c Lmjg[mee_\Z  khev ihemqbeZ k\h_ gZa\Zgb_ \ q_klv mq_gh]h Lmjg[meydhlhjuc__ \i_j\u_kbgl_abjh\Ze  ;_jebgkdZyeZamjvgZa\ZgZ\ q_klv]hjh^Z;_jebg <hijhk

3Fe + 4H2O â&#x2C6;&#x2026; Fe3O4 + 4H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

Ijbih\ur_gbb^Z\e_gbyjZ\gh\_kb_g_baf_gblkyldj_Zdpby ijhl_dZ_l[_abaf_g_gbyqbkeZfhe_dme]Zah\ H2O ²]Za  <hijhk

)H  â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H&O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H 2+   â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H 2+   â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H 











)H&O





1. Fe + 2HCl = FeCl2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; Fe0 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 H â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe2+;

2H+ + 2 H â&#x2020;&#x2019; + ; Fe2+ + 2OH â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;; 2. FeCl2 + 2KOH = Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2KCl; 3. 4Fe(OH)2 + 2H2O + O2 = 4Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;; t

4. 2Fe(OH)3 = Fe2O3 + 3H2O; t

5. Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;;  )H H â&#x2020;&#x2019; )H 

â&#x2020;&#x2019; &  &  H 6. Fe2O3 + 6HCl=2FeCl3 + 3H2O; Fe2O3 + 6H+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe3+ + 3H2O; 7. 2FeCl3 + 3Zn=3ZnCl2 + 2Feâ&#x2020;&#x201C;; 2Fe3+ + 3Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; 3Zn2+ + 2Fe 8. FeCl3 + 3NaOH=3NaCl + Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;; Fe3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<hijhk 1. 10Fe + 36HNO3 = 10Fe(NO3)3 + 3N2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 18H2O.

27


)H â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H )H

1



 

1 H 2. Fe + 4HNO3 = Fe(NO3)3 + NOâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O )H â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H )H   1 H 1  3. 8Fe + 30HNO3 = 8Fe(NO3)3 + 3NH4NO3 + 9H2O 

 )H â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H )H   â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  1 H 1

<hijhk >Zgh: m(Fe3O4  lÏ&#x2030; ijbf_kb   %, W = 80 %. GZclb: ν(Fe), V(CO) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmihjh^u[_aijbf_kb m(Fe3O4)=m(Fe3O4 ij â&#x20AC;&#x201C; m(Fe3O4 ij â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; ij ±â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,05=2,204 l AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb P  l

)H2

 fhev F ]fhev P ]



[e

&2

\]

W

 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

)H

 fhev F ]fhev P ]

+ &2 

GZc^_f9 &2 b P )H  ] ²e 2,204â&#x2039;&#x2026;   ] ²o e  o    â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 



9 &2  e ] ²] 2,204â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 ²m ] m 

e

 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = 1,596â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 ] 

GZc^_ffZkkm`_e_aZihemqb\r_]hkygZijZdlbd_ m(Fe) = yâ&#x2039;&#x2026;W = 1,596â&#x2039;&#x2026;106â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,8 = 1,2768â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] m(Fe) 1, 2768 â&#x2039;&#x2026;106 ] = fhev ν(Fe) = M(Fe) 56 ]fhev Hl\_l: ν(Fe) = 2,28 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 104 fhevV(CO) = 8,5 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 105 e <hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zfk\h[h^m^eyl\hjq_kl\Z

28


=eZ\Z 2G_f_lZeeu § 15G_f_lZeeuZlhfub ijhklu_\_s_kl\Z Dbkehjh^hahg\ha^mo

<hijhk

Z '\ha^ H2) =

32 0 U 2

= â&#x2030;&#x2C6;1,1; 0 U \ha^

29

[ '\ha^ KH2) = \ '\ha^ G2) =

44 0 U &2

= â&#x2030;&#x2C6;1,52; 0 U \ha^

29

2 0 U + 

= â&#x2030;&#x2C6;0,069. 0 U \ha^

29

<hijhk >Zgh9 \ha^  e η\ha^(N2) = 78,2 %, η\ha^ H2) = 20,95 %. GZclb: ν(N2), ν H2) J_r_gb_GZc^_fh[t_fH2 b 12: V(O2  9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026;η\ha^ H2  eâ&#x2039;&#x2026; e V(N2  9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026;η\ha^(N2  eâ&#x2039;&#x2026; e GZc^_fqbkehfhev]Zah\ V (O 2 ) e = ν H2) = â&#x2030;&#x2C6; fhev  efhev Vν

ν(N2) =

V( N 2 )  e = â&#x2030;&#x2C6; fhev  efhev Vν

Hl\_l: ν H2  fhevν(N2  fhev

<hijhk >Zgh9 \ha^  e GZclb: N(O2), N(N2) J_r_gb_<ujZabfh[t_fdZ`^h]h]ZaZ V(O2  9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026;η\ha^ H2); V(N2  9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026;η\ha^(N2) GZc^_fqbkehfhev]Zah\

ν H2)= 9 2  = 9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026; η H  =

 e â&#x2039;&#x2026;  

fhev

 efhev 9ν 9ν 9 \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026; η 1

e  â&#x2039;&#x2026; = ν(N2) = fhev 9ν efhev

GZc^_fqbkehfhe_dmedZ`^h]h]ZaZ

29


N(O2) = ν H2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;NA = 0,2095â&#x2039;&#x2026;6,022â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 1,26â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023. N(N2) = ν(N2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;NA = 0,782â&#x2039;&#x2026;6,022â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023 â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 4,7â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023. Hl\_l1 22) = 1,26â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023 fhe_dme N(N2) = 4,7â&#x2039;&#x2026;1023 fhe_dme <hijhk >Zgh: V(H2S) = 20 f3 = 20â&#x2039;&#x2026;103 e GZclb9 \ha^ P \ha^

J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb + 6 2 +  fhev  fhev 9 ]fhev 9 efhev 9 e 9 e

= + 262 â&#x2020;&#x2018;

GZc^_fh[t_fdbkehjh^Zg_h[oh^bfuc^eyijh\_^_gbyj_Zdpbb e ²e 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;104 e ²o e 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 10 4 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 67 ,2 o  = 3â&#x2039;&#x2026;104 e 44 ,8 GZc^_fh[t_f\ha^moZg_h[oh^bfuc^eyihemq_gbylZdh]h h[t_fZdbkehjh^Z  V(\ha^   V (O 2 ) =  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e = 1,43â&#x2039;&#x2026;105 e f3.   η \ha^ (H 2 ) m(\ha^ Mr(\ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026;ν \ha^ Mr \ha^ â&#x2039;&#x2026; 9 \ha^ = 9ν  = 29 efhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e = 1,85â&#x2039;&#x2026;105 ] d]

efhev

Hl\_l: V \ha^  f3, m \ha^  d]

<hijhk Ljm^ghij_^klZ\blvgZrm`bagv[_adbkehjh^ZHgkem`blij_`^_ \k_]h^ey^uoZgbyJZkl\hj_gguc\ \h^_dbkehjh^kem`bl^ey ^uoZgbyh[blZl_e_c\h^ghckj_^uIh^^_ckl\b_fdbkehjh^Z \ha^moZb [Zdl_jbcijhbkoh^blhdbke_gb_hj]Zgbq_kdbohklZldh\ < ijhfure_gghklb  dbkehjh^ ijbf_gy_lky \ f_lZeemj]bb ijb \uieZ\d_ f_lZeeh\  dZd hdbkebl_ev \h fgh]bo obfbq_kdbo ijhba\h^kl\Zo^eyk\Zjdbb j_adbf_lZeeh\\ f_^bpbgkdbop_eyo @b^dbcdbkehjh^ ²hdbkebl_ev^eyjZd_lguolhieb\hoeZ^bl_ev <hijhk Hahgh\u_^ujuihy\eyxlkybaaZ\u[jhkh\\ Zlfhkn_jm oeZ^Z]_glh\ nj_hgh\ hdkb^h\ZahlZdhlhju_h[jZamxlky\h fgh]boijhfure_gguoijhp_kkZo >ey ij_^mij_`^_gby  hahgh\uo ^uj g_h[oh^bfh hqbsZlv \u[jhku ijhfure_gguoij_^ijbylbcb ij_djZlblvbkihevah\Zgb_ nj_hgh\

30


Hahgh\u_^uju ²mlhgvr_gb_bebjZajmr_gb_hahgh\h]hklehy Zlfhkn_ju

§ 16Obfbq_kdb_we_f_glu\ de_ldZo`b\uohj]Zgbafh\

<hijhk JZaebqb_ f_`^m `b\hc b g_`b\hc ijbjh^hc h[gZjm`b\Zxlky lhevdhgZmjh\g_keh`guo\_s_kl\gZfhe_dmeyjghf mjh\g_ <hijhk LZdb_\_s_kl\ZoZjZdl_jgulhevdh^ey`b\uohj]Zgbafh\ gZijbf_jhj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Z [_edb`bjum]e_\h^u gmde_bgh\u_dbkehlu\blZfbgu]hjfhgub ^j 

<hijhk ;bh]_ggu_fZdjhwe_f_glu ²we_f_gludhlhju_\oh^yl\ khklZ\ hj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\Wlhm]e_jh^\h^hjh^dbkehjh^b Zahl

<hijhk Wg^_fbq_kdbcah[dZdba\_klgh\uau\Z_lkyg_^hklZldhfbh^Z\ ibs_b \h^_WlhaZ[he_\Zgb_ihy\ey_lky\ hij_^_e_gguo ]_h]jZnbq_kdbojZchgZo^eydhlhjuooZjZdl_j_gg_^hklZlhdbh^Z Wg^_fbdb ²wlhjZkl_gbybeb`b\hlgu_dhlhju_\klj_qZxlky lhevdh\ h^ghfhij_^_e_gghfZj_Ze_ Wg^_fbdbjZkl_gbygZijbf_jebZguwg^_fbdb`b\hlgu_ gZijbf_jdhZeZmkkmjbckdbclb]j

<hijhk N_jf_glu ² wlh [_edb dhlhju_ dZlZebabjmxl  [bheh]bq_kdb_ j_Zdpbb <blZfbgu ² wlh [bheh]bq_kdb_  Zdlb\gu_ \_s_kl\Z ijbgbfZxsb_ mqZklb_ \ j_Zdpbyo h[f_gZ \_s_kl\ Ih k\h_fm [bheh]bq_kdhfm ^_ckl\bx \blZfbgu [ebadb d n_jf_glZf gh n_jf_glu h[jZamxlky de_ldZfbhj]ZgbafZZ \blZfbguh[uqghihklmiZxlk ibs_c <hijhk

@_e_au Ih^`_em^hqgZy `_e_aZ =bihnba GZ^ihq_qgbdb

=hjfhgu Bgkmebg :DL=

Nmgdpbb]hjfhgh\ Kgb`_gb_]exdhau\ djh\b

>_ckl\m_lgZgZ^ihq_qgbdb kihkh[kl\m_lbonmgdpbb :^j_gZebg MqZklb_\ klj_kkhjguoj_Zdpbyo GhjZ^j_gZebg m\_ebq_gb_qZklhluk_j^_qguo khdjZs_gbc

31


Sblh\b^gZy `_^_aZ

Lbjhdkbg

< ^_lkdhf\hajZkl_ ²jZa\blb_ g_j\ghckbkl_fu\h\ajhkehf \hajZkl_ ²ih\ur_gb_h[f_gZ\_s_kl\

§ 17=Zeh]_gu

<hijhk >Zgh: V(F2) = V(Cl2  e GZclb: m(F2); m(Cl2); D\ha^(F2); D\ha^(Cl2); DH 2 (F2); DH 2 (Cl2)

J_r_gb_: 1. m(F2)=ν(F2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(F2)= m(Cl2)=ν(Cl 2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(Cl 2) =

V(F2 ) e â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(F2)= â&#x2039;&#x2026; ]fhev ] efhev Vν

V(Cl 2 ) e â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(Cl 2) = â&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev efhev Vν

] 2. D\ha^(F2) = 0 U ) =  â&#x2030;&#x2C6;1,31;  0 U \ha^

 ' + (F2) = 0 U ) = = 19;  0 U + 

D\ha^(Cl2) = 0 U &O =  â&#x2030;&#x2C6;2,45;  0 U \ha^

 0 &O

U  ' + (Cl2) = = = 35,5.  0 U +

<hijhk NlhjgZy\h^Zg_kms_kl\m_lldnlhjj_Z]bjm_lk \h^hc 2F2 + H2O = 2HF + F2O.

<hijhk S_ehqgu_ f_lZeeu ij_`^_ \k_]h [m^ml j_Z]bjh\Zlv k \h^hc k \u^_e_gb_f\h^hjh^ZZ g_k jZkl\hj_gghc khevx

>eykjZ\g_gby\havf_fj_Zdpbb$Ok jZkl\hjhf)H&O3 b oehjghc \h^uk jZkl\hjhf1D%U +

$O )H&O â&#x2021;&#x2019; )Hâ&#x2020;&#x201C;$O&O Â?

Cl2+2NaBr â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaCl+Br2. 2Â?

B \lhfb \^jm]hfkemqZ_b^_lH<J;he__Zdlb\gucwe_f_gl \ul_kgy_lf_g__Zdlb\gucbajZkl\hjZkheb <hijhk  . KO 2  â&#x2C6;&#x2019;   + KO 2Âą + KO 2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; &O2

&O2

&O2

32


<hijhk H2 + I ]Za â&#x2C6;&#x2026; 2HI + Q.

Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_fh`ghkf_klblv\ijZ\h_kebkbkl_fZ[m^_l hoeZ`^Zlvky ihijbgpbimE_RZl_ev_ 

<hijhk JZkkfhljbf\aZbfh^_ckl\b_]Zeh]_gh\k \h^hjh^hfNlhjj_Z]bjm_l k G2 \ ex[uomkeh\byokh\aju\hfoehj ²kh\aju\hflhevdhijb ih^`b]Zgbbbebh[emq_gbbijyfufkheg_qgufk\_lhf[jhf \aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk G2 ijbgZ]j_\Zgbbb [_a\aju\ZWlbj_Zdpbb wdahl_jfbq_kdb_J_Zdpby`_kh_^bg_gbybh^Zb G2 keZ[h wg^hl_jfbq_kdZyhgZijhl_dZ_lf_^e_ggh^Z`_ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb <u\h^ q_f Zdlb\g_c j_Z]bjmxsb_  \_s_kl\Z l_f \ur_ kdhjhklv ijhl_dZgbyj_Zdpbb <hijhk >ZghP jjZ.,  ]Ï&#x2030;\ jj_(KI) = 0,15; GZclb: V(Cl2), m(KCl); J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmkmohckheb., P .,  P jjZ., â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; .,  ] â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbb gZc^_ffZkkmkhebb h[t_f g_h[oh^bfh]hoehjZ P ]

.,

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]



oe

 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

] ²o e ] ²e o 

&O

m]

.&O

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

,

  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = 3. 

V(Cl2) e ] ²m ] ] ²] y ] m(KCl) = 20,2 ]  .&O

P .&O

] fhev 0 .&O ]fhev

Hl\_l: V(Cl2  eP .&O  ].

<hijhk >Zgh: V(H2  e9 &O2  e GZclb: V(HCl) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb

33


+  &O  fhev  fhev 9  efhev 9 efhev 9 e 9 e

+&O

 fhev 9  efhev 9 e

GZc^_fdZdhc]Za\ayl\ ba[uld_ V(Cl 2 ) 9 + 

200 ν G2) = = , V KO2) = =  . 9ν  Vν 22,4 3IhmjZ\g_gbxj_ZdpbbV G2):V KO2  ke_^h\Zl_evgh \h^hjh^\ ba[uld_  >  ). 



IhmjZ\g_gbxj_Zdpbb9 G&O  â&#x2039;&#x2026;9 KO2  eLh]^ZhklZehkv g_ijhj_Z]bjh\Z\r_]h\h^hjh^Z9hkl eÂą e e Hl\_l9 +&O  e9hkl G2  e

<hijhk Wlh gZa\Zgb_ nlhj ihemqbe [eZ]h^Zjy kihkh[ghklb ieZ\bdh\h]h riZlZihgb`Zlvl_fi_jZlmjmieZ\e_gbynlhjb^h\

§ 18Kh_^bg_gby]Zeh]_gh\

<hijhk We_dljheblbq_kdZy^bkkhpbZpbym\_ebqb\Z_lkyhlH)d HI. KZfZykbevgZyba]Zeh]_gh\h^hjh^guodbkehl ²bh^h\h^hjh^gZyZ kZfZykeZ[Zy ²nlhjh\h^hjh^gZy;hevrZyijhqghklvobfbq_kdhc k\yab+) nlhjh\h^hjh^gZydbkehlZkeZ[h^bkkhpbbjm_l\ \h^_

h[mkeh\e_gZfZeufjZaf_jhfZlhfZ)b khhl\_lkl\mxsbffZeuf jZkklhygb_ff_`^my^jZfbZlhfh\\h^hjh^Zb nlhjZK jhklhf jZ^bmkZZlhfZhl)d I jZkl_lb f_`ty^_jgh_jZkklhygb_ijhqghklv fhe_dmemf_gvrZ_lkyb khhl\_lkl\mxsZykihkh[ghklvd we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbbm\_ebqb\Z_lky <hijhk <havf_f\ dZq_kl\_j_Zdlb\ZjZkl\hjgbljZlZk_j_[jZ 1. AgNO3 + NaFâ&#x2C6;&#x2026;AgF + NaNO3 ²gbdZdbobaf_g_gbc 2. AgNO3 + NaCl=AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + NaNO3 ²\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd 3. AgNO3+NaBr=AgBrâ&#x2020;&#x201C;+NaNO3 ²\uiZ^Z_l[e_^gh`_eluchkZ^hd 4. AgNO3 + NaI=AgIâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + NaNO3 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; \uiZ^Z_l`_eluchkZ^hd <hijhk K ihfhsvx^Zgghcj_Zdpbbfh`ghihemqblv[_a\h^gucMgCl2 Mg + Cl2 = MgCl2. 2. Mg(OH)2 + 2HCl = MgCl2 + 2H2O; 3. MgO + 2HCl = H2O + MgCl2;

34


4. MgSO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + MaCl2. <hijhk

&O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; +&O â&#x2020;&#x2019; &X&O  â&#x2020;&#x2019; =Q&O â&#x2020;&#x2019; $J&O 







1. Cl2 + H2 = 2HCl; &O + H â&#x2020;&#x2019; &O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; ; + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H â&#x2020;&#x2019; +  ; 2. 2HCl + Cu(OH)2 = CuCl2 + 2H2O; 2H+ + Cu(OH)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu2+ + 2H2O; 3. CuCl2 + Zn = Cuâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + ZnCl2; Cu2+ + Zn â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu + Zn2+; 4. ZnCl2 + 2AgNO3 = 2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + Zn(NO3)2; Ag+ + Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2020;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;.

§ 19Ihemq_gb_]Zeh]_gh\;bheh]bq_kdh_agZq_gb_ b ijbf_g_gb_]Zeh]_gh\b bokh_^bg_gbc

<hijhk >Zgh: m(NaCl + ij  ]Ï&#x2030; ij   %; GZclb: V(Cl2); m(Na) J_r_gb_: GZc^_ffZkkmqbklhckheb M(NaCl)=m(NaCl+ij ±m(NaCl+ij â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; ij ]± ]â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,02 ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbc P ]

1D&O

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

=

ao

1D

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

+

m

&O

 fhev 9  efhev 9 e

GZc^_ffZkkmgZljbyb h[t_foehjZ ] ²o ] ] ²]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o  ] 

m(Na) ] ] ²m e ] ²e   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  m  e 

V(Cl2) = 109,76 e Hl\_l: m(Na) = 225,4 ]V(Cl2) = 109,76 e <hijhk >Zgh: m(Na  ]Ï&#x2030;\ jj_(NaOH) = 40 %; GZclb: m(NaOH) J_r_gb_: AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gbyNaOH: P ]

1D

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

+ +2 

o]

1D2+ + G â&#x2020;&#x2018;

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

GZc^_ffZkkmNaOHihemqb\r_]hky\ oh^_j_Zdpbb 35


] ²] ] ²o ]  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  o  ]m(NaOH) = 392 ] 

GZc^_ffZkkm ]hjZkl\hjZ]b^jhdkb^ZgZljby m( NaOH)  m(jjZNaOH) = = = 980 ] Ï&#x2030;\jâ&#x2C6;&#x2019; j_ ( NaOH)   Hl\_l: m(jjZ1D2+  ]. <hijhk >Zgh: V(Cl2) = 100 eW = 95 %; GZclb: m(MnO2); ν(HCl) J_r_gb_GZc^_fkdhevdhoehjZ^he`ghihemqZlvky l_hj_lbq_kdbqlh[uijZdlbq_kdbihemqbehkvebljh\ Vl_hj(Cl2) = V(Cl 2 ) = e = 105,26 e  W AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb o]

MnO 2 + 4HCl = MnCl 2 +

ν = 4 fhev  fhev M = 87 ]fhev m = 87 ]

ν(HCl) = 4â&#x2039;&#x2026;ν(Cl2) = 4â&#x2039;&#x2026;

Cl2 + G22  fhev 9 efhev V = 22,4 e

9 &O l_hj 9ν

105,26 e

â&#x2020;&#x2018;

= 4â&#x2039;&#x2026;   = 18,8 fhev  

GZc^_ffZkkmMnO2: ] ²e o ] ²e o ] Hl\_l: V(HCl) fhevm(MnO2) = 408] <hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f \Zf\hafh`ghklvkZfbfih^mfZlvgZ^wlbf\hijhkhf <hijhk F ²ihfh]Z_lij_^hl\jZsZlvlZdh_aZ[he_\Zgb_dZddZjb_kam[h\ Cl ²klbfmebjm_lh[f_g\_s_kl\jhkl\hehkijb^Z_l[h^jhklvb kbemBr ²j_]mebjm_lijhp_kku\ha[m`^_gby blhjfh`_gby p_gljZevghcg_j\ghckbkl_fuijbf_gy_lky^eye_q_gbyg_j\guo [he_ag_cI ²\eby_lgZ\ujZ[hldm]hjfhgZsblh\b^ghc`_e_au _]hg_^hklZlhdijb\h^bld lZdhfmaZ[he_\ZgbxdZdwg^_fbq_kdbc ah[ < lh`_\j_fy\k_]Zeh]_gu\oh^yl\ khklZ\y^h\bluohljZ\eyxsbo \_s_kl\ Ijbba[uld_]Zeh]_gh\\ hj]Zgbaf_jZa\b\ZxlkyjZaebqgu_[he_agb1

1

Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZgZklj

36


<hijhk < jhebm[bcpu\uklmiZ_l]Zeh]_g ²oehj â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ]Zak _^dbfaZiZohf [e_^gha_e_gh]hp\_lZy^h\blHibku\Z_lkyijbf_g_gb_\ \hcg_ obfbq_kdh]hhjm`by <hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvihnZglZabjh\ZlvkZfbf

§ 20Dbkehjh^

<hijhk

1) 4Al + 3O2 = 2Al2O3; Al0 ÂąÂ? $O3+, O02 Â? 22â&#x20AC;&#x201C;

2) 3Fe + 2O2=Fe3O4; Fe0ÂąÂ?â&#x2020;&#x2019;Fe2+, 2Fe0ÂąÂ? â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2Fe3+, O02 Â? 22â&#x20AC;&#x201C; <hijhk S + O2 = SO2,

4P + 5O2 = 2P2O5,

C + O2 = CO2.

<hijhk DZlZebaZlhjZfbgZau\ZxlkylZdb_\_s_kl\Zdhlhju_ih\urZxl kdhjhklvj_ZdpbbghkZfbijbwlhf\ j_Zdpbxg_\klmiZxl< ijbkmlkl\b_dZlZebaZlhjZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; MnO2\ eZ[hjZlhjbbihemqZxlH2 iml_fjZaeh`_gby+2O2. MnO 2

2H2O2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2H2O + O2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

<hijhk J_ZdpbyjZaeh`_gby HgO:

t

2HgO â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Hg + O2â&#x2020;&#x2018;;

AZ^ZqZImklvm gZk_klv] aZ]jyag_ggh]h+J2Ba\_klghqlh kh^_j`Zgb_ijbf_k_ckhklZ\ey_l <uoh^j_Zdpbb %. JZkkqblZcl_h[t_fdbkehjh^Zihemq_ggh]hijbjZaeh`_gbbhdkb^Z jlmlb J_r_gb_ GZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]h+J2 m(HgO) = mkf_kb â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030;kf_kb (HgO) = 10â&#x2039;&#x2026; Âą  ] W 2) +J2  +J 2  fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

9 H2)l_hj = ] â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e ]

3) 9 2  ijZdl = 0,8;

e

9 2  l_hj

V(O2)ijZdl = V(O2)l_hjâ&#x2039;&#x2026; eâ&#x2039;&#x2026; e Hl\_le dbkehjh^Zj_Zevgh\u^_ebehkv 37


<hijhk J_Zdpbb]hj_gby ²j_Zdpbb\_s_kl\Zk dbkehjh^hfijhl_dZxsb_k [hevrhckdhjhklvxk \u^_e_gb_f[hevrh]hdhebq_kl\Zl_ieZb khijh\h`^Zxsb_ky\hkieZf_g_gb_f >uoZgb_ ² wlh ijhp_kk f_^e_ggh]h hdbke_gby Hg aZdexqZ_lky \ ke_^mxs_fdbkehjh^^hklZ\ey_lky]_fh]eh[bghf djh\b\h\k_ldZgbb de_ldb hj]ZgbafZ dbkehjh^ hdbkey_l m]e_\h^u h[jZamy ijb wlhf m]e_dbkeuc ]Za b \h^m b hk\h[h`^Zy wg_j]bx g_h[oh^bfmx  ^ey hj]ZgbafZ Koh^kl\h aZdexqZ_lky \ lhf qlh h[Z ijhp_kkZ _klv ijhp_kku hdbke_gby \ h[hbo kemqZyo \uk\h[h`^Z_lky  wg_j]by \ j_amevlZl_ j_Zdpbch[jZamxlkyhdkb^u JZaebqbyaZdexqZxlky\ kdhjhklyohdbke_gby\ dhebq_kl\_ \u^_ey_fhcwg_j]bb <hijhk Nhlhkbgl_a ²wlhijhp_kk`bag_^_yl_evghklbjZkl_gby\ j_amevlZl_dhlhjh]hhgbih]ehsZxlKH2 b \u^_eyxlH2. >uoZgb_ ²wlhijhp_kk`bag_^_yl_evghklbjZkl_gby`b\hlgh]hb q_eh\_dZ\ j_amevlZl_dhlhjh]hih]ehsZ_lkyH2 b \u^_ey_lkyKH2. Ijbnhlhkbgl_a_b ^uoZgbb\ jZkl_gbyoijhbkoh^yl ijhlb\hiheh`gu_ijhp_kku <hijhk Ijhy\bl_k\hbl\hjq_kdb_kihkh[ghklb\ gZibkZgbbkhqbg_gby <hijhk 2F2 + H2O = 2HF + F2O;  ) H )

2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H 2 





hdbkebl_ev  \hkklZgh\bl_ev

<hijhk

§ 21K_jZ

>Zgh: m(ZnS ij  d]Ï&#x2030; ijbf_kb   %. GZclb: V(SO2) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkm\_s_kl\Z[_aijbf_kb m(ZnS)=m(ZnS ij ±P =Q6 ij â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; ij d] ±d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb P  â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

=Q6

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

+ 2   =Q2 +

] ²e 388â&#x2039;&#x2026;103] ²o e

oe

62

 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

38


 o   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2030;&#x2C6;100â&#x2039;&#x2026;103 e f3.



Hl\_l: V(SO2  f3. <hijhk 3S .KO23 = 2KCl + 3SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 6 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 

6 H 

&O H &O 





<hijhk

\hkklZgh\bl_ev hdbkebl_ev

4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; HgS  â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Na2SO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; H2SO4. S SO2  1. S + Hg = HgS; 2. HgS + O2 = SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + Hg; 3. SO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SO3 + H2O; 4. Na2SO3 + 2HCl = 2NaCl + H2O + SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 5. 2SO2 + O2 = 2SO3; 6. SO3 + H2O = H2SO4. <hijhk Kh_^bg_gby\oh^ysb_\ khklZ\\medZgbq_kdbo]Zah\h[eZ^Zxl lhdkbq_kdbfbk\hckl\Zfb <hijhk JZgvr_jlmlvgZau\Zebf_jdmjb_f\ q_lvieZg_luF_jdmjbc IjbklZ\dZ^_hagZqZ_lhljbpZgb_Lh]^ZŠ^_f_jdmjbaZpbyÂŞ ²wlh mgbqlh`_gb_jlmlbl_h[_aaZjZ`b\Zgb_

1

2

3

5

6

§ 22Kh_^bg_gbyk_ju

<hijhk Z  K_jh\h^hjh^  ijhy\ey_l lhevdh \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_  k\hckl\Z ld k_jZ\ ^Zgghfkh_^bg_gbbbf__lkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyÂą gZbf_gvrZyba \hafh`guo  W

2H2O + 2SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

[ hdkb^k_ju ,9 fh`_lijhy\eylvk\hckl\ZdZdhdbkebl_eylZdb \hkklZgh\bl_eyldkl_i_gvhdbke_gbyk_ju\ ^Zgghfkh_^bg_gbb y\ey_lkyijhf_`mlhqghc 2H2S + 3O2

t

2SO2 + 3C ba[ = CS2 + 2CO2,

t

\ k_jZlZd`_fh`_lijhy\eylvhdbkebl_evgu_b \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_ kihkh[ghklbl_kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyk_juy\ey_lky ijhf_`mlhqghc S + H2 = H2Sâ&#x2020;&#x2018;, S + O2 = SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; SO2 + Cl2 = SO2Cl2;

39


] k_jgZydbkehlZijhy\ey_lhdbkebl_evgu_k\hckl\Zldkl_i_gv hdbke_gbyk_juy\ey_lkyfZdkbfZevgh\hafh`ghc 2H2SO dhgp +Cu = CuSO4+SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;+2H2O.

<hijhk Z K_jgbkluc]ZaihemqZxlijbiheghfk`b]Zgbbk_jh\h^hjh^Zb h[`b]_kmevnb^h\ t

t

2H2S+3O2 = 2SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;+2H2O,

2ZnS+3O2 = 2ZnO+2SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

K_jgbkluc]Za 622) ²[_kp\_lguc]Zak oZjZdl_jgufaZiZohf ijhy\ey_llbibqgu_k\hckl\Zdbkehlguohdkb^h\b ohjhrh jZkl\hjy_lky\ \h^_h[jZamykeZ[mxk_jgbklmxdbkehlm SO2+H2O â&#x2C6;&#x2026; H2SO3. Kh_^bg_gbyk_ju IV): NaHSO3, Na2SO3 b 622 bkihevamxlky^ey hl[_eb\Zgbyr_jklbr_edZ[mfZ]bb khehfuZ lZd`_\ dZq_kl\_ dhgk_j\bjmxsbokj_^kl\^eykhojZg_gbyk\_`boieh^h\b njmdlh\ [ Hdkb^k_ju 9, ihemqZxlihke_^mxs_cj_Zdpbb WFDW

2SO3. Hdkb^k_ju 9, ²[_kp\_lgZykbevgh^ufysZykygZ\ha^mo_ `b^dhklvijhy\ey_llbibqgu_dbkehlgu_k\hckl\ZjZkl\hjyykv\ \h^_h[jZam_lk_jgmxdbkehlm 2SO2+O2

H2O + SO3 = H2SO4.

K_jgZydbkehlZ ²h^bgba\Z`g_crboijh^mdlh\ bkihevam_fuo\ jZaebqguohljZkeyoijhfure_gghklb

<hijhk  JZa[Z\e_ggZyk_jgZydbkehlZ\uklmiZ_l\ dZq_kl\_we_dljheblZ\ bhgguoj_ZdpbyoGZijbf_j BaCl2 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2HCl; Ba2+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. K_jgZydbkehlZijhy\ey_lk\hckl\Zhdbkebl_ey< H<J+2SO4 \klmiZ_llhevdhdhgp_gljbjh\ZggZy  JZkkfhljbfj_Zdpbb+2SO4 k f_lZeeZfb=Qb &Xk ihabpbb hdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evguoj_Zdpbc Zn + H2SO jZa[ â&#x2021;&#x2019; ZnSO4 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;, Cu + 2H2SO dhgp â&#x2021;&#x2019; CuSO4 + SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O. B \lhfb \^jm]hfkemqZ_b^_lH<Jgh\ i_j\hcj_Zdpbbjhev hdbkebl_eyb]jZxldZlbhguG+Z \h\lhjhc ²k_jZ AZibr_fbhggh_mjZ\g_gb_^eyi_j\hcj_Zdpbb 40


Zn0 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn2+ + +  â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

Wlmj_Zdpbxfh`ghhlg_klbd j_Zdpbyfbhggh]hh[f_gZ  L_i_jvjZkkfhljbfj_Zdpbbbhggh]hh[f_gZk ihabpbbl_hjbb we_dljheblbq_kdhc^bkkhpbZpbbDZd\uagZ_l_j_Zdpbybhggh]h h[f_gZb^_llhevdh\ lhfkemqZ__keb\ j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkykeZ[h ^bkkhpbbjmxs__\_s_kl\h GZijbf_j ZnSO4 + MgCl2 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; MgSO4 + ZnCl2. J_Zdpbyg_b^_lldg_h[jZamxlkyfZeh^bkkhpbbjmxsb_\_s_kl\Z < jZkl\hj_gZoh^blkykf_kvbhgh\ ZnSO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + ZnCl2. 62  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; + Ba

â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. J_Zdpbyijhl_dZ_lld%D624 ²fZehjZkl\hjbf <hijhk Ihemq_gb_k_jghcdbkehlu S   1 2 3 FeS 2   SO 3  H 2 SO 4. â&#x2020;&#x2019; SO 2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019;  H 2S  2+

1. S+O2=SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 4FeS2H2 = 2Fe2O3+8SO2; 2H2S+3O2 = 2H2O+2SO2.

622

WFDW

t

t

62

3. SO3+H2O = H2SO4. <hijhk >Zgh: V(H22  fe ]9 622  e GZclb: Ï&#x2030;\ jj_(H2SO3) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_ihemq_gbyk_jgbklhcdbkehlu H2O+SO2 = H2SO3.

BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlh^eyh[jZah\Zgbyfhev+2SO3 gm`gh\aylv fhev+22b fhev622GZc^_fqbkehfhev+22b 622: 400] P + 2

fhev = ν G2H   0 +  2

18] / fhev V(SO 2 )  e fhev = ν(SO2) =  e  fhev Vν Ke_^h\Zl_evgh622 gZoh^blky\ g_^hklZld_b ihemqbehkvfhev H2SO3Lh]^Zm gZkhklZehkvν G2H hkl ± fhev

41


2. Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(H2SO3) = = =

m(H 2 SO 3 ) m(H 2SO 3 ) = = m(j â&#x2C6;&#x2019; jZ ) m(H 2SO 3 ) + m(H 2 O) hkl.

ν + 62 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0 +62

= ν + 62 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0 +62 + ν + 2 hkl â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0 + 2

fhev â&#x2039;&#x2026; ]  fhev = 0,095 = 9,5 %. fhev â&#x2039;&#x2026; ]  fhev + fhev â&#x2039;&#x2026;]  fhev

Hl\_l: Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(H2SO3) = 9,5 %.

<hijhk AZibr_fj_Zdpbxkbgl_aZ623: 2SO2 + O2

2SO3.

Ij_`^_\k_]hwlZj_Zdpbyhdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evgZy  â&#x2020;&#x2019; S 6+ ; S 4+ â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2 e hdbke_gb_

\hkklZgh\bl_ev

  _gb_ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2O 2â&#x2C6;&#x2019; . O 02 + 4 e \hkklZgh\e hdbkebl_ev

LZd`_j_Zdpbykbgl_aZ623 y\ey_lkyh[jZlghcj_Zdpb_cl_hgZb^_l h^gh\j_f_ggh\ h[_klhjhguJ_ZdpbygZqbgZ_lkylhevdhijb hlghkbl_evgh\ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZo°K bijhl_dZ_l\ ijbkmlkl\b_dZlZebaZlhjZ ieZlbguhdkb^h\\ZgZ^by`_e_aZb l^  >eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kby\ijZ\hgZ^h\kihfgblvijbgpbiE_ RZl_ev_^ey]Zah\ijb\ukhdhf^Z\e_gbbj_Zdpbyb^_l\ lm klhjhgm]^_h[sbch[t_f]Zah\f_gvr_ < gZr_fkemqZ_ke_\Zdhebq_kl\h]Zah\fhevkijZ\Z ²fhev l_ijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gbyj_Zdpby[m^_lkf_sZlvky\ klhjhgm h[jZah\Zgby623. <hijhk >Zgh: V(H2H  fe0 &X624â&#x2039;&#x2026;5H22  ] GZclb: Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(CuSO4) J_r_gb_: 1. m(H2O) = V(H2O)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď (H22  feâ&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev ] GZc^_ffZkkmjZkl\hjZkheb P h[s  P +2O) + m(CuSO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;5H2O) = 5000  ] GZc^_ffZkkmkmevnZlZf_^b[_a\h^gh]h m(CuSO4) = m(CuSO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;5H2O)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ď&#x2030; \ &X62â&#x2039;&#x2026;GH(CuSO4) =

= m(CuSO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;

0U &X62 

0U &X62 + 0U + 2

]â&#x2039;&#x2026; 

 + 

Lh]^ZfZkkh\Zy^hey&X624 \ jZkl\hj_ m(CuSO 4 ) 320 Ď&#x2030;(CuSO4) = â&#x2030;&#x2C6;0,058 = 5,8 %. = m(h[s ) 5500] Hl\_l: Ď&#x2030;(CuSO4) = 5,8 %.

]â&#x2039;&#x2026; ]

42


<hijhk <gbfZl_evgh  jZkkfhljbl_ ko_fm ijbf_g_gby k_jghc dbkehlu jbk  gZkljb ihiulZcl_kv kZfbhl\_lblvgZwlhl\hijhk

§ 23:ahl

<hijhk Z 0J + N2 = Mg3N2 ²gbljb^fZ]gby 0J â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 0J + 1  + H = 1



â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

 

[ KZ + N2 = Ca3N2 ²gbljb^dZevpby &D  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = &D  + 1  + H = 1â&#x2C6;&#x2019;



 



 

\ $O + N2 = 2AlN ²gbljb^Zexfbgby $O â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = $O+

1  + H = 1

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

< ijh^mdlZo j_Zdpbc bhgguc lbi obfbq_kdhc k\yab b bhggZy djbklZeebq_kdZy j_r_ldZ

Gbljb^uf_lZeeh\e_]dh]b^jhebamxlkyk \u^_e_gb_fZffbZdZ Mg3N2 + 6H2O 3Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;; <hijhk

1  â&#x2020;&#x2019; /L1  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1+  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 12  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 12  â&#x2020;&#x2019; +12 









1. N2 + 6Li = 2Li3N; 1 + H â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2. Li3N + 3H2O = 3LiOH + NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;; Li â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 1 H â&#x2020;&#x2019; Li+; 3. 4NH3 H2 = 4NOâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 6H2O; 4. 2NO + O2 = 2NO2; 5. 4NO2 + 2H2O + O2 = 4HNO3. cat

<hijhk JZkkfhljbfke_^mxsmxj_Zdpbx 2NO + O2 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; 2NO2 + Q. Ij_`^_\k_]hwlZj_Zdpbyhdbkebl_evgh\hkklZgh\bl_evgZy hdbke_gb_ 1 + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1+ ; \hkklZgh\bl_ev

  _gb_ â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2O 2â&#x2C6;&#x2019; . O 02 + 4e \hkklZgh\e hdbkebl_ev

43


LZd`_j_Zdpbykbgl_aZ122 y\ey_lkyh[jZlghcj_Zdpb_cl_hgZ b^_lh^gh\j_f_ggh\ h[_klhjhguLd\ j_ZdpbbmqZkl\mxl]Zaulh fufh`_fijbf_gblvijbgpbiE_RZl_ev_ < gZr_cj_Zdpbbdhebq_kl\hfhev]Zah\ke_\Z[hevr_q_fkijZ\Z Lh]^Zijbm\_ebq_gbb^Z\e_gbyjZ\gh\_kb_kf_klblky\ijZ\h < ijyfhcj_Zdpbb\u^_ey_lkyl_iehke_^h\Zl_evghijb mf_gvr_gbbl_fi_jZlmjujZ\gh\_kb_kf_klblky\ijZ\h <hijhk Z 1+3 + 5O2 = 4NOâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 6H2O 1â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1 +

2

+ H = 2

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;







[ 1+3 + 3O2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2N2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 6H2O 1â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1 2

+ H = 2

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;



. 

<hijhk >Zgh: m(NH4NO2  ]Ï&#x2030; ijbf_kb   %. GZclb: V(N2), ν(H2O) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmkheb[_aijbf_k_c m(NH4NO2)=m(NH4NO2ij ±P 1+4NO2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;ij ]±]â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,012=19,76 ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb ]

W

1+  12   

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

oe

1

 fhev 9 ]fhev 9 ]



m]

+ 2

 fhev F ]fhev P ]

GZc^_f9 12 b P +2O): ] ²e ] ²o e â&#x2039;&#x2026; o  19,76 22,4 e9 12  e 64 ] ²] ] ²m ] 19,76 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 36 y= = 11,115 ]P +22  ] 64 Lh]^Zν(H2O) = P + 2 = ] fhev 0 + 2

]  fhev

Hl\_l: V(N2  eν(H22  fhev

44


§ 24:ffbZd

<hijhk :ffbZd e_]dh k`b`Z_lky ijb h[uqghf ^Z\e_gbb b l_fi_jZlmj_ ± 33,4°KZ ijbbkiZj_gbb`b^dh]h]ZaZbahdjm`Zxs_ckj_^uih]ehsZ_lky fgh]hl_ieZihwlhfmhgijbf_gy_lky\ oheh^bevguomklZgh\dZo

:ffbZdhq_gvohjhrhjZkl\hjbf\ \h^_ jZkl\hjZffbZdZ gZau\Z_lkygZrZlujgufkibjlhfb bkihevam_lky\ f_^bpbg_2 <hijhk <h^hjh^gZyk\yav ²wlhobfbq_kdZyk\yavf_`^mZlhfZfb\h^hjh^Z b ZlhfZfbkbevghwe_dljhhljbpZl_evguowe_f_glh\ nlhj dbkehjh^Zahl <h^hjh^gZyk\yavh[jZam_lkyh[uqghf_`^m^\mfy khk_^gbfbfhe_dmeZfbGZijbf_jhgZh[jZam_lkyf_`^m fhe_dmeZfb\h^ukibjlh\nlhjh\h^hjh^ZZffbZdZ Wlhhq_gvkeZ[Zyk\yav ²ijbf_jgh\ jZakeZ[__dh\Ze_glghc ;eZ]h^Zjy _c g_dhlhju_ gbadhfhe_dmeyjgu_  \_s_kl\Z h[jZamxl ZkkhpbZlu qlh ijb\h^bl d ih\ur_gbx l_fi_jZlmj ieZ\e_gby b dbi_gby\_s_kl\ :ghfZevgh \ukhdb_ l_fi_jZlmju ieZ\e_gby b dbi_gby oZjZdl_jgu ^ey\h^u _kebjZkkfZljb\Zlv \h^hjh^gu_kh_^bg_gby9, ]jmiiu <k_ \h^hjh^gu_kh_^bg_gby9,]jmiiudjhf_\h^uy\eyxlky]ZaZfb Hq_gv\Z`gmxjhevb]jZ_l\h^hjh^gZyk\yav\ fhe_dmeZo\Z`g_crbo ^ey`b\uokms_kl\kh_^bg_gbc ²[_edh\b gmde_bgh\uodbkehl3 <hijhk >hghjghZdp_ilhjgZyk\yav ²wlhhkh[uc\b^obfbq_kdhc k\yab dhlhjZy\hagbdZ_lg_aZkq_lkiZjb\Zgbyg_iZjguowe_dljhgh\Z aZ kq_lk\h[h^ghcwe_dljhgghciZjuh^gh]hZlhfZb k\h[h^ghcyq_cdb ^jm]h]h4 <hijhk

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\ oehjb^_Zffhgby1+4Cl: 1+ &O . â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

+

Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\ gbljZl_Zffhgby1+4NO3: 1+ 12 . <hijhk 3CuO + 2NH3 = N2 + 3Cu + 3H2O. &X + + H = &X  1

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1







.

>eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbd klj  >eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbd klj  4 >eyhl\_lZbkihevah\Zekymq_[gbd klj  2 3

45


<hijhk :ffbZd ijhy\ey_l lhevdh \hkklZgh\bl_evgu_  k\hckl\Z ld Zahl gZoh^blky \ kZfhc gbadhc kl_i_gb hdbke_gby b g_ fh`_l [hevr_ ijbgbfZlvwe_dljhgu

§ 25KhebZffhgby

<hijhk Z  1+4)2SO4 + BaCl2 = BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH4Cl; SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ba2+ = BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. [ 1+4Cl + AgNO3 = AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + NH4NO3; Ag+ + Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; = AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. <hijhk Z  1+4)2CO3+H2SO4=(NH4)2SO4+H2O+CO2 â&#x2020;&#x2018;; CO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2 +2H+=H2O+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. [  1+4)2CO3+2NaOH=Na2CO3+2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;+2H2O; NH4++OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;=NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O. \  1+4)2CO3 + CaCl2 = CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH4Cl; CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ca2 + = CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. W ]  1+4)2CO3 CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;. <hijhk (NH4)3PO4 ²nhknZlZffhgby (NH4)2HPO4 ²]b^jhnhknZlZffhgby NH4H2PO4 ²^b]b^jhnhknZlZffhgby (NH4)3PO4 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; 3NH4+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. (NH4)2HPO4 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; 2NH4+ + H+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C; (NH4)H2PO4 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; NH4+ + 2H+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. <hijhk 3 2 4 1 N2  NH3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH4Cl  â&#x2020;&#x2019; (NH4)2HPO4  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; NH4NO3. WSFDW 1. N2 + 3H2 - 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 2. H3PO4 + 2NH3 = (NH4)2HPO4; 3. (NH4)2HPO4 G&O 1+4Cl + H3JH4; 4. NH4Cl + AgNO3 = AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + NH4NO3. <hijhk >ZghP((NH4)2SO4  d] GZclb9 1+3), m(NH3) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkh\mx^hexZffbZdZ\ kmevnZl_Zffhgby 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 17] / fhev 0 1+ 

Ï&#x2030; 1+   62 (NH3)= = =0,2576=25,76 %. 0 1+  62  132] / fhev GZc^_ffZkkmZffbZdZg_h[oh^bfh]h^eyihemq_gbyd] (NH4)2SO4: m(NH3) = m((NH4)2SO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(NH3  d]â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] GZc^_fh[t_fZffbZdZ

46


 â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] â&#x2039;&#x2026;efhev e  V(NH3)=ν(NH3)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Vν= P 1+ â&#x2039;&#x2026;Vν=

0 1+

]fhev

f3. Hl\_l: m(NH3  d]9 1+3  f3.

§ 26Dbkehjh^gu_kh_^bg_gbyZahlZ

<hijhk :ahlgZy dbkehlZ g_ h[jZam_l dbkeuo khe_c ld hgZ h^ghhkgh\gZy b bf__l\k_]hh^bgZlhf\h^hjh^Zdhlhjucb hl^Z_lijbh[jZah\Zgbbkheb <hijhk Z &X 2+ 2 + 2HNO3=2H2O + Cu(NO3)2; Cu(OH)2 + 2H+=Cu2+ + 2H2O; [ )H2O3 + 6HNO3 = 2Fe(NO3)3 + 3H2O; Fe2O3 + 6H+ = 2Fe3+ + 3H2O. \ 1D2CO3+2HNO3=2NaNO3 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+=H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. <hijhk Na2SiO3 + 2HNO3 = 2NaNO3 + H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;;

SiO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ = H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<hijhk 1) 3Cu + 8HNO jZa[ = 3Cu(NO3)2 + 2NOâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O, &X  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H &X  1 H 1 





.



2) Cu + 4HNO3(dhgp) = Cu(NO3)2 + 2NO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O &X  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H &X  1 H 1 





 

<hijhk 2 1 3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; I. N2  NO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO  â&#x2020;&#x2019; HNO3. 1. N2 + O2 = 2NO, 1 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1 + 2 + H = 2 

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

1  + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1 +

  . 

. 

2. 2NO + O2 = 2NO2, 2 + H = 2 

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

1 + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1+



. 

3. 4NO2 + O2 + 2H2O = 4HNO3, 2 + H = 2 

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;



2 1 3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO2  II. NH3  â&#x2020;&#x2019; NO  â&#x2020;&#x2019; HNO3. 1. 4NH3 + 5O2 = 4NO + 6H2O,

47


1â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 1  +

2  + H = 2 

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;



. 

MjZ\g_gbyb kfhljb\ur_

<hijhk >Zgh: V(NO2  f3; Ï&#x2030;(HNO3) = 68 %. GZclbP +123) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gbyZahlghcdbkehlu â&#x2039;&#x2026; e

12 

 fhev 9ν  efhev 9 e

2 +2 

89,6 e â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 252 134,4â&#x2039;&#x2026;103 e ²o ] o 

] â&#x2039;&#x2026;   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  e e

o]

+12

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

d]

GZc^_ffZkkmjZkl\hjZZahlghcdbkehlu x 379 d] m(HNO3) = = = 555,9 d]; 0,68 Ï&#x2030;( HNO 3 ) Hl\_l: m(HNO3) = 555,9 d] <hijhk >Zgh: m(NaNO3  ]9 22  e GZclbP ijbf_kb

J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb o]

1D12 

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

W

1D12 

] ²e o ] ²e o   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ]

e

2 â&#x2020;&#x2018;  fhev 9 efhev 9 e

 

mqbklZy (NaNO3  ] GZc^_ffZkkmijbf_kb P ij  P 1D123)â&#x20AC;&#x201C;mqbklZy (NaNO3  ]±] ] P Ï&#x2030;ij = ij =  beb Pk_e  Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;ij = 25%. <hijhk Kf\hijhk ,, 

48


§ 27Nhknhjb _]hkh_^bg_gby

<hijhk 1. Na3PO4 ²nhknZlgZljby Na3PO4 = 3Na+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;; 2. Na2HPO4 ²]b^jhnhknZlgZljby Na2G324 = 2Na+ G+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;; 3. NaH2PO4 ²^b]b^jhnhknZlgZljby 1DG2PO4 = Na+ G+ + PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. <hijhk

2 3 J â&#x2020;&#x2019; Mg3P2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; H3PO4  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca3(PO4)2. PH3  P2O5 

1

4

5

1. J + 3Mg = Mg3P2, t

3  H 3

0J â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H 0J 



 , 



2. Mg3P2 + 6H2O = 3Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2PH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;. 3. 2PH3 + 4O2 = P2O5 + 3H2O, 3â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 3+

2 + H = 2 

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;



, 

4. P2O5 + 3H2O = 2H3PO4; 5. 2H3PO4 &D HG 2 = Ca3(PO4)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 6H2H <hijhk 3P + 5HNO3 + 2H2O = 3H3PO4 + 5NOâ&#x2020;&#x2018;, 3  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 3 + .  1 + + H = 1 +



<hijhk >Zgh: m(Ca3(PO)4 ij  ]Ï&#x2030; ij   %, W = 80 %. GZclb: m(P) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmkheb[_aijbf_kb m(Ca3(PO4)2) = m(Ca3(PO4)2 ij ±P &D3(PO4)2 ij â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; ij  ]± ] â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb ]

&D  32  6L2 & &D6L2 

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

] ²] ] ²o ] o   â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ]

o]

3â&#x2020;&#x2018;

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]



m(P)l_hj ] GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjZdhlhjZyihemqbeZkv\ oh^_j_Zdpbb m(P)ijZdl = m(P)l_hjâ&#x2039;&#x2026;: ]â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] 49


Hl\_l: m(P)ijZdl ]

<hijhk >ZghP 3  ]Ï&#x2030; ij   %, Ï&#x2030;(H3PO4) = 80 %. GZclb: mjjZ(H3PO4) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjZ[_aijbf_kb m(P) = m(P ij â&#x20AC;&#x201C; m(P ij â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030; ij  ] â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 31â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] Bah^gh]hfhevnhknhjZfh`ghihemqblvjh\ghh^bgfhev nhknhjghcdbkehlu P 3

P 3 29,45] ν(H3PO4)=ν(P)= â&#x2021;&#x2019;ν(H3PO4)= = =0,95 fhev 0 3

0 3

31] Lh]^ZP +3PO4)=M(H3PO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;ν(H3PO4 ]fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;fhev ] FZkkZjZkl\hjZnhknhjghcdbkehlujZ\gZ m(H 3 PO 4 ) P jjZ+3PO4) = = ] ]  Ï&#x2030;(H 3 PO 4 ) Hl\_lP jjZ+3PO4  ] <hijhk >ZghP jjZ+3PO4  ]Ï&#x2030;1(H3PO4) = 5 P J2H5  ] GZclb: Ï&#x2030;2(H3PO4) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbihemq_gbynhknhjghc dbkehlu G2H J2H5 G3JH4.

BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhevJ2H5 ihemqZ_lkyfhevG3JH4. GZc^_ffZkkmnhknhjghcdbkehluihemqb\r_cky\ oh^_j_Zdpbb ν(H3PO4) = 2ν(P2O5) = 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;

P 32 

] = 2â&#x2039;&#x2026; 0 32 

]  fhev

fhev

m(H3PO4) = ν(H3PO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(H3PO4  fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev ] GZc^_fkdhevdh[uehnhknhjghcdbkehlu\ jZkl\hj_ m(H3PO4  P jjZ â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;1(H3PO4) = 980â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] GZc^_fgh\mxfZkkh\mx^hexdbkehlu\ jZkl\hj_ 209,72 + 49 Ï&#x2030;2(H3PO4) = P +32 h[s = = 0,2286. P j â&#x2C6;&#x2019; jZ + P 3 2

980 + 152 Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;2(H3PO4) = 22,86 %.

<hijhk :DhgZg>hce \ k\h_f ijhba\_^_gbb  g_ mq_e obfbq_kdbo k\hckl\ nhknhjZ >Z\Zcl_ ih^mfZ_f \f_kl_ Nhknhj k\_lblky \ l_fghl_ ke_^h\Zl_evgh wlh [_euc nhknhj ld djZkguc nhknhj g_ k\_lblky \hh[s_ >Ze__ [_euc nhknhj hq_gv y^h\bl b bkihevah\Zlv  _]h klhev 50


g_h[uqgufkihkh[hfg_kdhevdhjZa\_jhylgh[ueh[ukeh`ghDjhf_ lh]h [_euc nhknhj gZ \ha^mo_ e_]dh hdbkey_lky i_j_oh^y ijb wlhf \ kl_i_gvhdbke_gby 4P + 5O2 = 2P2O5.

DZdlhevdhijhp_kkhdbke_gbyaZdZgqb\Z_lkykh[ZdZi_j_klZ_l k\_lblvky Hdkb^nhknhjZ 9 hq_gv]b]jhkdhibqgh_\_s_kl\hl_hgh ijbly]b\Z_ld k_[_\h^m<kihfgbfqlh\ hlju\d_]h\hjbehkvh lmfZg_badhlhjh]h\ukdhqbeh©qm^h\bs_ªLmfZg ²wlh kdhg^_gkbjh\Zggu_iZju\h^uLh]^Zkdhj__\k_]hh[jZah\Z\rbcky P2O5 ih^^_ckl\b_f\eZ]bij_\jZlbeky\ nhknhjgmxdbkehlm J2H5 G2Hâ&#x2021;&#x2019;G3JH4.

Ljm^gh ij_^klZ\blv k_[_ qlh kh[ZdZ h[fZaZggZy y^h\bluf \_s_kl\hfb dbkehlhcfh`_l_s_qlheb[hk^_eZlv

§ 28M]e_jh^

<hijhk  :efZa ²ijhajZqgh_djbklZeebq_kdh_ \_s_kl\hkZfh_l\_j^h_ba \k_o ijbjh^guo \_s_kl\ LZdZy l\_j^hklv h[mkeh\e_gZ  hkh[hc kljmdlmjhc_]hZlhfghcdjbklZeebq_kdhc j_r_ldb< g_cdZ`^ucZlhf m]e_jh^Z hdjm`_g lZdbfb `_ ZlhfZfb jZkiheh`_ggufb  \ \_jrbgZo ijZ\bevgh]hl_ljZw^jZ

DjbklZeeuZefZaZh[uqgh[_kp\_lgu_gh[u\Zxlkbg_]h]hem[h]h djZkgh]hb q_jgh]hp\_lh\Hgbbf_xlhq_gvkbevguc[e_kd [eZ]h^Zjy\ukhdhck\_lhij_ehfeyxs_cb k\_lhhljZ`Zxs_c kihkh[ghklb:efZaohjhrhijh\h^bll_iehh[eZ^Z_l we_dljhbaheypbhggufbk\hckl\Zfb5  =jZnbl ²l_fghk_jh_`bjgh_gZhsmivdjbklZeebq_kdh_ \_s_kl\hk f_lZeebq_kdbf[e_kdhf< hlebqb_hlZefZaZ]jZnbl fy]dbcb g_ijhajZqgucohjhrhijh\h^bll_iehb we_dljbq_kdbc lhdFy]dhklv]jZnblZh[mkeh\e_gZkehbklhckljmdlmjhc jbk\ mq_[gbd_ < djbklZeebq_kdhcj_r_ld_]jZnblZZlhfum]e_jh^Z e_`Zsb_\ h^ghciehkdhklbijhqghk\yaZgu\ ijZ\bevgu_ r_klbm]hevgbdb6

5 6

Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZklj Hl\_l\aylbamq_[gbdZklj

51


<hijhk  K H2 KH2 & â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  & H   â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \hkklZgh\bl_ev .  2 H 2â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; hdbkebl_ev 

W

 K G2 KG4 & + H = &â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; hdbkebl_ev .  + â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = ++  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \hkklZgh\bl_ev

<hijhk DZj[hg ² wlh h^bg ba i_jbh^h\ iZe_hahckdhc wju < dZj[hg_ ijh^he`Zxl jZkijhkljZgylvky  kihjh\u_ jZkl_gby l_ iZihjhlgbdb HklZldbih]b[rboiZihjhlgbdh\ f_^e_gghhdbkeyebkv ih^keh_f a_feb \ l_q_gb_ fgh]bo fbeebhgh\ e_l < j_amevlZl_ h[jZah\Zebkv h]jhfgu_ aZe_`b dZf_ggh]h m]ey dhlhjuc g_ qlh bgh_ dZd hklZldb ^j_\g_crbo jZkl_gbc <hijhk DZj[he_g ²wlhjZagh\b^ghklvZdlb\bjh\Zggh]hm]ey Ke_^h\Zl_evghhgh[eZ^Z_lohjhrbfbZ^khj[bjmxsbfb k\hckl\Zfbb bkihevam_lky^eyih]ehs_gbyjZaebqguoaZiZoh\\ oheh^bevgbdZo <hijhk

 K + Fe2O3 = 2Fe KHâ&#x2020;&#x2018;; t

& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = & +

)H

+

+ H = )H









t

2) PbO2 + 2C = Pb + 2COâ&#x2020;&#x2018;; 3E + + H = 3E  & â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = & 

+



. 

<hijhk >ZghP K ij  ]9 &22  e:  %. GZclb: Ï&#x2030; ij

J_r_gb_GZc^_fh[t_fm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZdhlhjuc^he`_g[ue ihemqblvky

V(CO2)l_hj =

9 &2

= e : 

AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb

e W

K H2 KH2. Ba mjZ\g_gby j_Zdpbb \b^gh qlh ba h^gh]h fhev m]ey ihemqZ_lky jh\ghh^bgfhevm]e_dbkeh]h ]ZaZAgZqbl 52


ν K  ν KH2) =

 e e  fhev

fhev Vν Lh]^ZP &  ν K â&#x2039;&#x2026;0 K  fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev ] P ij  P & ij ±P K  ]±] ] m(ij) 2] Lh]^ZÏ&#x2030; ij   = = 0,25 = 25 %. m(C + ij) 8] Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030; ij   %. <hijhk K KH2 KH V(CO 2 ) l_hj

=

& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = &+  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; \hkklZgh\bl_ev .  K + + H = K +  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; hdbkebl_ev

<hijhk

K â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaC2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; C2H2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO 1

2

3

4

t

1. 2C + Ca = CaC2;  & H &â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  hdbkebl_ev  &D  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H &D   \hkklZgh\bl_ev 2. CaC2 + 2H2O = Ca(OH)2 + C2H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 3. 2C2H2 + 5O2 = 4CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O; &â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H & +  \hkklZgh\bl_ev H  H H  â&#x2C6;&#x2019;  hdbkebl_ev 



4. CO2 + C = 2CO.

§ 29Dbkehjh^gu_kh_^bg_gbym]e_jh^Z

<hijhk

t

Fe2O3 + 3CO = 2Fe + 3CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; )H+ + H = )H &

+

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = &

+



 

<hijhk G_khe_h[jZamxsb_ bebbg^bnn_j_glgu_ hdkb^u g_ j_Z]bjmxsb_ k \h^hc ²wlhgZijbf_jK2126L2 djZcg_g_mklhcqb\uc  <hijhk

KH H2

KH2.

Ih\ur_gb_^Z\e_gbyijb\h^bld kf_s_gbxiheh`_gbyjZ\gh\_kby \ijZ\h <hijhk

KH2 G2H

G2KH3, 53


KH2 + 2Mg = 2MgO + C; 1 C 4 + + 4e = C 0 4 . 0 2+ 2 Mg â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 2e = Mg

KH2 K

KH

<hijhk IjbjZkl\hj_gbbm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ\ \h^_h[jZam_lkykeZ[Zy m]hevgZydbkehlZihwlhfmeZdfmkbf__ldjZkgmxhdjZkdm CO2 + H2O H2CO3 IjbklhygbbjZkl\hjZm]hevgZydbkehlZjZaeZ]Z_lkyb jZkl\hjkgh\Z klZgh\blkyg_cljZevguf  <hijhk CuCO3 ²kj_^gyyfhev ²dZj[hgZlf_^b ,,  &X G&23)2 ²dbkeZykhev ²]b^jhdZj[hgZlf_^b ,II), (CuOH)2CO3 ²hkgh\gZykhev ²]b^jhdkhdZj[hgZlf_^b ,,  fZeZobl  Bai_j_qbke_gguokhe_clhevdh&X +&23)2 y\ey_lkywe_dljheblhf &X G&23)2 Cu2+ + 2CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+. <hijhk

Z KD&23 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaO â&#x2020;&#x2019; &Z 2+ 2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CaCO3 1

2

3

4

5

t

1. CaCO3 = CaO + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 2. CaO + H2O = Ca(OH)2; 3. Ca(OH)2 + CO g_^ = CaCO3 + H2O; 4. CaCO3 + CO ba[  + H2O = Ca(HCO3)2; t

5. Ca(HCO3)2 = CaCO3 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

[ K  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; C 1

2

3

4

t

& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = & +

1.

2

 

C + O2 = CO2; 

+ H = 2

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

& + + H = &+



2. CO2 + C = 2CO; & â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = & 

& â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 

+

&H



 

3. 2CO + O2 = 2CO2; 2   H 2







t

4. CO2 + 2Mg = 2MgO + C. 54


&  H&

0J â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H 0J 









<hijhk >ZghP jjZ1D2CO3  ]Ï&#x2030;1(Na2CO3) = 2 %; m(Na2CO3â&#x2039;&#x2026;G2H  ] GZclb: Ï&#x2030;2(Na2CO3) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkm1D2CO3 \ djbklZeeh]b^jZl_ m(Na2CO3)=m(Na2CO3â&#x2039;&#x2026;G2H â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(Na2CO3)=

=m(Na2CO3â&#x2039;&#x2026;G2H â&#x2039;&#x2026;

 0U 1D &2

= 14,3â&#x2039;&#x2026;  +  0U 1D &2 + 0U + 2

GZc^_ffZkkm1D2CO3 \ jZkl\hj_ m(Na2CO3  P jjZ1D2CO3)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;1(Na2CO3) = 1060â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] 3. Ï&#x2030;2(Na2CO3)=

]

P 1D &2 h[s = ] +  ] ] P j â&#x2C6;&#x2019; jZ + P 1D  &2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; + 2 ] + ]

Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;2(Na2CO3  ] beb %. <hijhk

§ 30Dj_fgbcb _]hkh_^bg_gby

>bhdkb^dj_fgbyb m]e_dbkeuc]Zay\eyxlkydbkehlgufbhdkb^Zfb H^gZdh\ hlebqb_hlKH2 hdkb^dj_fgby ,9 bf__lg_ fhe_dmeyjgmxZ ZlhfgmxdjbklZeebq_kdmxj_r_ldmIhwlhfm6L22 y\ey_lkyl\_j^ufb lm]hieZ\dbf\_s_kl\hfZ KH2 y\ey_lky]Zahf M]e_dbkeuc]Za\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk \h^hck h[jZah\Zgb_fm]hevghc dbkehlu+2O + CO2 â&#x2C6;&#x2026; H2CO3\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk s_ehqZfbKH2 + + 2NaOH = Na2CO3 + H22j_Z]bjm_lk hkgh\gufbhdkb^ZfbKH2 + + KZH KZKH3\klmiZ_l\ j_Zdpbxk f_lZeebq_kdbffZ]gb_f KH2 + + 2Mg = 2MgO + C. Hdkb^dj_fgby ,9 g_jZkl\hjy_lky\ \h^_\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lijb \ukhdbol_fi_jZlmjZokhs_ehqZfbk h[jZah\Zgb_fkbebdZlh\ t SiO2 + 2NaOH = Na2SiO3 + H22\aZbfh^_ckl\m_lijbkieZ\e_gbbk hkgh\gufbhdkb^Zfb SiO2 + CaO = CaSiO3, j_Z]bjm_lk fZ]gb_f SiO2 + 2Mg â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2MgO + Si. t

<hijhk M]e_jh^ ² wlh hkh[uc obfbq_kdbc we_f_gl Hg hkgh\Z fgh]hh[jZaby hj]Zgbq_kdbo  kh_^bg_gbc ba dhlhjuo ihkljh_gu \k_ `b\u_hj]ZgbafugZgZr_cieZg_l_

< ijbjh^_dj_fgbc ²\lhjhcihjZkijhkljZg_gghklbihke_ dbkehjh^Zobfbq_kdbcwe_f_glA_fgZydhjZ[he__q_fgZq_l\_jlv khklhblba_]hkh_^bg_gbc Ihwlhfmm]e_jh^gZau\Zxlhkgh\guf

55


we_f_glhf`b\hcijbjh^uZ dj_fgbc²hkgh\gufwe_f_glhf g_`b\hcijbjh^u

<hijhk >Zgh: m(Si + ij  ]V(H2) = 22,4 eÏ&#x2030;(NaOH) = 60 %. GZclb: Ï&#x2030;(Si), m(SiO2), m(jjZNaOH) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbc Si + 2NaOH + H2O = Na2SiO3 + 2H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhevdj_fgbyihemqZ_lkyfhev \h^hjh^ZAgZqbl 1 1 V(H 2 ) 1 22,4 e ν(Si) = ν G2) = â&#x2039;&#x2026; fhev = â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 2 Vν 2 22,4 e / fhev Lh]^Zm(Si) = ν(Si)â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(Si) = 0,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;28 = 14] 14] m(Si) Ï&#x2030;(Si) = â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,875 = 87,5 %. = m(Si + ij) 16] 2. m(SiO2) = m(Si ij ±m(Si) = 16]±] ] BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlh^eyjZkl\hj_gbyfhevdj_fgby gm`gh\aylvfhevs_ehqbKe_^h\Zl_evghν(NaOH) = 2ν(Si) = = 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;0fhev fhev m(NaOH) = ν(NaOH)â&#x2039;&#x2026;M(NaOH) = fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev ] m( NaOH) 40] P jjZ1D2+   ] = 0,6 Ï&#x2030;( NaOH) Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;(Si) = 87,5 %; m(SiO2) = 2 ]P jjZ1D2+  ] <hijhk 1 2 3 4 5 Z 6LO2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si â&#x2020;&#x2019; Ca2Si  SiH4 â&#x2020;&#x2019; SiO2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; Si t

6L + + H = 6L 

, 

1. SiO2 + 2Mg = 2MgO + Si; 

0J â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 0J

+



t

6L + H = 6L â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

 

2. Si + 2Ca = Ca2Si; &D â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = &D 

+



3. Ca2Si + 4H2O = 2Ca(OH)2 + SiH4â&#x2020;&#x2018;; 4. SiH4 + 2O2 = SiO2 + 2H2O; 6L  â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 6L + 2

+ H = 2

â&#x2C6;&#x2019; W



 , 

5. SiO2 + Mg = 2MgO + Si. 56


     [ 6L  6L2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 1D6L2  +6L2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 6L2  6L â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019;

t

6L â&#x2C6;&#x2019; H = 6L +

  , 

1. Si + O2 = SiO2; 2

+ H = 2

â&#x2C6;&#x2019;

t

2. SiO2 + 2NaOH l\ = Na2SiO3 + H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;; 3. Na2SiO3 + H2SO4 = H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Na2SO4; t

4. H2SiO3 = H2O + SiO2. t

5. SiO2 + 2Mg = Si + 2MgO.

<hijhk Dhg_qgh`_wlhkh_^bg_gb_ ²hdkb^dj_fgby(IV).

<hijhk Hlebqbl_evghchkh[_gghklvxkl_deZy\ey_lky_]hk\hckl\h jZafy]qZlvkyb \jZkieZ\e_gghf\b^_ijbgbfZlvex[mxnhjfm dhlhjZykhojZgy_lkyijbaZklu\Zgbbkl_deZGZwlhfhkgh\Zgh ijhba\h^kl\hihkm^ub ^jm]boba^_ebcbakl_deZ>hihegbl_evgu_ dZq_kl\Zkl_demijb^ZxljZaebqgu_^h[Z\dbLZd\\_^_gb_fhdkb^Z k\bgpZihemqZxlojmklZevgh_kl_dehhdkb^ojhfZhdjZrb\Z_l kl_deh\ a_e_gucp\_lhdkb^dh[ZevlZ ²\ kbgbcb l^ H[eZklv ijbf_g_gby kl_deZ hq_gv h[rbjgZ Wlh hdhggh_ [mluehqgh_ eZfih\h_ a_jdZevgh_ kl_deh kl_deh hilbq_kdh_ ² hl kl_dhehqdh\^hkl_dhenhlhdZf_jebgau[_kqbke_gguo ijb[hjh\ ²hl fbdjhkdhih\ ^hl_e_kdhih\

57


=eZ\Z 3Hj]Zgbq_kdb_\_s_kl\Z <hijhk

§ 31Ij_^f_lhj]Zgbq_kdhcobfbb

S=C=S

k_jhm]e_jh^

&O

ljboehjf_lZg

G

&O &

&O

+

G G

K

G

G

K

G

G G G

K

G

K

G

KG3 ²KG3 ijhiZg G

K

G

G

K

G

G

KG3 ²KG2 ²KG2 ²KG3 [mlZg

<hijhk K2G6kl_i_gvhdbke_gbym]e_jh^Z ± kl_i_gvhdbke_gby\h^hjh^Z  \Ze_glghklvm]e_jh^Z\Ze_glghklv\h^hjh^Z G

G G

K K G

G

G

N2kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyZahlZ\Ze_glghklvN â&#x2030;¡ N. H2O2: kl_i_gvhdbke_gbydbkehjh^Z ± kl_i_gvhdbke_gby \h^hjh^Z  \Ze_glghklvdbkehjh^Z\Ze_glghklv\h^hjh^Z G ²H ²H ²G

<hijhk L_hjby:F;mle_jh\Zml\_j`^Z_l lhqlhdZ`^h_\_s_kl\hbf__l hij_^_e_ggh_obfbq_kdh_kljh_gb_hldhlhjh]haZ\bkylk\hckl\Z \_s_kl\K\hckl\Z\_s_kl\aZ\bkylhlijbjh^uobfbq_kdbo we_f_glh\hlbodhebq_kl\Zb hllh]hdZdhgbkh_^bgyxlkyf_`^m kh[hc Ijb\_^_f ijbf_j ^\mo bahf_jh\ k jZaebqgufb obfbq_kdbfb k\hckl\Zfb

58


+1 +1

NH4 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; N = K = O

& 2

fhq_\bgZ

pbZgZlZffhgby

<hijhk Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyoZjZdl_jbam_ldhebq_kl\hijbgyluobeb hl^Zgguowe_f_glhfwe_dljhgh\Kl_i_gvhdbke_gbyfh`_l[ulv iheh`bl_evghchljbpZl_evghcgme_\hc <Ze_glghklvihdZau\Z_ldhebq_kl\hk\ya_cdhlhju_h[jZam_l we_f_gl\ fhe_dme_<Ze_glghklvfh`_l[ulvlhevdhiheh`bl_evghc <hijhk Ij_^hklZ\ey_f\Zf\hafh`ghklvih^mfZlvgZ^wlbf\hijhkhf kZfbf <hijhk >Zgh: V(CH4) = f3, η H2)\ha^ = 21 %. GZclb: V \ha^

J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbk`b]Zgbyf_lZgZ W

KG4 H2 KH2 G2H Ba mjZ\g_gby \b^gh qlh ^ey k`b]Zgby  fhev f_lZgZ g_h[oh^bfh 2 fhevdbkehjh^ZAgZqbl ν H2) = 2ν KG4) = 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;

V(CH 4 ) . Vν

V (CH 4 ) V ν (O 2 )Vν V (O 2 ) ν Lh]^ZV \ha^   = = = η(O 2 )\ha^ η(O 2 )\ha^ η(O 2 )\ha^ 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; V(CH 4 ) 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 250f 3 f3. = = η(O 2 )\ha^ 0,21 Hl\_l: V \ha^  f3. 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;

§ 32Ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u

<hijhk Ijbqbgu fgh]hh[jZaby  m]e_\h^hjh^h\  ykgu ba iheh`_gbc l_hjbb :F ;mle_jh\Z

:lhfu\ fhe_dmeZohj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\k\yaZgu^jm]k ^jm]hf kh]eZkghbo\Ze_glghklb

59


 K\hckl\Z\_s_kl\aZ\bkylg_lhevdhhlkhklZ\Z bo fhe_dme gh b hlbokljh_gby <hijhk =hfheh]bq_kdbcjy^fh`ghaZibkZlvdZdCn H2n+2. M]e_\h^hjh^uk n â&#x2030;¤ y\eyxlky]ZaZfb M]e_\h^hjh^uk  < n â&#x2030;¤ y\eyxlky`b^dhklyfb M]e_\h^hjh^uk n â&#x2030;¥ y\eyxlkyl\_j^ufb\_s_kl\Zfb Ihf_j_m\_ebq_gbyn m\_ebqb\Z_lkyl_fi_jZlmjZdbi_gbyb ieZ\e_gbym]e_\h^hjh^h\

<hijhk GZ]hjh^kdhfb k_evkdhohayckl\_gghfljZgkihjl_ijbf_gyxlky [_gabgd_jhkbgkheyjdZ^ba_evgh_lhieb\hhgby\eyxlky e_]dh\hkieZf_gyxsbfbky]hjxqbfb\_s_kl\Zfihwlhfmke_^m_l kh[ex^Zlvijhlb\hih`Zjgu_ijZ\beZl_ogbdb[_ahiZkghklb <hijhk

Z =hfheh]b

KG ²KG ²&+ ²KG &+

KG ²KG ²KG &+

bah[mlZg

[ Bahf_ju

KG3 ²KG2 ²KG2 ²KG2 ²KG3 i_glZg

KG3 ²KG2 ²KG3 ijhiZg

&+

&+

&

&+

&+

l_ljZf_lbef_lZg

<hijhk K3G8 K3G6 G2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; K3H6 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ijhi_gK4G10 K4G8 G2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; K4G8 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; [ml_g

<hijhk >Zgh: V kf_kb  eη KH2) = 10 %. GZclb: V(O2) J_r_gb_GZc^_fh[t_fijhiZgZ[_aijbf_kb V(C3H8)=V(kf_kb ±V(kf_kb â&#x2039;&#x2026;η KH2 e ±eâ&#x2039;&#x2026; e AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_ZdpbbK3G8 H2 KH2 G2H BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlh^eyk`b]ZgbyfhevijhiZgZgm`ghfhev dbkehjh^Z 60


Ke_^h\Zl_evghν H2) = 5ν K3G8) = 5â&#x2039;&#x2026; 9 &+ . 9ν

Lh]^ZV(O2) = Vνâ&#x2039;&#x2026;ν H2) = V#â&#x2039;&#x2026;5 V(C3H8 ) = 5â&#x2039;&#x2026; e Hl\_l: V(O2) = 100e

Vν

§ 33G_ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u Wlbe_gb _]h]hfheh]b

<hijhk >ey wlZgZ oZjZdl_j_g lbi j_Zdpbc aZf_s_gby Z ^ey wlbe_gZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ijbkh_^bg_gby <hijhk J_Zdpbyijbkh_^bg_gby\h^hjh^ZgZau\Z_lky]b^jbjh\Zgb_f KG2 KG2 G2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;KG3; KG3±KG CH2 + H2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH3 <hijhk 2CH3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH3 + 7O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4CO2 + 6H2O; CH2=CH2 + 3O2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2CO2 + 2H2O ;hevr_ dbkehjh^Z ihlj_[m_lky ^ey k`b]Zgby wlZgZ ld wlZg bf__l gZ^\Z\h^hjh^Z[hevr_q_fwlbe_g Wlbe_g ]hjbl k\_lysbf ieZf_g_f ld \ gf [hevr_ fZkkh\Zy ^hey m]e_jh^Zq_f\ wlZg_ <hijhk QKG KG ²KG â&#x2020;&#x2019; a &+ &+a Q &+ ihebijhibe_g

Ijh^mdlihebf_jbaZpbbijhibe_gZgZau\Z_lkyihebijhibe_g <hijhk &+

Z =hfheh]b CH2 [ Bahf_ju ²i_gl_g

C

&

&+

CH3

CH3 f_lbeijhi_g

&+

&G

CH2=CHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH3

ijhi_g

KG KG²KG2 ²KG2 ²KG3

61


KG ²K KG²KG

²f_lbe[ml_g <hijhk

&+

KG2 KG2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; G2 KGâ&#x2030;¡KG

Zp_lbe_g

:p_lbe_g ijhy\ey_l kbevgh g_ij_^_evguc  b ^Z`_ keZ[hdbkehlguc oZjZdl_j

§ 34G_ij_^_evgu_m]e_\h^hjh^u:p_lbe_g

<hijhk H[sZynhjfmeZm]e_\h^hjh^h\jy^ZZp_lbe_gZCnH2nâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;2. <hijhk :p_lbe_gfh`ghbgZq_gZa\Zlvwlbghf <hijhk

Z =hfheh]b

&+â&#x2030;¡ &²&+²&+ ²&+ &+

KGâ&#x2030;¡ KH, ²wlbg KGâ&#x2030;¡ K â&#x20AC;&#x201D; &+ ²KG3

&+

²f_lbe[ml_g-1. [ Bahf_ju

&+

&+â&#x2030;¡ &²&²&+ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; 3,3-^bf_lbe[mlbg  â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ]_dkbg <hijhk

&+

KG3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;Kâ&#x2030;¡Kâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;KG2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;KG2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;KG3

KGâ&#x2030;¡KG H2 KH2 G2H

62


:p_lbe_g ]hjbl dhilysbf ieZf_g_f ihlhfm \ g_f hq_gv [hevrZy fZkkh\Zy^heym]e_jh^Z <hijhk >Zgh: m(CaC2) = 720 d]Ï&#x2030; ij   %. GZclb: V K2G2) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkmdZj[b^ZdZevpby[_aijbf_k_c m KaK2) = 720â&#x2039;&#x2026;(1â&#x20AC;&#x201C;0,2) = 720â&#x2039;&#x2026; d] AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb d]

&D&

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

+ +2  =

oe

& + â&#x2020;&#x2018;

 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

+ &D 2+ 

KhklZ\bfijhihjpbx ] ²e ] ²o o 

  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  = 201,6â&#x2039;&#x2026;103 e f3. 

Hl\_l: V K2G2  f3.

<hijhk >Zgh: V(C2H2) = 134,4 e; W = 75 %. GZclb: m K6G6) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb e

&+ 





 fhev 9 efhev 9 e

W



o]

& +

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

e ²o ] e ²] o  78 â&#x2039;&#x2026; 134,4 ] 67,2 m(C6H6)l_hj ] GZc^_ffZkkm[_gaheZihemqb\r_]hky\ oh^_j_Zdpbb m(C6H6)ijZdl = m(C6H6)l_hjâ&#x2039;&#x2026;W ]â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] Hl\_l: m(C6H6) ]

§ 35:jhfZlbq_kdb_m]e_\h^hjh^u;_gahe

<hijhk

=hfheh]

K6G5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;KG3 ²f_lbe[_gahe K6G5â&#x20AC;&#x201C;K2G5 ²wlbe[_gahe 63


Bahf_j

HCâ&#x2030;¡Câ&#x20AC;&#x201C;Câ&#x2030;¡Câ&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;CH3 ²]_ilZ^bbg

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2. 3C2H2 â&#x2021;&#x2019;

NO 2

3.

+ HONO2 â&#x2021;&#x2019;

+ H2O .

§ 36Kibjlu

<hijhk

 KG3HG H2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; KH2â&#x2020;&#x2018; G2H ²]hjbl[_kp\_lgufieZf_g_f t

64


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3) 2CH2 OH

CH2

H2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; KH2 G2H t

OH

4) 2 CH2 CH CH2 H2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; KH2 G2H t

OH

OH

<hijhk

OH W

KGHG &XH â&#x2021;&#x2019; +&

2

+

&X +2â&#x2020;&#x2018;

<hijhk F_lbeh\ucb wlbeh\uckibjluijbf_gyxlky\ dZq_kl\_ jZkl\hjbl_e_c <hijhk

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Obfbq_kdh_jZ\gh\_kb_wlhcj_Zdpbbfh`ghkf_klblv\ijZ\h ih\ukb\^Z\e_gb_b h[_ki_qb\hl\h^l_ieZ

<hijhk >Zgh: ν K6G12H6  fhev GZclb: m(C2H5OH), V(CO2) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb K6G12H6 â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2G5HG KH2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhev]exdhaufhevm]e_dbkeh]h ]ZaZIhwlhfmbafhev]exdhauihemqbehkvfhevKH2. Lh]^ZV KH2) = ν KH2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Vν fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;efhev e Hl\_l: m \h^db  ]V KH2  e

§ 37:ev^_]b^u

<hijhk

 KGHG >2@â&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ &

2 +

+2

 &+â&#x2030;¡ KG GHâ&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ &+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ & 2+

2

+

65


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KGHG >2@â&#x2020;&#x2019; +&

<hijhk.

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2

+

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nhjfZev^_]b^

2 +& &X 2+ â&#x2020;&#x2019; +K +

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2

2+

2

+

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2 &X2â&#x2020;&#x201C; +2 2+

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2 2 2) &+ & $J2â&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ & $Jâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2+ &+ &

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2 +

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2

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mdkmkgZy dbkehlZ

<hijhk J_Zdpby©k_j_[jygh]ha_jdZeZªfh`_lijbf_gylvky^eyihemq_gby lhgdh]hgZe_lZk_j_[jZgZdZdhf-gb[m^vij_^f_l_beb^eyihemq_gby a_jdZe. <hijhk Ij_^eZ]Z_f\Zfih^mfZlvgZ^wlbfkZfbf

<hijhk  2 3 wlZg  mdkmkgucZev^_]b^ â&#x2020;&#x2019; wlbe_g  â&#x2020;&#x2019; wlbeh\uckibjl  â&#x2020;&#x2019; 4  â&#x2020;&#x2019; mdkmkgZydbkehlZ KG3±KG3â&#x2020;&#x2019;G2 KG2 KG2J_Zdpby^_]b^jbjh\Zgby KG2 KG2 G2Hâ&#x2020;&#x2019;K2G5HGJ_Zdpby]b^jZlZpbb 2 KG±KGHG >2@â&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ & GH J_Zdpbyhdbke_gby + 2 2 &+ & $JHâ&#x2020;&#x2019; &+ & $Jâ&#x2020;&#x201C; J_Zdpbyhdbke_gby 2+ + k_j_[jyggh]ha_jdZeZ 

§ 38Ij_^_evgu_h^ghhkgh\gu_dZj[hgh\u_dbkehlu Keh`gu_wnbju

<hijhk I.  GKHHG + Mg = (CHOO)2Mg + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

66


2) GKHHG + MgO = (CHOO)2Mg + H2O. 3) GKHHG + Mg(OH)2 = (CHOO)2Mg + 2H2O. 4) GKHHG + MgCO3 = (CHOO)2Mg + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. II. 1) Mg + 2CH3COOH = (CH3COO)2Mg + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. 2) MgO + 2CH3COOH = (CH3COO)2Mg + H2O. 3) Mg(OH)2 + 2CH3COOH = (CH3COO)2Mg + H2O. 4) MgCO3 + 2CH3COOH = (CH3COO)2Mg + CO2 + H2O.

<hijhk Keh`guc wnbj ihemqZ_lky \ oh^_ j_Zdpbb ^_]b^jZlZpbb f_`^m dbkehlhc b kibjlhf j_Zdpby wl_jbnbdZpbb  GZa\Zgb_ wnbjZ h[jZam_lky iml_f h[t_^bg_gby ^\mo ijbeZ]Zl_evguo  i_j\h_ ² hl gZa\Zgbydbkehlu\lhjh_²hlgZa\ZgbykibjlZ <hijhk

<hijhk

+&

2 +2 ²&+ Â&#x2021; +& 2 &+ GH 2+ 2

fmjZ\vbghf_lbeh\uc wnbj

>eylh]hqlh[ukf_klblvjZ\gh\_kb_\ j_Zdpbbwl_jbnbdZpbb \ijZ\hgm`gh\\_klb\ kbkl_fm\h^hhlgbfZxs__\_s_kl\h gZijbf_jdhgp_gljbjh\Zggmxk_jgmxdbkehlm <hijhk KG3KHHG + Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG2ClKHHG + HCl oehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ  KG2ClKHHG + Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KGCl2KHHG + HCl ^boehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ . KGCl2KHHG + Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KCl3KHHGHCl ljboehjmdkmkgZydbkehlZ . <hijhk

wlZg  â&#x2020;&#x2019; wlbe_g â&#x2020;&#x2019; wlbeh\uckibjl â&#x2020;&#x2019; mdkmkgucZev^_]b^ 1

2

3

â&#x2020;&#x2019; mdkmkgZydbkehlZ â&#x2020;&#x2019; mdkmkghwlbeh\uckibjl  4

5

oehjmdkmkgZy dbkehlZ

t, p  â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG2 KG2 G2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. KG3±KG3  KG2 KG2 G2Hâ&#x2020;&#x2019;KG3±KG2HG

KG3KG2HG + [O]â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH3 C 4. CH3 C

O H

O H

G2H

+ Ag2Hâ&#x2020;&#x2019;KG3KHHG + 2Agâ&#x2020;&#x201C;.

KG3KHHG K2G5HGâ&#x2020;&#x2019;CH3 C

O

OC 2 H5 + G2O

KG3KHHG + Cl2â&#x2020;&#x2019;KG2ClKHHG + HCl.

67


§ 39@bju

<hijhk

& +

&+ &+ &+ K  G  KHHG & +

2+

2+

2+

2

&

2

&+

&  + 

2

+  2 &  + 

&

2

2

&

&  + 

2

<hijhk >eykf_s_gbyjZ\gh\_kbyj_Zdpbbwl_jbnbdZpbb\ijZ\hgm`gh h[_ki_qblvm^Ze_gb_\h^ubakbkl_fu <hijhk

C H2

O

C

C 17 H 31

O CH

O

C

C 17 H 31

C H2

G2â&#x2020;&#x2019; C H

O

O

O CH2

<hijhk

O

C O

C

C 17 H 35

O C

C 17 H 35

O

C 17 H31

C H2

O

C

C 17 H 35

O

K17G35KHHNa + CaSO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; K17G35KHH 2KZâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + Na2SO4.

<hijhk @bju y\eyxlky \Z`ghc qZklvx ibs_\h]h jZpbhgZ < hj]Zgbaf_ ijhbkoh^bl ]b^jheba `bjh\ dhlhju_ jZks_ieyxlky  gZ ]ebp_jbg b `bjgu_ dbkehlu g_dhlhju_ ba gbo y\eyxlky g_aZf_gbfufb  ld g_ fh]mlkbgl_abjh\Zlvky \ hj]Zgbaf_q_eh\_dZ DZd b ^jm]b_ iblZl_evgu_ \_s_kl\Z `bju ijbgbfZxl mqZklb_ \ ieZklbq_kdhf b wg_j]_lbq_kdhf  h[f_g_ Bo hdbke_gb_ ijb\h^bl d \uk\h[h`^_gbx ]hjZa^h [hevr_]h dhebq_kl\Z wg_j]bb q_f hdbke_gb_ [_edh\b m]e_\h^h\Djhf_lh]h`bjufh]mlgZdZieb\Zlvky\ hj]Zgbaf_ h[jZamy mgb\_jkZevgh_  ^_ih wg_j]_lbq_kdb p_ggh]h fZl_jbZeZ IhklmiZxsb_  \ hj]Zgbaf \ ba[ulhqghf dhebq_kl\_ m]e_\h^u b qZklv [_edh\ fh]ml ljZgknhjfbjh\Zlvky  \ `bj qlh ijb\h^bl d jhklm _]h hleh`_gbc Ijb g_h[oh^bfhklb aZiZk_gguc lZdbf h[jZahf `bj fh`_l ij_\jZsZlvky \ ]ebdh]_g b bkihevah\Zlvky  \ j_Zdpbyo m]e_\h^gh]h h[f_gZ

68


§ 40:fbghdbkehlub [_edb

<hijhk Fhe_dmeuZfbghdbkehlkh^_j`Zl^\_nmgdpbhgZevgu_]jmiiu H2N â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Zfbgh]jmiimb COOHâ&#x20AC;&#x201D; dZj[hdkbevgmx]jmiimihwlhfm Zfbghdbkehluijhy\eyxlk\hckl\ZdZdZfbgh\lZdb dZj[hgh\uo dbkehl <hijhk JZaebqb_f_`^mj_Zdpbyfbihebdhg^_gkZpbbb ihebf_jbaZpbb aZdexqZ_lky\ lhfqlh\ i_j\hcj_ZdpbbgZjy^mk ihebf_jhf h[jZam_lkygbadhfhe_dmeyjgh_\_s_kl\hqZs_\k_]h\h^Z\ j_Zdpbbihebf_jbaZpbbh[jZam_lkylhevdhihebf_j

<hijhk N_jf_glu±wlh[bheh]bq_kdb_dZlZebaZlhjuHgbij_^klZ\eyxl kh[hc[_edbN_jf_gluhlebqZxlkyhlg_hj]Zgbq_kdbo dZlZebaZlhjh\\ukhdhcwnn_dlb\ghklvxb ki_pbnbqghklvx ^_ckl\by <hijhk

1+

&+ &2 5

>++ @



 Q+2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Q1+ &+ &22

Q

5

=b^jheba[_edh\ih^^_ckl\b_fdbkehlbebs_ehq_ce_`bl\ hkgh\_ ijhp_kkZibs_\Zj_gby <hijhk

1 2 3 4 K2G6  â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2G5HG  â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG3KHG  â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG3KHHG  â&#x2020;&#x2019;

 â&#x2020;&#x2019; KG2KlCOOH  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;NH2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;COOH  â&#x2020;&#x2019; ihebi_ilb^ 4

W3

5

6

K2H6 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CH2 = CH2 + H2; CH2 = CH2 + H2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; K2H5OH; 2. K2H5OH + [O] â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH3COH + H2O; 3. CH3COH + Ag2O â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH3COOH + 2Agâ&#x2020;&#x201C;; 4. CH3COOH + Cl2 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH2ClCOOH + HCl; 5. CH2ClCOOH + 2NH3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; CH2NH2COOH + NH4Cl; 6. Q&+1+&22+

1+

&+ & 5

2

Q

Q+2

§ 41M]e_\h^u

<hijhk >Zgh: ν K6G12H6  fhevÏ&#x2030; K2G5HG   %. GZclb: m kibjlZ

69


J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb K6G12H6 â&#x2020;&#x2019; 2K2G5HG + 2CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlhbafhev]exdhauihemqZ_lkyfhev wlbeh\h]hkibjlZihwlhfmν K2G5HG â&#x2039;&#x2026;ν K6G12H6)=2â&#x2039;&#x2026;fhev fhev 2. m K2G5HG ν K2G5HG â&#x2039;&#x2026;M K2G5HG fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;]fhev ] Lh]^Zm kibjlZ  m K2G5HG Ï&#x2030; K2G5HG  ] ] Hl\_lm kibjlZ  ] <hijhk >Zgh: m G2H  d] GZclb: V(O2) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb KH2 G2H â&#x2020;&#x2019; K6G12H6 H2. BamjZ\g_gby\b^ghqlhbafhev\h^uihemqZ_lkyfhev dbkehjh^Zihwlhfm  â&#x2039;&#x2026;  P + 2

= = 2â&#x2039;&#x2026;104 fhev ν H2) = ν G2H   0 +  2

]fhev Lh]^ZV H2)=ν H2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Vν=2â&#x2039;&#x2026;104 fhevâ&#x2039;&#x2026;efhev â&#x2039;&#x2026;104 e  f3. Hl\_lV H2  f3. <hijhk +

&+2+

+

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2

+

2 + 2+

<hijhk =exdhaZ 2 + &

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O C ²Zev^_]b^gZy]jmiiZ +±&±2+ ]jmiiZ; ]jmiiZ H &+2+ FmjZ\vbgmxdbkehlmfh`ghgZa\ZlvZev^_]b^hdbkehlhc.

<hijhk Fhe_dmeZdjZofZeZbf__ljZa\_l\e_ggh_kljh_gb_ihoh`__gZ k_ldmZ fhe_dmeZp_eexehaubf__lkljh_gb_p_ihqdbghbo fhghf_jhfy\ey_lky]exdhaZ

70


<hijhk =exdhaZijbf_gy_lky\ f_^bpbg_b ibs_\hcijhfure_gghklb ijb ijhba\h^kl\_  a_jdZe KZoZjhaZ \ ibs_\hc ijhfure_gghklb  DjZofZe ² \ ibs_\hc l_dklbevghc [mfZ`ghc iheb]jZnbq_kdhc ijhfure_gghklyo P_eexehaZ ijbf_gy_lky ^ey ihemq_gby [mfZ]b obfbq_kdbo\hehdhgieZklfZkkihjhoZeZdh\ <hijhk <hijhk

<hijhk

§ 42Ihebf_ju Q&+

Q &+

&+&O â&#x2021;&#x2019;

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ihebijhibe_g

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71


Ijbeh`_gb_ <hijhk

1H[sZydeZkkbnbdZpbym^h[j_gbc

Z  Ï&#x2030; NaNO ( N) =

14 Mr ( N) = 16,5 %. = Mr ( NaNO 3 ) 85 28 2Mr(N) [  Ï&#x2030;( NH ) SO ( N ) = = = 21,2 %. Mr((NH 4 ) 2SO 4 ) 132 2 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Mr ( N) 28 \  Ï&#x2030;1+ 12 1 = = = 35 %. Mr ( NH 4 NO 3 ) 80 GZb[he__dhgp_gljbjh\Zggh_ m^h[j_gb_NH4NO3. 3

4 2

4

<hijhk

Z Ï&#x2030;.12 . 2 =

Mr(K 2 O) 94 = = 46,5 %. 2Mr(KNO3 ) 202 Mr ( N) = 14 = 14 %. Ï&#x2030;.12 1 = 101 Mr (KNO 3 ) 28 2Mr ( N) [  Ï&#x2030; 1+  +32 1 = = = 21,2 %; 132 Mr ( NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 142 Mr (P2 O 5 ) & 1+ +32 32  = = = 53,8 %. 264 2Mr ( NH 4 ) 2 HPO 4 282 3 â&#x2039;&#x2026; Mr(K 2 O) \  Ï&#x2030;K 3PO 4 (K 2 O) = = = 66,5 %. 424 2Mr(K 3 PO 4 ) 142 Ï&#x2030;K 3PO 4 (P2 O 5 ) = Mr ( P2 O 5 ) = = 33,5 %. 424 2Mr ( K 3 PO 4 )

<hijhk. G_\k_m^h[j_gbyfh`ghkf_rb\Zlv^jm]k ^jm]hf 2NH4NO3 &D 2G 2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; G2H :ffbZd\us_eZqb\Z_l ihq\m <hijhk < khklZ\_\_s_kl\h[jZamxsbode_ldb\k_o`b\uohj]Zgbafh\ h[gZjm`_gh[he__we_f_glh\Wlbwe_f_gluijbgylh^_eblvgZ ^\_]jmiiufZdjh- b fbdjhwe_f_glu FZdjhwe_f_glu kh^_j`Zlky \ de_ldZo \ [hevrbo dhebq_kl\Zo < i_j\mx hq_j_^v wlh m]e_jh^ dbkehjh^ Zahl b \h^hjh^ < kmff_ hgb khklZ\eyxl ihqlb  \k_]h kh^_j`bfh]h  de_ldb Ba gbo khklhyl \ 72


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73


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<hijhk Ieh^hjh^b_ ihq\u aZ\bkbl g_ lhevdh hl dhebq_kl\Z iblZl_evguo \_s_kl\ gh lZd`_ hl \h^h b \ha^mohijhgbpZ_fhklb  ihwlhfm ohjhrZy iZohlZlZd`_g_h[oh^bfZdZdb \g_k_gb_m^h[j_gbc

74


<hijhk

2Obfbq_kdZyf_ebhjZpbyihq\ CaCO3 + 2HCl = CaCl2 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

G_jZkl\hjbfucdZj[hgZldZevpbyjZkl\hjy_lky\ dbkehlZo

<hijhk J_dhf_g^m_lkyihke__^uihqbklblvam[ubebih`_\Zlv `_\Zl_evgmxj_abgdm^eylh]hqlh[ug_cljZebah\Zlvkj_^m `_em^dZkexghc <hijhk

CaCO3 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2+ + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

6 l 100 Hl\_lgm`gh\g_klbd]CaCO3. m(CaCO3) = 4l]Zâ&#x2039;&#x2026; <hijhk

CaCO3â&#x2039;&#x2026;MgCO3 + 4H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2+ + Mg2+ + 2CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O.

3:ahlgu_dZebcgu_b nhknhjgu_m^h[j_gby

<hijhk Ca3(PO4)2 ²fZehjZkl\hjbfh_\ \h^_\_s_kl\hihwlhfm_]h\ghkyl ^hihk_\Zld\ wlh\j_fy\eZ`ghklvihq\u[hevr_ <hijhk Ca3(PO4)2 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; nhknhjblgZyfmdZ ²fZehjZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\h ihwlhfmhghŠmk\Zb\Z_lkyÂŞihq\hc^ebl_evgh_\j_fy

<hijhk Nhknhjgu_m^h[j_gby\ [hevrbgkl\_k\h_ffZehjZkl\hjbfu_ \_s_kl\Zke_^h\Zl_evghbojZkl\hj_gb_aZgbfZ_l^he]bci_jbh^ DZebcgu_`_m^h[j_gby ²ohjhrhjZkl\hjbfu_\_s_kl\Zihwlhfm hgb[ukljhmk\Zb\Zxlkyihq\hc <hijhk Hl\_lgZwlhl\hijhk_klv\ Â&#x2039;  \hijhkub  

<hijhk >Zgh: V jjZ e ]m(HNO3) ]m(CaĂ&#x2014;(NO3)2)=10] GZclb: Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(K2O), Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(N), Ď&#x2030;\ jj_(P2O5) J_r_gb_GZc^_ffZkkh\u_^hebwe_f_glh\

75


0 U .  2

94 = = 46,5 %. 0 U .12

202 14 0 U 1

Ï&#x2030;KNO 3 ( N) = = = 14 %. 0 U .12 101 28 0 U 1

Ï&#x2030;Ca ( NO3 )2 ( N) = = = 17 %. 0 U &D 12  164 0 U . 2

94 Ï&#x2030; KH 2PO 4 (K 2 O) = = = 34,6 %. 0 U .+ 32 

272 0 U 32

142 Ï&#x2030; KH 2PO4 (P2 O 5 ) = = = 52,2 %. 0 U .+ 32 

272 GZc^_ffZkkudhfihg_glh\ m(N) = m(KNO3)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(N) + m(Ca(NO3)2)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(N) = 2,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,14 + 10â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,17 = = 0,35 + 1,7 = 2,05 ] m(P) = m(K2HPO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(P2O5) = 2,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,522 = 1,305 ] m(K)=m(KNO3)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(K2O)+m(KH2PO4)â&#x2039;&#x2026;Ï&#x2030;(K2O)=2,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,465+2,5â&#x2039;&#x2026;0,346=2,02 75 ] 3. GZc^_ffZkkh\u_^hebdhfihg_glh\ m( N) Ï&#x2030;(N) = = m(j â&#x2C6;&#x2019; jZ ) + m(KNO 3 ) + m(Ca ( NO 3 ) 2 + m(KH 2 PO 4 )

Ï&#x2030;KNO (K 2 O) = 3

=

 = 0,2 %. 

2,0275 m( K ) = = 0,2 %. m(h[s) 1015 1,305 m( P ) Ï&#x2030;(P) = = = 0,113 %. m(h[s) 1015 Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;(N) = 0,2 %; Ï&#x2030; J) = 0,13 %; Ï&#x2030;(D   %. Ï&#x2030;(K) =

<hijhk >Zgh: Ï&#x2030;kf_kb (J2H5) = 0,2. GZclb: Ï&#x2030; KZ G2JH4)2) J_r_gb_Kmi_jnhknZlijhklhckhklhblbaCa(H2PO4)2 b CaSO4. m(P2 O 5 ) x AgZqblÏ&#x2030; J2H5) = = = 0,2. m(kf_kb) y o â&#x2039;&#x2026;m]^_m ²fZkkZkf_kb m(Ca ( H 2 PO 4 ) 2 ) 2. Ï&#x2030; KZ G2JH4)2) = = m (kf_kb )

76


=

m(P2 O 5 ) : Ï&#x2030; Ca ( H 2PO 4 )2 (P2 O 5 ) m(kf_kb)

Ï&#x2030;Ca ( H PO ) (P2 O 5 ) = 2

4 2

=

[  Ï&#x2030;&D + 32  32 

\

142 0 U 3 2

= = 60,7 %. 0 U &D + 32 

234

Lh]^ZÏ&#x2030; KZ G2JH4)2)=

;

[     â&#x2039;&#x2026; \   = =0,329=32,9 %. \ \

Hl\_l: Ï&#x2030;\ kmi_jnhknZl_ KZ G2JH4)2) = 32,9 %.

<hijhk >Zgh: m(H3PO4) = ]m(Ca(OH)2) = 37 ] GZclb: m(CaHPO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;2H2O) J_r_gb_AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbb Ka(OH)2+H3PO4=CaHPO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;2H2O; ν(Ca(OH)2)=0,5fhev ν G3JH4 fhev BamjZ\g_gbyj_Zdpbb\b^ghqlhν G3JH4): ν(Ca(OH)2  Ba ^Zgguo\b^ghqlhCa(OH)2 \ ba[uld_ihwlhfmkqblZ_fihG3JH4. BafhevG3JH4 ihemqZ_lkyfhevij_pbiblZlZ. m(CaHPO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;2H2O) = ν \_s\Z â&#x2039;&#x2026;M \\Z  â&#x2039;&#x2026; ] Hl\_l: m(CaHPO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;2H22  ]

77


Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmf I. K\hckl\Z f_lZeeh\b bokh_^bg_gby IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 1. Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Zijh^mdlZj_Zdpbb

<ZjbZgl Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Z\h^hjh^Zijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbpbgdZk kheyghc dbkehlhc ]Zahhl\h^gZy ljm[dZ

rlZlb\

ijh[dZ f_jguc pbebg^j djbklZeebaZlhj k \h^hc ijh[bjdZk ihjhrdhf Zn b HCl

Kh[_j_fijb[hj^eyihemq_gby]Zah\dZdihdZaZghgZjbkmgd_ Ijh\_jbf_]hgZ]_jf_lbqghklv>eywlh]hhimklbfk\h[h^guc dhg_p]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[db\ \h^mb gZ]j__fijh[bjdm fh`ghk ihfhsvxkibjlh\db ?kebbaljm[db\uoh^ylimaujvdb\ha^moZ jZkrbjb\r_]hkyijbgZ]j_\Zgbblhijb[hjkh[jZg]_jf_lbqgh L_i_jvgZev_f\ f_jgucpbebg^j\h^mZddmjZlghi_j_\_jg_f_]h\ \h^_ lZd qlh[u \ha^mo g_ ihiZe \gmljv dhg_p ]Zahhl\h^ghc  ljm[db ihf_klbf \ pbebg^j dZd ihdZaZgh gZ jbkmgd_ < ijh[bjdm ihf_klbf jZkq_lgh_ dhebq_kl\h ihjhrdZ pbgdZ b jZkl\hj kheyghc dbkehlu b iehlghaZldg_f__ j_abgh\hcijh[dhck ]Zahhl\h^ghc ljm[dhc < ijh[bjd_gZqbgZ_lky\u^_e_gb_\h^hjh^Zdhlhjucihljm[d_ ihklmiZ_l\ f_jgucpbebg^jb \ul_kgy_lbag_]h\h^mH[t_f \ul_kg_gghc\h^ujZ\_gh[t_fmihemq_ggh]h\h^hjh^Z VH ( ijZdl.) ). >eylh]hqlh[umagZlv VH 2 ( ijZdl.) aZibr_fj_Zdpbx\aZbfh^_ckl\by =Qb +&O 2

=Q

 fhev 0 ]fhev P 0â&#x2039;&#x2026;  ]

+ +&O â&#x2021;&#x2019; =Q&O +

+ â&#x2020;&#x2018;  fhev 9 efhev 9 νâ&#x2039;&#x2026; 9ν  e

78


Ij_^\Zjbl_evgh\a\_kb\pbgdjZkkqblZ_fl_hj_lbq_kdbh[t_f \h^hjh^Z V VH 2 ( l_hj.) = mZnâ&#x2039;&#x2026; = mZn 22,4 = 0,345 mZn; m 65 lh]^Z\uoh^\h^hjh^Zfh`ghihemqblvihnhjfme_ VH 2 ( ijZdl .) 9+ ijZdl

9+  ijZdl

â&#x2039;&#x2026;100 % = â&#x2039;&#x2026;100 % = 2,9â&#x2039;&#x2026;  W= 100 %. P P =Q VH 2 ( l_hj.) =Q

<ZjbZgl Hij_^_e_gb_\uoh^Z\h^hjh^Zijb\aZbfh^_ckl\bbdZevpbyk \h^hc Hiulijh\h^blkyZgZeh]bqghij_^u^ms_fm \ZjbZgl  HlebqZxlkyebrvjZkq_lu KgZqZeZgZc^_ffZkkmqbklh]hdZevpby<a\_kb\\u^Zgguch[jZa_p fumagZ_fkmffZjgmxfZkkmf_lZeeZk ijbf_kyfb (100% â&#x2C6;&#x2019; 12%) mCa = mh[jZapZ = 0,88 mh[jZapZ . 100% ± ^heyqbklh]hf_lZeeZ\ h[jZap_AZibr_fj_Zdpbx \aZbfh^_ckl\byKZk G2H &D

 fhev 0 ]fhev P ]

oe

+ + 2 = &D 2+  +

Lh]^Z VH 2 ( l_hj.) = mKZâ&#x2039;&#x2026;

+ â&#x2020;&#x2018;  fhev 9 efhev 9 e

V = 0,56mKZ = 0,4928 mh[jZapZ . m JZkkqblZ_f\uoh^\h^hjh^Zihnhjfme_ VH 2 ( ijZdl .) VH ( ijZdl .) â&#x2039;&#x2026;100 % = 2,03â&#x2039;&#x2026; 2 W= 100 %. VH 2 ( l_hj.) m h[jZapZ

< j_Zdpbbh[jZam_lkyfZehjZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\hKZ HG 2Hgh hklZg_lky\ ijh[bjd_\ \b^_[_ehcfmlb

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 2. Hkms_kl\e_gb_p_ihqdbobfbq_kdboij_\jZs_gbc

<ZjbZgl Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby 1 2 3 â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; â&#x2020;&#x2019; MgCO3  MgCl2  Mg(OH)2  MgSO4.  <havf_fl\_j^uc0J&23 b ^h[Z\bfd g_fmjZkl\hj+&O MgCO3 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; MgCl2 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. MgCO3 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Mg2+ + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

79


]Za

L\_j^ucdZj[hgZlfZ]gbyjZkl\hjblky\ dbkehl_b [m^_l\u^_eylvky

 D ihemq_gghfmjZkl\hjm^h[Z\bfs_ehqvgZijbf_jjZkl\hj NaOH. MgCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;; Mg2+ + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. Ijhbkoh^bl\uiZ^_gb_[_eh]hhkZ^dZ  D hkZ^dm^h[Z\ey_fjZkl\hj+2SO4. Mg(OH)2 + H2SO4â&#x2021;&#x2019;MgSO4 + 2H2O;Mg(OH)2 + 2H+â&#x2021;&#x2019;Mg2+ + 2H2O. HkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky <ZjbZgl Ijh\_^_fke_^mxs__ij_\jZs_gb_ 

â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu(OH)2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; CuO  â&#x2020;&#x2019; Cu. CuSO4   D jZkl\hjmf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ &X624 ^h[Z\bfhklhjh`gh jZkl\hj1D2+ CuSO4 + 2NaOH = Cu(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Na2SO4, Cu2+ + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; = Cu(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_lkbgbchkZ^hd  Ijh[bjdmk ihemq_ggufhkZ^dhfZddmjZlghgZ]j__fgZkibjlh\d_ 1

2

3

W

Cu(OH)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CuO + H2O.

KbgbchkZ^hdihkl_i_gghq_jg__lIjhbkoh^bljZaeh`_gb_ Cu(OH)2k h[jZah\Zgb_fq_jgh]hKX2  >eyihemq_gby&XkgZqZeZi_j_\_^_f&X2\ jZkl\hj^h[Z\bf jZkl\hj+&O KX2 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CuCl2 + H2O, KX2 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu2+ + H2O. Q_jguchkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lkyL_i_jv^h[Z\bflm^Zihjhrhd`_e_aZ Ihemq_ggmxkf_kvfh`ghhklhjh`ghijhdbiylblvgZkibjlh\d_ CuCl2 + Fe â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cuâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + FeCl2; Cu2+ + Fe0 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu0â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Fe2+. GZ^g_ijh[bjdbhklZ_lkydjZkguchkZ^hdf_^b <ZjbZgl Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby 



= Q& O   â&#x2020;&#x2019; = Q 2 +   â&#x2020;&#x2019; = Q & O    1 D = Q 2 

 D jZkl\hjm=Q&O2 ^h[Z\bfg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+ ZnCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl, Zn2+ + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_l[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd

80


 <uiZ\rbchkZ^hdjZa^_ebfgZ^\_jZ\gu_qZklbD i_j\hc ijh[bjd_^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj+&O Zn(OH)2 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; ZnCl2 + 2H2O, Zn(OH)2 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn2+ + 2H2O. HkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky  Dh\lhjhcijh[bjd_^h[Z\bfba[ulhd1D2+ Zn(OH)2+2NaOHâ&#x2021;&#x2019;Na2[Zn(OH)4], Zn(OH)2+2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;â&#x2021;&#x2019;[Zn(OH)4]2â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. H[jZam_lky]b^jhdkhdhfie_dkpbgdZ Ijb\_^_ggZy\ mq_[gbd_ nhjfmeZ1D2ZnO2 g_\_jgZ^eyj_Zdpbc\ jZkl\hjZo  Zn(OH)2 \ j_Zdpbyo b  \_^_lk_[ydZdZlfhkn_jguc]b^jhdkb^ j_Z]bjmyb kdbkehlhcb khkgh\Zgbyfb

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 3. Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^ZqbihjZkihagZ\Zgbx b ihemq_gbx\_s_kl\

<ZjbZgl < \u^Zgguoijh[bjdZokh^_j`Zlkyl\_j^u_[_eu_\_s_kl\Z>ey gZqZeZjZkl\hjbfbo\ \h^_>h[Z\bfd ihemq_ggufjZkl\hjZf H2SO4. Z 1D2+ + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Na2SO4 + 2H2O, 2Na+ + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Na+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H2O, HGâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; G+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; G2H G_l\b^bfuobaf_g_gbc [ D2KH3 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; K2SO4 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. 2K+ + CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2K+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. <u^_ey_lky]Za \ %D&O2 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2HCl; Ba2+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2H+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;. Ba2+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd

<ZjbZgl < ijh[bjdZokh^_j`Zlkyl\_j^u_[_eu_\_s_kl\ZKgZqZeZbo jZkl\hjbf\ \h^_ Z < h^ghcijh[bjd_\_s_kl\hg_[m^_ljZkl\hjylvkyWlh&D&23. >eyhdhgqZl_evghcijh\_jdb^h[Z\bfd g_fmjZkl\hj+&O CaCO3 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCl2 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. CaCO3 + 2H+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. CaCO3 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2+ + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. <u^_ey_lky]Za 81


[ D hklZ\rbfkyjZkl\hjZf^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj%D&O2< h^ghcba ijh[bjhd\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hdWlhjZkl\hj1D2SO4. Na2SO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaCl + BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. 2Na+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ba2+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Na+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ba2+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. \ < hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_gZoh^blky.&O

<ZjbZgl < ijh[bjdZo ²l\_j^u_[_eu_\_s_kl\ZIhiulZ_fkybojZkl\hjblv \ \h^_G_jZkl\hjb\r__ky\_s_kl\h\ h^ghcbaijh[bjhd ²wlh KZKO3>eyih^l\_j`^_gbyfh`gh^h[Z\blvd g_fmjZkl\hjdbkehlu kfhljb\ZjbZgl Z

>eyhij_^_e_gby1D2SO4 ijh\_^_f ZgZeh]bqguchiuldZdb \\ZjbZgl_ [  < hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_gZoh^blky%D(NO3)2. <ZjbZgl < ijh[bjdZo ²ljbjZaebqguojZkl\hjZ>h[Z\bfd dZ`^hcbalj_o ijh[bjhdg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+ Z < ijh[bjd_]^_g_l\b^bfuobaf_g_gbckh^_j`blky1D&O [ < ijh[bjd_k jZkl\hjhf$O&O3 \uiZe[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd jZkl\hjbfucdZd\ dbkehlZolZdb \s_ehqZo AlCl3 + 3NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 3NaCl + Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. Al3+ + 3Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 3Na+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 3Na+ + 3Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. Al3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. \ < ijh[bjd_k jZkl\hjhf)H&O3 hkZ^hdbf__l[mjucp\_lWlhl hkZ^hdlZd`_jZkl\hjbf\ dbkehlZob \ba[uld_s_ehqb FeCl3 + 3NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 3NaCl + Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. Fe3+ + 3Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 3Na+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 3Na+ + 3Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. Fe3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. AZ^ZqZ >eyhij_^_e_gbyijbf_kbkmevnZlZ`_e_aZ ,,, \ `_e_aghf dmihjhk_ \hkihevam_fkydZq_kl\_gghcj_Zdpb_cgZbhg)H3+l_ ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbxk `_elhcdjh\yghckhevx 2Fe2(SO4)3 + 3K4[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 6K2SO4. ?kebijbf_kv)H3+ kh^_j`blky\ dmihjhk_lh\uiZ^_ll_fghkbgbc hkZ^hdlmjg[me_\hckbgb AZ^ZqZ >eygZqZeZi_j_\_^_f)H&O3 \ ]b^jhdkb^^h[Z\eyyjZkl\hj1D2+ FeCl3 + 3NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NaCl.

82


<uiZ^Z_l[mjuchkZ^hd]b^jhdkb^ZL_i_jvkhev_fk g_]hjZkl\hjih \hafh`ghklbZ kZfhkZ^hdi_j_g_k_f\ nZjnhjh\uclb]evb ijhdZebfgZh]g_HklZ\rbckyihjhrhdp\_lZj`Z\qbgub [m^_l Fe2O3. t

2Fe(OH)3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe2O3 + 3H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

AZ^ZqZ >ey ihemq_gby ZexfbgZlZ gZljby g_h[oh^bfh  d $O ^h[Z\blv ba[ulhdjZkl\hjZ1D2+b ih^h`^Zlvg_dhlhjh_\j_fy

:exfbgbcgZ\ha^mo_ihdju\Z_lkyhdkb^ghcie_gdhcdhlhjZy f_^e_gghjZkl\hjy_lky\ s_ehqbKZf`_Zexfbgbck s_ehqvx j_Z]bjm_l^h\hevghZdlb\gh AZibr_f\k_ijhbkoh^ysb_j_Zdpbb 3H2O + Al2O3 + 6NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Na3[Al(OH)6]; 2Al + 6H2O â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Al(OH)3 + 3H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; Al(OH)3 + 3NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Na3[Al(OH)6]. < j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkyZexfbgZlgZljby

AZ^ZqZ >eyihemq_gby)H&O2 ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbxf_`^m)Hb jZkl\hjhf+&O Fe + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + FeCl2.

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 4. DZq_kl\_ggu_j_ZdpbbgZbhguf_lZeeh\

AZ^Zgb_ < obfbbbkoh^j_ZdpbbqZklhaZ\bkblhlmkeh\bc_]hijh\_^_gby gZijbf_jhlkhhlghr_gbyj_Z]_glh\ Ijb^h[Z\e_gbbd jZkl\hjm$O&O3 s_ehqb\uiZ^Z_lhkZ^hd ]b^jhdkb^Zlds_ehqv\ wlhfkemqZ_\ g_^hklZld_ AlCl3 + 3NaOH g_^hkl â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NaCl. Ijb^h[Z\e_gbbd s_ehqbjZkl\hjZ$O&O3 hkZ^hdg_\uiZ^Z_lld Al(OH)3 kjZam`_j_Z]bjm_lk ba[uldhf1D2+^hh[jZah\Zgby ]b^jhdkhdhfie_dkZ AlCl3 + 6NaOH ba[ â&#x2021;&#x2019; 3NaCl + Na3[Al(OH)6]â&#x2020;&#x201C;. AZ^Zgb_ >eyih^l\_j`^_gbydZq_kl\_ggh]hkhklZ\Z&D&O2 ^h[Z\bfd _]h jZkl\hjmdZj[hgZlgZljbyIjbwlhf\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hd CaCl2 + Na2CO3 = CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl; Ca2+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2Na+ + &2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2Na+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;;

83


Ca2+ + &2 â&#x2C6;&#x2019; = CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

>eyhij_^_e_gbybhgh\&Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; \ h[jZap_fh`ghbkihevah\ZlvjZkl\hj AgNO3dhlhjuc^Z_lg_jZkl\hjbfuc[_euchkZ^hd CaCl2 + 2AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca(NO3)2 + 2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;; Ca2+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2Ag+ + 2NO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2+ + 2NO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. AZ^Zgb_ Ijh\_^_fke_^mxsb_ij_\jZs_gby

â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl2  â&#x2020;&#x2019; FeCl3. Fe  1

 JZkl\hjbf`_e_ah\ jZkl\hj_+&O 

+

+

2



)H  +&O â&#x2021;&#x2019; )H&O  +  â&#x2020;&#x2018; Â?

Fe0 + 2H+ = Fe2+ + H 02 â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

<u^_ey_lky\h^hjh^L_i_jvijh\_jbf\ jZkl\hj_gZebqb_)H2+ k ihfhsvxdjZkghcdjh\yghckheb 3FeCl2 + 2K3[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 6KCl. 3Fe2+ + 2[Fe(CN)6]3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_ll_fghkbgbchkZ^hdlmjg[me_\hckbgbke_^h\Zl_evgh bhgu)H2+ ²ihemq_gu  I_j_\_^_f)H2+ \ )H3+bkihevamyoehjgmx\h^mOehjgZy\h^Z â&#x20AC;&#x201D; wlhjZkl\hj&O2 \ \h^_ +



+

)H&O   &O  â&#x2021;&#x2019; )H&Oâ&#x2C6;&#x2019;  Â?

2Fe2+ + Cl 02 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2Fe3+ + 2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;.

P\_ljZkl\hjZbaa_e_gh]hi_j_oh^bl\ `_elhdhjbqg_\ucL_i_jv ijh\_jbfjZkl\hjgZgZebqb_)H3+ k ihfhsvx`_elhcdjh\yghc kheb 4FeCl3 + 3K4[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 12KCl. 4Fe3+ + 3[Fe(CN)6]4â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe4[Fe(CN)6]3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. ?keb\uiZ^Z_ll_fghkbgbchkZ^hd lmjg[me_\Zkbgv lh\ jZkl\hj_ kh^_j`Zlkybhgu)H3+. AZ^Zgb_ Ihemqbf)H624.  Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx)Hk +2SO4. 0

+1

+2

0

Fe + H 2 SO 4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H 2 â&#x2020;&#x2018;. Â?

@_e_ahjZkl\hjy_lky\ dbkehl_b \u^_ey_lky]Za< jZkl\hj_ hklZ_lky)H624. 84


 Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx)Hk jZkl\hjhf&X624. +



+



&X 62   )H â&#x2021;&#x2019; )H62   &X â&#x2020;&#x201C; Â?

<uiZ^Z_ldjZkguchkZ^hdf_^b\ jZkl\hj_hklZ_lky)H624.  BajZkl\hjZkheb)H2+ ihemqbfkgZqZeZ]b^jhdkb^`_e_aZ ,,  FeCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaCl. Fe2+ + 2OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

Khev_fhklZ\rbckyjZkl\hjb ^h[Z\bf+2SO4H[jZam_lky)H624. Fe(OH)2 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2H2O + FeSO4; Fe(OH)2 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe2+ + 2H2O.  ?s_)H624 fh`ghihemqblvba)H623 ^h[Z\e_gb_fdbkehlu FeSO3 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; FeSO4 + H2O + SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;; FeSO3 + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe2+ + H2O + SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. AZ^Zgb_ Ijh\_jbfdZq_kl\_gguckhklZ\kmevnZlZ`_e_aZ ,,   >hdZ`_fkh^_j`Zgb_\ jZkl\hj_bhgh\)H2+Bkihevam_f^ey wlh]hdZq_kl\_ggmxj_Zdpbxk djZkghcdjh\yghckhevx 3FeSO4 + 2K3[Fe(CN)6] â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3K2SO4; 3Fe2+ + 2[Fe(CN)6]3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Fe3[Fe(CN)6]2â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<uiZ^_gb_l_fghkbg_]hhkZ^dZ]h\hjblh gZebqbbbhgh\)H2+.  >hdZ`_fkh^_j`Zgb_\ jZkl\hj_bhgh\6242â&#x20AC;&#x201C; j_Zdpb_ck khevx [Zjby FeSO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + FeCl2; SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ba2+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjyxsbcky\ dbkehlZob s_ehqZo Ke_^h\Zl_evghjZkl\hjkh^_j`Ze6242â&#x20AC;&#x201C;.

85


Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmf II. K\hckl\Z kh_^bg_gbcg_f_lZeeh\ IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 5. Ihemq_gb_kheyghcdbkehlub bamq_gb___k\hckl\

Ihemq_gb_kheyghcdbkehlu +&O  Z ;m^mqbg_e_lmq_ckbevghcdbkehlhc+2SO dhgp kihkh[gZy \ul_kgylv^jm]b_dbkehlubabokhe_c< ^ZgghfkemqZ_+&OlZd`_ kbevgZydbkehlZghhgZh[eZ^Z_le_lmqbfbk\hckl\ZfbIhwlhfm ^ey__ ihemq_gbybkihevamxlj_Zdpbxk H2SO dhgp ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb t

H2SO dhgp + NaCll\ â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaHSO4 + HClâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

< kbevghdbkehckj_^_kj_^gyykhev1D2SO4 i_j_oh^bl\ dbkemx NaHSO4. Na2SO4 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaHSO4. ;_agZ]j_\Zgby\ jZkl\hj_mklZgZ\eb\Z_lkybhggh_jZ\gh\_kb_ Oehjh\h^hjh^g_\u^_ey_lky NaCl + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaHSO4 1Z&O  JZkl\hjoehjh\h^hjh^Zg_fgh]hly`_e__\h^uihwlhfmfu fh`_fgZ[ex^Zlvlhgdb_himkdZxsb_kykljmcdb_s_g_ i_j_f_rZ\r_ckylhevdhqlhh[jZah\Z\r_ckyijbjZkl\hj_gbb kheyghcdbkehlu  Oehjh\h^hjh^hq_gvohjhrhjZkl\hjbf\ \h^_?kebdhg_p ]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[dbhimklblvgbadhd ih\_joghklb\h^ulhfh`_l ijhbahclb\kZku\Zgb_jZkl\hjZ\ ljm[dm Ihkfhljbl_jbkbamq_[gbdZ klj beexkljbjmxsbc ohjhrmxjZkl\hjbfhklvoehjh\h^hjh^Z\ \h^_ Bamq_gb_k\hckl\kheyghcdbkehlu >eybamq_gbyk\hckl\kheyghcdbkehluijh\_^_fg_kdhevdh oZjZdl_jguo^eyg__j_Zdpbc  G_\k_f_lZeeuj_Z]bjmxlk kheyghcdbkehlhcB^_lj_Zdpbybeb g_laZ\bkblhlZdlb\ghklbf_lZeeZQ_fZdlb\g_cf_lZeel_f [uklj__b^_l\aZbfh^_ckl\b_>eym^h[kl\Zfh`ghjZkkfhlj_lv we_dljhobfbq_kdbcjy^gZijy`_gbcf_lZeeh\ hggZoh^blkygZ nhjaZp_\ dhgp_mq_[gbdZ Lh]^Zf_lZeeugZoh^ysb_kyi_j_^G2, j_Z]bjmxlk dbkehlZfbihke_G2 ²g_j_Z]bjmxl Ihwlhfm=Qb 0J\ul_kgyxl+2 badbkehlu Zn + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; ZnCl2 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;, 86


Mg + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; MgCl + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. K f_^vxkheygZydbkehlZg_j_Z]bjm_l  < q_l\_jlhcijh[bjd_ijhl_dZ_lj_Zdpby t

CuO + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CuCl2 + H2O.

&X2jZkl\hjy_lky\ dbkehl_h[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjaZkq_l hdjZr_gguobhgh\&X2+. < iylhcijh[bjd_ijhbkoh^bljZkl\hj_gb_&X 2+ 2 \ +&O Cu(OH)2 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; G2H + CuCl2. LZd`_h[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hj &X2+). < r_klhcijh[bjd_ CaCO3 + 2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCl2 + H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. ;he__kbevgZydbkehlZ\ul_kgy_l[he__keZ[mxm]hevgmxdbkehlm dhlhjZyjZaeZ]Z_lkygZm]e_dbkeuc]Zab \h^m H2CO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O.  KgZqZeZaZibr_f\k_j_Zdpbbk $J123. HCl + AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + HNO3; NaCl + AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + NaNO3; CaCl2 + 2AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + Ca(NO3)2.

<h\k_oijh[bjdZo\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\ HNO dhgp . :gZeh]bqghijhbkoh^ylj_Zdpbbk 3E 123)2: 2HCl + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2HNO3; 2NaCl + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NaNO3; CaCl2 + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + Ca(NO3)2. LZddZdjZkl\hjbfhklv3E&O2 \k_lZdb^hklZlhqgh\_ebdZlhhkZ^hd \uiZ^Z_lebrvba^hklZlhqghdhgp_gljbjh\ZgguojZkl\hjh\Ijb ^h[Z\e_gbbba[uldZdhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcG123 dhgp_gljZpbybhgh\ Pb2+ b &Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; mf_gvrZ_lkydjhf_lh]hjZ\gh\_kb_baaZba[uldZ+123 kf_sZ_lky\e_\hihwlhfmhkZ^hd3E&O2 jZkl\hjy_lky Z >eylh]hqlh[uhlebqblvkheygmxdbkehlmhl^jm]bodbkehl fh`ghijh\_klbj_Zdpbxk $J123 beb3E 123)2< j_amevlZl_ \uiZ^Z_l[_eucl\hjh`bkluchkZ^hd$J&ObebfZehjZkl\hjbfuc PbCl2. [ Oehjb^uhij_^_eyxlkybgufh[jZahf \ Kheygmxdbkehlmhloehjb^h\fh`ghhlebqblvj_Zdpb_ck f_lZeeZfb +&Oj_Z]bjm_lk f_lZeeZfbk \u^_e_gb_f\h^hjh^Z 87


IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 6. Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^Zqbihl_f_ ©Ih^]jmiiZdbkehjh^Zª

AZ^ZqZ >ey^hdZaZl_evkl\Zijh\_^_fkgZqZeZj_Zdpbxk_jghcdbkehluk =Q Zn + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; ZnSO4 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. Pbgd\ul_kgy_l\h^hjh^badbkehlul_+2SO4 kh^_j`blbhgu \h^hjh^Z Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx+2SO4 k jZkl\hjhfkheb<Z2+: <Z&O2 + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2HCl. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\ dbkehlZob hkgh\Zgbyo l_+2SO4 kh^_j`blbhgu6242+. AZ^ZqZ < j_ZdpbbpbgdZk jZa[Z\e_gghck_jghcdbkehlhc\u^_ey_lky\h^hjh^: Zn + H2SO jZa[ â&#x2021;&#x2019; ZnSO4 + H2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. Ijbj_Zdpbb=Qk dhgp_gljbjh\Zgghck_jghcdbkehlhc\u^_ey_lky H26h[eZ^Zxsbcg_ijbylgufoZjZdl_jgufaZiZohf 4Zn + 5H2SO4(dhgp â&#x2021;&#x2019; 4ZnSO4 + H2Sâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 4H2O. JZa[Z\e_ggZyk_jgZydbkehlZj_Z]bjm_lk f_lZeeZfbdZdh[uqgZy fbg_jZevgZydbkehlZDhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyk_jgZydbkehlZ\_^_l k_[ym`_dZddbkehlZhdbkebl_ev\ j_amevlZl_j_Zdpbyijhbkoh^bl ih^jm]hfm AZ^ZqZ OehjgZyb [jhfgZy\h^Z ²hdbkebl_ebihwlhfm\ h[_boijh[bjdZo kmevnb^hdbkeblky^hk_ju Na2S + Cl2 = S + 2NaCl;

JZkl\hjuh[_kp\_qb\Zxlky AZ^ZqZ M gZk_klvljbjZaebqguo\_s_kl\Z+&O+2SO4; NaOH.  >eyhij_^_e_gby1D2+fh`ghbkihevah\ZlveZdfmk bg^bdZlhjgZy[mfZ`dZ^he`gZihkbg_lv\ s_ehqghckj_^_ beb jZkl\hj0J2+. MgCl2 + 2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaCl + Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. < ijh[bjd_k 1D2+\uiZ^_l[_euchkZ^hd\ hklZevguo\b^bfuo baf_g_gbcg_ijhbahc^_l  >eyhij_^_e_gby+2SO4 gZ^hbkihevah\ZlvjZkl\hj%D2+. Na2S + Br2 = S + 2NaBr.

88


H2SO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2HCl + BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdk +&OjZkl\hj%D2+ g_\aZbfh^_ckl\m_l  < hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_jZkl\hj+&O>eyijh\_jdb^h[Z\bf jZkl\hj$J123 beb3E 123)2. HCl + AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C; + HNO3; 2HCl + Pb(NO3)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2HNO3. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd AZ^ZqZ Ih\Zj_ggZykhevbf__lnhjfmem1D&O>eyhij_^_e_gby ijbf_kb kmevnZlZfh`ghbkihevah\ZlvdZq_kl\_ggmxj_Zdpbxk %D2+. Na2SO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NaCl + BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

?keb\uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\ dbkehlZob s_ehqZolhih\Zj_ggZykhevkh^_j`blijbf_kbkmevnZlh\

AZ^ZqZ >eyhij_^_e_gbykmevnZlZbkihevam_foZjZdl_jgmxj_Zdpbxk jZkl\hjhf<Z2+. <Z2+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4.

<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdK oehjb^hfb bh^b^hfj_Zdpbyg_b^_l  >eyhij_^_e_gbyoehjb^Zb bh^b^Z\havf_fjZkl\hj$J123 ij_^\Zjbl_evghijh\_jb\gZkmevnZl  Ag+ + Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;, Ag+ + Iâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgIâ&#x2020;&#x201C;.

AgCl ²[_euc$JI ²`_elucIhp\_lmfh`ghhij_^_eblvkhklZ\ \u^Zgghckheb AZ^ZqZ JZkl\hjbfihemq_gguchdkb^f_^b\ k_jghcdbkehl_ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb t

CuO + H2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CuSO4 + H2O.

H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjkmevnZlZf_^b Ihemq_ggucjZkl\hj&X624 i_j_ev_f\ nZjnhjh\mxqZr_qdmb ijh^he`bf]j_lvgZh]g_^hihy\e_gbykeZ[hcie_ghqdbgZ ih\_joghklbjZkl\hjZAZl_fkgbfZ_fqZr_qdmk h]gyb hklZ\ey_f hoeZ`^Zlvky< jZkl\hj_h[jZamxlkydjbklZeeuf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ L_i_jvbofh`ghhklhjh`ghhlnbevljh\u\Zlvb \ukmrblv NhjfmeZf_^gh]hdmihjhkZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CuSO4â&#x2039;&#x2026;G2H 89


AZ^ZqZ <havf_fjZkl\hjkheyghcdbkehlub ^h[Z\bf__ \dZ`^mxbaijh[bjhd

< ijh[bjd_k kmevnZlhfgbq_]hg_ijhbahc^_l< ^\mo^jm]bo ijh[bjdZo\u^_ey_lky]ZaBofh`ghjZaebqblvihaZiZom Na2SO3+2HClâ&#x2021;&#x2019;2NaCl+H2O+SO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;, Na2S+2HClâ&#x2021;&#x2019;2NaCl+H2Sâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

SO2 bf__lj_adbcg_ijbylgucaZiZo+26bf__loZjZdl_jgucaZiZo ihjq_guoybp

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 7. Ihemq_gb_ZffbZdZb bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\

Ihemq_gb_ZffbZdZIjh\_^_f\k_^_ckl\byhibkZggu_\ mq_[gbd_ Ba]Zahhl\h^ghcljm[db[m^_l\u^_eylvkyZffbZdHgjZkl\hjy_lky \ \h^_ijhiblZ\r_cn_ghenlZe_bgh\mx[mfZ`dm NH3 + H2O â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4OH. < j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lky]b^jhdkb^Zffhgbydhlhjucbf__l s_ehqgmxj_Zdpbxb hdjZrb\Z_lbg^bdZlhj\ fZebgh\ucp\_l ?kebih^g_klbd hl\_jklbxijh[dbkl_deyggmxiZehqdmkfhq_ggmx dhgp_gljbjh\ZgghckheyghcdbkehlhclhgZ^hl\_jklb_f h[jZam_lky[_eZy^ufdZIjhbkoh^blj_Zdpby NH3 + HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4Cl. NH4&Oh[eZ^Z_le_lmq_klvx_]hqZklbqdbih^gbfZxlky\f_kl_k ZffbZdhfBofub \b^bf\ \b^_[_ehc^ufdb Ijh\_^_fjZkl\hj_gb_ZffbZdZlZddZdwlhhibkZgh\ mq_[gbd_Ba aZhq_gvohjhr_cjZkl\hjbfhklbZffbZdZ\h^Z\ ijh[bjd_ ih^gbfZ_lkyH[jZam_lky1+4OH. AZibr_fmjZ\g_gb_j_Zdpbbf_`^m&D 2+ 2 b 1+4Cl. Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCl2 + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;. DZdfh`gh\b^_lvbamjZ\g_gby\ j_Zdpbbh[jZamxlkyiZju\h^u Hgbdhg^_gkbjmxlkygZ[he__oheh^guokl_gdZoijh[bjdb?keb dZi_evdb\h^uihiZ^mlgZjZkdZe_ggh_^ghlhijh[bjdZfh`_l lj_kgmlvIhwlhfm__ gZdehgyxllZdbfh[jZahfqlh[udZi_evdb kdZlu\Zebkvd hl\_jklbxijh[bjdb :ffbZde_]q_\ha^moZ ldF 1+3  ]fhevF \ha^moZ â&#x2030;&#x2C6; â&#x2030;&#x2C6; 29 ]fhev Hgih^gbfZ_lky\\_joihwlhfm_]hgZ^hkh[bjZlv\ i_j_\_jgmlmxijh[bjdm:gZeh]bqghfh`ghkh[bjZlvG2 F 2 ]fhev &+4 ²f_lZg F ]fhev +H F ]fhev b ^jm]b_ 90


?keb\f_klh+&Oih^g_klbd hl\_jklbxijh[bjdbk ZffbZdhf iZehqdmkfhq_ggmxdhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcZahlghcdbkehlhclhfu gbq_]hg_m\b^bf NH3 + HNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4NO3.

NH4NO3 ²g_h[eZ^Z_le_lmq_klvx H[uqgh^eyhij_^_e_gbyhkgh\Zgbcbkihevamxlj_Zdpbbk h[jZah\Zgb_fg_jZkl\hjbfuo]b^jhdkb^h\gZijbf_j0J 2+ 2. 2NH4OH + MgCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NH4Cl + Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd Bamq_gb_k\hckl\\h^gh]hjZkl\hjZZffbZdZ  <h^guc jZkl\hj ZffbZdZ bf__l s_ehqgmx kj_^m l_ ^Z_l fZebgh\mxhdjZkdmk n_ghenlZe_bghf  Ijbdbiyq_gbbjZkl\hjZ]b^jhdkb^ZffhgbyjZaeZ]Z_lky\ j_amevlZl_q_]hZffbZdme_lZ_lb jZkl\hjklZgh\blkyg_cljZevguf t

NH4OH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH3 + H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

N_ghenlZe_bg\ g_cljZevghckj_^_ ²[_kp\_lguc N_ghenlZe_bg^Z_lfZebgh\mxhdjZkdm\ jZkl\hj_]b^jhdkb^Z ZffhgbylZddZdlhly\ey_lkyhkgh\Zgb_fIjb^h[Z\e_gbbdbkehlu ijhbkoh^blg_cljZebaZpbyb p\_lbkq_aZ_l NH4OH + HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4Cl + H2O, OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2O.

Ijhbkoh^bl\aZbfh^_ckl\b_f_`^mjZkl\hjhf$O&O3 b 1+4OH. AlCl3 + 3NH4OH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3NH4Cl, Al3+ + 3OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Al(OH)3â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_l[_eucklm^_gbkluchkZ^hd

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 8. Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^Zqbihl_f_©Ih^]jmiiZZahlZª

AZ^ZqZ Z JZkl\hjbfZffbZd\ \h^_b ijh\_jbfhkgh\gu_k\hckl\ZjZkl\hjZ

NH3 + H2O â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4OH, 2NH4OH + MgCl2 = 2NH4Cl + Mg(OH)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdN_ghenlZe_bghdjZrb\Z_lky\ fZebgh\uc p\_l [ Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyZahlgZydbkehlZjZkl\hjy_lf_lZeebq_kdmx f_^v 91


Cu + 4HNO dhgp â&#x2021;&#x2019; KX 123)2 + 2NO2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2H2O.

H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjb \u^_ey_lky[mjuc]Za \ GbljZlZffhgbyijbgZ]j_\ZgbbjZaeZ]Z_lkygZ^\Z]Zahh[jZaguo ijbW°>100°K \_s_kl\Z t

NH4NO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; N2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2Oâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

IjbgZ]j_\Zgbbk s_ehqvx\u^_ey_lkyZffbZd t

NH4NO3 + NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaNO3 + NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O.

:ffbZdfh`ghhij_^_eblvihaZiZombebdZdmdZaZgh\ imgdl_ Z  AZ^ZqZ Ijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx 1+4)2SO4 b 1+4NO3 k &D(OH)2. < j_amevlZl_\aZbfh^_ckl\byiblZl_evgucwe_f_glZahl me_lmqb\Z_lky\ \b^_ZffbZdZ (NH4)2SO4 + Ca(OH)2 =CaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O; 2NH4NO3 + Ca(OH)2 = Ca(NO3)2 + 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + 2H2O.

AZ^ZqZ Z >eyhij_^_e_gby1+4+ fh`ghbkihevah\Zlvj_Zdpbxk s_ehqvx ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb t

NH4Cl + NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O + NaCl.

G_mklhcqb\uc1+42+jZaeZ]Z_lkyijbgZ]j_\Zgbbk h[jZah\Zgb_f ]Zahh[jZagh]hZffbZdZHij_^_e_gb_1+3 ih^jh[ghhibkZgh\ aZ^Zq_ Z  Oehjb^bhgu&Oâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; fh`ghhij_^_eblvk ihfhsvxbhgh\$J+ beb3E2+. AgNO3 + NH4Cl â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH4NO3 + AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. Pb(NO3)2 + 2NH4Cl â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH4NO3.

<uiZ^Zxl[_eu_hkZ^db [ :gZeh]bqghhij_^_eyxlkybhguZffhgby 1++ \ kmevnZl_ KmevnZlbhgu6242â&#x20AC;&#x201C; hij_^_eyxlkyj_Zdpb_ck jZkl\hjhf<Z2+. <Z&O2 + (NH4)2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NH4Cl+BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdg_jZkl\hjbfuc\ dbkehlZob s_ehqZo

AZ^ZqZ AZibr_fnhjfmeu\u^Zgguom^h[j_gbcoehjb^dZeby â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KCl; ZffbZqgZyk_ebljZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; NH4NO3kmi_jnhknZl â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Ca(H2PO4)2. KgZqZeZhij_^_ebf&D +2PO4)2>eywlh]h\havf_fba[ulhd jZkl\hjZs_ehqb 92


3Ca(H2PO4)+12NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca3(PO4)2â&#x2020;&#x201C;+4Na3PO4+12H2H

<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd< ijh[bjd_]^_gZoh^beZkvZffbZqgZy k_ebljZih^^_ckl\b_fs_ehqb\u^_ey_lky]Za NH4NO3 + NaOH=NaNO3 + NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O. Hij_^_ebfl_i_jv.&O>eywlh]h^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj$J123 beb Pb(NO3)2. AgNO3+KCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;+KNO3, Pb(NO3)2+2KCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; PbCl2â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2KNO3. <uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd AZ^ZqZ  IjhdZeb\Zyl\_j^uc1+4&Ofh`ghihemqblvqbklucZffbZd t

NH4Cl â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + HClâ&#x2020;&#x2018;.

IjbjZaeh`_gbbh[jZamxlky^\Z]Zahh[jZaguoijh^mdlZIjhimkdZy wlmkf_kvq_j_as_ehqvfuba[Z\ey_fkyhloehjh\h^hjh^Z HCl + NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaCl + H2O. HklZ_lkyqbklucZffbZd  Ba 1+4)2SO4 b 1+4NO3 ZffbZdfh`ghihemqblv\ kbevghs_ehqghckj_^_ijbgZ]j_\Zgbb (NH4)2SO4 + 2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O+Na2SO4, NH4NO3 + NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O + NaNO3. AZ^ZqZ  I_j\ZybhggZyj_Zdpbykhhl\_lkl\m_lj_Zdpbbg_cljZebaZpbb HCl+NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaCl+H2O, H++OHâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2O.  <lhjZybhggZyj_Zdpby ²hkZ`^_gb_%D624; BaCl2+Na2SO4 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2NaCl; Ba2++SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; = BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;.  Ihke_^gyyj_Zdpby ²hkZ`^_gb_$J&O AgNO3+KCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgCl+KNO3, Ag++Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;.

AZ^ZqZ  JZkl\hjbff_lZeebq_kdmxf_^v\ dhgp_gljbjh\ZgghcZahlghc dbkehl_ Cu+4HNO dhgp â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+2NO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;+2H2O. H[jZamxsbcky]hem[hcjZkl\hjkh^_j`bl&X 123)2.  JZkl\hjbf&X 2+ 2 \ +123: Cu(OH)2+2HNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu(NO3)2+2H2O. H[jZam_lky]hem[hcjZkl\hjgbljZlZf_^b ,,  93


 Ihemqbf&X 123)2 q_j_aj_ZdpbxhkZ`^_gby CuSO4+Ba(NO3)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;+Cu(NO3)2. H[jZam_lky[_euchkZ^hd_]hg_h[oh^bfhhlnbevljh\Zlv HklZ\rbckyjZkl\hj â&#x20AC;&#x201D; Cu(NO3)2.

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 9. Ihemq_gb_hdkb^Z m]e_jh^Z ,9 b bamq_gb_ _]h k\hckl\ JZkihagZ\Zgb_dZj[hgZlh\

Ihemq_gb_hdkb^Zm]e_jh^Z ,9 b bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\ Ijb^_clk\bbkheyghcdbkehlugZf_ebebfjZfhjhgb jZkl\hjyxlkyijbwlhf\u^_ey_lky&22NhjfmeZf_eZb fjZfhjZ â&#x20AC;&#x201D; CaCO3. CaCO3+2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCl2+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O, KaCO3+2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; &Z2+ + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018; + H2O. < ijh[bjd_k ba\_kldh\hc\h^hcijhbkoh^yl^\_ ihke_^h\Zl_evgu_j_ZdpbbKgZqZeZijhbkoh^blh[jZah\Zgb_[_eh]h hkZ^dZ Ca(OH)2+CO2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;+H2O. AZl_fhkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lky CaCO3+CO2+H2O â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca(HCO3)2. Ca(HCO3)2 ²jZkl\hjbfh_\_s_kl\h CaCO3+CO2+H2O â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ca2++2HCO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;. IjbijhimkdZgbbKH2 q_j_a^bklbeebjh\Zggmx\h^mm]e_dbkeuc ]ZaqZklbqghjZkl\hjy_lkyk h[jZah\Zgb_fm]hevghcdbkehluG2KH3. CO2+H2O â&#x2C6;&#x2026; H2CO3, DZddbkehlZ+2CO3 bf__ldbkemxj_ZdpbxihwlhfmeZdfmk hdjZkblky\ kbgbcp\_l JZkihagZ\Zgb_dZj[hgZlh\ GZf\u^Zgh\_s_kl\Z1D2SO4, ZnCl2, K2CO3, Na2SiO3.  KgZqZeZijb[Z\bfjZkl\hj+&OIjbwlhfj_Zdpbyihc^_llhevdh \ ^\moijh[bjdZo K2CO3+2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2KCl+H2O+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. 2K+ +CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2H++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2K++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;+H2O+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O. <u^_ey_lky]Za

Na2SiO3+2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2NaCl. 2Na++SiO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2H++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2Na++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;. SiO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2SiO3â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

94


 L_i_jv^h[Z\bfjZkl\hj%D&O2K 1D2SO4 wlhljZkl\hj^Z_l hkZ^hd Na2SO4+BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2NaCl, 2Na++SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+Ba2++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;+2Na++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;, Ba2++SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;.

<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hdK jZkl\hjhf=Q&O2 gbq_]hg_ijhbkoh^bl  < hklZ\r_ckyijh[bjd_=Q&O2>h[Z\bfjZkl\hj$J123qlh[u ijh\_jblvwlh<uiZ^Z_l[_euchkZ^hd ZnCl2+2AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn(NO3)2+2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;, Zn2++2Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2Ag++2NO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Zn2++2NO3â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C;+Ag+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. <u\h^>eydZj[hgZlbhgh\dZq_kl\_gghcj_Zdpb_cy\ey_lky j_Zdpbyk dbkehlhck \u^_e_gb_fm]e_dbkeh]h]ZaZ CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C;+2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2O+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;.

95


Obfbq_kdbcijZdlbdmfIII. K\hckl\Zhj]Zgbq_kdbo\_s_kl\ IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 10. Ihemq_gb_wlbe_gZ b bamq_gb__]hk\hckl\

< ijh[bjd_gZqbgZ_l\u^_eylvky]Za t, H2SO4 (dhgp

C2H4â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O.

C2H5OH

Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZyk_jgZydbkehlZaZ[bjZ_l\h^mbakibjlZb \ j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkywlbe_g IjbijhimkdZgbbK2G4 q_j_a[jhfgmx\h^mihke_^gyy h[_kp\_qb\Z_lky K2G4+Br2(aq) â&#x2021;&#x2019; C2H4Br2.

Ijhbkoh^blhdbke_gb_wlbe_gZ[jhfghc\h^hcih^\hcghck\yab Ih^dbke_gguci_jfZg]ZgZllZd`_hdbkey_lwlbe_g K2G4+12KMnO4+18H2SO4=10CO2+6K2SO4+12MnSO4+28H2O. JZkl\hj.MnO4 h[_kp\_qb\Z_lky  Ih^h``_f \u^_eyxsbcky  ]Za Hg ]hjbl yjdbf k\_lysbfky ieZf_g_f K2G4H2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; 2CO2+2H2O. t

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 11. Wdki_jbf_glZevgu_aZ^ZqbihjZkihagZ\Zgbx b ihemq_gbx\_s_kl\

GZfg_h[oh^bfhhij_^_eblvljb\_s_kl\Z]ebp_jbg fgh]hZlhfguckibjl Zev^_]b^]exdham m]e_\h^  H^ghcbaoZjZdl_jguoj_Zdpbc^eywlbo\_s_kl\y\ey_lky \aZbfh^_ckl\b_k &X 2+ 2. KgZqZeZihemqbf]b^jhdkb^f_^b ,, >eywlh]hd f_^ghfm dmihjhkm^h[Z\bfg_fgh]hjZkl\hjZ1D2+ CuSO4+2NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; KX 2+ 2â&#x2020;&#x201C;+Na2SO4. <uiZ^Z_l]hem[hchkZ^hd]b^jhdkb^Z  D h[jZah\Z\r_fmkyhkZ^dmijbev_fg_fgh]hZev^_]b^Zb gZ]j__f kf_kv R

C

O H

t

+2Cu(OH)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; R C

O OH

+2CuOHâ&#x2020;&#x201C;G2H

96


Zev^_]b^]hem[hc

`_eluc

2CuOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; KX2Oâ&#x2020;&#x201C;+H2O t

`_eluc

djZkguc

< j_amevlZl_h[jZam_lkydjZkguchkZ^hd&X2O.  L_i_jvd &X 2+ 2 ^h[Z\bfihdZieyf]ebp_jbgb kf_kv \a[helZ_fHkZ^hdjZkl\hjy_lkyihemqZ_lkyjZkl\hjyjdhkbg_]h p\_lZH[jZam_lkymklhcqb\ucdhfie_dk]ebp_jbgZk f_^vx 2 &+ &+ 2+ &+ 2+ &X 2+ &+ +2 2&+ 2+ &X 2+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; &+ 2 2 &+ + 2+ &+ &+ 2+

 =exdhaZihk\hbfobfbq_kdbfk\hckl\Zfy\ey_lky Zev^_]b^hkibjlhfl_hgZijhy\ey_lk\hckl\Zb Zev^_]b^h\b fgh]hZlhfguokibjlh\DZdZev^_]b^hgZ\klmiZ_l\ j_Zdpbb oZjZdl_jgu_^eywlh]hdeZkkZ\_s_kl\\ qZklghklbijbgZ]j_\Zgbb \aZbfh^_ckl\m_lk &X 2+ 2 k h[jZah\Zgb_fdjZkghdhjbqg_\h]h hkZ^dZ&X2HDZdfgh]hZlhfguckibjl]exdhaZ^Z_ljZkl\hjyjdh kbg_]hp\_lZijb^h[Z\e_gbbd g_ck\_`_]hhkZ^dZ&X 2+ 2. &+

2+

&+ &

2+

+

2 

W

&X 2+  â&#x2021;&#x2019;&+ t

2+

&+ &

2+

2+ 2 

GH&X2+â&#x2020;&#x201C;

2CuOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu2Oâ&#x2020;&#x201C;+H2O.

<uiZ^Z_ldjZkguchkZ^hd&X2O.  >eyhij_^_e_gbylj_o^Zgguo\_s_kl\badZ`^hcijh[bjdb ^h[Z\bfg_fgh]h&X 2+ 2< ^\moijh[bjdZoh[jZam_lkyyjdhkbgbc jZkl\hj ]exdhaZb ]ebp_jbg L_i_jvgZ]j__f\k_ljbkf_kb\ ^\mo ijh[bjdZo\uiZ^_ldjZkguchkZ^hd Zev^_]b^b ]exdhaZ LZdbf h[jZahffumagZ_f\ dZdhcijh[bjd_dZdh_\_s_kl\hgZoh^blky FZrbggh_fZkehkhklhbl\ hkgh\ghfbaij_^_evguo m]e_\h^hjh^h\Z jZklbl_evgh_fZkeh ²ba`bjh\h[jZah\Zgguo g_ij_^_evgufbdbkehlZfbJZklbl_evgh_fZkehh[_kp\_qb\Z_l [jhfgmx\h^mZ fZrbggh_²g_l Z >eyihemq_gbyijhklh]hwnbjZijh\_^_fj_Zdpbx ^_]b^jZlZpbbwlbeh\h]hkibjlZ K2G5HG

t, H2SO4 (dhgp

K2G5 ²H ²K2G5 G2H

H[jZamxsbcwnbjgZau\Z_lky^bwlbeh\uf>ZggZyj_Zdpby ijhoh^blebrvijbhij_^_e_gguomkeh\byogZ]j_\Zgbb\ ijbkmlkl\bb+2SO4b ijbba[uld_kibjlZ [ >eyihemq_gbyZev^_]b^ZbakibjlZgm`ghbkihevah\ZlvkeZ[uc hdbkebl_evgZijbf_j&X2+. 97


t

C2H5OH+CuO â&#x2021;&#x2019; Cu+ CH3 C

CH3 C

O

²mdkmkgucZev^_]b^

O H

+H2O;

\ Ijb^Zevg_cr_fhdbke_gbbZev^_]b^Zh[jZam_lkydbkehlZ H

CH3 C

O H

t

+2Cu(OH)2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; CH3COOH+Cu2Oâ&#x2020;&#x201C;+2H2O;

H[jZam_lkymdkmkgZydbkehlZ KZoZj ²wlhkeh`gh_hj]Zgbq_kdh_\_s_kl\hkh^_j`Zs__ ^hklZlhqgh[hevrh_dhebq_kl\hm]e_jh^ZQlh[u^hdZaZlvwlh \havf_fg_fgh]hkZoZjZb ^h[Z\bfd g_fm+2SO dhgp . KZoZjih^^_ckl\b_fdhgp_gljbjh\Zgghck_jghcdbkehluhl^Zkl \h^mb ij_\jZlblky\ m]e_jh^ H2SO4 (dhgp

C12H22O11

12C+11H2O.

Dhgp_gljbjh\ZggZy+2SO4 aZ[bjZ_l\h^mm kZoZjZ\ j_amevlZl_ ihemqZ_lkyk\h[h^gucm]e_jh^ q_jgh_\_s_kl\h  Z >eyhij_^_e_gbydjZofZeZkms_kl\m_lohjhrZydZq_kl\_ggZy j_Zdpbyk bh^hfH[jZam_lkymklhcqb\ucdhfie_dkyjdhkbg_]h p\_lZ DZig_fg_kdhevdhdZi_evjZkl\hjZbh^ZgZdZjlhn_evb [_eucoe_[ ?kebgZijh^mdlZoh[jZam_lkykbg__iylghlhhgbkh^_j`Zl djZofZe [ >eyijh\_jdby[ehdZgZkh^_j`Zgb_]exdhauijb]hlh\bf g_kdhevdhdZi_evy[ehqgh]hkhdZ>h[Z\bfg_fgh]hkbg_]hhkZ^dZ Cu(OH)2?kebbkke_^m_fucjZkl\hjkh^_j`bl]exdhamlhkgZqZeZ fuihemqbfkbgbcjZkl\hjbfucdhfie_dk]exdhaudhlhjucijb gZ]j_\ZgbbjZaeh`blky^hdjZkgh]h&X2H Z KgZqZeZhij_^_ebfdjZofZe^h[Z\b\d dZ`^hfmbalj_o \_s_kl\jZkl\hjbh^Z< ijh[bjd_k djZofZehfh[jZam_lkykbgbc dhfie_dk=exdhamhlkZoZjhaufh`ghhlebqblvaZkq_l Zev^_]b^guok\hckl\H[Z\_s_kl\Zh[eZ^Zxlk\hckl\Zfb fgh]hZlhfgh]hkibjlZghlhevdh]exdhaZh[eZ^Z_l_s_b k\hckl\ZfbZev^_]b^Z>h[Z\bf\ h[_ijh[bjdb&X 2+ 2h[jZam_lky kbgbcjZkl\hjGhlhevdhijbgZ]j_\Zgbbk ]exdhahc\uiZ^Z_l djZkguchkZ^hd&X22 l_ijhbkoh^blhdbke_gb_Zev^_]b^ghc ]jmiiu  [ KgZqZeZhij_^_ebfdjZofZek ihfhsvxbh^ZH[jZam_lkykbgbc dhfie_dk 98


L_i_jvijh\_jbfdbkehlghklbjZkl\hjh\fueZb ]ebp_jbgZ =ebp_jbgbf__lkeZ[hdbkemxkj_^mZ fueh ²s_ehqgmx =ebp_jbglZd`_h[jZam_lk &X 2+ 2 kbgbcjZkl\hj k\hckl\h fgh]hZlhfguokibjlh\   GZ]j__f ihemq_ggu_ jZkl\hju < h^ghc ba ijh[bjhd \uiZ^Z_l [_euc hkZ^hd ² ijhbkoh^bl  ^_gZlmjZpby [_edZ K ]ebp_jbghf ijb gZ]j_\Zgbbgbq_]hg_ijhbkoh^bl 

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 12. JZkihagZ\Zgb_ieZklfZkk

Ijb\_^_f^ey^Zgguo\b^h\ieZklfZkkkljmdlmjgu_nhjfmeu Ihebwlbe_g ²KG2 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KG2 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ) n, Iheb\bgbeoehjb^ (â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KG2 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; KG â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ) n , Kl

Ihebklbjhe (â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CH2 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; CH â&#x20AC;&#x201C; )n ,

N_ghenhjfZev^_]b^gZykfheZ

OH

OH CH2

CH2

CH2

OH

CH2

CH2

CH2

n

IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 13. JZkihagZ\Zgb_\hehdhg

AZibr_fkljmdlmjgu_nhjfmeubkdmkkl\_gguo\hehdhg :p_lZlgh_\hehdgh [ â&#x20AC;&#x201C; C6H7O2(OCCH3)3 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; ]n . H KZijhg [â&#x20AC;&#x201C; (KG2)5 â&#x20AC;&#x201D; K â&#x20AC;&#x201D; NH â&#x20AC;&#x201D; ]n . EZ\kZg >±&±

2

O

±&±2±&+ ±&+ ±H ±@Q . 2

99


IjZdlbq_kdZyjZ[hlZÂ&#x2039; 14. JZkihagZ\Zgb_fbg_jZevguom^h[j_gbc

< mq_[gbd_^hklZlhqghih^jh[ghijb\_^_ghhibkZgb_\k_ohiulh\ Ihwlhfmijb\_^_febrv\hafh`gu_j_Zdpbb  Hij_^_e_gb_Zffhgb_\uofbg_jZevguom^h[j_gbc t

â&#x20AC;&#x201C;â&#x2021;&#x2019;

+

NH4 +OH

NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O.

GZijbf_j1+4NO3+NaOH â&#x2021;&#x2019; NaNO3+NH3â&#x2020;&#x2018;+H2O.  Hij_^_e_gb_kmevnZlguom^h[j_gbc SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ba2+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;. GZijbf_j (NH4)2SO4 + BaCl2 â&#x2021;&#x2019; BaSO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 2NH4Cl.  Hij_^_e_gb_oehjb^bhgh\ Clâ&#x20AC;&#x201C; + Ag+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. GZijbf_j KCl + NaCl + 2AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; KNO3 + NaNO3 + 2AgClâ&#x2020;&#x201C;. Hij_^_e_gb_nhknhjguom^h[j_gbc PO43â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 3Ag+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ag3PO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; GZijbf_j K3PO4 + 3AgNO3 â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ag3PO4â&#x2020;&#x201C; + 3KNO3. J_Zdpby$J123 k bhgZfb6242â&#x20AC;&#x201C;: 2Ag+ + SO42â&#x20AC;&#x201C; â&#x2021;&#x2019; Ag2SO4â&#x2020;&#x201C;.  Hij_^_e_gb_dZj[hgZlh\ CO32â&#x20AC;&#x201C; + 2H+ â&#x2021;&#x2019; H2O + CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. GZijbf_j CaCO3+2HCl â&#x2021;&#x2019; CaCl2+H2O+CO2â&#x2020;&#x2018;. t

100

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