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Architecture and Energy 3 ‘s Feng Shui Housing 2009 - 2010 Design Thesis by Liu, Ko-cheng

Supervisor01: Prof. Daniel Dendra Supervisor02: Prof. Thomas Auer

Politics Society

History

Eastern Architecture

Feng Shui

? Feng Shui = Sustainability

Environment

DIA Dessau Institute of Architecture


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Chapter03

Chapter07

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Chapter01

Chapter05

Architecture and Energy: 3 ‘ S Feng Shui Housing Sustainability Society Surrounding

Master Student: Liu, Ko-cheng Advisor01: Prof. Daniel Dendra Advisor02: Prof. Thomas Auer


Introduction Feng Shui has been existing for thousands of years and still plays a pivot role in Asia due to the great influences of human beings. It is related to the very sensible notion that living with nature in order to benefit humans and the environment. However, most of the roles of Feng Shui are still mysterious and people still don’t know how it works properly. Especially, for some people, it seems to be regarded as some kinds of superstition. What’s more, Feng Shui is also highly associated with architectural field and this offers me a great opportunity to unveil the myth of Feng Shui. According to the notion of Feng Shui, it is about the sustainability, but this is still a question mark of how they are connected between each other. Therefore, in my design thesis, I would use the computational programs and prove Feng Shui can work efficiently in terms of sustainable architecture, besides the investigation of Feng Shui principles. As a result, the final goal is to design a sustainable housing based on the logic of Feng Shui and have a better and comfortable living style for people in the future.

Politics History

Society

Eastern Architecture Feng Shui

Environment

Feng Shui is related to the very sensible notion that living with rather than against nature benefits humans and their environment.

? Feng Shui = Sustainability


Contents Chapter 01 : How does Feng Shui influence the world?

01

Research from the google result

02

Ideology: Feng Shui as design criteria

03

Chapter 02 : Introduction of Feng Shui

05

Introduction of Feng Shui History

05

Explanation of Feng Shui Principles

07

Chapter 03 : Living Situation in Taiwan

09

Research of housing distribution and styles

11

The changes of family members over 100 years

13

Chapter 04 : Survey _ Single Person

15

Questionaire for single persons in Taiwan

17

Chapter 05 : Demonstration

19

Highlight of traditonal Feng Shui Pattern

21

Urban Pattern generation

23

Environmental Analysis

25

Analysis of Sustainability

27

Chapter 06 : Feng Shui _ Architectural Design

33

Architectural Feng Shui design for urban pattern

35

Chapter 07 : Feng Shui _ Architectural Drawing Urban drawing and perspective

Chapter 08 : Feng Shui _ Conclusion Rendering with perspective

43 45

47 49


Chapter 01 How does Feng Shui influence the world? “Feng Shui” in the internet Top 10 population in the world Google Results

In this chapter, I would mainly introduce the impacts of Feng Shui on the world and look at the potential of it. First of all, I pick up top 10 populations of the countries in the world to see the distribution and percentages of the overall statistics. Most importantly, I start to google the keyword “Feng Shui” on the internet among these 10 countries and calculate how many results it shows. Moreover, I specifically choose another 2 brands which are greatly famous, McDonald’s and Coca Cola as my references and then rank these 3 results based on the same conditions. Lastly, after the comparison, this helps us to understand that Feng Shui actually has also hightly influences on the earth.

01


Population 1 billion + 100 million + 50 million + 25 million + 10 million + 1 million + < 1 million 10,000,000 Results

1,000,000 Results

3,410,000 Results

2,840,000 Results

10,326,000 Results

3,330,000 Results

2,583,000 Results 519,000 Results

2,100,000 Results

1,040,000 Results

1,930,000 Results

2,630,000 Results

979,000 Results

2,150,000 Results

6,090,000 Results

334,000 Results

432,000 Results

758,000 Results

2.4% of world population

341,000 Results

1,130,000 Results

2,250,000 Results

3.5% of world population

1.9% of world population

1,980,000 Results

19.8% of world population

344,000 Results

2.1% of world population

631,000 Results

654,000 Results

713,000 Results

17.5% of world population

28,100,000 Results

451,000 Results

374,000 Results

2.2% of world population 2.5% of world population

9,060,000 Results

312,000 Results

4.5% of world population 2.8% of world population

7,880,000 Results

02


How do Architectural Languages change the world? There have been a lot of architectural books existing among all the countries. For example, in Europe, “Architect’s Data”, edited by Neufert has great impacts and it has been a well-accepted criteria that designers use it a lot. What’s more, in U SA, “A p attern Language” i s also h ighly taken into c onsideration and regarded as an important book for architects. However, in Asia, there is still not a quite f amous a rchitectural book t hat people can agree with. Based o n the previous research, as far as I consider, I would start to take Feng Shui as design well-known. Hopefully, the design book based on Feng Shui can also become “Architect’s Data” that people all over the world can use it and design sustainable architecture.

04


Chapter 02 Introduction of Feng Shui History

Public Construction

Housing

Feng Shui was mainly adopted into public construction.

Feng Shui helped choose the location of site.

F c

Feudal Society 4000 B.C.

05

1660 A.C.


Colonization Period

Baroque Style

?

Revolution of housing style

eudal Society, but housing can be onstructed based o n Feng Shui

1895 A.C.

1945 A.C.

1980 A.C.

2009 A.C.

Feng Shui Environment Society

Future

Restoration

06


Sha (Negative Energy)

Chi (Positive Energy)

< 20 m2

Introduction of Feng Shui Principles Less than 20 m2 of bed room is good condition according to feng shui.

Bed Room Heat

Pollution

Noise

Avoid having large-scaled windows and balcony in bed room South Facing Orientation

Solution

Feng Shui Perspective

Bed Room

Living Room Avoid having the direct view of window when entering the bed room Solution

Feng Shui Perspective

Kitchen Yang is described as nal, active, strong and ascending

Courtyard

Yang

The front door should not have a view of the back door Solution

Feng Shui Perspective

Bed Room Storage Air would go straight weaks the ventilation The front entrance should not face the upstairs stairway Solution

Feng Shui Perspective

Noise Pollution

Solution

07

Avoid building at the junction of a T-street or at the end of a cul-de-sac because these locations are on the receiving Feng Shui Perspective


Stop the freezing wind in winter Mountain

Mountain

Bring cool wind in summer

River

Best Site

Solution

Feng Shui Perspective

River

The bestt site for su nded house is surround surrounded untainss and by mountains ver. confrontt the riv river.

Peaceful and help people calm down

Help cool down the temperature

Feng Shui Perspective Water is very ve important and its positioning is vital to improving position Chi and confounding Sha Ch

Right

Due to the unequal height, the

South

Right

Left

left side in terms of sun projection.

Left

Feng Shui Perspective

Solution

To have the right side low and the left side high are both unlucky

Yin

Courtyard

Skylight

The skylight helps improve the ventilation and increase the amount of daylight.

Yin energy is described as watery, cool, dark, night, internal, peaceful, gentle and descending

Feng Shui Perspective Courtyard or skylight is good for getting positive energy with symmetrical geometry. Due to the triangle geometry, the next building might get too much negitave energy.

Feng Shui Perspective

Solution

Houses or buildings on triangular plots of land will bring bad luck because the strange shape attracts Sha

Avoid having a straight road leading directly to the home, with people coming and going it will dissipate the

Feng Shui Perspective

Noise Pollution

Solution

08


Chapter 03

09


Living Situation in Taiwan Before going t hrough t he design content, i t is helpful and important to have a broadly understanding of living situation examples o f housing styles i n Taiwan, but t he living situation over 100 years. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, I especially highlight the local and national events during these 10 decades to see if these events have crucial impacts on the housing involvement. Most of all, has occupied a large amount of percentages among the overall demographics and t he numbers is still a rising. Therefore, nity to explore deeply on this group and then go on to the next step to understand their basic needs and interests.

10


Housing Distribution Majority of housing typologies

Kaohsiung Town

Taipei City

Village Traditional House

Taitung Village

Housing Typology

Town

Town House

City Apartment

Tower

Style01

Common hosing styles

Style02 C

A

Apartment Tower

Main

B

B

Main

A 1st Floor

2nd Floor

Main

Town House

3rdFloor

A Main

B

4thFloor

C

Worship Bed Room Living Room

A

dining Room Balcony Toilet Kitchen

11

Garage Storage

Main

Traditional House

0

3 6 Scale

9m

C

B

E

D


25 m2

Average Square meters per person for housing in Taipei City

36 m2

1200

32 m2

120

0891

5091

600

1000

60

400

100

40

200

800

2006

80

Oil Price Statistic

1973

1980 980

20 0

1905

Oil Price, Annual Statistic Oil Consumption, Taiwan

2009

Thousand Barrels / day

9002

U.S Dollars $

12


Living Situation in Taiwan Point 1: Research in the changes of family member over 100 years Point 2: Research of potential group (single person) over 100 years Point 3: Lists of local and global events over 100 years Taipei City Kaohsiung Town Taitung Village 1 million people

100,000 Families

Single

15% of population is single

6 5

3 2

Members of Family per family

4

World War I

1

World War II Great Depression

Global Events 1905 Taiwan Events

1914 1915

1918 1920

1925

1929 1930

1933 1935

1939 1940

1945 1945 1949 Japan

Revolution of Industry Agriculture

Industry

R.O.C

Taipei as Capital

Taiwan Retrocession

Revolution of modern architecture

New Thinking of Architecture Walter Gropius, L

Population Density 13


25% of population is single

Total Population

23

Million People

Million n People l

21 2 18 15 12

17957

Oil Crisis 1973 1971 1974

1956

f

33% of population is single

1960

Energy Iran窶的raq Energy Crisis War Crisis 1979 1980 1988 1980 1990

Asian Subprime mortgage crisis Financial Crisis Financial Crisis 1997 2007 10,000 0 000 2000 2009 8,000

Electronic Engineering

Industrial Propersity Taiwan Quit United Nations

Ten Major Construction Projects

6,000

Four Asian Tigers Promotion of Green Architecture

4,000

Golden Period for Economic Development 452

Le Corbusier and Frank Lloyd Wright etc.

person/km2 2,000

79

14


Chapter 04

15


Survey_Single Person According to previous research over 100 years, I pick up single person as my potential group, and want to have further study of them. Hence, I m ake a series o f questionnaires for 150 s ingle persons and make a basic statistics in the end to see the distribution of each result. Especially, Feng Shui design, as a result, is also a n important issue for this t arget g roup. Overall, a ll t he results in this survey would be one of my main design foundations and help develop the project during the process.

16


Family Members

16.11%

Questionaires for 150 single person

8.91%

1.98% others

4 members of family might be the trend in the future

11.41%

49.66%

14.77%

Needs

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

H

I

User

Single Persons

J

K

L

M

N

P

Activity

150 140 130 120 110 90

100 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O

B

C

D

E

F

Living Room Kitchen Feng Shui Design Balcony Garage Dinning Room Reading Room High Classic Bathroom Working Room Garden Recreational Room Common Room Exhibition Room Practing Room Others

A

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your hobby at home?

If you want to buy a house, what kind of functions are necessary to you?

150 140 130 120 110 90

100 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

G

H

I

J

A B C D E F G H I J

Internet Surfing TV Watching Reading Com. Game Playing Pet Raising House Party Handicraft Body Exercise Cooking Others

17

If married, how many members do you want in your family?

Survey_Single Person


82

+

Gender

Basic Survey

Person

68

Average Age: 26.95

79.87 % Yes

77.85 % Yes

No

No

Do you want to have marriage?

50 % Yes

Are you still living with your parents?

No

There is a sustainable building which cost more than buying a normal one, but this can help you save many energy costs in the future. Do you still want to buy this sustainable housing?

Sustainability & building typology

= 150

Do you want to have your own house? 93.14 % Yes No

24.16% Tower

4.7% 1.34%

Finance

Single Apartment Others

What kind of building do you want to live most?

27.52% Apartment

42.28% Town House

Profession

Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s your profession?

10.67%

11.33% Administration

14% Education

5.88%

5.88%

Sales

Unenployment Doctor, Lawyer etc.

6%

33.33% Engineering

18


Chapter 05

19


Demonstration According to previous research over 100 years, I pick up single person as my potential group, and want to have further study of them. Hence, I m ake a series o f questionnaires for 150 s ingle persons and make a basic statistics in the end to see the distribution of each result. Especially, Feng Shui design, as a result, is also a n important issue for this t arget g roup. Overall, a ll t he results in this survey would be one of my main design foundations and help develop the project during the process.

20


Demonstration

21


22


_

Housing Urban01

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1

Urban02

Urban03

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1

8mx8m At least 5 m

8mx8m At least 5 m

Sharp Edge South Facing

8mx8m At least 5 m

Urban04

Building Blocks: 5 Bulk Converage Rati 8mx8m At least 5 m

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Infrastruct

Housing Block

Housing Block

Housing Block

Housing Bl

Master Plan

Master Plan

Master Plan

Worst Feng Shui

23

Feng Shui

Master Pla


_ Urban Planning

4

52 io: 1

Urban05

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 8mx8m At least 5 m

Urban06

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 8mx8m At least 5 m

Urban07

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 8mx8m At least 5 m

ure

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

Infrastructure

ock

Housing Block

Housing Block

Housing Block

Master Plan

Master Plan

Master Plan

an

Best Feng Shui

24


Environment

Highest

Urban03

4

6

7

Average Value: 55172 Wh

Average Value: 63095 Wh

Average Value: 63877 Wh

8

4

7

Highest

5

Average Valu

Lowest

Daylight Factor (Unit: Lux)

9

Average Value: 5353 Lux

4

Average Value: 5713 Lux

9

Ex: Urban01 Mark = 4 x 50 % + 9 x 25% + 4 x 25% =5.3

25

Urb

Contours of Velocity Magnitude(m/s)

Urban02

Highest

Lowest

Urban01

Lowest

Sun Exposure (Unit: Wh)

Air Flow Simulation

Velocity

45%

Average Value: 5767 Lux

10 Best

Average Valu

7


ban04

8

ue: 58094 Wh

7

ue: 5557 Lux

7

Urban05

Urban06

Urban07

50%

10 Best

5

9

25%

Average Value: 55449 Wh

Average Value: 58664 Wh

Average Value: 53213 Wh

8

6

10 Best

25%

Average Value: 5456 Lux

6

Average Value: 5705 Lux

Average Value: 5417 Lux

8

5

26


Society

45%

Urban01

Urban02

Urban03

U

influiencial Depth

Highest

Index

Lowest

Space Syntax (Depth)

Comple

4

6

9

Distance fro B

B

217.7 2 77 7m m 217.7m

B

14 1 4 .4m .4 4m m 141.4m A

4

163.4m 163 4m m A

10 Best

Ex: Urban02 Mark = 6 x 50 % + 10 x 50% = 8

27

B

1 A

9


rban04

Urban05

Urban06

Urban07

exity fo Street

50%

5

7

8

10 Best

m A point to B point B

B

B

50% 200m 20 2 0 00 00m 0m

199.8m 19 199 .8 8m A 6

199.3m 19 1 9.3m 3m m A

5

199.5m 1 199 99 9.5 5m 5m A

8

A 7

28


Economic

10%

A = Total Area V = Total Volume

29

Urban01

Urban02

Urban03

A 12672 = = 0.53 V 29952

8622 A = = 0.4 V 29952

9216 A = = 0.42 V 29952

5

10 Best

9

Urba

A 109 = V 299

7


an04

944 = 0.48 952

7

Urban05

Urban06

Urban07

A 12096 = = 0.51 V 29952

A 10368 = = 0.46 V 29952

A 14976 = = 0.61 V 29952

6

8

4

30


Sustainability Enviornment 45% Society 45% Economic 10% Average Mark

Urban01

Urban02

Urban03

5.3

6.5

7.0

4.0

8.0

9.0

5.0

10.0

9.0

4.7

7.5

8.0

Ex: Urban01 5.3 x 45% + 4.0 x 45% + 5.0 x 10% = 4.7 Urban01

Feng Shui _ Ho 31


Urban04

Urban05

Urban06

Urban07

7.5

8.5

6.0

8.6

5.5

6.0

6.0

8.5

7.0

6.0

8.0

4.0

6.6

6.1

6.2

8.1

Urban07

ousing Typology 32


Chapter 06

33


Feng Shui_Architectural Design After a series of urban analysis according to 3 different perspectives, environment, society and economic all of which are related to the ideology of sustainability, apparently, we can see that the principles of Feng Shui is actually helping improve the urban design. Concerning with these advantages, I take 2 of those patterns, best result and worst result to go onto next stage, changing the housing typologies by Feng Shui architectural rules and then test it again to see if it works much better than the original one. In this way, I can actually prove that Feng Shui can increase the possibilities of sustainability with urban and architectural design.

34


Center

Orientation

Friends

Career

Knowledge

1/3

Children Creativity

Center

Family

1/3

Relationships

Fame

Wealth

1/3

1/3

1/3

1/3

Social Value

Elements

Housing Ty

35


ypology

Inner Courtyard

Outer Courtyard

Outer Courtyard

36


Urban07

Urban Analysis

Architectural Analysis

Infrastructure

Air Flow Simulation

Air Flow Simulation

Housing Block

Sun Exposure

Sun Exposure

Average Value: 53213 Wh

Average Value: 12735 Lux

Daylight

Daylight

Average Value: 5417 Lux

Average Value: 370 Lux

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 64 m2 At least 5 m

Master Plan

35


Urban07_rev01

Urban Analysis

Architectural Design

Architectural Analysis

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 64 m2 At least 5 m

Infrastructure

Air Flow Simulation

Air Flow Simulation

Housing Block

Sun Exposure

Sun Exposure

Average Value: 47779 Wh

Master Plan

Daylight

Average Value: 5243 Lux

Average Value: 12452 Wh

Daylight

Average Value: 375 Lux

36


Urban01

Urban Analysis

Architectural Analysis

Infrastructure

Air Flow Simulation

Air Flow Simulation

Housing Block

Sun Exposure

Sun Exposure

Average Value: 55172 Wh

Average Value: 12295 Wh

Daylight

Daylight

Average Value: 5353 Lux

Average Value: 244 Lux

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 64 m2 At least 5 m

Master Plan

37


Urban01_rev01

Urban Analysis

Architectural Analysis

Infrastructure

Air Flow Simulation

Air Flow Simulation

Housing Block

Sun Exposure

Sun Exposure

Architectural Design

Building Blocks: 52 Bulk Converage Ratio: 1 64 m2 At least 5 m

Average Value: 48177 Wh

Master Plan

Average Value: 12185 Lux

Daylight

Daylight

Average Value: 5290 Lux

Average Value: 284 Lux

38


Housing Connections

Center

Center

Inner Courtyard

39


Center

Outer Courtyard

Center

Center

Center

40


Final Urban Pattern

Building Typology

Infrustrature

41


Environment Final Urban Pattern

10

Average Value: 48177 Wh

10

Average Value: 5290 Lux

4

Society

8 B

197.4 M 10

A

Economic A 19032 = = 0.64 V 29952 4

Average Mark

8.3

42


Chapter 07

43


Feng Shui_Architectural Drawing During the comparison of these two patterns, both of them have their own advantages, and I specifically choose urban pattern02 as my final result to start architectural drawing. On one hand, the architecture has keeping involving and the grid street has less potential to develop compared to the other one. Whatâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more, the varies of urban pattern02 offers more opportunities to create and design the architecture. Therefore, I decide to take one of the houses from this pattern and put more architectural drawing into it.

44


Hous

4

5

6 5 6

3

2

4

7

3

2 1

1 7 1

5 4

8

6 2 3 1. Aisle 2. Living Room 3. Stairs 4. Kitchen 5. Dining Room 6. W.C.

45

Master Plan Scale: 1:500

N

Ground Floor

7. Inner Courtyard

Scale: 1:100

8. Outer Courtyard


ing

_

_

Feng Shui

Architecture

9

10 10

12

9

14

10

12

14

10

13

12 11

15

13

10

11 10 15

15

11 9

10

14

10

10

12

12

13 9. Master Bed Room 10. Bed Room 11. Shower Room 2nd Floor

12. Storage Room

3rd Floor

Scale: 1:100

13. Laundry Room

Scale: 1:100

14. Study Room 15. Balcony

46


Chapter 08

47


Feng Shui_Conclusion The logic of Feng Shui has been existing for thousands of years and used broadly to extend the maximum potential of it because many people believe it can bring more sustainable and comfortable life; however, because of its mysterious history without scientific back up, it is considered as superstition among some people. By taking this chance, I have some further progress and operations methods of how I can use Feng Shui as design criteria to design a sustainable house with different perspectives in my thesis. During the progress, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s apparent to see that Feng Shui actually takes simply rules based on symmetry system to create space that people can equally use it and avoid unfair events take place, for example, the traditional courtyard house. In a way, architecture is still involving and will be changed in the further, and what I have been thinking is that Feng Shui is one of the important paths that we architects can use and transform it into buildings over the world since this is highly associated with sustainability that people nowadays highly concern about it.

48


49


50


51


52

Thesis Final Work  

Thesis final work

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