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Natural Areas Management Plan Alley Pond Park, Queens

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Gty of New York ParKs & Recreation Natural Resources Group

Edward I. Koch, Mayor Henry J. Stem, Commissioner Robert Russo, Deputy Commissioner, Operations William Cook, QUeens Parks Commissioner Marc Matsil, Director, Natural Resources Group


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Restoration Area

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Interpretive Area

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1 Little Neck Wetlands 2 HortJlem Boulevard Kudow , Cloverlw

4 TUlip Iree Trail S The Alley 6 DouBluton Woods 7 Southern Forest 8 Cathedral 'orest

9 Little Alley Woodland Border BetYMn Manag-.nt Zon••

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Summary

1.0 Introduction

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1.1 1.2 1.3

1.4

Department of Parks and Recreation Natural Resources Group Natural Resources Inventory Individual Park Ecological Assessments

I I I 2

2.0 Alley Pond Park 2. J 2.2 2.3

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Description History Current Use and Natural Features

5 5 6

3.0 Methods 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4

vef.etation Mapping (Entitation) Wi dlife Habitat Evaluation Soil Sampling Hydrology

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15 19

4.0 General Management Recommendations 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4

Objectives Protected Zones Limited Use Zones Unstuctured Use Areas

Appendices

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A B

C D E F G

Glossary Classification System Flora and Fauna of the Park Results Soil Types Acknowledgements References

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L.MAPS, TABLES, AND FIGURES

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MAPS I--New York City--Parkland 2--Entitation 3--Covertypes (Forest/Woodland, Vineland, and Scrub) 4--Covertypes (Herbaceous, Desert, Intertidal, Aquatic) 5--Current Uses 6--Environmental Disturbances 7--Exotic Species 8--Abandoned Auto Locator 9--Soil Conditions IO-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--covertypes II-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--covertypes 12-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--covertypes 13-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--gray squirrel 14-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--gray squirrel 15-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--gray squirrel 16-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--black-capped chickadee 17-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--black-capped chickadee 18-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--black-capped chickadee 19-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--yellow warbler 20-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--yellow warbler 21-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--yellow warbler 22-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--ring-necked pheasant 23-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--ring-necked pheasant 24-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--ring-necked pheasant 25-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--cotlontail rabbit 26-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--cottontail rabbit 27-Wildlife Habitat Appraisal--cotlontail rabbit 28-Management Concerns 29-Management Zones 30-Litlle Neck Wetlands, Northern Boulevard Meadows, and Cloverleaf 3 I-Southern Forest and Cathedral Forest 32-The Alley, Douglaston Woods, and Cloverleaf 33-Tulip Tree Trail and Cloverleaf 34-Little Alley Woodland TABLES I--Entitation Summary by Formation 2--Entitation Summary by Management Zone 3--Average Habitat Suitability Indices 4--Area-wide Habitat Suitability Indices FIGURES I--Levels of Inventory


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SUMMARY Alley Pond Park, a 635 acre parcel located in Queens, was one of nine regional. city parks slated for a detailed ecological assessment. This included vegetation mapping, wildlife habital evaluation, soil sampling, a hydrogeological study, as well as observations of historical uses. current uses and existing environmental disturbances. Information collected from Ihese assessments is detailed in this document (Section 2.3 and 3.0 - 3.4 and Appendices C-G) and was used to delineate management zones (Limited Use Areas, Wildlife Management Areas . Preserves, etc.) and formulate management recommendations (Section 4.0). Assessment Results Of the 569 acres mapped in the park, 274 acres (46%) were classified as closed forest/woodland (including American beech, black birch, a variety of oaks and hickories. tulip tree, sweetgum, red maple, and white ash), 199 acres (33 %) were classified as herbaceous. ,1X acres (6%) were classified as vineland, 36 acres were classified as desert (6%-- either dcveloped land or severely compacted, barren soil). 6 acres (1 %) were classified as scrub. and .1 acres ÂŤ I %) were classified as freshwater aquatic plant (Section 3. I). Alley Pond Park has two distinct topographic settings: the southern upland and the northern lowland (this low area may have played a part in the the park's name--Seetion 2.2); differences in covertypes are marked from one zone to the other. The southern zone has remained virtually untouched, consequently, mature forests are found there. The northern wne was once intertidal marsh; like most marshes in the city it suffered from intensive filling. The open nature of the Alley is indicative of low soil fertility due to filling (Section .1 . .1 and Appendix E). The most common use of the park is walking (Map 4) which causcs snil compaction in the Alley (Map 5). Trash and dumping are the major environmcntal disturbances in the southern portion of the park (Map 5). The wildlife habitat evaluation focused on five species (Eastern cottontail. ring-necked pheasant, yellow warbler, black-capped chickadee, gray squirrel) that serve as indicators nf habitat potential (Section 3.2). Areas of the park were rated on amounts of various Iimil ing factors (conditions necessary for the survival of the species e.g., food and cover). A g('(Id rating does not imply that a given area is teeming with individuals of that species. but only that the area offers features important to the success of the species. The highest ratings for the gray squirrel and black-capped chickadee were founcl in the Southern Forest. Ratings for the yellow warbler were similar in all areas of the park. The Alley produced the highest ratings for the ring-necked pheasant. Because of the juxl<lposit inn of covertypes in the Alley/Douglaston Woods, the cottontail rabbit recieved its highesl rnting in this area. Primr:2 Goal: Preserve and enhance the scenic, recreational and wildlife habitat values thai current y eXIst; restore or create natural habitats in denuded areas. Priority Actions Management recommendations below are general, parkwide suggestions and have been divided into two categories: priority actions (those that should be implemented immediately); ancl management recommendations (suggestions that will require further investigation/research). Area specific recommendations are listed in Section 4.0. o

Increase patrols by PEP. UPR and police to monitor teenage activity. discourage dirtbiking, and prevent fires and vandalism.


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Contain and explore ways to eradicate mugwort and Phragmites

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Block vehicular access through installation of guardrails, fences. and/or wooden bollards to discourage dirtbikes. dumping and abandoned vehicles.

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Remove abandoned vehicles.

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Limit path use by wood chipping major trails and planting barrier shrubs in key locations.

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Remove flotsam regularly from both sides of the bay .

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Establish a program of regular removal of trash, especially from the ponds.

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Continue interpretive programs in the Alley in association with APEC.

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Maintain park boundaries and monitor encroachment

Management Recommendations o

Explore both freshwater and intertidal wetlands restoration possibilities.

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Control garbage from railroad

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Establish Little Neck Bay as a preserve in order to protect its rich marshes. which are the particular habitat of the diamond back terrapin and other protected species.

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in cooperation with L1RR authorities.

Protect the beachfront from overuse by fisherman by controlling use. Provide proper access or reroute fisherman to other spots. o

Establish Northern Boulevard Meadows as a restoration area. It should be off limits to the public while extensive management practices are used to rehabilitate natural habitats.


1.0 INTRODUCTION I.l DEPARTMENT OF PARKS AND RECREATION ~

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New York City has one of the most extensive and varied park systems of any city in the world. More than 26.000 acres of city park properties occupy 13 percent of the city's total area of 303.7 square miles (Map I). Federal parks occupy another 13.000 acres: altogether. 20 percent of New York's land mass is covered by parkland. The Department of Parks and Recreation (DPR) manages these areas and provides public recreation services. DPR facilities include a developed plant and a surprising array of significant natural habitats. The physical plant includes more than 900 playgrounds. 890 ballfields, 542 lennis courts. 42 indoor and oUldoor swimming pools. 13 golf courses. 6 ice rinks, 14.3 miles of beachfront. numerous fonnal gardens. and landscaped malls. The undeveloped portion of the park system includes 7.000 acres of undeveloped forests. tidal and freshwater wetlands, meadows and wildlife preserves. In the past. DPR has concentrated on developed landscapes and recreation facilities rather In the absence of than preservation. restoration. and acquisilion of natural areas. comprehensive management policy. the city's natural lands began 10 decay. Increasing vandalism. littering and dumping magnified the situation. During the last five years. however. DPR has strengthened its commitment to the protection and interpretation of natural resources. In 1979. the Department created the Urban Park Rangers to help protect and interpret natural resources for public enjoyment. DPR affim1ed its commitment to resource management by appointing Borough Commissioners. in 1982. who sponsored special in-house projects to improve natural habitats. These included pond and lake restoration: the removal of abandoned vehicles and construction debris and the creation of nature trails by the Urban Park Rangers. 1.2 NATURAL RESOURCES GROUP DPR addressed the need for a comprehensive approach to natural resource management by establishing the Natural Resources Group (NRG) in April 1984. NRG's goals are to develop and implement city-wide policy to preserve and protect natural resources within the park system. and to provide the agency with technical infonnation on state-of-the-art techniques for vegetation management. NRG's mission is fivefold: (I) to identify and assess natural parklands within the city: (2) to protect the city's natural areas and their wildlife inhabitants: (3) to define clear resource management policies for the future: (4) to promote the educational opportunities that these lands offer the public: and (5) to promote public awareness of the importance of natural lands, and to acquire new. ecologically significant parcels for the Department. 1.3 NATURAL RESOURCES INVENTORY NRG's immediate objective was to evaluate natural resources by means of a city-wide inventory--the first such inventory for the entire country. The inventory was intended to provide infonnation from which DPR managers could fonnulate city-wide policy and management strategies for the protection. preservation and improvement of New York's natural resources. The purpose of the inventory was: I. To locate. delineate. clarify and evaluate natural or potentially natural lands within New York City: and find similar habitats outside park boundaries for potential acquisition.

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2. To develop methods for delineating and evaluating natural areas in New York City and other highly urbanized areas . . I -


3. To provide an information base from which NRG can (I) develop citywide policies and long-range management strategies for natural areas; (2) expand public education and interpretation programs: (3) define research needs; and (4) evaluate future inventories. 4. To locate unique and sensitive biotic communities for immediate protection. 5. To identify immediate problem areas (e.g., active soil erosion. encroachment. use of unauthorized entrances), so that managers can develop strategies to restore the impacted resource. 6. To promote public awareness and positive use of the city's natural areas. To achieve these objectives. NRG designed an inventory to to determine natural covertypes and adjacent land use, individual ecological assessments of parks. and the delineation of management zones where use and management strategies for natural resources meet a specific objective (Fig. I). In 1984, NRG commissioned the Cornell Laboratory for Environmental Applications of Remote Sensing (CLEARS) to conduct a city-wide natural covertype inventory using 30 classes of vegetation mapped at a scale of I :24.000. Using aerial photography interpretation techniques. technicians identified more than 7,000 acres of natural covertypes on DPR's 26.000-acre properties. The inventory enabled NRG to identify 36 park properties with 10 or more acres of natural covertypes (Map I). Queens has more than 7.005 acres of park properties (10% of total land area). of which 1.154 acres were delineated as natural covertype. The majority of the natural lands in the borough are forested (886 acres). 1.4 INDIVIDUAL PARK ECOLOGICAL ASSESSMENTS Having identified the natural areas within the city. NRG streamlined its task. Parks with 10 or more acres of natural land have been earmarked for more detailed study via an ecological assessment. The assessments will help park managers formulate management plans for the city's natural areas. Pelham Bay Park in the Bronx was the suhject of NRG's pilot ecological assessment, which took a systematic approach to evaluating the park's vegetation, water resources. wildlife. geology and soils. Methods. techniques. and information gathered in Pelham were reviewed and evl1luatt:d to refine and improve procedures. A standard soil survey was not conducted because of budgetory constraints. but rather a preliminary soil study was completed to help determine criterea for a future soil survey. (For more information, see the Pelham Bay Park Manalement Plan.) lIey Pond Park is a 635-acre strip of parkland running from Little Neck Bay south to Union Turnpike. It was identified by DPR as a likely candidate for an ecological assessment because it is part of a "greenbelt" of parks through central Queens. In addition. the DPR Borough Office and the Alley Pond Environmental Center. Inc. (APEC) have for over 10 years conducted interpretive programs in Alley Pond Park.

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Map 1: New York City··Parklands

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2.0 ALLEY POND PARK 2.1 DESCRIPTION Alley Pond Park is located in northeast Queens approximately one mile from the Nassau County border. It encompasses 569 acres of both natural. undeveloped land rich in plant and animal life. and developed. landscaped land. The parkland includes 39 acres of salt marsh. 6 acres of freshwater wetlands. 221 acres of forest. and 168 acres of meadow (Map 3). Alley Pond Park is also home of the Alley Pond Environmental Center (APEC). a not-for-profit environmental education facility. 2.2 HISTORY Much of Alley Pond Park's existing IOpography and vegetative cover is the result of glacial action. When the last of four glaciers receded from the New York City area more than 10.000 years ago (section 3.4). it left behind a unique landscape of kettle ponds. huge depressions. and high ridges (or kames) in Queens County. The southern section of Alley Pond Park is one of the last remnants of this kame and kettle topography in the city. To the north is the" Alley". a wide valley scoured by the glacier and ending at lillie Neck Bay. Since the retreat of the last glacier, the park's landscape has continually changed. Small pines and birches were the first in the area. followed by spruces and larger pines as the climate continued to warm. Eventually. oak. hickory. chestnut. and hemlock arrived. The hemlocks disappeared long ago and chestnuts more recently due to disease. Many southern species. such as sweetgum and tulip tree. were able to invade the area (New York City is a meeting place for two plant zones). further increasing the diversity of plant life. lillie Neck Bay and its surrounding countryside provided the ideal location for its Indian sell leI's. the Mattinecock. The waters teemed with oysters. clams. and a variety of fish: the forests provided game. fuel. and building material. The first white sell IeI' was an Englishman who received his 600-acre land grant from King Charles I in 1637. The following year. Thomas Foster came to lillie Neck Bay. He built a stone COllage close to today's NOl1hern Boulevard. (His house was still standing in 1920.) Fellow Englishmen Thomas Hicks and James Hedges also sellle(J in the area. Hicks built a mill powered by the water flow from Oakland Lake into Alley Creek. and Hedges built a dam to power his grist mill. thereby forming the original Alley Pond. A few stories have surfaced over the name" Alley". One originates from the "finger" or "alley" created by the glacier itself. Another source bases its truth upon travellers in colonial times who in order to reach Manhallan from Long Island had to pass through "the alley" created by the creek and pond in the area. and on to Brooklyn for a ferry ride into the citv. . "The Alley" selliement flourished as a center of commerce and shipping for farmers in the surrounding areas. Alley Creek was a principal route for transporting produce to Manhallan market via the East River. Since the Alley was a popular stopping point on the route between Roslyn and Flushing. it is not unlikely that President George Washington rested there on his tour of Long Island in 1790. (A plaque commemorating this tour stands at West Alley Road and 233rd Street.) By the early 1800路s. the town contained a blacksmith. woolen mill. grist mill. and general store. which also served as the Flushing post office until IR37. In 1826. Wynant Van Zandt built a causeway and bridge connecting the towns of Douglaston and Bayside. This construction narrowed the width of the creek. however. and subsequent road improvements made water travel obsolete. Surrounding areas developed and the population increased. but the Alley retained its rural character. Residents swam and fished in the bay and the countryside became known as a place of natural beauty. a favorite spot for nature lovers and artists.

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The turn of the century brought with it many changes, however. William Vanderhilt路s,. Long Island Motor Parkway. a 45-mile long stretch to Lake Ronkonkama. was built in 1908 .. The grist mill at Alley Pond burned down in 1926. The general store. closed since 1920. was demolished in 1939 when construction began on the Cross Island Parkway. Most important, the population of Queens had nearly doubled hetween 1920 and 1929. As the landscape hegan' , to change. the movement for parkland acquisition was taking place. In 1929. the Department :. of Parks obtained 330 acres of land surrounding the Alley. Many of the older structures still. existed in the Alley. although they were very run down. At the time of acquisitio~. Ihese structures were removed. Alley Pond Park. dedicated in 1935. was created as part of a . proposed chain of parks throughout the borough. Consistent with the philosophy of parks and recreation development prevailing in the . 1930路s. Mayor Fiorello laGuardia and Parks Commissioner Robert Moses opened 26 acres' of newly constructed playing fidds in a festive ceremony at the intersection of Ihe Grand Central Parkway and Winchester Boulevard in the park. Recreational improvements included 16 ,ennis courts. 3 haseball fields. a playground. a fieldhouse and a parking lot for 200 cars. Moses also brought something unique to Alley Pond Park--a nature trail. The first interpretive Irail of its kind in the city. this WPA project was completed in 1935 and wound its way through the vast southern forest of oak, beech. sweet gum . and white ash. As the twentieth century marched on. so did development. The Grand Central Parkway was followed hy construction of the Long Island Expressway (LIE). The Inlier was a i fntal blow to Alley Pond itself. which was filled in the 1950s. The pond is now a stand of Phragmites in the southeast cloverleaf intersection of the LIE and the Cross Island Parkway. Since the 1960路s. citizen action has sparked efforts to save the Alley wetlands. Organizations such as the Alley Restoration Commillee and the present-day Alley Pond Environmental Center (APEC) have pushed for political action and community involvement. As a result. Ihe Parks Department dredged and regraded the wetlands in 1974: drain improvements were made. but the restoration was never completed. APEC not only generates puhlic interest in the environment. but it also serves as a watchdog of Alley Pond Park's natural lands. 2.3 CURRENT USE & OUTSTANDING NATURAL FEATURES Alley Pond Park has an abundance of geological and vegetative assets. It has progressed from the first city park with a nature trail in 1935 to an intricate system of trails winding throughout its forests and wetlands. Use varies from athletic recreation. picniCking. dog walking, bicycling. and fishing to birdwatching and biological studies by local colleges (Map 5). Natural features in Alley Pond Park include: o

A 216-acre forest in Alley's southern half containing vast stands of such native species as sweetgum. white ash. American beech. gray birch. and mature oak and tulip trees. This is complemented by very di",'crsc understory species and a great deal of tree regeneration.

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Kame and kellle hole formations throughout the southern forest. Ponds exhihit varying stages of eutrophication--an excellent interpretive 1001 for demonstrating succession from pond to upland system. Associated freshwater vPfPl!'tion includes water-willow, sweet pepperbush. black tupelo. box elder. alder spp., duckweed, cattails; and buttonbush.

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The highest point in Queens due to its location on the terminal moraine.

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Mature oak forest along the park's western houndary adjacent to East Hampton Boulevard exhibiting good, intermediate regeneration. Also. the largest tulip tree in Long Island.

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Extensive stand of white ash 'in Cathedral Forest, where the former Alley Pond drained .

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Diverse old-field/grassland in upland area surrounding Alley Creek. Species include: clover, goldenrod, and little bluestem along with scattered woody species (crabapple. Rubus, etc.). Provides cover for pheasant and cottontail rabbits.

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Alley Creek's and Little Neck Bay's 38-acre saltwater high marsh and mudflats. This habitat attracts waders and waterfowl.

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Closed forest of mature red oak and tulip trees bordering eastern edge of Alley Pond Park's wellands.

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3.0 METHODS

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New York City's parks are a mosaic of natural and exotic vegetation types in various stages of community development. The resulting patchwork makes it relatively easy for field technicians . using a procedure called entitation. to make subjective identification and delineation of vegetation units. These units. or "entities," are ecologically distinct plant communities Ihat are distinguished primarily by spatial variations in plant species in the canopy and understory and also by distinctions in life form. condition. age. and size. Other faclors may contribute to entitation. such as slope. drainage. and use. For example. a closed-canopy foresl dominated by red oak and bitternut hickory in the overslory is visually distinct from an adjacent unit of black locust and jewelweed. NRG classified enlitation units to facilitate identification of like units. by using a revised form of the Mueller-Dombois and Ellenberg Lifeform Classification. NRG modified this classification system for use in urban areas in the Northeastern United States (Appendix B). Two or three technicians conducted a field reconnaissance. usin~ aerial photograph enlargements (I" = 100' or I" =200') with superimposed grids to identify vegetation units. Information collected on site for each unit includes:

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3.1 VEGETATION MAPPING (ENTlTATlON)

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Overstory structure--e.g .. closed forest. terrestrial herbaceous. Understory structure based on plant life forms--e.g .. phanerophyte. chamaephytc (see Entitalion Manual for descriptions). o Drainage. o Wildlife sitings. o Species composition. o Local topography. o Historical indicators: evidence of past use. o Current use and maintenance. ' o Environmental disturbances. o Additional comments or notes that are useful in characterizing the unit. For more information. see Entitation Manual. A composite map was made by tracing unit boundaries onto a mylar sheet placed directly over the photographs (Map 2). Similar units were grouped together. based on covertype, environmental disturbances. exotic species. soil conditions. current uses. elc.. and displayed accordingly on the enlitation maps (Maps 3-9). These maps provide clear. concise representations of basic inventory information on the coverage and location of vegetation types, spatial relations of various entities to other features of the landscape. and a record from which future conditions can be compared to determine the extent of changes in the landscape. For the purposes of this project. the main Objectives of entitation are: I. Delineating distinct vegetation units based on species composition and formation (e.g .. woodland. closed foresl). 2. Obtaining a description and ~eographic distrihution (Map 2) of those units. 3. Providing a temporal baseline survey used for monitoring ecological (vegetation) changes over time. The entitation of Alley Pond Park produced 364 units of distinct vegetation within 569 acres of parkland. These units. or groups of like units. can be used as individual management zones. or subunits. because they exhibil little variation. allowing for easy identification of management needs (Tables I & 2). A detailed entitation manual was prepared to document procedures and help train future entitators for field work.

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Table I: Alley Pond Park Entitation Summary by FOl'mation Formation

Total Units

Total Acres

5 77 7 12 30 40 174 19

3.12 199.37 38.44 6.31 38.45 61.12 212.67 35.87

Aquatic plant Herbaceous Intertidal Scrub Vineland Woodland Closed forest Desert

% Acreage

0.5 33.5 6.5 1.1 6.5 10.3 35.7 6.0

Table 2: Alley Pond Park Entltation Summal')' by Management Zone Management Zone

Total Units

Cathedral Forest Cloverleaf Douglaston Woods Little Neck WeI lands Northern Blvd Meadows Southern Foresl Little Alley Woodland The Alley Tulip Tree Trail

14 17 9 13 38 87 92 66 28

Total Acres 13.21 44.31 11.97 26.83 53.14 135.18 139.85 131.92 38.94

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% Acreage

2.2 7.4 2.0 4.5 8.9 22.7 23.5 22.2 6.5

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ENTlIAIION UNITS

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... ... .... .... ....

3.2 WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION Because of its size. habitat diversity. relative remoteness. and location within a network of greenspaces in Queens County. Alley Pond Park is home and migratory respite to a gre.at variety of wildlife species (Appendix C). Because it is a coastal park. it is a very important habitat for shorebirds. waders. and waterfowl. DPR has set its sights on maintaining this invaluable resource and improvin~ existing habitats where necessary. The first phase of this process was evaluating the sUltahility of different habitats for species that serve as indicators of habitat potential. In Alley Pond Park, indicator species include the Eastern gray squirrel. black-capped chickadee. Eastern cottontail, rin~-necked pheasant. and yellow warbler. Because each favors a particular habitat. it serves as an mdicator species for that habitat type. Ring-necked pheasants. for example. prefer grassland and old-field/scrubland habitats. If an evaluation of the park indicates sufficient hahitat to satisfy pheasants. species with similar habitat requirements or preferences should be able to survive there as well. A brief description of each indicator species is found in the Wildlife Habitat Appraisal Manual (Appendix F--References).

METHODS The United States Forest Service provided NRG with two types of hahitat-appraisal guides, subjective and quantitative. along with instructions for their use and field training.' The guides are based on such habitat requirements as winter cover. food supply. and reproductive cover. NRG field technicians evaluated the two guides to determine which method yielded more accurate information most efficiently. After using both guides during the Pelham Bay Park pilot study. NRG decided that subjective habitat appraisal yielded accurate results even when field technicians had a minimum of technical expertise. Subjective habitat appraisal guides are based on visual estimates of various limiting faclOrs. No quantitative data are required. The guides are normally used only in important habitats or those most often used by the species in question (see Wildlife Habital Appraisal Manual). Habilat types are indicated at the top of the appraisal guide sheet. For example. the Eastern gray squirrel is evaluated only in woodland units because it needs trees for its survival. But the Eastern cOllontail rabbit thrives in a variely of hahitats. so field technicians measure its hahitat suitabilily in all covertypes. They examine every area to be evaluated for each relevant habitat characteristic on the sheet and circle the appropriate value. They deternline a habitat suitability index (HSI) by totaling columns and dividing by the greatest possible value. To find an index for the entire park area in question. they multiply by the area of the unit and factor in the total acreage for area-wide assessment. A good HSI for a particular species does not imply that a give.n area is teeming with individuals of that species but only that the area offers features important to the success of the species. The HSI can be a useful management tool. If the HSI is low for a particular species, technicians can review the model to see which necessary feature is affecting the results. If there is no winter cover. for example. it becomes obvious that the introduction of winter cover will improve the present habitat. I

These habitat guides. prepared. by Charles Nilon of lhe Northeastern Fore" Experimenl Slation of the U.S. Forest Service. were developed from guides in use by the Missouri Department of Conservation and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Habitat Suitability Index Models. NRG made minor modifications 10 the original guides 10 adapt them to an urban park environment.

- II -


Critical habitat areas have been identified and mapped (Maps 10-12). A map of this kind. along with field data. helps identify specific management concerns for eac': unit as wen as an area's potential to suppon wildlife. Management objectives are based on the data collected from these habitat appraisals along with information collected fron. a literature review. RESULTS Using the subjective habitat appraisal guides. NRG technicians evaluated three diffel :-nl areas in ' Alley Pond Park for each of the five species. The areas were the Cathedral Forest. the Southern Forest. and the Alley/Douglaston Woods. The habitat suitability indices (HSI) are the result of dividing the assessed total of each subjective category for the unit being aprraised: by the maximum score for that covertype--in other words. the assessed score divid.:r1 by the maximum score. Thus. the highest possible score equals 1.0. (For detailed inslr.:ctions in using these guides. see the Wildlife Habitat Appraisal ManuaLI For a summary of .he mean HSI's for every unit of each area appraised, see Table 3: for a summary of the area-wide HSI's for each area. see Table 4. Table 3: Summary of the Average Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI's)* Species Squirrel Warbler Chickadee Pheasant Cottontail

*

Unit HSI =

Cathedral Forest

Southern Forest

--

0.47 0.59 0.68 0.64 0.61

0.58 0.61 0.78 0.54 0.59

Alley/Douglaston Woods

0.43 0.60 0.47 0.69 0.64

~praised

Score aximum Score

Table 4: Summary of the Area-wide Habitat Suitability Indices (HSI'5)* S~ies

Squirrel Warbler Chickadee Pheasant Cottontail *

Cathedral Forest

Southern Forest路

0.52 0.57 0.70 0.57 0.58

0.62 0.60 0.84 0.42 0.60

Area HSI =

- 12 -

Alley/Douglaston Woods

0.57 0.60 0.56 0.76 0.63


~

...

... ... ... ~

~

The subjective HSrs received arbitrary ratings of excellent. good. fair. or poor within the area. Unit HSI's between 1.0 and 0.75 were rated excellent: from 0.74 to 0.50. good: between 0.49 and 0.25. fair: and under 0.25. poor. Maps 13-27 show these ratings as they were assigned to each unit within each of the four areas for each species. The location of the excellent. good. fair. and poor habitat units for each animal can then be determined. (For complete results of the wildlife habitat appraisal. see Appendix D.)

DISCUSSION Alley Pond Park's diverse habitats have been. for the purpose of wildlife hahitat evaluation. conveniently isolated from one another almost according to covertype by the many roads. highways and parkways. The Alley. for instance. separated from the rest of the park by the Long Island Expressway and the Cross Island Parkway. is dominated by Phragmites. salt marsh and other herbaceous vegetation. The Cathedral Forest. a narrow strip of closed forest bounded by the Cross Island Parkway and Douglaston Parkway. has a large amount of "edge." The Southern Forest. separated from the Alley by the Long Island Expressway and from the Cathedral Forest by the Cross Island Parkway. is one of the largest uninterrupted. mature closed forests in Queens County. As might be expected. the Habitat Suitability Indices for the different animals vary according to location. The highest ratings for the gray squirrel and black-capped chickadee were found in the Southern Forest (Maps 13-18). Both of these animals are dependent on mature trees with cavities for nesting and obtain most of their food from a closed forest. The chickadee feeds on insects occupying the upper canopy. while the squirrel harvests seeds from mast-producing trees. All of these favorable conditions are found in such quantities in the Southern Forest that it merited a high HSI and are plentiful enough to warrant moderate HSI's for the Cathedral Forest and the Douglaston Woods. Improvements to the habitat for both the chickadee. squirrel and other cavity-nesting animals would be I) to leave dead trees standing where they are not a safety hazard: and 2) to provide nest structures (one for squirrels can he made from old tires removed from the park). An improvement for the squirrel and other species using hard mast would be to manage the forest stands for oak. hickory. maple. and elm regeneration. HSI's for the yellow warbler were relatively similar in all areas of the park (Maps 19-21). However. in terms of acreage. the Southern and Cathedral Forests had small areas of suitable habitat compared to the Alley. The kettle-pond wetlands of the Southern Forest and the woodland surrounding old Alley Pond in the Cathedral Forest provide young hydrophytic (wet site) trees for warblers to nest in. The area near the cattail pond behind the Alley Pond Environmental Center has good stands of alder. willow. cottonwood. ash. and maple for nesting sites. Habitat improvements would be to allow these stands to regenerate. enlarge and develop a shrubby ed~e. but such growth may be hampered by a large population of cottontail rabbits foraging on the young woody stems in winter. The highest ratings for the ring-necked pheasant were found in the Alley (Maps 22-24). This is not su'rprising. since the Alley is comprised of Phragmites and other herbaceous vegetation that provides suitable cover and food. Somewhat lower. yet suitable ratings were found in an area of the Cathedral Forest near old Alley Pond. which now is composed of mostly Phragmites. Many pheasant were flushed from all areas of Alley Pond Park during various times of the year. Habitat improvements for the pheasant involve maintaining existing herbaceous

- 13 -


units or possibly atlempting intensive experimentation to replace the existing mugwon stands with more suitable food plants such as clovers. ragweells. ami asters. Since juxtaposition of covenypes is an important hahitat reqllirement for the cotlontail rabbit. it is not surprising to find the highest ratings for this species in the Alley/Douglaston Woods area (Maps 25-27). where salt marsh. freshwater wetland. grassland. shrubland. and closed forest meet. Because the Cathedral Forest is a narrow strip. it allows a great deal of sunlight to reach the forest 11001' from all sides. causing a herbaceous and shrubby borller or "edge" to form. This edge is imponant to cotlontail habitat and gives this area good ratings. Small openings in the canopy of the Southern Forest also allow sunlight to enter. stimulating grasses. shrubs or vines to invade. This gives a moderate amount of habitat in this area for the rabbit. Habitat improvements for the cottontail (as for the pheasant) might be experimental replacement of mugwon stands with more suitable food plants and regenerating sumac and alder thickets. Maps 20. 23 and 26 show that the Alley/Douglaston Woods area has excellent habitat potential for the ring-necked pheasant and good potential for the yellow warbler and cottontail rabbit. Most of the area (68 %) is herbaceous meadow (units ag2. 5. 6. 9. 19) bordered on one side by a relatively young woodland (units aw8. 9. 10). and a more mature forest (units aw I. 2. 3.4) on the other. An estuarine creek and associated salt marsh runs up the center of the alley. Three freshwater ponds. located in different spots. add to the covenype diversity. The Southern Forest. (Maps 13. 16. 19. 22. 25) with its 135 acres of mature closed forest. shows the greatest potential habitat for the black-capped chickadee and gray squirrel. There are a sufficient number of mast producing tree species (oak. hickory. beech. maple) in units bwl. 7. II. and 13. Most of the trees in units bwl. 2. 4.6.7.8.9,12. and 13 are at least 50 feet in height and have a good number of snags and tree cavities. The more open canopy woodlands in units bw3. 5. and 6 show high ratings for the cotlontail. This may be due to the presence of vines and shrubs in the underslory and proximity to grassland and old field units bo I and bg2. The black-capped chickadee also has high HSls in the Cathedral Forest (Maps 18). The forest units cwl. 2. 3. 4. and 7 are mostly closed canopy ami have trees taller than 50 feet. There is good habitat for the cottontail anti warbler in old field units co2 and 3. woodland units cw7 and 8 and grassland units cg I. 2 and 4. Unit cg4, which is the old Alley Pond. has a high HSI for the ring-necked pheasant. but this result could be misleading since the unit is now filled with Phragmites and some open water. and pheasants ar,!': typically found in more upland areas.

- 14 -

---------

11


!

NORTH

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

COVERTYPES

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- HAP 10 -

)

Woodland

~ Grassland

«[]]» Old Field

.. j

COVERTYPES


r<l

Woodland

Old Field

Grassland

CZJ;>

<IJIlIJ>

~

COVERTYPES

SCALE:

~

~

oQ

--::~

NORTH

==~~;==J~~d~

Y------~-------::~:::::....--~ ---~'-

'-<:-

1"=400'

~~~;::::::.:::===========±~t----

0-

"'0=

r-

_1

... ,-------=--F--=~---

---....., -------30~--'_-------~-~----~

--I,

~ City of New York Parks & Recreation

i-:,=,, Re'~=" L

~~~=====~~

-(

~:""--~-------:J~---"'='---------------~ --------\ "J -----:::~=----------~ -------------------.l.

~---

-I

~~_--- -----------~---_I_-------"3

...

n--::~-------~

-MAP 11-

Southern Forest and Section of Little Alley Woodland

COVERTYPES

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

-l

p


Grassland

Old Field

Woodland

COVERTYPES

Section of Cloverleaf

---1

SCALE:

1"=400'

COVERTYPES

NORTH

\

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 12 -

~

City of New York Parks & Recreation

--f

--r

~ .atura1 Resources Group

cathedral Forest

-f --1


..

0.49

0.24

<1lIID

0.74

~

CZ;)

1.00

H.S.I.

0.00

0.25

-

-

0.50

0.75

-

-

- MAP 13 -

SCALE:

1"=400'

1--------

~----

~=====-<Sl====7~

1,====::;::;;;!C= l====1.-.

i=====4 ~~=====Cl------------:';;",----"J~----."

Southern Forest and Section of Little Alley Woodland

GRAY SQUIRREL

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

r

NORTH

Parks & Recreation

r

~ City Natural ."cure., Group of New York

~

r


Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

GRAY SQUIRREL

NORTH

!

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 14 -

(

)

0.74 - 0.50

<IIIDD

0.24 - 0.00

~ 0.49 - 0.25

(

~ 1.00 - 0.75

H.S.I.


0.49

0.24

~

<QID:> 0.00

0.25

0.50

-

0.74

(22)

-

0.75

-

1.00

~

H.S.I.

Section of Cloverleaf

"~p l5

SCALE:

1"=400'

GRAY SQUIRREL

NORTH

\

f rALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

1-

r

City of New York Parks & Recreation

!!) Nat=al "'ouree' Group

~

Cathedral Forest

r r


0.49

0.24

(}]D

0.74

-

-

0.00

0.25

0.50

1.00 -0.75

~

~ c:::£)

H.S.I.

- MAP 16 -

SCALE:

1"=400'

Southern Forest and Section of Little Alley Woodland

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE

I ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

Parks & Recreation

...

NORTH

---'\

»----------'\

- - - - - - - - Cl

~-------------

~ City Natural Resources Group of New York

~

r

'--------

r


r

NORTH

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 17 -

--{

---(

0.74

<CD

0.75

- 0.50

-

~ 0.49 - 0.25 (ijJ])) 0.24 - 0.00

1. 00

~

H.S.I.


0.24 - 0.00

<CIID>

0.25

0.49

-

0.74 - 0.50

~

C23)

1. 00 - 0.75

H.S.I .

..

Section of Cloverleaf

SCALE:

1"=400'

NORTH

\

BLACK-CAPPED CHICKADEE

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 18 -

Cathedral Forest

~

City of New York Parks & Recreation

~ Natural Reso=es G=up


..

0.25

0.00

-

-

0.24

<CIID

0.50

0.49

0.74

0.75

-

~

cz::>

1.00

H.S.I •

- MAP 19 -

SCALE:

1"=400'

.......

Southern Forest and Section of Little Alley Woodland

YELLOW WARBLER

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

~

Parks & Recreation

~ Nat=al Re.~e. Group City of New York

NORTH


r

NORTH

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

YELLOW WARBLER

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 20 -

0.50

~ 0.24 - 0.00

~ 0.49 - 0.25

t~(ยง~J 0.74

H.S.I.


0.49 - 0.25

0.24 - 0.00

<IJIID

0.74 - 0.50

~

(jJ£)

1.00 - 0.75

H.S.I •

..

Section of Cloverleaf

SCALE:

1"=400'

NORTH

\

YELLOW WARBLER

r

Cathedral Forest

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 21 -

~

Group

City of New York Parks & Recreation

~ "t=.1 Re,our,.,


...

0.49

0.24

<1JID>

0.74

~

CZ3)

1.00

H.S.I .

0.50

0.25

0.00

-

-

0.75

-

-

SCALE:

1"=400'

~

Parks & Recreation

~ Nat=al Res=es Group City of New York

NORTH


r

NORTH

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

RING-NECKED PHEASANT

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 23 -

)

0.74

1.00

-

0.50

0.75

~ 0.49 - 0.25 «J]JD 0.24 - 0.00

<

..

H.S.I

r


1.00 - 0.75

0.74 - 0.50

0.49 - 0.25

0.24 - 0.00

......

~ -<::::::=:=>

~

~

H.S.I.

Section of Cloverleaf

SCALE:

1"=400'

NORTH

RING-NECKED PHEASANT

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 24 -

City of New York Parks & Recreation

~ N.t=a1 Resources Group

~

Cathedral Forest

r [


') - - - - - t

,..,

-

0.75

0.49

0.24

<CIII::D

-

-

0.00

0.25

0.74 - 0.50

~

CZZ)

1.00

H.S.I.

.. -

...,..,

SCALE:

IJ-~-------Cl----__."

If4J~------

- MAP 25 -

--;

Y--------------7~-----___f'..

/------l,-------;;-"'<:.--l----'

--l

""',.------cr--------==}----:-;-----j

1"=400'

Southern Forest and Section of Little Alley Woodland

COTTONTAIL RABBIT

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

--l

NORTH

-<---

~ City of New York Parks & Recreation

~ Natural ".oure•• Group


!

NORTH

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parks & Recreation

SCALE 1"=400'

The Alley and Douglaston Woods

COTTONTAIL RABBIT

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 26 -

C

0.24

0.00

0.49 - 0.25

) 0.74 - 0.50

~ 1.00 - 0.75

H.S.I.


0.74 - 0.50

0.49 - 0.25

0.24 - 0.00

CB>

~

<I1IJ]:>

~ 1.00 - 0.75

H.S.!.

Section of Cloverleaf

SCALE:

1"=400'

NORTH

'\

COTTONTAIL RABBIT

Cathedral Forest

ALLEY PARK, QUEENS WILDLIFE HABITAT EVALUATION UNITS

- MAP 27 -

~

City of New York Parks & Recreation

~ Natweal .~=.s Group

r


~

... ... ...

3.3 SOIL SAMPLING Soil surveys and mapping have traditionally been conducted in agricultural areas throughout the United States. [n New York State. every county except the five counties of New York City has an established Soil and Water Conservation District. The lack of attention urban areas have received from soil surveyors is due not only to political issues but also to the disturbed nature of the landscape: urbanization has paved over much of the landscape and what remains uncovered is highly disturhed. Even in seemingly undisturbed areas. soil characteristics have been altered by pollution or previous land use . such as farming and gardening. Nonetheless. the survey and mapping of soils provides valuable information for the management of disturbed lands. particularly when delermining limitations of use and how such limitations can be mitigated through management. For example. areas with poorly drained soils should receive limited use for certain times of the year to limit compaction. Where soils are high in fertility. the kinds of plants that can be supported are different from those soils with lower fertilities. In 1985 the U.S.D.A. Soil Conservation Service (SCS) conducled soil surveys for all of Alley Pond Park and part of Kissena Park. During the fall of 1986, NRG staff completed a further study of the soils of these parks and Marine Park with the help of Roger Case. a soil scientist from the SCS. The objectives of the 1986 soil work were to (I) verify the identity of mapping units given by the SCS surveys of Alley Pond and Kissena Parks: (2) characterize those areas mapped by the SCS as Urban Land Udorthent. or man-made land: and (3) 10 locate representative soil profiles for monoliths and pil descriptions. The overall goal of the study is to develop soil mapping criteria for more intensive survey and sampling procedures for urbaninfluenced landscapes. such as these parks. Field and Lab Work NRG technicians completed the field portion of the study in two phases: (I) the verification of SCS soil surveys for Alley Pond and Kissena Parks and (2) the determination of characteristics of fill areas. including the delineation of disturbed soil types. Two to three soil pits were dug in each park to obtain profile descriptions of representative soil series and to identify variations of fill materials. Technicians also collected samples for each horizon or fill layer for analysis at the Central Park Soils Lah. Soil borings and the collection of additional samples were done by two field technicians using a three-inch bucket auger or. in more compacted soils. a screw auger at approximate map unit boundaries. Additional borings were made along transects that corresponded with vegetation plots. This was done to help refine and subdivide some general categories used by the SCS and to facilitate the grouping of soil types by single properties at a later time. The following parameters were evaillated in the field or the lab and were recorded on a computer data form: depth to mottles. depth to bedrock: presence or absence of bedrock outcrop: bare soil: trampling: soil erosion: percent sand. silt. and clay by soil horizons: soil acidily: electrical conductance: and percent of or~anic matter by horizon. (For a detailed description of field and lab procedures. see AppendIx E.)

Alley Pond and Kissena Park Soil Survey The surface geology of Alley Pond and Kissena Parks is glacially derived (section 3.4), and the action of both fresh and salt water has also modified the landscape. In tum. the geology has greatly influenced the soils thai have formed since the last glacier. Man has also had an important impact on the soils in each park: he has added material. altered contours. and added or drained water from the developing soils.

- 15 -


The soils in both parks can be divided into two groups: (I) upland soils that developed in glacial deposits and (2) soi Is found in low-lying areas that developed in materials deposited on alluvial fans or flood planes. Descriptions of the soils that exist today at Alley Ponu and Kissena parks can be found in Appendix E. Soil Test Results Soil test results for samples taken from two transects and two soil its are given in Appendix E. Samples taken along transect A were from an area mappeu by the SCS as a Wallington silt loam (unit 40). The elevation of the transect is only a few feet above that of Alley creek and during sampling the surface of the soil was saturated. The soil test results for transect A indicate two distinct types. Sample location intervals at 50 and 250 feet tested high for electrical conductivity (above 1000 umh%m) and, were found to have an organic horizon, compared to much lower conductivity levels (bel';;;:;:" 400 and 600 umh%m) and the absence of an organic horizon for the other locations on the transect. Furthermore. the 50 and 250 foot intervals varied greatly with depth: pH for surface organic horizons was close to 5.5 compared to pH readings of close 10 8 in the B horizons (this reading may have been altered by the high organic content of this layer). Clay loam textures were found for the surface layers as compared 10 sandy loam lextures in the B material. Note the uniformity between results for all locations in the suhsoil horizons. This may indicate that the soil sampled along transect A is similar in origin and that variations in surface horizons are due to surface grading from previous activities. Ihe influence of vegetation (Maps 3 and 4), and the intrusion of salt water as indicated by elevated electrical conductivity. Fel1ility levels for all locations on transect A were low to moderate for phosphorus and potassium and low for nitrate. Soil pH was generally high except for the organic horizons mentioned above. ' Samples taken along transect B were from an area mapped by the SCS as a Udipsamments-wet substratum (unit 95). This transect was approximately 30 feet above the creek elevation and during sampling the soil surface was moist. Soil test results for transect B indicate a fairly uniform soil. S"rface pH readings ranged from 6.2 to 7.1 while electrical conductivity was low--ranging from 190 to 565 umh%m. Changes in pH with soil depth were consistent showing elevated readin~s for the B horizon at all sampling locations except at the 50 foot interval site. Levels of OItrate and phosphorus were found to be low to very low and potassium readings moderate. Soil texture for all samples was classified as sandy loams. In general. transect A is more poorly drained than transect B especially in those areas dominated by Phragmites (samples I thru 6). The fill material from which these soils are developing is a sandy loam of low to moderate fertility ancl rclativ6l-j' high pH. Soil Management The soils in Alley Pond Park range from the least disturhed in the city to "made land." or entirely man-made soils. As mentioned. these soils can be divided hy topographic flosiiion into lowland and upland soils. with' the lowland soils being the most disturbed. The lowland areas comprise most of the" Alley"--the northern section of the park. These soils are composed of s.andy dredge material used to cover refuse dumped on a former intertidal wetland. Portions of this wetland remain (Map 4) along with the associated deep organic soil (Ipswich Series). Other organic soils exist in the Alley. such as the Matunuck series. but Ihese are not as deep in organic deposits and have a more sandy base. These soils now support Phragmites and were most likely regraded in prior attempts to "rehabilitate" the tidal marsh.

- 16 -

,. ,


~

...

~

The upland portions of the park exhibit more natural soil profiles and support primarily woodland vegetation. Muck soils have developed in scattered kettleholes throughout this section of the park. These soils formed on organic deposits and have very poor drainage; slow percolalion rates and slow recharge (Section 3.4); perched water rests above these soils during wet seasons. these areas gradually dry up over the summer depending on rainfall. The limitations of the soils found in Alley Pond Park for sustaining natural vegetation and passive recreational use are primarily associated with fertility, poor drainage, and physical characteristics. For nutrient poor sites, such as those found in the Alley. grass and herbaceous plant communities can be easily maintained because of the lack of woody growth. Trampling from pedestrian traffic constitutes less of a problem here than in woodland areas because these soils are relatively coarse and low in organic matter; however. efforts should be made to discourage bushwacking which will result in plant damage. Areas with organic soils should be protected from pedestrian use; these areas are highly susceptible to compaction, especially when wet. Organic soils associated with kettle ponds should be left in place to protect the balance of incoming and outgoing water. If dredging is necessary. it is important to determine the depth of the organic deposil first and then make every effort to save the organic material during the dredging operation. Upland soils in woodland areas are primarily Montauk soils; these are very susceptible to sheet erosion and surface compaction. Efforts should be made to limit use in these areas (to protect the vegetation) particularly on steep slopes and areas adjacent to kettle ponds. Elevated pH levels are likely to persist for some time in the land fill portions of the Alley. Should plantings of any kind be desired in these areas, pH must be considered when selecting plant material. It is not advised to attempt to lower pH using sulphur treatments because of the potential source of calcium carbonate found in rubble used to fill in these areas. Fertilization of these soils is not desireable (except for special uses such as grass establishment), because of the potential contamination of Alley Creek. If an increase in fertility is desired, organic ammendments are recommended because of their residual supply of nutrients.

- 17 -


3.4 HYDROLOGY

...

...

The movement of water from one locale to another (the hydrologic cycle) depends on water's relationship to the atmosphere and the sun. The cycle begins wilh vapor and lempernlUre differences in the air over land and over water. Because of evaporalion and the heat-absorplion properties of the sea. the moist. cooler air over the ocean replaces the dry. warmer land air, pushing it up and causing a sea breeze. When the ocean air meets land. it is warnled and begins to rise. As the air rises. water vapor forms clouds. The clouds. forced to rise over the land mass. release their moisture as rain or snow. This water eventually returns to the ocean via rivers. streams. and groundwater. thereby completing the cycle. In Alley Pond and Kissena Parks. graduate students from Hunter College conducted a hydrogeological assessment. a study to determine local geologic structure. drainage patterns, and sUlface water quality. The following infornlation was gathered from their reports.

GEOLOGY All of long Island including Queens County is within the Atlantic Coastal Plain Province (Swarzenski. 1963). Unconsolidated sediments consisting of Cretaceous and Quaternary deposits are up to 1.150 feet thick in Queens and Brooklyn and thin to the southeast (Perlmutter and Arnow. 1953). Pleistocene glaciation is responsible for the topography of long Island. Harhor Hill Drift deposits are present in the north as ground moraine. A tenninal moraine. which runs along the island's axis. outlines the furthest extent of Wisconsin age glaciation. In Queens it exists as a ridge thai farther east bifurcates into a northern branch. the Harbor Hill moraine, and a southern branch. the Ronkonkoma terminal moraine (Soren. 1971). It is unknown whether both moraines are present in Queens County or whether only the Harbor Hill is present. The Harbor Hill terminal moraine is 25 to 250 feet thick and consists of unstratified till. which is rather impermeable. The highest elevations in Queens occur along the temlinal moraine where the ridge extends 280 feet above sea level (PcrlmUller and Arnow. 1953). Groundwater present in the morainic derosits is locally confined by interlayering of permeable and relatively impermeable sediments 0 the ground moraine which makes it a poor source of water (Soren. 1971). South of the drift lies the glacial outwash plain. which extends to Jamaica Bay. The stratified outwash deposits of brown sand and gravel are the most productive water-bearing sediments in the upper glacial aquifer (as the glacial sediments are collectively known) (Swarzenski. 1963). Cretaceous deposits. in order of increasing age. are the Magothy Formation. lhe Raritan Clay. and the Lloyd sand member of the Raritan Formation. The Magothy aquifer contains interbedded clays. sills. sand and gravel with a basal sandy gravel and variable amounts of clay and silt. The Raritan Clay acts as a confining layer (Soren. 1971). The south sloping Precambrian bedrock of long Island is a biotite-schist or gneiss, which may have grannie or pegmatitic intrusions (Perlmutter and Arnow. 1953). It occurs 200 to 800 feet below sea level and is highly weathered at its surface (Swarzenski. 1963). Relief of the basement surface may be between 200 and 300 feet. The bedrock reportedly yields some water in western long Island (Swarzenski. 1963). but is generally considered to be a confining layer for upper aquifers. The only bedrock exposures in Queens are in Astoria and long Island City at the East River (Soren ..1971).

- 19 -


Setting of Alley Pond Park The hydrology of Alley Pond Park is divided into a series of complex areas. partly natural 'and partly through the efforts of people. The northern third of the park is an area of tidal nOlS and ;: marshes. Alley Creek. a tidal stream 20 to 100 feet wide and 0.5 to 3 feet deep. is the center of this estuary of Little Neck Bay. Sedges. grasses and rushes grow along its perimeter and on the small islands in its course. To the west and easl. the area is surrounded by residential" communities. The course of the creek has been ahered by man. Ils adjoining slopes have been regraded and artificial fill added in some sections to support railroad tracks. roads. and highways. The eastern side of the creek contains a few freshwater ponds. The hydrology in this area is complex and disturbed. As one crosses over the Long Island Expressway. the site of the original Alley Pond. one enters the upland portion of the park. This is an area of mature woodland. with vegetation such as oak. hickory. and tulip trees. Three interconnected ponds are found at the highest elevation in this area. This portion of the park is an example of what geologists call "knob and kettle" country. a postglacial landscape of low. rounded hills alternating with kettleholes. Kettleholes Wl;re formed by fragments of glacial ice trapped in the moraine. They became ponds when the ice melted. Precipitation and groundwater flow maintain these ponds. and water lettuce. duckweed. pipewort. and other vegetation fill them. These ponds are in various stages of natural eutrophic succession. Il is difficuh to judge how much this natural process is being accelerated by man. as it appears to be one of the least disturbed areas in the park. The southern end of the park includes baseball diamonds. tennis courts. stables. and parking lots. Most of the natural areas have been paved over or regraded into lawn. The wooded sections scattered here have been used as picnic sites for decades and are greatly disturbed. There are a few ponds in this section of the park. The southernmost of these ponds is the one most directly influenced by man. Little Alley Pond. Freshwater Kettle Ponds Stagemeters (whIch measure magnilllde and timing of pond level fluctuations) have been installed for monitoring water levels in all ponds but Little Alley. Little ~ Pond: The largest of the freshwater ponds. Little Alley is located in the southern encTOnlie park. next to the Grand Central Parkway. The drainage basin of nearly four acres is fed hy direct precipitation. groundwater flow. and sewered drainage from parkway. North of the pond is a relatively nat moist area. the other sides are enclosed by well defined slopes. Little Alley Pond appears to contain a great deal of material in suspension as indicated by turbid water. Whether the material is sediment or of a chemical or biological nature is not known at presenl. The borders of Little Alley varied by approximate:)' ~O fcet during the study period. During one summer shower. the pond border advanced 10 feet in several hours. The pond always remained at least a foot or two deep. The presence of the highway drainage is responsible for maintaining water in the pond during the summer. At this time the water table sloped steeply away from the pond. indicating groundwater recharge. Muskrat Pond: A short distance to the north and at a slightly higher elevation than Little Alley IS r;;wsKrat Pond. Muskrat is enclosed by much Sleeper slopes around most of its perimeter. which significantly. increases throughflow and deeper groundwater contributions to the pond. Both Muskrat and Little Alley are hydrologically isolated from the other ponds. acting solely as surface water sinks. with water level fluctuations. The borders of this pond did not fluctuate more than a few feet during the study period. The pond's small. steep drainage basin provides only a small collection area for surface water.

- 20 -

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~

In addition. the tree cover in this location is fairly dense, and although soils are severely impacted on several adjacent slopes. these slopes are not very long and do not provide much of a collection area for runoff generation. The steep slopes do seem to provide the appropriate topography for a relatively large baseflow groundwater contribution. As a result, the volume of the pond does not fluctuate drastically with individual stornlS.

... ... '-

Upland Ponds

1 urtle. LIly Pad. and Decodon ponds are at higher elevations north of

Mu~krat and Little Alley ponds. At high water. they are all connected and fonn a drainage system thaI runs under the Cross Island Parkway and ultimately to Lillie Neck Bay via Alley Creek.

Turtle Pond: The highest in elevation of the~e upland ponds. Turtle has two parts. A small. nearly circular. depression forms the turtle's head. and a larger irregular area fornls the body. The head is somewhat lower in elevation than the body and the two are only connected during high water. The neck between them has a concrete structure and a path crosses it. It is unknown what the original relationship between the two ponds was. Turtle Pond is less conservative in its response to precipitation than is Muskrat. The small head of this pond dried completely during the late summer and early fall while the body of the turtle shrunk to approximately one half the maximum extent observed. Lily Pad Pond: A drainage channel connecting Turtle Pond with Lily Pad seems to have been obstructed by construction of a trail. Afler rain this channel contains some water. The.re may be some movement of groundwater from the vicinity of Turtle toward Lily Pad. Wilh its relatively gentler surrounding topography. Lily appears to derive most of its input from rainwater and a very small amount of runoff and throughflow. It prohahly acts largely as a groundwater recharge area, although the presence of a hard gray clay may create a perched water table not in communication with deeper water. The gentle slopes surrounding this pond along most of its drainage hasin provide a large drainage area and rapid response to precipitation. Lily Pad had no standing water during the late summer and early fall. The poorly decomposed peat around portions of Lily Pad may help prevent water from draining deeper to the local groundwater. Furthermore a tight gray clay located a fOOl or so below the soil sUl1'ace may act as an impeding layer for both groundwater recharge and discharge. Decodon Pond: Decodon is the lowest of the upland ponds. Local topography is fairly gentle. Overflow from this pond is routed under the Cross Island Parkway. Like Lily Pad, Decodon contained no standing water in the late summer or early fall. Other Sources of Water In addlllOn to groundwater inputs to the ponds. several other water sources are involved in the hydrology of the park. including sewered drainage. curb overflow. springs, and seeps. The Alley Creek area at the northern end of the park receives comhined storm and sanitary sewage from three separate pipes. The effluent from at least one of the locations has a high microbe population. The site jusl north of the Long Island Expressway has a very high coliform count (too numerous to count). Water quality samples were not taken at the other two locations. The effect of Ihis water on the nutrient budget of the wetland that receives its water is unknown at present.

â&#x20AC;˘ 21 â&#x20AC;˘


lillie Alley Pond also receives sewered storm water draining from a section of the Grand Central Parkway. The pipe enters the pond direclly, undoubtedly carrying material washed from the road (metals and organics derived from automobiles as well as de-icing agents). Storm water from nearby streets is also delivered to the park in the form of curb' overllow. The most notable effect of this water are large gullies at the points of entry.' The gullies along the Tulip Trail seem to be inactive at present. It appears that when active. these gullies drained onto the Cross Island Parkway creating hazardous conditions for motorists. As a result. storm sewers were put in on the streets to handle this overllow. An active gully. fed by curb overllow is located in the nonhem park in the Alley Creek wetlands. Also located in the northern ponion of the park are two springs. The first. just nonh of the L.I.E.. bubbles up through a sandy deposit and is crystal clear. The second, located just west of the Cross Island Parkway is unsighlly and tainted with growths of orange masses of bacteria. This one is probably fed by shallow groundwater while the first is supplied by deeper. less polluted water. Slope failure and groundwater seepage (after rain) and possible small pipes have been observed in the lillIe Alley Pond basin on the southeastern slope adjacent to the Grand Central Parkway. These observations may be associated with changes in flow regime resulting from highway construction. The parkway extends along the edge of the terminal moraine. To the south there is a retaining wall. and the road is approximately 30 feet above the surrounding terrain in some places: relief to the nonh is also approximately 30 feet. Analysis of the soil along this slope is required to determine whether loss of fine sediments is responsible for the piping. Since the highway occupies a narrow ridge. it is unknown what the source of Ihis water is. The water may be coming from the drainpipe, which could have ruptured within Ihe hill. Erosion Soil Water Levels: Groundwater levels around Tunle and Muskrat Ponds are being monitoreo6y shallow pIezometers (for another project). Water levels in these observation wells are controlled primarily by the amount of precipitation and the time of year when it occurs. High soil moisture in spring allows rapid water level rises. During summer. field capacity must first be reached before water can freely drain to the water table. Even a large rainfall may not raise the soil to field capacity and also supply water for recharge (Lyford 1964. p. II). In poorly drained areas capillary rise may be sufficient to keep these soils near field capacity and recharge may occur (Lyford 1964. p.IO: Urie 1967. p. 322). Maximum waleI' table height is more consistent and predictable than minimum height because of the dependence on the precipitation amounts and timing (Lyford 1964. p.II). Runoff and Soil: Soils play an, imponant role in basin hydrolo~y because they influence the exterlfOT the variable source area cdtltributirrg TlJnoff. It IS in the runoff producing areas where erosion will occur. Dunne et al. (1971) found topography. baseflow, antecedant moisture. and soils to be the best indicators of contributing areas. Since they were working in a forested watershed. land use was not included as a variable although in the park use is an imponant variable in the degree of runoff. Of the variables Dunne found 10 be significant topography and soils (if a soil map is available) are the most easily applieu in the prediction of the runoff producing zones. The contributing area expands up topographic lows; valleys. swales and gentle slopes (Dunne et. al. 1971). In the park. land use is the most significant variable in erosion problems. Mosl of the upland soils in Alley Pond Park are mapped as pan of the Montauk series. a sandy to cobbly loam derived from glacial till. It might be expected from the description of soils in the basin that overland flow would occur only in the topographic lows. However. the

- 22 -

---------------

J


-

... ...

-

apparently high rates of erosion and the tree root exposures indicate that erosion and hence overland flow occurs over a much larger area, at other times of the year, indicating Hortonian overland flow, as well as saturated overland flow occur in Little Alley Pond basin. It is not surprising that an urban park in a humid area would produce HOrloninn overland flow due to disturbance of the soil. Compared to a less disturbed site in the northern end of the park, forest litter was much thinner in Little Alley Pond basin and there was virtually no ground vegetation as was observed to the north. It may be that the runoff producing areas, and therefore the most erodable. are most strongly correlated with human traffic, and knowledge such as that provided on the 1937 Parks Department map of former picnic sites and trail will be the most reliable indicator of contributing area. It also appears that maximum seasonal extent of the contributing area. as determined by Dunne et. aI., to be on the order of 50 percent of basin area may be significantly higher in the disturbed sites. Soil Loss: Erosion on slopes around Little Alley, Decodon and Turtle Ponds is so severe 1Iiiii tree root exposures exceeding 30 centimeters were observed. This is caused by pedestrian traffic at picnic sites and fireplaces around Little Alley and around the perimeter of the other ponds. Paths appearing on a 1939 Parks Department map lie beneath a foot of sediment in some places. In 47 years, one foot of sediment has been deposited locally around Little Alley Pond. Paths: The park contains a great number of paths, most of them heavily impacted dirt trails. trails can concentrate surface water due to the low infiltration capacity of the trampled soils. This may lead to gullying and rerouting of runoff. changing the drainage areas of the ponds and stripping the slopes of forest litter and organic horizons.

--me

CONCLUSION If field investigation during storms indicates Hortonian overland flow is occurring over large portions of the Little Alley Pond basin, then remedial action will call for increasing the infiltration capacity of the soil. This may be accomplished by increasing surface detention. so water can infiltrate more slowly, or by adding a humus layer to help reestablish a more open soil structure. Any corrective measures should include clear demarcation of paths. revegetation of eroding slopes, as well as instructive signs alerting park users to the environmental damage that may result if official paths are not used.

- 23 -


.... 4.0 GENERAL MANAGEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS

... ....

Alley Pond Park is one of the richest natural hahitats in New York City. It has many. uniqlle geological features. a great variety of plant and animal species. and one of the most extensive forest canopy covers in the city. The park also has a very imp0l1ant juxtaposition of habitat types--saltmarsh. freshwater ponds. grass/herbaceous meadows. and woodland--particularly in the "Alley." or northern section of the park. There is a paucity of such land in the city and even within the parks system itself (section 1.3). Although the park is divided into many fragments. it's two major subdivisions are the southern and northern sections separated by the Long Island Expressway (LIE). More isolation of parkland occurs at the intersections for the LIE. the Cross Island Parkway. and the Grand Central Parkway. where large cloverleafs encompass 44 acres of land. The fragmentation of Alley Pond Park and the isolation of its fragments create problems for wildlife. particularly small mammals. which generally need uninterrupted habitat. The fragmentation also prevents park users from moving easily and safely from one section of the park to another. Positive uses. such as hiking and biking. are curtailed because of the lack of continuous circulation. Solutions for overcoming the park's fragmentation and lack of circulation need to be part of any natural areas management plan. The primary goal of managing this important natural resource is to preserve it (Map 28). But a commitment to preservation does not mean that the need for managemenl will disappear. The need is not overwhelming. but most undeveloped land in the park will profit from varying degrees of management. Management decisions will be based on the total resource. although specific management recommendations will be outlined in this document by management zones (Map 29). Active recreation facilities appear to be adequately provided in the park: future inadequacies can be addressed by redesign of those facilities. In this section. specific entitation units are referred to (Map 2).

4.1 OBJECTIVES Once managers have established the boundaries of natural areas. their primary objective will be to discourage development and maintain these areas in a naturalistic state. Some undeveloped sites close to active recreation areas can be developed without seriolls damage to the park's natural integrity. To preserve and enhance the scenic. recreational. and wildlife habitat values of undeveloped parkJands. managers should take these steps: o

Protect these areas by controlling access and discouraging incompatible uses.

o

Encourage positive use throllgh (I) education and interpretive programs: (2) the provision and maintenance of facilities for these uses: and. (3) a signage program to encourage public concern and involvement.

o

Begin a comprehensive circulation study of the park and use its findings to design an adequale circulation system of hiking and all-purpose trails (pedestrian. bicycle and authorized vehicles).

o

Maintain plant and wildlife species diversity.

o

Promote a variety of hahitat covertypes and enhance their continuity by consolidating areas of similar habitat type and by supplementing and restoring habitats that are already there.

- 25 -


o

Increase knowledge of the park's ecosystems specifically and the urban natural ecosystems generally by: (I) identifying problems of natural resource management (2) systematically monitoring problem areas fIll' change (3) studying such changes quantitatively by controlled scientific research (4) seeking and encouraging study by leading ecological research institutes

4.2 PROTECTED ZONES Preserves ,

.

Preserves are unique. highly sensitive habilats bordered by buffer areas lhot support significant natural features, Examples include tidal and freshwater marshes. shorebird nesling sites. and native forests devoid of exotic tree species, Pristine forests in Alley Pond Park constilute lhe majority of recommended preserve areas, lillIe Neck Bay and the Southern Forest. both recommended for preservation. contain unique vegetative covertypes that were once common in the area,2 The primary goal of nature-preserve management is the preservation of natural processes and landscapes, Maintenance should be restricted to what is necessary to protect the integrity of the natural system. Depending on the management objective for a given zone. various management practices will control biotic amI edaphic agents of change. Where natural processes have been disrupted. management efforts should encourage restoration of a more natural regime. Late summer or early fall mowing of short grass and scrub lands for example, will control the invasion of pioneering trees. Because nature preserves cannot he used intensively. management should rest rict access to overviews. stabilized pathways. raised boardwalks. or other pedestrian crossings amI establish policies to discourage random access to and illegal dumping in protected areas. Only compatible uses and passive activities will be allowed in these areas. Nature study, environmental education. and research are allowable uses. but on a permit basis only. Activities such as hiking and bird watching are acceptable only if access can be restricted and user exposure to sensitive areas minimized. LillIe Neck Wetlands The lillIe Neck Bay sallmarsh. comprised primarily of salt meadow cordgrass. is located north of the L1RR between the Cross Island Parkway and Douglaston Manor (Map 30), The bay has a significant. but not extensive. amount of sallwater cord~rass. Marsh elder. more abundant on the east side. is growing adjacent to the railroad bed (Ulllt 353) on both sides of the bay and is interspersed with Phragmites (unit 360), The west side of the bay has a great deal of Phragrnites near lhe Cross Island Bicycle Path (CIBP) and many small depressions filled with stagnant. brackish water and llotsam (unit 355) are scallered throughout this side of the bay, A small bea(;h (unit 357) as well as a

2 FUrlher regulation of weIland use is provided by the New York State Deparllnenl of Environmental Conservation by means of the Tidal Wetlands Act. Article 25, and the Fresh WaleI' Wellands Act. Article 24. of the New York Stale Environmental Conservation Law.

- 26 -


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LEGEND

1 Little Neck Wetlands 2 Northern Boulevard Meadow 3 Cloverleaf 4 Tulip Tree Trail 5 The Alley 6 Douglaston Woods 7 Southern Forest 8 Cathedral Forest 9 Little Alley Woodland Border Between Management Zones

KAP 29:

AlLEY PARK, QUEENS

@

Natural Resources Group City of New York Parka & Recreation

o,

5000' ,

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---Entitation Unit Border

-Management Zone Border

Legend

Little Neck Wetlands

- HAP 30 -

ALLEY PARK MANAGEMENT ZONES:

Scale: 1"

500'

Northern Boulevard Meadow

Little Neck Wetlands, Northern Boulevard Meadow

Area of Detail


wooded strip (unit 356) are located at the park's northern tip: the latter extends into Crocheron Park and is now a vineland. The east side has more species diversity than the west. Bordered by 233rd Street and 41 st Avenue, landscaped unit 362 is predominantly composed of London planetree, weeping willow and other exotic ornamentals, such as wisteria, rose-of-Sharon, and corkscrew willow. In this area. the northernmost part of the park is a disturbed field of mugwort (unit 363) atop an undulating terrain caused by severe dumping. Adjacent unit 364 is a mix of mugwort and high-marsh species of Phragmites, marsh elder. and groundsel tree. A more diversified area occurs near the railroad station. A woodland (unit 361). which borders 233rd Street and 41 st Avenue, consists primarily of Eastern cottonwood and mugwort growing in association with Japanese knotweed, mimosa. black locust. switchgrass, Ailanthus. black cherry. mulberry. and black willow. The area is very disturbed because of dumping and trash. A stand of black cherry and gray birch (unit 352) grows on both sides of the bay directly on the gravel slope of the railroad bed. Near the Douglaston railroad station, a pocket of Ailanthus and black cherry (unit 358) is becoming so entangled with bittersweet that it will soon be a vineland. A unique forest of mulberry. chestnut oak, and Norway maple is growing very close to the station entrance and has a fair number of cultivated exotics. such as Japanese honeysuckle and rose-ofSharon. in the understory. It is threatened by trash and dumping. The saltmarsh sees little use or disturbance. Flotsam is not a big prohlem here. Fishing at the beach is infrequent. but should be controlled. Dumping, once a problem in the past. is not as evident now, even though access remains unrestricted along the CIBP (which is accessible from Northern Boulevard) and along 233rd Street and 41 st Avenue. Railroad commuters' trash is becoming a problem. however, in the areas behind the platforms and around the station. (There are few garbage cans on the platform.) Neighboring households on 233rd S.treet show some interest in maintaining landscaped unit 362, but do not pick up after their dogs. Overall. Little Neck Bay is an excellent spot for waterfowl and waders. It is vast, wide open. and the meadows are in good shape. Pedestrian traffic is rare, especially on the west side of the bay where large tidal channels make it inaccessible. Priority actions o

Eliminate vines from woods in unit 356 for aesthetic reasons.

o

Install a gate or wooden bollards at the CIBP anti also along 233rd Street and 41st Avenue to control access. Erect a fence near the station entrance to protect the chestnut oaks. a significant species for the area.

a

Remove flotsam regularly from both sides of the bay.

o

Control garbage from railroad platforms in cooperation with LIRR authorities. This will. in turn. control the rat population.

Management recommendations o

Establish Little Neck Bay as a preserve in order to protect its rich marshes. which are the particular habitat of the diamondback terrapin and other protected species. .

- 27 -


- HAP 31 -

ALLEY PARK MANAGEMENT ZONES:

Southern Forest, Cathedral Forest

.... cathedral Forest

.Southern Forest

Area of Detail

Scale: 1" = 500'

t

Legend

_Management Zone Border -EnUtation Unit Border


Management recommendations o

Estahlish as a preserve and perhaps fence off this section. Maintaining continuous woodland cover in conjunction with the Tulip Tree Trail area and the Little Alley Woodland. is especially important for sensitive. interior wildlife species. such as hawks, pileated woodpeckers. and wood thrush.

o

Restrict pedestrian traffic to specific pathways through signs. and allow woody invasion.

o

Encourage natural forest edge along roadways and attempt to control invasion by exotic species here.

o

Encourage wet-site species to grow in favorable locations.

o

Manage ponds in various stages of eutrophication for interpretive purposes. Increase interpretive usage in the area by the Urban Park Rangers.

o

Remove abandoned vehicles.

o

Establish a program of regular removal of trash, especially from the ponds.

o

Use such management techniques. as selective cuttings. thinnings. etc.. to encourage native regeneration. Maintain and perhaps increase conifers in unit 107 as nesting and roosting site for owls. To accommodate cavity nesters. allow snags and fallen trees to remain wherever they are not a safety hazard.

o

Explore access possibilities for emergency vehicles. such as fire engines.

o

Restore plaques on trees. as the original nature trail had in the 1930路s.

Close other paths

Cultural Resource Features These include historic structures. landmarks. archaeological deposits. standing structures or foundations. midden deposits. or any significant artifact or artifactual assemblage. They may also include landscapes. such as gardens. orchards. or vistas of historical interest. Management of these features is directed toward conservation. An exposed midden on a hiking trail. for example, might necessitate closing that portion of the trail. The intended use for these features is also oriented towards conservation. Cultural resources are non-renewable. and even responsible research. such as excavations conducted by professional archaeologists, can completely exhaust the resource being studied. Limited research. however, is desirable because it stimulates regionally focused investigations that contribute to greater understanding of local and general cultural processes for the social scientist and the educator alike. Excavation of an archaeological deposit may also be desired when it is faced with unavoidable disturbance.

- 29 -


o

Analyze water in unit 348 and develop plans for a cleanup operation and restoration.

Management recommendations o

Establish as a restoration area; explore techniques to discourage mugwort growth and encourage growth of better food grasses for wildlife. such as asters and clovers. Also. promote tree growth.

o

Conduct water-quality and salinity tests in areas of standing water to determine management goals.

a

Explore possibility of removing the golf driving range.

4.3 LIMITED USE ZONES

.... '--

Interpretive Areas Interpretative areas are similar to wildlife management areas in character and access. Both contain diverse plant communities with varied fauna and are restricted to foot traffic. The intended use of interpretive areas as "outdoor classrooms." however. means management. in addition to encouraging habitat and wildlife diversity. must encourage education possibilities as well. For example. disturbed plant communities and aggressive colonization of undesirable plant species are valuable illustrations of environmental lessons and may be maintained as such. Where self-guided nature trails exist. it will be necessary to maintain each trail stop as it is depicted in the trail brochure. Every effort should be made (I) to confine foot traffic to well-marked trails: (2) to maintain trail signs and trail conditions: (3) and to discourage vandalism. To succeed. an interpretive area should have a visitor center and parking facilities. The center may provide an indoor classroom; house exhibits: serve as headquarters for an interpretive staff; and function as a meeting place for group tours. The Alley The Alley is a 124-acre wetland bordered by the Cross I sland Parkway. the Long Island Expressway. Northern Boulevard, and the Douglaston Woods (Map 32). The Alley has unique hydrological features. such as natural springs and mud volcanoes. and because it is fed by springs and seepage. it has good potential for wetland restoration. However. storm water runoff from nearby highways plus sewer outflow into the creek has lowered the water quality for the area. The greater part of the area is a 44-acre growth of Phragmites (unit 251). centering upon Alley Creek (unit 291). Along the creek are pockets of saltwater cordgrass (unit 289). salt meadow cordgrass (unit 290). marsh elder (unit 288). and an abundance of watercress; overall. there is a relatively small amount of high marsh. A narrow 2.5-acre strip of forest grows along the Cross Island Parkway. The area is disturbed--there is dumping and trash~-and vegetation is growing on top of fill left when the parkway was built. Other patches of forest scattered throughout the Alley include exotics such as Ailanthus. black locust. Japanese sophora. and London planetree. 3 3 The famed Alley settlement was reportedly located in the vicinity of unit 250 (section 2.2).

- 31 -


- MAP 32 -

ALLEY PARK MANAGEMENT ZONES:

The Alley, Douglaston Woods, Cloverleaf

The Alley

Area of Detail

Douglaston Woods

Cloverleaf

Legend

_

Management Zone Border

- - - Entitation Unit Border

.Scale: 1"

=

500'

I


~

plantings. This will also benefit wildlife--pheasants. small mammals, woodcock. etc. by encouraging beller food plants, such as aster and clover species. and will encourage species diversity in grassland areas as well.

... o

Allow edges to develop between woodland and grassland. and encourage regenerating sumac. cOllonwood. box elder, alder. and willow to develop yellow warbler and woodcock habita!.

o

Construct an overlook at the southern end of the Alley.

o

Establish regular trash removal along the Cross Island Parkway. possibly via cooperative agreement with the Department of Transportation.

~

~

4.4 UNSTRUCTURED USE AREAS Natural Areas The remaining designated natural areas not included in the previously described management categories are undeveloped lands that do not contain significant natural or historic resources. Their traditional human uses (picnicking. bushwhacking. and trail biking. for example) as undeveloped land without a defined function preclude their potential for the above-mentioned management zone objectives. These management units should remain undeveloped. however. because they are biotic communities that provide open space for passive use. act as buffers for protected or limited-use areas. and form corridors between major tracts of natural lands. Management of unstructured-use areas is directed primarily at site maintenance. including trash removal and periodic mowing or pruning of vegetation. Fire prevention is important because of the frequent use of these areas by park visitors. Management should control access to unstructured-use areas but make it less restricted than in protected or limited-use areas. All-purpose trails that permit bicycling. walking. and horseback riding should also be designed to prevent entry of motor vehicles such as dirtbikes and cars. At certain times. it may become necessary to prohibit use of areas that are severely impaired so that these sites are able to recover during a "resting period." Cathedral Forest Extending from Winchester Boulevard to West Alley Road. this l2-acre section of Alley Pond Park parallels the Cross Island Parkway on the west side and Douglaston Parkway on the east (Map 31). The original Alley Pond. once located just north of here. nowed through this area. Today. however. a blocked culvert has created a gully more than six feet deep through most of the area. This gully was created by high peak nows from storm water drainage entering from the Cross Island Parkway. Reduction in the velocity of now has caused sedimentation (see section 3.3). An herbaceous border (unit 182) of mugwort. cool season grasses. and goldenrod stretches from West Alley Road along Douglaston Parkway to the southern edge of Cathedral Fores!. This eastern edge suffers severe damage from vehicle parking which compacts and erodes the surface. BernlS prevent access at some points. but they are now covered with unsightly mugwort. In the southern

- 33 -


end. a small herbaceous strip of mugwon (unit 184) along the Cross Island Parkway was once the site of a service station. removed in 1984. The only significant scrub patch--fragrant sumac--grows within the pin oak/black locust woodland (unit 181). A 4.5-acre forest of white ash blankets this section. Another 4 acres of forest includes both natives and exotics, such as white and black oak. black cherry, Ailanthus. black locust. sweetgum. and black birch. Unit 187 is a vast stand of white ash and black cherry; however, there is little or no regeneration and severe erosion problems present. These Iwo units are separated by a narrow "edge" woodland of white and black oak. sweet gum and black birch--a very active re~eneration site. Black cherry is apparent where white ash cannot grow due to soli conditions; yet, wet-site species are admixed. An opening in the canopy of white ash (unit 189) due 10 some disturbance once allowed black cherry to lake over quickly. Now, the unit is filled with jewelweed, dying and dead black cherry trees. and white ash regeneration. From the Douglaston Pumping Station (unit 190) nonh. disturbance becomes more apparent and more severe. The last wet site (unit 191) includes the blocked culven and large sand and gravel deposits. Although it has severe problems. a representative wetland community of red maple. white ash. weeping willow. jewelweed. and spicebush grows here. Surrounding this wetland are disturbed woods (units 192 & 194) and a vineland of bittersweet (unit 193). growing on a severely eroded slope apparently created by fill. Many trees are entangled with billersweet. There are many footpaths in the Cathedral Forest created by drainage pallerns and erosion. Dogwalking and bike riding are high uses here. Other than these manageable problems. the area has great potential for wildlife and for wet-site plant species. Priority actions o

Control erosion through such methods as shrub plantings. as soon as the storm water drainage problem is corrected.

o

Install guardrail or other barriers along Douglaston Parkway to prevent car parking on park propeny and end compaction.

o

Remove vines from unit 192 to allow for more hickory regeneration.

o

Remove all debris from the area.

Management recommendations: o

Study storm water drainage patterns and determine solutions so that the wetland community here can be restored and maintained.

o

Erect signs (I) designating the Cathedral Forest as a natural area; and (2) encouraging people to curb their dogs.

o

Initiate active meadow management-oLe. mowing cycles, fenilizers. burns--to discourage mugwon ~rowth in unit 182 and create an attractive border to the park that IS also useful to wildlife.

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~

The Cloverleaf

~

~

~

The Cloverleaf is a 44-acre interchange where the Cross Island' Parkway meets the Long Island Espressway and where the Cross Island Parkway meets Northern Boulevard (Maps 30 and 32), Each cloverleaf section is approximaldy 3 acres lIOlI is entirely encircled by roads. Most of this secrion--31 acres--is managed lawn (unit J 97) with scattered trees of hawthorn, American elm, pin oak, and white pine. The only other herbaceous area is the stand of Phragmiles (unit 204--former site of Alley Pond) in the southeast section (over 2.5 acres). This sile is fairly wet and is fed by culverts (some of which are blocked). Besides a small clump of bittersweet (unit 20 I). there is also a wet-site closed forest (unit 202) of white ash and red maple growing next to the Phragmites. North of the Phragmites, a narrow edge of pin oak and weeping willow (unit 203) is developing. On the eastern side of the Cross Island Parkway. three foresled areas (units 205, 210, and 211) are growing along ,the culvert channel, and a stand of black locust (unit 206) covers the slopes (on both sides of the LIE). Sweet gum and red maple make up forested unit 210 and woodland unit 211. Significant species here include red-osier dogwood and water oak. Unit 205. drier than the other two. has an overstory of Ailanthus and black cherry. but waterwillow dominates the groundcover. The western half of the Cloverleaf is more forested. A stand of black locust and sycamore maple (unit 195) grows on the north and south sides of the LIE. A very steep slope of sycamore maple (unit 196) extends along West Alley Road to the Cross Island Parkway: on irs eastern edge is a small desert area (unit 200) where a service station once stood. The only shrubland (unit 199) of fragrant sumac with goldenrod is adjacent to an Ailanthus/black cherry/sweet gum woodland (unit 198). This area. located in the southwesl cloverleaf. provides food and cover for many bird species. The northwest cloverleaf is the most forested. Here (unit 207) are remnants of the nalUral woods of Alley Pond Park--black oak. American beech. sweetgum. and lUlip tree. The two adjoining forests--Ailanthus/American sycamore/sweetgum (unit 208) and black locusliflowering dogwood (unil 209)--are disturbed because of access problems and soil type (landfill). Trash from passing vehicles is Ihe only problem apparent here. but it is controllable. Dumping has only happened in Ihe northwest wooded cloverleaf. Priority actions o

Block access along all roads by guardrails. Set up emergency roadside stops.

o

Remove debris in desert unil 200.

o

Pending results of hydrological studies. clear any culverts Ihat are blocked and allow unil 204 10 revert to wetland. Coordinate plans with Cathedral Forest management objeclives.

o

Prevent vines in unit 201 from growing on adjacent trees.

Management recommendations o

Manage as a natural area with the potential to provide habitat for various bird species through active meadow management: however. a slUdy must be conducled on driver visibility.

- 35 -


o

Establish mowing cycle to create a meadow buffer near wooded units.

o

Allow for woody invasion in favorable locations.

Douglaston Woods This l2-acre closed forest is located east of the Alley (Map 32). Most of the woods are upon a steep slope; large gullys have fonned as a result of severe erosion. Primary access to the forest is from adjacent homes. Access is limited only along 52nd Avenue where a fence. was installed. Openings in the fence are hidden. but residents dump their debris. lawn clippings and leaves here. In the summer of 1986, the home at the southernmost end of the street had a woodlot and a pheasant coop in the forest adjacent to their home (unit 240). Homes recently built in the northern half have caused severe erosion problems. An altempt has been made to correct the problem by erecting a retaining wall. From south to north. the forest cover changes from mature oak and tulip tree to disturbed site species. Ailanthus. black locust. and black cherry (unit 240) occur on the southern slope above the access road off the LIE. Ailanthus also dominates an adjacent area (unit 241). along with black birch and hickory. Black oak (unit 242). tulip tree (unit 243). and red oak (units 244 & 245) make up 8 acres of the forest. This section is fairly disturbed. Oak regeneration is evident. but where the canopy opens, there is more Ailanthus. black birch. sycamore and Norway maple under 5 feet. Groundcover is sparse which exacerbates erosion and compaction. The northern end of the 'Douglaston Woods contains severely disturbed stands of Ailanthus (unit 246), weeping willow with a rose understory (unit 247). and sycamore maple and red oak (unit 248). Must of the northern section is growing on top of fill; older red and black oak, and American beech are scaltered throughout these units. Priority actions o

Stop dumping in the woods through regular patrols by PEP. UPR and the police. Also. post signs declaring that this is a natural area as well as park property.

o

Remove pheasant coop and woodlot (units 240 & 242).

o

Prevent/control erosion by various soil stabilization methods. such as plantings.

Management recommendations o

Establish as a natural area. Control exotic regeneration and encourage native species through cUltings. thinnings, and other woodland management techniques.

o

Allow edge to develop between Douglaston woods and Alley grasslands since old field habitats are great for wildlife. Also. leave snags and fallen trees for cavity nesters. particularly raccoons.

o

Monitor encroachment from nearby homes.

- 36 -


Tulip Tree Trail

... ...

The TUlip Tree Trail area comprises 39 acres of forest. woodland. scruh and vineland located between the Cross Island Parkway. East Hampton and Cloverdale Boulevards, Horatio Parkway. the Long Island Expressway. and Northern Boulevard (Map 33). Wooded areas (35 acres) are the major covertype. Red oak is dominant along with tulip tree (23 acres). but there are pockets of silver, red. and sycamore maples, Ailanthus. black cherry, black locust, and hlack willow. Openings in the canopy are generally occupied by Ailanthus, hlack cherry. and black birch. Sycamore maple regeneration is a problem. particularly in units 219. 224. and 226. Large, mature black and red oaks are recurrent throughout the forest; the majority of red oak regeneration is intermediate. Specimen (rees here are chestnut oaks--rare remnants of the city's original forests. Groundcover varies but is fairly lush with Japanese honeysuckle. poison ivy, trout lily, Asiatic dayflower. rose. Virginia knotweed, and Solomon 路s-seal. etc.. The only herbaceous area is a managed lawn adjacent to the Cross Island Parkway (unit 233). Adjacent to this. a very small stand of smooth and staghorn sumac is beginning to grow. Vinelands of bittersweet and wisteria are scattered throughout this section (3 acres). and are a problem. in the northern end. where they grow in association with wild grape and poison ivy. Running approximately north-south through this section is a major nature trail. The Tulip Tree Trail was named not only because of the number of tulip trees growing here. but also because the largest tulip tree on Long Island stands here (unit 212). The area is relatively undisturbed and only has a few problem spots. The soil in unit 218. where three stornl drains enter from the adjacent road. 232nd Street. is badly eroded. A few small gulleys have fornled throughout the forest. The nature trail has been washed out where it comes closest to the Cross Island Parkway. and irs wooden boardwalk. now in a state of disrepair. is very treacherous. Neighboring homes along East Hampton Boulevard may have encroached on parkland. The forest adjacent to their backyards is filled with woody debris. lawn clippings. leaves. and some trash. One small ballfield on East Hampton Boulevard. across from Oakland Lake. receives little use: a playground is located at the corner of Horatio Parkway and 50th Avenue. The northern portion of this area. near the ballfield. is a fairly weI. low-lying spot. During the summer of 1986. a sewer cap had blown off. resulting in the expulsion of raw sewage (unit 234). Priority actions o

Stop encroachment and dumping from nearby households.

o

Block access to the area through use of wooden bollards along the northern end of East Hampton Boulevard.

o

Fix drainage cap in unit 234.

Management recommendations o

Establish as a natural area. Conduct basic woodland management techniques if resources are available.

- 37 -


.... o

Control erosion where apparent. particularly in the nonhern section. and control the source of water from nearby roads pending hydrological study.

o

Study feasibility of relocating the ballfield and establishing a continuous canopy or other vegetative covenype for wildlife habitat management.

o

Leave snags and fallen trees for cavity nesters wherever they do not pose a safety hazard.

o

Restrict vinelands to units 213. 223. 231. and 238. Control vine growth along nature trails and in sensitive areas with native regeneration.

o

Encourage oak regeneration, especially the chestnut oak. (Various methods need to be studied further since this is a difficult task.)

Little Alley Woodland The southernmost portion of Alley Pond Park, these 145 acres include Little Alley Pond and most of the major recreational areas: ballfields. picnic grounds. (ennis courts. playgrounds. handball courts and a recreation center. Three parking lots and the park's headquarters are also included here. Practically all of the southeast part of Alley Pond Park is dedicated to recreatic\I1 (south of the Grand Central Parkway). The Vanderbilt Motor Parkway. once a 45-mile roadway (0 Long Island. is now a hicycle/jogging/walking path that links Alley Pond to Cunningham Park. It connects the park underneath the Grand Central Parkway and terminates at Winchester Boulevard. Major roads that border this area are Union Turnpike. Winchester Boulevard and the Grand Central Parkway to the south and east: Springfield Boulevard and 73rd Avenue to the north and west (Map 34). This section is characterized not only by landscaped sections and recrealion areas. hut by unique geological features and diverse vegetation. Many large depressions--actually dry kellie ponds left by glacial aClion--are encircled by paved pathways. Glacial action also left Little Alley Pond (unit 61) and Muskrat Pond (unit 76). The ponds vary in size seasonally but Muskrat Pond has the most consistent water level. Both these kettle ponds have the greatest potential for open water habitat. Since much of the Little Alley Woodland is overgrown picnic areas. most of the forest is comprised of mature red oak growing in association with black oak. black locust, black birch. and white oak. Gray birch is evident in former picnic grounds at the west end of the park (between the two parking lots). Regeneration here is predominantly black birch. Other tree species in the canopy include hickory. American beech. Sassafras. Norway maple. sweet cherry. and pin oak. Both forest and woodland total approximately 81.5 acres. Herbaceous areas total 46 acres. but most of this is managed lawn or mugwort where mowing has stopped. Although vines encompass only 5 acres here. many of the wooded areas are emergent vinelands. Groundcover is very diverse and ranges from rose and bittersweet to Virginia knotweed, poison ivy. and aster species. Soils are relatively

- 38 -

-


- HAP 33 -

ALLEY PARK MANAGEMENT ZONES:

Tulip

Tre~

Trail, Cloverleaf

'ClCl9e1"leaf

Area of Detail

/

Legend

_Management Zone Border

Scale: 1"

=

500'

---Entitation Unit Border

Tulip tree trail


Area of Detail

8

--Entitation Unit Border

_Kanagelllent Zone Border

Legend

, Z7

Scale: I"

- HAP 34 -

~

r

500'

ALLEY PARK MANAGEMENT ZONES:

r

""

Little Alley Woodland


....

...

moist. The Little Alley Woodland is characterized by generally undulating terrain. Erosion is rampant and severe on slopes. The forested area south of the Grand Central Parkway has an overstory of both exotic and native species dominated in some areas by hickory species and red oak (units 42 and 49). but predominantly by Norway maple, black locust. and black cherry. The groundcover in this section is a mixture of rose amI lianas where there has been disturbance and Virginia knotweed and jewelweed where it is moist. Drainage problems here have caused erosion: where the water collects in one spot. box elder is growing. Priority actions

....

o

-

Place wooden bollards around parking lots to prevent vehicular traffic within the park. Also. block access at Cloverdale Boulevard and 73rd Avenue.

o

Control erosion through various techniques, such as plantings and rerouting crails.

o

Stop leaf dumping in unit 25.

o

Increase patrols by PEP and UPR.

Management recommendations

o

Establish as a natural area and maintain continuous covenype with Southern Forest. This is important for sensitive interior species, such as hawks and wood thrush.

o

Discourage destructive recreational usage. such as campfires and bike riding off the trails.

o

Maintain lillie Alley and Muskrat ponds with open water and some Adjacent to ponds. plant buffer associated freshwater vegetation. plants 10 prevent disturbance.

o

Establish a designated bike trail.

o

Promote active trail maintenance (woodchipping. etc.) and reconstruct trails where erosion is a problem.

o

Remove leaf liller and encourage vegetative growth at the bottom of the kettle holes.

o

Remove trash regularly. especially from the ponds.

Oakland Lake Oakland Lake. a 6.5 acre freshwater lake. is approximately 12 feet at its deepest point. The bollom contours gently slope. allowing emergent and submergent growth. A paved path follows the shoreline. A wooded slope surrounds the lake. with an inlet stream flowing through a wet forest. Since a capital restoration project was being implemented there. the lakeside vegetation was not entitated. NRG staff did analyze water quality in the summer of 1986. however. and

- 39 -


monitoring will continue in 1987. The management recommendations of thi.'i section focus on the lake itself with emphasis on fisheries managemenl. Vegetation analysis and subsequent management recommendations may occur ill the future. Priority actions o

Prevent erosion along the shore by maintaining vegetation on both the lake shore and surrounding slope.

o

Pick up trash from receptacles and grounds more frequently since trash is unsightly. its odor can distract from the natural beauty of the lake. and it provides food for rats and gulls.

Management recommendations o

Continue monitoring water quality and assess the trophic status of the lake.

o

Conduct bioassay for toxic chemicals and heavy metals on fish to determine if a health hazard exists from consumption of the fish.

o

Conduct a fish survey to assess the present and potential fishery.

o

Develop access points for fisherman along the lake edge to prevent erosion and vegetation destruction.

- 40 -


I -

,-

,

r-

r-

r r


~

AQUIFER. A groundwater body that provides a good supply of water to wells, soil, or rock. BASEFLOW. Water that percolates to the groundwater and thereby reaches a body of water slowly over long periods of time. BEDROCK. The solid rock underlying unconsolidated surface materials (as soil). ~

BERM. A mound or wall of dirt. BOLLARD. Short posts of metal or wood set at intervals to block vehicular access. CANOPY. Uppermost branchy, spreading layer of the forest. In an open-canopy forest, branches are not touching; In a c1osed-canopy forest, they are. CLOSED FOREST. Formed by trees at least 5 meters tall with their interlocking canopies. COMMUNITY. All the oq~anisms of all species living in a particular area. Such a collection is distinctive and mterrelated as, for example, the tall grass prairie community. COVERTYPE. The dominant vegetation type that covers the ground with its foliage, e.g., closed forest, woodland, scrub, terrestrial herbaceous. DBH. Diameter at breast height, i.e., 4.5 feet. Standard method of measuring tree diameters. EDAPHIC. Resulting from or influenced by the soil rather than the climate. EFFLUENT. A waste liquid from a manufacturing or treatment process in its natural state, or partially or completely treated, that is discharged into the environment. ENTITATION. A process of identifying, delineating and describing discrete vegetation units (entities). EROSION. Detachment and movement of soil or rock by water, wind, ice, or gravity. FORB. ,Herbaceous flowering plant not including grasses and sedges. FOREST. A dense growth of trees and underbrush covering a large tract. GLACIAL DRIFT. Rock debris that has been transported by glaciers and deposited, either ditectly from the ice or from the melt-water. The debris mayor may not be heterogeneous. GLACIAL ERRATICS. Boulders or rocks that have been transported from their original resting places by a glacier.

.'


GLACIAL OUTWASH PLAIN. Formed by glacial waters heavily laden with assorted sediment that is variable in texture.

.

GRANITIC. A very hard igneous rock formation of visibly crystalline texture. GREENBELT. A belt of parkways or parks surrounded by development. GROUND MORAINE. A thinner and more level deposition of glacial debris laid down as the ice front retreated rapidly. It is of much more importance than other moraines in that it has the widest extent of all glacial deposits and usually possesses a favorable agricultural topography. GROUNDWATER. Water within the earth that supplies wells and springs from that part of the earth that is saturated. May be located at shallow or very conSIderable depths. HABITAT. The place or type of site where a plant or animal naturally or normally lives and grows. HABITAT SUITABILITY INDEX (HSI). A numerical measure of the quality of a habitat based on several characteristics of that habitat (e.g., the number of tree cavities per acre for Eastern gray squirrels). HORTONIAN OVERLAND FLOW. Occurs anywhere rainfall intensity exceeds the infiltration capacity of the soil. HYDROLOGY. The science dealing with the properties, distribution, and circulation of water on the ground surface, in the soil and underlying rocks, and in the atmosphere. IMPERMEABLE. Not permitting a substance, such as liquid or gas, to pass through. INDICATOR SPECIES. A species so strictly associated with particular environmental conditions that its presence is indicative of the existence of these conditions. For example, lichens generally grow in environments that have clean air. Therefore, finding lichens in an area indicates that that area is fairly unpolluted. INTERFLOW. Infiltration water that moves laterally in the soil and seeps into stream 4;hannels; in forested areas, this water is a major source of stream discharge. KAM E. An irregular ridge or hill of stratefied glacial drift. KETRE. A steep-sided hollow without surface drainage especially in a deposit of glacial drift. . LIMITING FACTORS. One of the necessary elements of a plant or animal's existence that is or may be in shortest supply, thus limiting the health or number of a population.

..\


... LIMNOLOGY. The scientific study of physical, chemical, meteoro- logical, and biological conditions in fresh waters. MIDDEN DEPOSIT. Archeological deposit derived from food remains. MONOLITH. Preserved vertical slice of the soil that has been mounted on a board. It serves as an ideal visual aid of the soil proflle and its horizons.

...

MORAINE. An accumulation of earth and rocks carried and finally deposited by a glacier. MUD VOLCANO. Volcano-shaped sedimentation caused by groundwater seepage from shallow aquifers. PEGMATITIC. A coarse variety of granite occurring in dikes of veins. PERCOLATION. The downward movement of water and minerals through the soil under gravity or hydrostatic pressure. PERMEABLE.. Having pores or openings that permit liquids or gases to pass through. PIEZOMETER. A solid-walled pipe which measures water pressure. QUANTITATIVE. Of. relating to. or expressible in terms of quantity, amount, or number. RECHARGE. The replenishment of groundwater with water from the surface. REPRODUCTIVE COVER. An area thaI provides protection or shelter during an animal's reproductive period. ROCK OUTCROP. The part of a rock formation that appears at the ground surface. SCRUB. Shrubland/thicket mainly composed of woody vegetation. 0.5-5.0 meter tall. In a shrubland. most of the individual shrubs do not touch each other and shrubland is often associated with a grass stratum. In a thicket, individual shrubs are interlocked. SEEPAGE. The quantity of fluid that has oozed or seeped as through porous material. SOIL. A dynamic natural body on the surface of the earth in which plants grow, composed of mineral and organic materials and living forms. SOIL FERTILITY. Inherent capacity of a soil to supply nutrients to plants in adequate amounts and in suitable proportions. STAGEMETER. Measures the elevation of the water surface. Estimations of recurrent intervals for flood heights can be made directly from resulting records.

.'


SUBJECTIVE. Arising out of or identified by means of one's perceptions. SUBSURFACE DRAINAGE. Seepage of groundwater. that eventually drains int.6 a . ~~~.

SUCCESSIONAL. The order in which the composition of an ecosystem, specifically plant communities, changes as the organisms respond to and modify their environment (e.g., grassland to shrubland to forest). SURFACE DRAINAGE. Overland flow of water that drains into a body of water. SWALE. A low-lying or depressed, often wet stretch of land. TERMINAL MORAINE. The southernmost extension of an ice sheet where glacial debris accumulates. TERRESTRIAL HERBACEOUS. Grasses, graminoids, and other herbaceous plants are predominant in the cover with woody plants present but not covering more than 30 percent. VERNAL POND. A seasonal body of fresh water that occurs only in the spring. WATERSHED. A region or area bounded peripherally by a water parting and draining ultimately to a particular water course or body of water. WATER TABLE. The upper surface of groundwater or that level below which the soil is saturated with water. WISCONSONIAN GLACIER. The last of the glacial advances 10,000-15,000 years ago. WOODLAND (open stand of trees). Formed by lrees at least 5 meters tall with most of their canopies not touching one another but covering at least 30 percent of the surface. Grass cover sometimes present.

'


r

r


.....

I.

CLOSED FORESTS. fonned by trees at least Sm tall with their crowns Interlocking

3

'.

II.

WOODLANDS. (Open stands of trees.) Fonned by trees at least Sm tall. with mO~1 01 theIr crowns not touching each other, but covering at least 30% of Ihe surface: gra,' cover sometimes present. 4

III.

SCRUB. Shrublands or thickets. Mainly composed of woody chamaephytes and phanerophytes (e.g., Rubus spp., Rosa spp., Myrica spp., etc.) O.S-S.Om ~ 6 tall.

IV.

HERBACEOUS COMMUNITIES. Grasses, graminoid and other herbaceous planl are predominant In the cover, but woody plants may be sparingly present (i.e .. 7 covering nOI more than 30 %

V.

DESERT and other scarcely vegetated areas. Plants are scattered or may be absent

.....

9

VI.

FRESHWATER AQUATIC PLANT FORMATIONS. Lacustrine hahitats that are situated In a topographIc depreSSion or a dammed nver channel. lacking trees. shruhs. emergents. mosses or lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage. Composed of rooted and/or floating plants thai endure or need water covering the soil constantly or at mosl times of the year 10

VII.

INTERTIDAL COMMUNITIES. Substrate is exposed and flooded by tides. inclllcle~ the associated splash zones 10

VIII.

VINELAND. Characterized hy > 30% lianas (e.g .. Lonicera japonica. Vitis spp .. 'Ioxlcodendron radicans). Often on forest or shrub border. Supponed fiYilnifil'ial means or ground surlace II


I.

CLOSED FORESTS. Fonned by trees at least Sm taU with their crowns , interlocking. ' A.

Temperate ever~reen forests. The canopy Is never without foliage; however, IndlVl uil trees may shed their leaves (e.g., Pinus spp., Abies --spp., Tsuga spp., Picea spp., etc.).

I. Evergreen conifer forest with rounded crowns (e.g. Pinus spp.).

a) b) c) d) e) f)

understory «Sm) dominated by phanerophytes understory «Sm) dominated by chamaephytes understory «Sm) dominated by hemicryptophytes understory «Sm) dominated by geophytes understory «Sm) dominated by therophytes understory « Sm) dominated by Iianas

2. Conical crowns (e.g., Picea spp. and Abies spp.)(subdivisions as above·). B. Mainly deciduous forests. Majority of trees shed their foliage sImultaneously In connection with the unfavorable season (e.g., Quercus spp., ~ spp., Prunus spp., etc.). I. Cold-deciduous forests with evergreen trees (or shrubs) admixed. Unfavorable season mainly characterized by winter frost. Deciduous trees dominant, but evergreen species present as part of the main canopy or as understory.

a. Cold-deciduous forest with evergreen broad-leaved trees (e:g., lIex spp.). 1) understory

understory understory understory understory 6) understory

2) 3) 4) S)

« «

Sm) Sm) «Sm) « Sm) « Sm) «Sm)

dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated

by by by by by by

phanerophytes chamaephytes hemicryptophytes geophytes therophytes lianas d.

b. Cold-deciduous forest with evergreen needle-leaved trees (subdivisions as above·). 2. Cold-deciduous forest without evergreen trees. Deciduous trees absolutely dominant. Evergreen chamaephytes and some evergreen nanophanerophytes may be present.

-3-

~


~

...

a. Temperate lowland and submonlane cold-deciduous forest. Trees up to 50m tall (subdivisions same as above-).

i..

b. Cold-deciduous riverine forest. (Flooded by channels, therefore moister and richer in nutrients than a.) Trees and shrubs with hi~h growth rates and vigorous herbaceous undergrowth (e.g., Salix nsgra, Populus deltoides, Fraxinus pennsylvanic:a, etc.). . --

~

I) TemporariJy flooded. Between high water and average water. a) understory «Sm) dominated by phanerophytes b) understory «Sm) dominated by chamaephytes c) understory «Sm) dominated by hemicryptophytes d) understory « Sm) dominated by geophytes e) understory « Sm) dominated by therophytes f) understory « 5m) dominated by Iianas

2). Seasonally flooded. Between average water and low water. (subdivisions as above·). c. Cold-deciduous palustrine swamp or peat forest. (Flooded until late spring or early summer, surface soil organic.) Relatively poor in tree species. Groundcover mostly continuous. 1)

a) understory «5m) dominated by phanerophytes b) understory « Sm) dominated by chamaephytes c) understory « 5m) dominated by hemicryptophytes d) understory « 5m) dominated by geophytes e) understory « 5m) dominated by therophytes f) understory « 5m) dominated by lianas

• 2) 3)

D.

Mainly broad-leaved.

Mainly deciduous coniferous. e.g., Taxodium distichum (subdivisions as above·). Mixed broad-leaved and deciduous coniferous, e.g., Larix laricinia (subdivisions as above·). --

WOODLANDS. (Open stands of trees.) Formed by trees at least 5m tall. with most 01 their crowns not touching each other. but covering at least 309b of the surface. Grass cover sometimes present. A. Mainly evergreen woodlands. Evergreen as defined in lA.

-4-


I. Evergreen broad-leaved woodlands (e.g., lin spp.).

a) understory «Sm) dominated by phanerophytes b) understory «Sm) dominated by chamaephytes c) understory « Sm) dominated by hemicryptophytes d) understory « Sm) dominated by geophytes e) understory «Sm) dominated by tberophytes f) understory «Sm) dominated by lianas

2. Evergreen needle-leaved woodlands. Mainly needle- or scaleleaved. Crowns of many Irees eXlending to the base of the stem or al least very branchy. a. Evergreen coniferous woodland with rounded crowns (e.g., Pinus spp.).

*

I) 2) 3) 4)

understory understory understory understory S) understory 6) understory

«Sm) « Sm) «Sm) «Sm) « Sm) «Sm)

dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated

by by by by by by

phanerophytes chamaephytes hemicryptophytes geophytes therophytes lianas

b. Evergreen coniferous woodland with conical crown prevailing--mostly subalpine (e.g.• Picea spp. and Abies spp.) (subdivisions as above*).

-

--

B. Mainly deciduous woodland. (see IB)." I. Cold-deciduous woodlands with evergreen trees (see 181).

*

a) understory « b) understory « c) understory « d) understory « e) understory « f) understory «

Sm) dominated by phanerophytes Sm) dominated by chamaephytes Sm) dominated by hemicryptophytes Sm) dominated by geophytes Sm) dominated by Iherophytes Sm) dominated by lian.,..

2. Cold-deciduous woodlands without evergreen trees (seeIB2). •. Broad-leaved deciduous woodland (e.g., Quercus spp.•~ spp., Prunus spp., etc.).

I) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6)

understory understory understory understory understory understory

«Sm) «Sm) «Sm) «Sm) «Sm) «Sm)

dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated dominated

-5-

by by by by by by

phanerophytes chamaephytes hemicryptophytes geophytes therophytes Uanas


b. Needle-leaved deciduous woodland (e.g., larix spp.• TllJtodium spp.• etc.) (subdivisions as in 2a-). -c. Mixed deciduous woodland--broad-leaved and needle-leaved (subdivisions as in 2a-) d. Cold-deciduous riverine woodland--see IB2b (subdivisions as in 2a-). e. Cold-deciduous palustrine swamp or peat woodland--see Ib2c (subdivisions as In 21-).

I...

-

-

m.

SCRUB. Shrublands or thickets. Mainly composed of woody chamaephytes and pfianerophytes (e.g., Rubus spp., Rosa spp., Myrica spp., etc.) O.S·S.Orn ~1. --A. Thickets. Poor in herbaceous undergrowth. Individual shrubs interlocked. J. Mainly deciduous. (Deciduous in the sense of IB) 2. Mainly evergreen thicket. (Evergreen in the sense of IA.)

a. Evergreen broad-leaved thicket. b. Evergreen needle-leaved thicket. B. Shrubland. Rich in herbaceous undergrowth. Most of the individual shrubs not touching each other. 1. Mainly deciduous. (Deciduous in the sense of IB). a. Temperate upland deciduous shrubland. b. Deciduous riverine shrubland. Fast-growing shrubs, occurring as pioneer on banks of channels or islands that are often vigorously flooded. therefore mostly with very sparse undergrowth. c. Deciduous peat shrubJand with Sphagnum and/or other peat mosses. d. Palustrine deciduous shrubland. At least periodically flooded with waler, or having groundwater-saturated soils (e.g. Cephalanthus occidentalis). e. Lacustnne deciduous shrubland. Fast-growing shrubs, occurring as pioneers on edges of permanent open water. 2. Mainly evergreen shrubland (e.g., TllJtus spp.).

-6-


IV. HERBACEOUS COMMUNITIES. Grasses. gramlnold and other herbaceous plants are predommant m the cover. but woody plants may be sparingly present (i.e.• covering not more than 30~). A. Terrestrial herbaceous communities l. Steppes and related grasslands. (e.g.• North American ·prairies· etc.;

temperate. with late summer drought and winter frost season.) More resistant to woody invasion than meadows. Therefore, trees or shrubs absent as a rule, except on wetter sites. e.g., along rivers. in ravines and in the forest border ecotone. Warm season grasses dominate. a. Tall-grass steppes. Grasses taller than 1m dominate. e.g.• Phragmites. I) 2) 3) 4)

Tall-grass Tall-grass Tall-grass Tall-grass

steppe steppe steppe steppe

with trees. with shrubs. with trees and shrubs. without woody plants.

b. Mid-grass steppes. Medium-sized Panicum virgatum (subdivisions as

~rasses In

locally frequent. e.g., I above).

c. Short-grass steppes. Mostly composed of mat-forming, more or less low grasses. e.g. Andropogen scoparius (subdivisions as in I above). d. Forb-rich steppes. Broad-leaved forbs. mostly hemicryptophytes. are frequent (subdivisions as in I above). 2. Meadows. pastures. or related grasslands. Hemicryptophtyes dominating as a rule. More forbs than steppes. Cool season grasses dominate. a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i.

Tree meadow. Grassland with isolated trees. Scrub meadow. Shrub groups in grassland. Grassy meadow with trees and shrubs. Grassy meadow without trees or shrubs. Sedge-rush meadow. More or less grlmiiloid hetbs dominate. indicating periodically water-logged soil. Lawn (where lawn is defined as maintained turf grasses) with trees. Lawn with trees and shrubs. Lawn with shrubs. Lawn without trees or shrubs.

3. Forb veeetation and similar communities. More or less broad-leaved herbs dominating. Woody life forms only exceptionally present.

-7~


a. Mainly perennial forb communities dominated b~ nongraminoid hemicrytophytes and geophytes. Annuals sometimes present, but of lillIe importance. 1) ~

2) ~

3)

4)

-

5)

6)

Forest border herb formation. Occurring as a narrow transitional band, consisting of hemicrytophytes, geophytes, and therophytes. Growing more vigorously than the adjacenl pasture or meadow. Tall-forb formation. Dense stands of broad-leaved herbs. Mostly dicotyledonous herbs taller than 'Oan. Fern thicket. Perennial forb formation on organic deposits at the flood lines. Consisting of broad-leaved herbs, groWIng abundantly on more or less decomposed organic deposits, which are often renewed by floods. Perennial ruderal (i.e. growing on debris, ruins, and other places strongly influenced by man) and clearing herb formation. More or less broad-leaved herbs. Mainly perennial weed formation on cultivated land. Mostly hemicryptophytic or geophytic weeds, growing more or less abundantly in the shade of cultivated perennial plant stands (e.g., nurseries and gardens).

b. Mainly ephemeral (i.e. shortlived) forb communities. Therophytes more frequent than perennial herbs. 1)

2)

3)

Ephemeral halophytic (Le. plants that grow in salty soil) formation. Ephemeral ruderal and clearing forb formation. Uke 385 above. but dominated by annuals. Mainly ephemeral ,weed formation on cultivated land.

B. Fresh aquatic or semi-aquatic herbaceous communities. Includes lacustrine. nvenne. and piilustnne wetlandS. 1. Emergent Wetlands. Open formations on constantly or mostly waterlogged ground, without or with very few woody plants. a. Riverine. Emergent marsh associated with channel edges. b. Lacustrine. Associated with permenant open water. c. Palustrine. Associated with semi-permanent water, or groundwatersaturated soils. 2. Sedge peat marshes and similar marshes. Dominated by sedges, seasonally flooded. a. Tall-sedge marsh. (Frequently flooded and commonly for lon~ periods; as a rule natural.) Foliage taller than 30-40 em. Sedges dommating throughout; very few other life forms.

-8-


b. Low-sedge marsh. (Flooded little or only for short periods.) Dominated by small sedges spp., Juncus spp.• Scirpus spp., etc.• foliage not higher than of low prOductivity mtermixed with many other herbaceous life forms.

(iocm)

3. Flushes. Herbaceous vegetation growing on habitats where seepage water crops up at the surface. (Constantly wet, but rarely flooded). a. Forb flush. Mostl)' dominated by small forbs. b. Moss flush. Dommated by mosses.

V.

DESERTS and other scarcely vegetated areas. Plants are scattered or may be absent. Chasmophytlc vegetatIOn: Permanent plants rooting in fissures of rocks or wall. A. Crytogamic mat on rocks:

J. Foliose (i.e. Jeaflike) lichens and mosses dominant. 2. Crustose (i.e. crusty) lichens dominant. 3. Blue-green algae dominant: dark strips on rocks caused by Cyanophyceae that grow actively when the water is trickling down. B. Scarcely vegetated screes. (More or less 'unstable, steep slopes of stones beneath weathenng rocks.) Mostly permanent herbs or half-woody plants adapted to survive the movement of stones at the scree surface. sometimes even stopping them. C. Scarcely vegetated sand accumulations.

I. Scarcely vegetated sand

dU~es.

a. Tall-grass dune. Built up and partially covered by geophytic grasses (e.~ .• Panicum virgatum) or grass-like plants which are able to adapt their root and shoot system to new accumulations of sand that bury them in stormy periods. b. Short-grass dune (mostly continental). Low hemicryptophytic or geophytic grasses and sedges (e.g., timonium carolinianum, Solidago sem~virens. etc.). c. For une.

-9-


2. Bare sand dunes. Only exceptional with some isolated plants.

...

a. Shifting dunes In forest environment. b. Shifting dunes in beach environment.

...

3. Artificial beach. Outside of tidal range. D. Scarcely vegetated artifical surface (i.e., roads. parking lot. aintrips. bUlldmgs, courtyards. recreallonal facilities, etc.). Vegetation in cracks and small patches covering <30% of the area. E.

Scarcel ve elated com acted surfaces (i.e., dump. heavy equipment yard• y SOl compaction and periodic surface . etc.. egelallon restncl disturbance.

VI. FRESHWATER AQUATIC PLANT FORMATIONS. Lacustrine habitats that mclude those situated m a topographic depreSSion or dammed river channel lacking trees. shrubs, emmergents, mosses. or lichens with greater than 30% areal coverage. Comp'0sed of rooted and/or floating plants that endure or need water covering the soil constantly or at most times of the year. A. Rooled floating leaf communities. Includes submergents, e.g.• Nuphar spp., Nymphaea spp., Brasema schreberi. B. Free-floating (nonrooted) freshwater communities. I. Broad·leaved, free·floating communilies (temperate). Disappearing in the cold season. 2. Lemna.type free-floating communities. 3. Free·floatmg macroscopic algae communities, e.g. Spirogyra spp.• Lyngbya contorta, AgmeneJlum quadrupJicatum.

C. Rooted Submergen!. (e.g., Elodea spp.• Potamogeton spp.• Ceratophyllum spp.• etc.) VII. INTERTIDAL COMMUNITIES. Substrate is exposed and flooded by tides. tncludes the associated splash zones. A. Marine. Salinities exceed 30 parts per thousand with Utile or no dilution except at the mouths of estuanes. I. Herbaceous. Includes emergent wetlands (intertidal salt manhes).

-10-


a. Flooded daily (e.g., Spartina altemiflora). b. Not flooded daily (e.g., high marsh, Spartina patens). I) Rich in succulents (e.g., Salicomia Ipp.). 2) Poor in succulents.

2. Algal. Algae are the dominant plant species. a. Rock substrate. I)

2)

Blue-green algae dominant. Oreen algae dominant (e.g. Fucus spp., etc.).

b. Unconsolidated substrate. including mud flats. B. Estuarine. Usually semi-enclosed by land but have open, partially obstructed. or sporadic access to open ocean, and in freshwater runoff from the land. J. Same subclasses as in A. above.

VIII.

VINELAND. Characterized by >30% lianas (e.g., Lonicera japonica. Vitis spp., TOXIcodendron radicans). Often on forest or shrub bOrder. ~upponed by artlftClat means or ground surface. A. B. C. D.

Lianas Ganas Llanas Llanas

with wllh Wllh Wllh

trees. shrubs trees and shrubs foros.

-11-


r

r

r

r

r


....

Alley Pond Park Floral Assemblage

... .... ....

Trees (Deciduous species)

*indicates exotic/introduced species

...

Ailanthus allissima Alnus spp-."Ali1iJs ru gosa ~yrus spp.

...

...

" ...

"

... ... ...

Ailanthus alder species alder, speckled apple, crab apple species ash. white aspen. bigtooth basswood species beech. American beech. European birch. black birch. European weeping birch. grey birch. paper birch. river butternul Catalpa cherry. black cherry. pin cherrv. sweet chestnut. American cottonwood. Eastern dogwood. flowering elder. box elm. American elm species hackberry hawthorn hickory. bitternut hickory. shagbark hickory species hornbeam. American locust. black locust. honey maple. Norway maple. red maple. silver maple. sugar

~malus

raxmus americana Populus grandldentata Tilia spp. ~agus grandifolia ~ sylvatlca elu a lenta Betula pendula Betula popullfolia Betula papyrilera Betula mgra ~g'ins cmerea ata pa speclOsa Prunus serolma Prunus pensylvanica Prunus aVlum Castanea dentata Populus deltoldes Comus tlonda AceI' negundo Ulmus amencana Ulmus spp. Celtis occidentalis Crataegus spp. ยงarya cordifornlis ~ovata ~spp.

a1J?mus caroliniana Robmla pseudoacacla GledllsJa tnacanthos AceI' platanoldes Acerrubrum AceI' saccharinum AceI' saccharum


Trees (Deciduous species)

" " .,

"

" " " " "

" "

maple. sycamore mimosa mulberry species mulberry. white oak. black oak. chestnut oak. pin oak. red oak. swamp while oak. water oak. white oak. willow paulownia. royal planetree. London plum species poplar. while Prunus species Sassafras sophora. Japanese sweet gum sycamore. American tulip tree tupelo. black willow. black willow. corkscrew willow. pussy willow. weeping witch hazel

con '(.

Acer pseudo~latanus A10Izla luhbnssll1 Morus spp. Morus alba --elutina uercuâ&#x20AC;˘. uercus I us uercus Ioa ustris uercus -ubra uercus 'bIcOTor uercus ~ uercus iiTDa (, uercus pne!los Faulown la tomentosa "PIr=a7:ta='=n"'u""s7.X acen10 ha Prunus spp. PopuIus al ba Prunus spp. Sassafras albidum Sophora japol1lca Llquldambar styracinua Platanus occidentahs Lmodendron tUhpJiera ~ ~ssa sylvallca a IX nIgra 'SiiIIx matsudana "Tortuosa" 'SiiIIx discolor 'SiiIIx bab~lonica Hilrilamehs vlrgll1iana

pnt

~


....

... ... ....

Tl"eeS (Coniferous specil's)

'" '" '"

'" '"

arhor vitae hemlock. Eastern pine. Austrian pine. Japanese black pine. Scots pine. white redcedar. Eastern spruce. Colorado blue yew. Japanese

路indicates exotic/introducl'd species Thuja occidental is Isuga canadensIs P'iiiliS nhgr PIl1US t un ergii PIl1US sylvestns PIl1US strobus JUr1Iperus vlrginiana Plcea pungens Taxus cuspldala

h


Lianas

*

* *

* *

bindweed bittersweet. oriental catbrier dodder false buckwheat. climbing grape. wild honeysuckle. Japanese ivy, English ivy. poison nightshade. deadly porcelain berry Virginia creeper Wisteria

â&#x20AC;˘ indicates exotic/introduced species

Convolvulus spp. Celastrus orbiculatus Smilax spp. Cuscuta gronovii Polygonum scandens ViliS spp. U)iijcera japonica Hedera helix ToxlcoOeiiOron radicans Solanum dulcamara Am~elopsJs cordata Pari enocissus qumquefolia Wistena spp.


Shrubs

* indicates exotic/introduced species -

" "-

'-

"

" "

" " "

" "

arrowwood barberry. Japanese bayberry blackhaw blueberry. highbush boxwood bUllonbush cal brier devil's walking stick dogwood. allernale-Ieaved dogwood. red-oiser dogwood species elderberry groundsel Iree honeysuckle. Tartarian laurel. mounlain lilac marsh elder mountain ash nannyberry pepperbush. sweet privel raspberry. purple路flowering Rhododendron species rose rose-of-Sharon Rubus species serviceberry shadbush spicebush sumac. fragrant sumac. shining sumac. smooth sumac. staghorn viburnum. mapleleaf Viburnum species wayfaring Iree wineberry

Viburnum denlatum Berhens thunbergJl ~bnca pensyl\'aOlca I urnum pruOllohum VaccmJUm corymbosum Buxus sp. Cephalanthus occidenlalis Smilax spp. - Araha spinosa Comus alternlfolia Comus sloloOllera Comus spp. Sambucus canadensis Bacchans hahmlloha LOllicera liiiiiilii Kalmia laTiTOTiii Synnga vulgans Iva Irulescens 'SQrbus spp. Vlbul11um I,n:ago Clelhra alOl 0 la Llguslrum spp. Rubus odoratus "RlliiOOdendron spp. Rosa multdlora ffil.)\scus synacus Rubus spp. Amelanchier spp. Amelanchler spp. Lmdera benzom Rhus aramallca mlUs cOKalhnum mlUs glatira mlUs lyP ma VTliUrnum acerifolium Viburnum spp. Viburnum lantana Rubus phoeOlcolasius


Herbaceous

* indicates exotic/introduced species

., ., ., .,

., ., ., ., ., ., .,

Amaranlhus species arum, arrow aster. New England aster. New York aster, small while ASler species aster. white wood avens. rough avens species baneberry, white heechdrops beggar licks. common hetony. wood hindweed bull-head lily bur-cucumber burdock bur-marigold bUtler-and-eggs Cahomba species callails. common chickory chives cicely. sweet cinquefoil species clot bur clover. bush clover species clover. while sweet cow vetch dandelion dayflower. Asial ic dock. curly dodder dogbane duckweed species evening primrose. common

Amaranthus spp. Peltandra vlrginica ASler novae-an~hae Aster novl-belgll Aster vlmmeus Aster spp. Aster divericatus Geum vlrgmlanum Geum spp. 'ACtaea alba Ep!fagus ~tniana Bldens fron osa Pedlculans canadensis Convolvulus spp. NU~har vaneFcatium Echmocyslls 0 ata Arctlum spp.-Bldens spp. [mana vulgaris Cabomlla spp. pPhha lalifolia IC on urn mtybus Alhum spp. Osmorhiza claytoni Potenlilia spp. Xanthlum spp. Lespedeza capitala 'I'nlOhum spp. Mehlotus alba Vlcla craccaTiii1lxiiCuiilom ciaIe Commehna communis Rumex cnspus Cuscula ronovii EÂŁocynum me lum mna spp. Oenolhera biennis

~


.... Herbaceous

....

'"

'" "

" '" '" '" '"

" "

'"

flea1:lane. daisy geranium. wild glasswol1 species goldenrod species goosefoot species hawkweed species hemp. Indian Indian pipe Jack -j n-the-pul pit jewelweed Joe-Pye weed knapweed knotweed. Japanese knotweed. Virginia lamb's qual1ers lettuce species lettuce. wild lily. day Iily-of-the-valley. wild loosestrife. fringed loosestrife. purple marigold. marsh meadow rue species milkweed. common mint. mountain mim species money tree mugwort mullien. common mullien. moth mustard. garlic nettle. false nell Ie species nightshade. common nightshade. deadly nightshade. enchanter's Pachysandra

con'!.

Erigeron annuus GeranIUm maculatum Sahcomla spp. Sohdago spp. Chenopodium spp. Hleraclum spp. Apocynum cannabinum Monotropa unlilora Ansaema tnwyllum ImpatIens 61 lora Eupatonum spp. Centaurea spp. Polygonum cusÂŁidatum Polygonum vlrgllllanum ChenopodIUm album Lactuca spp. - LaclUca canadensis Hemerocalhs fulva Malanthemum canadense Lyslmachla ciliata Lythrum sal"i'Caiiil taHha palustns Thahctrum spp. Asclepias syriaca Pycnanlhemum spp. Mentha spp. Lunana annua Al1emlsia vulgaris Verbascum mapsus Verbascum attana Alhana ofhclllahs Boehmena cylllldrica Urtlca spp. Solanum aiNrum Solanum u camara Ctrcaea quadnsulcata Pachysandra termlllalis


Herbaceous

":+: " " " " "

"

"

parsnip. cow parsnip. wild pea. everlasting pea. sweet periwinkle plantain. common plantain. English plantain species pokeweed Polygonum species poor-man 's-pepper Queen Anne's lace ragweed. common ragweed, great St. Johnsworl species smarlweed species snakeroot. white Solomon's seal. false Solomon's seal. true sorrel. sheep sorrel. wood strawberry. wild sunflower. common thistle toadflax trefoil. bird's foot trefoil. tick trefoil. while Trillium species Urtica species ver.'ain. while violet. wild water willow yarrow

con't.

Heracleum lanlanum Pasll naca satIva Lilt hyrus fiiiitoTi us Lathyrus odoratus Vmca minor "PIiiiitago rajor Plantago anceolata plantago spp. Phr,t0lacca americana ~~onum spp. pI lum virginicum Daucus carota Ambroslaii1emesiifolia AmbrosIa tnbda Hypencum spp. PolYgon urn spp. Eupatonum rugosum Smllacma racemosa Polygonatum spp. Rumex acetosella Oxahs spp. 'F'i'iiFria virginiana Hellanthus annuus CJfSlum spp. and Carduus spp. [mana canadensis LOIUS comlculatus lJeSrTiodlum spp. Desmodlum spp. Tnilium spp. UI11ca spp. vefOena urticifolia VIOla spp. lJeCodon verticillatus AchIllea mtllelollum

re

<

~

~


'-

Non-nowel"ing Plants algae fern. sensitive fern species horsetails lichens mosses

...

Onoelea sensibilis FJllcmae E~uisetum spp. 'raJlnphyta Bryophyta

GI'asses, Sedges, and Rushes

*

bluestem. little cord grass. sail meadow cordgrass. sail water Cyperus species grasses. cool and warm season Phragmites rush. chairmakers rush. path rush species sedge species silverhair spikegrass swilchgrass three awn

Andro 0 on scoparius artma Pjtens parlma a lerlllnora Cyperus spp. Grammeae Phragmiles communis SClrpus ameriCailliS Juncus tenuls Jlll1CaCe~

Cyperaceae Cor~路ne.phorus canescens

DISIIChlls splcala Palllcum vlrgatum Ansllda oltgantha


Alley Pond Park Faunal Assemblage INTRODUCTION The following is a compilation of wildlife observations made in Alley Pond Park. The lists do not represent the results of cOnlrolled invenlories; they are gatherings of reported sightings. Some were obtained first hand by NRG staff. others by more or less reliable sources (UPR bird counts, surveys) with or without further confirmation. Wildlife lists include: Marine Invertebrates: Fish; Amphibians: Reptiles: Mammals: and Birds


MARINE INVERTEBRATES OF ALLEY POND PARK

~

-

Finger Sponge Jellyfish Sea Anenome Trumpet Worm Clam Worm Periwinkle Oyster Drill Welks Hard Shell Clam Blue Mussel Ribbed Mussel Razor Clam Bay Scallop Horseshoe Crab Barnacles Hermit Crab Blue Crab Long-legged Spider Crab Fiddler Crab Asteris (starlish)

Halicorna oculala Aunda~

MetndlUm ~ Nerels vlrens Nerels SUCciiiea [Itlonna Illlorea OrosalplOx cmerea Nassanus ~ Mercenaria mercenaria Myltlus eduhs ~yttlls deITilssus nSls dlreclUs Aegiiipeclen madians [Imulus ~o1YPhemUS Balanus aJanoldes pafrurus Jonglcarpus ea hneClus sapldus [lblOla emarglOata Oca~

ASfenas forbesi


FISHES OF ALLEY POND PARK

Listed here are freshwater fishes found in Oakland Lake by a NYS Department of Environmental Conservation survey. Goldfish Golden Shiner Pumkinseed Sunfish Bluegill Sunfish Black Crappie Largemouth Bass White Perch

Carassius aurates Notemigonus crysoleucas L:epomls glbbosus L:epomls macrochirrus PomOlus nlgromaculatus Mlcropterus salmoldes Marone amencanus

Some of these fish may use the waters of Alley Pond Park for feeding. migrating. or breeding while some species may live or migrate only in Little Neck Bay or Long Island Sound. American Shad Blueback Herring Alewife Menhaden Bay Anchovy Striped Killifish Mummichog Atlantic Silverside Four-spine Stickleback Lined Seahorse Northern Pipefish Striped Searobin Sculpin Stri ped Bass Bluefish (Snapper) Weakfish Scup (Porgy) Spot Striped Mullet Tautog (Blackfish) Cunner Winter Flounder

Alosa sapidissima

A10sii aestevahs A10sii pseudoharengus 1rr'eVOontia trannus Anchoa mllc elll Fundulus :ralahs Fundulus eteroclitus Menldla memdla Apeltes quadracus Hippocampus erectus Syngnathus luscus Pnonotus evOliii1S Myoxocephalus aenus Marone saxllahs-Pomatomus saltatri Cynosclon retails Stenotomus c rysops LelOstomus xanthurus ~ugJI cephahs au toga onlllS TautogoliiOi'Us adspersus Pseudopleuronectes americanus

~


.... AMPHIBIANS OF ALLEY POND PARK

....

-

Spoiled Salamander Northern Two-lined Salamander Fowler's Toad Spring Peeper Gray Tree Frog Leopard Frog Bullfrog

Ambystoma maculatum Eurycea blsllneala Bulo woodhousl lowlerii ~y:a crucJfer !1IIll versicolor Rilri3~

Rana eatesl)eiana

REPTILES OF ALLEY POND PARK

Eastern Mud Tunle Eastern Box Tunle Diamond-backed Terrapin Eastern Painted Turtle Snapping TlInle Eastern Ganer Snake

Kinosternon subrubrum 'I errasene carohna Malacemys terrapin ChrtSemys plcta pIeta Che ydra serpent lOa "hamnopSIS smah s


MAMMALS OF ALLEY POND PARK Opossum Masked Shrew Eastern Mole Slar-nosed Mole Raccoon Mink Red Fox Eastern Chipmunk Easlern Gray Squirrel Flying Squirrel White-fooled Mouse Meadow Vole Muskrat Norway Rat Field Mouse Eastern Cottontail Rabbil

Didel his marsupialis urex clnerus 'SCa1Opus aquaticus Conllylura cnslata Procyon IOlOr Mustela VIsOii iulpes fulva amlas StllaIUS SClUrus carolmensis Glaucomys volans Peromyscus ~ MIcroWs pennsylvanicus Ondalra zlbllhlca Rattus noveFtlcus ~muscuus

"SYIvilagus l10ridanus


BIRDS OF ALLEY POND PARK B =B.-eeds, F =Feeds, M =Mig.-ant, T =T.-allsiclll TAXA

SPRING

SUMMER FALL

WINTER

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

...

... ~

T

Red-throated Loon (Gavia stellata) Pied-hilled Grebe (PocJilymbus podiceps)

T

Homed Grebe (PocJiceps auritus)

T

Double-crested Cormorant (Phalacrocorax auritus)

T

T

T

T

Great Blue Heron (ArcJea herodias)

T

T

T

T

Great Egret (Casmerodius albus)

T

T

T

Snowy Egret (Egretta thula)

T

T

T

Green Heron (Bulorides strialus)

T

T

T

Black-crowned Night Heron (Nytcticorax nycticorax)

T

T

T

T

Canada Goose (Branta canadensis)

B

M

T

Green-winged Teal (Anas crecca)

M

M

T

American Black Duck (Anas rubripes)

B

T

T

T

Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos)

B

F

F

F

Gadwall (Anas strepera)

M

M

T


Canvasback Duck (Alhya valisneria)

M

M

,

Greater Scaup (Athya marila)

M

M

T

Common Goldeneye (Bucephala c1angula)

M

M

T

Bufflehead (Bucephala albeola)

M

M

T

Red-breasted Merganser (Mergus serralOr)

M

M

T

Ruddy Duck (Oxyura jamaicensis)

M

M

T

Northern Harrier (Circus cyaneus)

T

T

T

Sharp-shinned Hawk (Accipiler striatus)

M

M

T

M

T

M

T

T

Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperi) Red-tailed Hawk (Buteo jamaicensis)

M

American Kestrel (Falco sparverius)

B

F

F

F

Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus)

B

F

F

F

Clapper Rail (Rail us longirostris)

M

Killdeer (Charadrius vociferous)

B

F

F

F

Greater Yellowlegs (Tringa melanoleuca)

M

T

M

Lesser Yellowlegs (Tringa f1avipes)

M

T

M

T


...

American Woodcock (Philohela minor)

T

T

T

T

Common Snipe (Capella gallinago)

T

T

T

T

Laughing Gull (Laurus atricilla)

T

T

T T

Bonaparte's Gull (Larus philadelphia)

-

T

T

M

T

T

T

T

B

F

F

F

Rock Dove (Columba livia)

B

F

F

F

Common Bam Owl (Tyto alba)

T

T

T

T

Belled Kingfisher (Megaceryle alcyon)

T

T

T

T

Red-hellied Woodpecker (Mdanerpes carolinus)

T

T

T

T

Downy Woodpecker (Picoides pubescens)

B

T

M

T

Hairy Woodpecker (Picoides villosus)

M

T

M

T

Common Flicker (Colaptes auratus)

T

T

T

T

Blue Jay (Cyanocilta cristata)

B

T

T

T

American Crow (Corvus brachyrhynchos)

T

T

T

T

Ring-billed Gull (Larus delawarensis)

T

Greal Black-becked Gull (Larus marinus)

M

Herring Gull (Larus argenlatus)

T

Mourning Dove (Zenaida macroura)

T


Fish Crow (Corvus ossifragus)

T

T

T

T T

Tufted Titmouse (parus bicolor) T

Black-capped Chickadee (Parus atricapillus)

T

Red-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta canadensis)

M

White-breasted Nuthatch (Sitta carolinensis)

M

Brown Creeper (Cenhia familiaris)

M

T

F

F

F

B

F

F

F

Gray Catbird (Dunatella carolinensis)

B

F

F

F

Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottus)

B

F

F

F

Brown Thrasher (Toxostoma rufum)

B

T

M

Water Pipit (Anthus spinoletta)

M

European Starling (Slumus vulgaris)

B

Yellow Warbler (Dendroica petechia)

B

Black-throated Blue Warbler (Dendroica caerulescens)

M

Marsh Wren (Cistothorus palustris)

B

Wood Thrush (Hylochichla mustelina)

M

American Robin (Turdus migratorius)

M

T

F

F

F

F

M M


Purple Finch (Carpodacus purpureus)

M

M

House Finch (Carpodacus mexicanus)

B

Common Redpoll (Carduelis f1ammea)

M

M

Pine Siskin (Carduelis pinus)

M

M

American Goldfinch (Carduelis pinus)

B

T

T

T

House Sparrow (Passer domesticus)

B

F

F

F

F

F

F

~


r

r


.... The following reports were generated on an IBM PC-AT using a KeeplT software package. KeeplT is an easy to use, menu-driven data base. Data collected from the enlitalion (vegetation mapping--Section 3.1) and the wildlife habitat evaluation (Section 3.2) were entered into KeeplT where it was manipulated to create reports for interpretation and analyses. The reports that follow are abridged versions due to space constraints; additional information may be obtained by contacting the NRG office. ~


OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE

1

'-

ALLEY PARK ENIIIAIION UNIT

....

DESCRIPTIONS

NO: 107 CLASSIF: vInca ACERAGE: 24.74 WILDLIFE: 5 1lGHNI. CONCERN: N UNIT

-

SITE Vineland Deciduous liAnas Undulating Dry COHKENI:

I«lWING SFECIES HEIGH! EXOTIC HISIOR. USES DIS1URIl. (Is 2&3-S.1.) bittersweet ALL y Foot Iraff. Compaction Not mowed Ailanthus 5-30'&<5' y N ALL n N wild grape poison ivy ALL n J. honeysuckle ALL y Very large, diverse, dense/impenetrable vineland. Area obviously suffered severe disturbances. Appears to be wonderful wildlife habitat, suggesting that vines are not so bad. There are occasional patches with little or no groWld cover that shows recent burns. Ailanthus tends to grow in more open areas. The unit seems to be expanding. Other spp.: pokeweed, mugwort, coumon nightshade, smartweed, New

England ester, rose, black birch, black cherry, black locust, pin oak, tulip tree, Rubus, jewelweed, etc.

NO: 289 CLASSIF: VIUla ACERAGE: 7.45 WILDLIFE: 5 1lGHNI. CONCERN: Y UNIT

SIn Intertidal

SPECIES salt water corgr.

HEIGH! <5'

EXOTIC

HISIOR.

USES

N

N N

hemicryptophytes Level Surface water COHKEN'I:

DISTURB. Dumping

I«lWING (Is 2&3-S.1.) Not mowed

salt water cordgrass in Alley Pond Park which appears along various places influenced by tidal flow. Wildlife abundant in these spots. Some arees have been disturbed by dumping. Other species: Phragmites, marsh elder, etc. HC: salt marsh is fragile and important to maintain.


October 6, 1987

PAGE

1\-1

ALLEY PARK ENTITAIION ACREAGE OF DOHINAIIT SPP. - -CLOSED FORESI

SP. II

UNITI

Ailanthus

246 241 358 205 208 240 325 265 258 218 214

<SUB TOTAL>

American beech

70 143 89 172 146 23

109

123 239

1.96 0.42 0.60 2.98

<SUB TOTAL>

97 96 129 14

0.57 0.17 0.16 0.20 1.10

<SUB TOTAL>

black birch

0.23 0.23

44

sassafras

0.36 0.45 0.57 0.73 1.29 0.34 3.74

<SUB TOTAL>

Norway maple

1.06 0.80 0.18 0.16 0.97 1.42 0.50 0.15 0.17 0.40 2.01 7.82

<SUB TOTAL>

E. hemlock

ACRES

168 88 156 157 160 94 179 26 25 30 35 40

0.63 0.63 0.17 0.53 0.48 0.77 0.22 2.79 3.02 0.20 0.21 0.06

-

~

....,


October 6, 1987

PAGE 2

~

AlLEY PARK ENTITAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--CLOSED FOREST

i-

...

-

SP. II

UNIII

black birch

78 220

188 105 155 142 27 117 113 116 99 153 13 31 16 224

209 326 344 206 195 48 22 108 43 29 278 261 275 36 260 225

0.47 0.54 0.20 0.67 1.09 1.89 0.22 6.61 3.69 0.40 0.67 0.45 0.10 0.22 0.26 2.30 19.78

<SIJll IOIAL>

black oak

0.51 0.89 0.55 0.26 0.19 0.57 0.73 0.60 0.96 9.54 0.33 0.29 1.08 1.19 17.69

<SIJll IOIAL> black locust

0.20 0.36 10.27

<SIJll IO'IAL>

black cherry

ACRES

242 207 91 130 115 141 134 101 132 102 128

1.55 1.22 0.98 0.25 0.99 1.62 1.34 0.43 0.48 0.27 6.67


PAGE

OCtober 6, 1987 "

AU.EY PARK ENTIl'ATION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --CLOSED FOREST

SP. 11

UNITI

black oak

176 147 120 118 68 28 57

268 235

324

12 19 17 24 15

192 110 137 139 11

359

8 103 7

144 183 93 10 114 221

0.67 0.78 0.81 0.58 0.21 0.49 3.54

<SUIl TOTAL> red oak

0.70 0.93 0.76 2.39

<SUIl TOTAL>

red ...p1e

0.29 0.29

<SUIl TOTAL>

pin oak

0.76 0.31 0.64 7.24 0.73 9.68

<SUIl TOTAL>

1IU1berry

0.49 0.47 1.12 0.35 1.20 3.63

<SUIl TOTAL>

hickory spp.

0.35 0.35

<SUIl TOTAL>

gray birch

0.11 0.79 0.90

<SUIl TOTAL>

box elder

0.29 4.41 7.56 3.00 0.32 0.62 0.23 32.23

<SUIl TOTAL>

black willow

ACRES

244

0.50

"I


~

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 4 ALLEY PARK ENTIIAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --CLOSED FOREST

~

SP. 11

UNIT'

ACRES

red oak

245 194 149 170 164 166 92 87 80 67 272 283 34 55 42 54 73 49 69 63

1.01 0.54 0.82 2.40 8.91 1.82 0.86 2.12 1.28 0.92 1.26 0.50 1.56 1.54 1.66 0.84 0.54 0.68 0.24 2.47 1.65 0.63 0.40 0.36 0.78 1.31 0.94 13.67 0.98 0.51

~

~

64

62 51 53 230 228 229 216 222 219

53.70

<SllIl IOIAL>

silver maple

237 236

0.50

<SllIl IOIAL>

sweet cherry

121

210 140 126 161 119 122 162 150

0.20 2.87 1.07 3.81 0.42 0.62 0.31 3.02 12.32

<SllIl IOIAL>

sycamore maple

0.94 0.94

<SllIl IOIAL>

sweetgum

0.28 0.22

196

2.43


"

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTlIAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --CLOSED FOREST

SP. II

UNITI

sycamore maple

342 248 177 226

243 159 215 212

247

185 187 202 167 151 152 175 171 158

<SUB TOTAL> <roTAL>

0.99 2.07 0.50 1.46 0.32 0.30 0.27 0.13 0.68 6.72

<SUB roTAL>

white oak

0.21 0.21

<SUB TOTAL>

white ash

4.71 0.78 2.86 2.09 10.44

<SUB roTAL>

weeping willow

4.66 0.71 0.27 0.64 8.71

<SUB roTAL>

tulip tree

ACRES

186 138 32

1.06 0.88 0.57 2.51 212.67

PAGE 5


"-

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 6 ALLEY PARK ENTlIAIION ACREAGE OF DOHINANT SPP. --ClOSED FORES"I SIAIISTICAL SUHHARIES

FIELD NAIIE

...

...

-

ACRES

NR OF OBS

174

STANDARD DEVIAIION

IlINIKlJM

HAXIHUH

:roIAL

AVERAGE

VALUE

VALUE

212.67

1.22

1.81

0.06

13.67


OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 1 ALLEY PARK ENTITATION ACREAGE OF DOHINAN'I SPP. --WOODLAND

SP. II

UllITI

Ailanthus

322 319 327 198 106 310

<SUB TOTAL> E. cottonwood

320 361 315 333 339

303

362 250 227

352 276 217

<SUB TOTAL)

337 47

65

0.28 0.28

181 79 4

0.36 1.69 1.86 3.91

<SUB TOTAL>

red maple

1.14 0.48 1.62

<SUB TOTAL)

pin oak

0.51 1.40 0.24 0.27 2.42

<SUB TOTAL>

black oak

0.39 1. 74 1.17 3.30

III

black locust

1.35 1.35

<SUB TOTAL)

black cherry

0.21 0.82 0.17 1.07 1.23 3.50

<SUB TOTAL)

London planetree

0.11 0.09 0.58 0.36 0.22 1.09 2.45

<SUB TOTAL)

Japanese sophora

ACRES

191 135 234

1.43 0.37 0.84


PAGE 2

October 6, 1987 ~

ALLEY PARK ENTlIATION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --WOODLAND

....I SP. #1

UNIT#

2.64

<SUB TOTAL>

....

red oak

75 66 52 1 84

82 74

211

203

154

<SUB TOTAL> <TOTAL>

0.59 0.59

<SUB TOTAL>

white oak

0.59 0.59

<SUB TOTAL>

white ash

0.95 0.95

<SUB TOTAL>

weeping willow

0.39 1.29 3.43 26.60 1.41 0.33 0.37 33.82

<SUB TOTAL>

sweetgum

ACRES

86

0.51 0.51 57.93


PAGE 3

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTlIAI'ION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --WOODLAND SIAIISTlCAL SUHHARIES

FIELD IWlE

NR OF OBS

HAXIKUIl

AVERAGE

STANDARD DEVIAIION

MINIMUK

TOTAL

VALUE

VALUE

ACRES

39

57.93

1."9

".18

0.09

26.60


PAGE 1

October 6, 1987 ~

AILEY PARK ENTlIA:rION ACREAGE OF DOHlNANI SPP. --SCRUB ~

SP. 11

UNITI

Rubus

165 294

0.19 0.15路

274

1.80 0.77

271

"-

<SUB TOTAL>

-

black cherry

2.91 300

199

353 288

330

264

37

61.UDaC

<SUB TOTAL> <TOTAL>

0.14

0.27 0.27

<SUB TOTAL>

stAghorn

0.29

0.14

<SUB TOTAL>

spicebush

1. 75

0.29

<SUB TOTAL>

rose

0.21

1.96

<SUB TOTAL>

privet

0.40 0.40

<SUB TOTAL>

marsh elder

0.17 0.17

<SUB TOTAL>

f regrant aumac

ACRES

232

0.17 0.17 6.31


PAGE 2

OCtober 6, 1987

AU.EY PARK ENIlIAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --SCRUB SIAIISTlCAL SlJI1l1ARIES FIELD NAME

NR OF OBS

llAXIIllJII

AVERAGE

STANDARD DEVIATION

HINIIlUH

TOTAL

VALUE

VALUE

ACRES

12

6.31

0.53

0.61

0.14

1.80


-...;

October 6, 1987

PAGE 1 ALLEY PARI< ENTlTATION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--IlERBACEOUS

SP. 11

UNIT#

ACRES

Phragmites

204 364 323 338 349 308 282 280 257 251 285 314

2.65 0.75 0.16 4.33 1.90 0.06 1.84 0.27 0.28 43.77 0.56 0.60

... ....

I

57.17

<SUB IOIAL>

Polygonum .p.

269

0.12

<SUB IOIAL>

cattails

270

76 304

197 345 H2 56 83 5 6 255 252 249 313 233

277 259 279 299 286 295 305

<SUB IOIAL> grass spp.

31.39 0.29 0.21 0.08 4.38 28.09 0.14 3.55 0.24 3.19 0.77 0.85 73.18

<SUB IOIAL>

goldenrod

0.13 0.37 0.50

<SUB IOIAL>

cool Beason grass

0.40 0.40

<SUB IOIAL> cOI:IIDOn cattails

0.12

0.91 0.30 0.95 0.12 0.09 0.72 0.42 3.51

60

0.39


OCtober 6, 1987

PA"E 2 AU.EY PARK ENTITArION ACREAGE OF OOHINANT SPP.--IIERllACEOUS

UNIII

SP. 11

<SUB IOIAL> jewelweed

0.39 189

<SUB IOIAL> little b1uestem

273 266

363 182 343 184 329 340 335 321 180 317 136 173 178 41 301 2 263 311 297 262 302 100 98 253 50 59 281 309 256

<SUB IO'IAL> 81

0.18 0.18

351 298

<SUB IO'IAL> sWitchgrass

0.98 2.29 0.48 0.20 2.28 6.68 0.71 0.05 0.92 7.86 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.30 0.40 1.32 1.10 1.85 11.12 0.17 9.82 0.91 0.70 0.95 1.50 0.57 2.17 2.70 0.62 0.81 59.81

<SUB IO'IAL> sweet white clover

2.24 0.21 2.45

77

pokeweed

1.01 1.01

<SUB IOIAL> mugwort

ACRES

0.69 0.33 1.02

296

0.10

"""7


PAGE 3

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENIIIAIION

ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--lIERIlAcrotIS

... I

SP. 11

UNIT'

L

0.10

<SUB IOIAL>

... ...

vegetables

306

<SUB :roIAL> warm season grass

<SUB :roIAL> <:roIAL>

0.40 0.40

292

0.28 0.28

<SUB :roIAL> water willow

ACRES

127 124 145

0.36 0.83 0.85 2.04 202.56


PAGE 4

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTlIAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. - -HERIlACEOUS STAIISIICAL SUMMARIES FIELD NAHE

NR OF OBS

TOTAL

ACRES

78

202.56

HINIIlUH

AVERAGE

STANDARD DEVIATION

VALUE

IlAXIIlUM VALUE

2.60

6.85

0.05

43.77


~

O""obe.r 6, 1987

PAGE 1

...

AU.E'i PARI< ENTlIA:rION ACREAGE OF DOHINANT SPP.--DESERT

SP. I i

...

UNIT#

328 316 200 332 331 357 341 334 133 312 46 33 45 9 85

... ~

-

190

<SUB TOTAL>

silver hair grass

<SUB 1'O'IAL> <1'O'IAL>

1.12 1.12

350

0.07 0.07

<SUB 1'O'IAL> w ,ping willow

2.36 0.30 0.14 0.57 0.84 0.46 7.34 0.50 0.91 1.07 6.61 1.12 0.18 4.83 0.11 27.34

<SUB 1'O'IAL>

cool season grass

ACRES

307

0.93 0.93 29.46


PAGE 2

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTITATION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --DESERT

STATISTICAL SUI1HARIES FIELD NAME

NR OF

OBS

ACRES

18

TOTAL

STANDARD DEVIATION

MINIMUM

AVERAGE

VALUE

HAXD1UH VALUE

29.46

1.64

2.24

0.07

7.34

~


October 6, 1987

... ... ... I

PAGE 1

ALLEY PARK ENIITA:rION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--AQUA:rIC PLANT

SP. 11

UNIT'

293

61

254

<SUB TOTAL> <TOTAL>

0.24 0.24

<SUB TOTAL>

duckweed

0.60 0.60

<SUB TOTAL>

Phr_ites

0.61 0.61

<SUB TOTAL>

CAbombe sp.

ACRES

348 125

1.49 0.18 1.67 3.12


PAGE 2

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTITArION

ACREAGE OF DOHINANT SPP.--AQUArIC PLANT STArISIICAL SUMMARIES

FIELD NAHE ACRES

IOTAL

AVERAGE

STANDARD DEVIATION

HINIIIIJM

OSS

VALUE

HAXIMUM VALUE

5

3.12

0.62

0.52

0.18

1.49

NR OF

-

-


....

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 1 ALLEY PARK ENTIIIJION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--INTERTIDAL

I... ....

SP. 11

ACRES

355 291

I....

....

UNITI

0.28 6.41 6.69

<SUB :ro:rAL>

Phragmites

360

11.01 11.01

<SUB :ro:rAL>

....

s.m. cordgrass

347 346 354

12.38

<SUB :ro:rAL>

salt meadow cordgr

1.46 0.39 10.53

290

7.32 7.32

<SUB :ro:rAL>

salt water corgr. <SUB :ro:rAL> <:ro:rAL>

7.45

289

7.45 44.85

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 2 ALLEY PARK ENTIIIJION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --INTERTIDAL SIIJISTICAL SUIIHARlES

FIELD

NAME ACRES

NR OF OBS

:ro:rAL

AVERAGE

DEVIIJION

HIlIDIUM VALUE

HAXIKUK VALUE

8

44.85

5.61

4.36

0.28

11.01

STANDARD


PAGE 1

OCtober 6, 1987 AlLEY PARK ENTITAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP. --VlNELAIlD

SP. II

UNITI

Virginia creeper

39

336 223

201 193 356 318 148 90 107 163 131 104 95 169 3 72

20 11 21 231 213 238 287 267

18

284

<SUIl TOTAL> <TOTAL>

0.86 0.86

<SUIl TOTAL>

wild gTape

0.33 0.33

<SUIl TOTAL>

porcelain berry

0.12 0.09 0.42 0.11 0.28 0.10 24.74 0.14 0.13 1.85 0.19 0.43 3.57 0.12 0.06 0.54 0.05 0.51 0.47 1.13 0.07 0.18 35.30

<SUIl TOTAL>

poison ivy

0.22 1.11 1.33

<SUIl TOTAL>

bittersweet

0.04 . 0.04

<SUIl TOTAL>

Wisteria

ACRES

174 38 58

0.39 0.10 0.10 0.59 38.45


L

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 2 ALLEY PARK ENTIIAIION ACREAGE OF DOMINANT SPP.--VINELAND \

STAIISTICAL SUMMARIES

.... .....

FIELD NAIIE

NR OF OBS

HAXIHUH

AVERAGE

STANDARD DEVIAIION

HINIIlUIl

TOTAL

VALUE

VALUE

ACRES

30

38.45

1.28

4.49

0.04

24.74


PAr:: 2

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTITATION ACREAGE BY FORMATION W/SPP.

FORMAT'N

SP. II

UNITI

Vineland

bittersweet bittersweet bittersweet bittersweet poison ivy wild grape

3 11

20 21 18 38

3.57 0.54 0.06 0.05 0.33 0.10 4.69

<SUB TOTAL> black locust pin oak red oak

Woodland

ACRES

47 4 1

0.48 1.86 26.60

28.94 103.15

<SUB TOTAL> <TOTAL>

PAGE 3

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY PARK ENTITATION ACREAGE BY FORMATION W/SPP. STATISTICAL SUMMARIES FIELD

NAME

ACRES

NR OF

OBS

TOTAL

AVERAGE

50

103.15

2.06

STANDARD

HINIMUH

MAXIMUM

DEVIATION

VALUE

VALUE

5.38

0.04

28.09

~

~

~

~


October 6, 1987

PAGE 1

~

ALLEY PARK ENIIIAIION ACREAGE BY FORMATION W!SPP.

â&#x20AC;˘

I

...

I

FORMAT'N

SP. 11

Closed forest

American beech Norway maple Sassafras black birch black birch black birch black birch black birch black cherry black cherry black cherry black cherry black locust black locust black locust black locust black locust black oak gray birch gray birch gray birch gray birch gray birch pin oak pin oak red maple red oak red oak.

red oak white oak

UNII' 23 44

14 25 26 30 35 40

13 16 27 31 22 29 36 43 48

28 12 15 17 19 24 7 8

10 34 42 49 32

9 33 45 46

Desert

cool season grass coo 1 season grass mugwort mugwort arugwort

5 6 2 41 50

28.09 0.14 1.10 0.30 0.57 30.20

<SUB TOTAL>

spicebush

37

0.27 0.27

<SUB TOTAL>

Vineland

4.83 1.12 0.18 6.61 12.74

<SUB IO'IAL>

SCnlb

0.34 0.42 0.20 3.02 2.79 0.20 0.21 0.06 0.33 1.08 0.19 0.29 0.22 0.40 0.22 3.69 1.89 0.62 0.49 1.20 1.12 0.47 0.35 0.76 0.70 0.58 1.56 1.66 0.68 0.57 26.31

<SUB TOTAL>

Herbaceous

ACRES

Virginia creeper

39

0.04


PAGE 1

OCtober 6, 1987

AILEY POND PARK UNITS W!EXOIICS DOHlNAIING--BY SPECIES

SP. 11

UNITI

C8bomba sp,

61

205 208 214 218 240 241 246 258 265 325 358

44 123 239

22 29 36 43 48 108 195 206 209 225 260 261 275 278 326 344

177 196 226 248 342

0.27 2.43 0.64 0.71 4.66 8.71

<SUB IO'IAL>

weeping willow

0.22 0.40 0.22 3.69 1.89 6.61 1.09 0.67 0.47 2.30 0.26 0.45 0.10 0.67 0.54 0.20 19.78

<SUB IOIAL>

sycamore maple

0.42 1.96 0.60 2.98

<SUB IO'IAL>

black locust

0.16 0.97 2.01 0.40 1.42 0.80 1.06 0.17 0.15 0.50 0.18 7.82

<SUB IO'IAL> Norway maple

0.60 0.60

<SUB IOIAL>

Ailanthus

ACRES

247

0.21 ~


October 6, 1987

PAGE 2 AILEY POND PARK UNITS W!EXOIICS DOMINAIING--BY SPECIES

.... SP. II

UNITI

weeping willow

307

... ....

314

<SUB TOTAL>

lIIllgWort

~

2 41 50 59 77 98 100 136 173 178 180 182 184 253 256 262 263 281 297 301 302 309 311 317 321 329 335 340 343 363

298 351

306

0.40 0.40

330

0.29 0.29

<SUB TOTAL>

rose

0.33 0.69 1.02

<SUB TOTAL>

privet

1.10 0.30 0.57 2.17 0.40 0.95 0.70 0.07 0.11 0.17 0.92 2.29 0.20 1.50 0.81 9.82 1.85 2.70 0.17 1.32 0.91 0.62 11.12 7.86 0.05 2.28 0.71 6.68 0.48 0.98 59.81

<SUB TOTAL>

vegetables

0.60 0.60

<SUB TOTAL>

sweet white clover

0.93 1.14

<SUB TOTAL>

Phragmites

ACRES

264

0.14


PAGE 3

OCtober 6, 1987 AIU:Y POND PARK UNIIS W/EXOIICS DOHINAIING--BY SPECIES

UNIII

SP. II

0.14'

<SUB IO!AL>

Wisteria

223 336

3 11 20 21 72

90 95 104 107 131 148 163 169 193 201 213 231 238 267 287 318 356

284

106 198 310 319 322 327

303

1.35 1.35

<SUB IO!AL>

London planetree

0.22 0.36 1.09 0.09 0.11 0.58 2.45

<SUB IO!AL>

Japanese sophora

0.86 0.86

<SUB IO!AL>

Ailanthus

3.57 0.54 0.06 0.05 0.12 0.10 0.19 1.85 24.74 0.13 0.28 0.14 0.43 0.09 0.12 0.47 0.51 1.13 0.18 0.07 0.11 0.42 35.30

<SUB IOIAL>

porcelain berry

1.11 0.22 1.33

<SUB IO!AL>

bittersweet

ACRES

227 250

1.17 1. 74

,

~


~

OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 4

ALLEY POND PARK

L

UNITS W/EXOIICS DOMINAIING--BY SPECIES SP.

UNITI

II

London planetree

<SUB

"-

ACRES

362

0.39 3.30

:roIAL>

black locust J

47 337

0.48 1.14

"<SUB IOIAL> weeping willow

<SUB :roIAL> <IOIAL>

1.62 203

0.59 0.59 150.09

PAGE 5

OCtober 6, 1987 ALLEY POND PARK

UNITS W/EXOTICS DOMINAIING--BY SPECIES STATISTICAL SUHHARIES

FIELD

NR OF

OBS

IOTAL

AVERAGE

DEVIATION

MINII1lJIf VALUE

HAXIMIJH

NAME ACRES

112

150.09

1.34

2.88

0.05

24.74

STANDARD

VAIAJE


October 6, 1987

FA.~

1

AILEY PARK ENTlIA:rION REGENERA:rING SPECIES

UNITt

FORMA:r'N

REGEN. S

REGEN. S

7

Closed forest

sycamore maple

black cherry

black cherry

Norway 1Il!lp1e

REGEN. S

8 10 12

gray birch

13

Norway maple

14

sassafras

black cherry

15

black cherry

red oak

16

sassafras

black cherry

17

black cherry

Sassafras

black birch

19

sassafras

black cherry

red oak

22

black locust

23

Norway maple

American beech

Sassafras

24

sassafras

black cherry

25

Norway maple

oak spp.

27

black cherry

black oak

28

sassafras

black cherry

29

black locust

Ailanthus

30

Ailanthus

31

red oak

black cherry

black birch

32

black locust

Sassafras

sweetgum

Sassafras

black cherry

black cherry

26

flowering dogwood

~

9

Desert

2

Herbaceous

5 6 3

Vineland

~


OCtober 6, 1987

PAGE 2 AlLEY PARK ENTITAIION REGENERATING SPECIES

... UNIT' FORMAToN 11

....

-

Vineland

REGEN. S

REGEN. S

REGEN. S

black cherry

18

Ailanthus

Sassafras

black cherry

20

Norway maple

sycamore maple

red oak

21

Sassafras

1 4

Woodland pin oak

black cherry


The following pages are reports generated on the IBM PC-AT based on data collected from the wildlife habitat assessment. For information on methods refer to Habitat Appraisal Guide Manual listed in Appendix F--references.

~

~

~


~

....

SOUTHERN FOREST Yellow Warbler CODE

....

UNIT HSI AVG

bo1 bo2 <TOTAL>

0.60 0.63 0.61

ACERAGE SUM 1.87 0.53

HSIl<;ACRE SUM

3.00 3.00

1.12 0.33 2.40

RATING AVG

1.45

3.00

SOUTHERN FOREST Gray Squirrel CODE bw1 bw10 bwll bw12 bw13 bw14 bw15 bw2 bw3 bw4 bw5 bw6 bw7 bw8 bw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.73 0.62 0.69 0.60 0.76 0.56 0.49 0.56 0.36 0.40 0.49 0.36 0.82 0.65 0.67

0.58

ACERAGE SUM

HSIXACRE SUM

1. 64 2.87 10.77 17.50 12.87 1. 05 1. 95 8.79 0.99 1.39 28.68 9.38 22.94 2.90 10.99

1.19 1.77 7.43 10.50 9.82 0.59 0.96 4.95 0.36 0.56 14.05 3.41 18.77 1.90 7.36

134.71

83.63

RATING AVG 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 3.00

2.80

SOUTHERN FOREST Ring-necked Pheasant CODE bg1 bg2 bg3 bo1 bo2 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.29 0.38 0.68 0.62 0.72

ACERAGE SUM

11.30

RATING AVG 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

0.64 2.51 0.11 1.15 0.38

2.19 6.54 0.17 1.87 0.53 0.54

HSIKACRE SUM

4.80

2.60


SOUTHERN FOREST Black-capped Chickadee CODE bw1 bw10 bwll bw12 bw13 bw14 bw15 bw2 bw3 bw4 bw5 bw6 bw7 bw8 bw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.83 0.60 0.75 0.95 0.95 0.45 0.58 0.90 0.83 0.78 0.70 0.78 0.95 0.78 0.95

ACERAGE SUM

HSIxACRE SUM

1. 64 2.87 10.77 17.50 12.87 1. 05 1.95 8.79 0.99 1. 39 28.68 9.38 22.94 2.90 10.99

1.35 1.72 8.08 16.63 12.23 0.47 1.12 7.91 0.82 1.08 20.08 7.27 21. 79 2.25 10.44

0.78

134.71

RATING AVG 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00

113.23

3.67

SOUTHERN FOREST Cottontail Rabbit CODE bg1 bg2 bg3 bo1 bo2 bW1 bw10 bwll bw12 bw13 bw14 bw15 bw2 bw3 bw4 bw5 bw6 bw7 bw8 bw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.44 0.51 0.44 0.61 0.69 0.44 0.69 0.47 0.55 0.51 0.51 0.60 0.51 0.84 0.69 0.82 0.80 0.44 0.60 0.60

0.59

ACERAGE SUM

HSIxACRE SUM

2.19 6.54 0.17 1. 87 0.53 1. 64 2.87 10.77 17.50 12.87 1.05 1.95 8.79 0.99 1. 39 28.68 9.38 22.94 2.90 10.99

0.97 3.36 0.08 1.15 0.36 0.72 1.98 5.08 9.54 6.55 0.53 1.17 4.47 0.83 0.96 23.46 7.50 10.00 1. 74 6.59 146.01

RATING AVG 2.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 2.00 3.00 3.00

87.05

2.90


~

... -.

CATHEDRAL FOREST Yellow warbler CODE col co2 co3 cw8 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.46 0.66 0.57 0.66

ACERAGE SUM

0.38 0.39 0.58 0.39

0.84 0.60 1.01 0.59 0.59

HSIx.ACRE SUM

3.04

RATING AVG 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

1. 74

2.75

CATHEDRAL FOREST Gray Squirrel CODE cwl cw2 cw3 cw4 cw5 cw6 cw7 cw8 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.65 0.38 0.76 0.73 0.35 0.29 0.33 0.29

0.47

ACERAGE SUM 0.78 0.99 1.06 2.58 1.77 0.76 0.62 0.59

HSIx:ACRE SUM 0.51 0.38 0.81 1.88 0.61 0.22 0.20 0.17

9.15

RATING AVG 3.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

4.78

2.50

CATHEDRAL FOREST Ring-necked Pheasant CODE cgl cg2 cg3 cg4 col co2 co3 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.74 0.60 0.38 0.80 0.67 0.70 0.60

ACERAGE SUM 1. 30 0.20 5.20 2.65 0.84 0.60 1. 01

0.64

HSI~ACRE

SUM

3.00 3.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

0.96 0.12 2.00 2.12 0.56 0.42 0.61 11. 80

RATING AVG

6.78

3.00


CATHEDRAL FOREST Cottontail Rabbit CODE cg1 cg2 cq3 cg4 col co2 co3 cw1 cw2 cw3 cw4 cw5 cw6 cw7 cw8 <TOTAL>

)

UNIT HSI AVG 0.64 0.54 0.43 0.70 0.73 0.71 0.71 0.40 0.55 0.44 0.55 0.71 0.55 0.76 0.76

ACERAGE SUM 1. 30 0.20 5.20 2.65 0.84 0.60 1. 01 0.78 0.99 1.06 2.58 1.77 0.76 0.62 0.59

0.61

HSI~ACRE

SUM

0.83 0.11 2.23 1.86 0.61 0.43 0.72 0.31 0.54 0.46 1.41 1.25 0.41 0.47 0.45 20.95

RATING AVG 3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00

12.10

2.93

CATHEDRAL FOREST Black-capped Chickadee CODE cw1 cw2 cw3 cw4 cw5 cw6 cw7 cw8 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.83 0.90 0.75 0.78 0.52 0.58 0.78 0.35

ACERAGE SUM 0.78 0.99 1. 06 2.58 1.77 0.76 0.62 0.59

0.68

HSIxACRE SUM

4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 2.00

0.64 0.89 0.80 2.00 0.93 0.44 0.48 0.21 9.15

RATING AVG

6.38

3.50

~

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -__u


~

I

L

THE ALLEY/DOUGLASTON WOODS Cottontail Rabbit CODE

~

agl agl0 agll ag12 ag13 ag14 ag15 ag16 ag17 ag18 ag19 ag2 ag20 ag21 ag3 ag4 ag5 ag6 ag7 ag8 ag9 aol aol0 aoll ao12 ao13 a02 a03 a04 a05 a06 a07 a08 a09 awl awl0 awll aw12 aw13 aw14 awlS aw16 aw17 aw2 aw3 aw4 aw5 aw6 aw7 aw8 aw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.74 0.59 0.59 0.54 0.60 0.54 0.61 0.61 0.67 0.64 0.66 0.59 0.77 0.74 0.64 0.73 0.84 0.77 0.61 0.71 0.70 0.57 0.64 0.77 0.71 0.67 0.56 0.66 0.79 0.60 0.73 0.77 0.61 0.69 0.47 0.49 0.76 0.65 0.78 0.84 0.51 0.62 0.31 0.47 0.44 0.51 0.73 0.58 0.84 0.55 0.62 0.64

ACERAGE SUM

HSIXACRE SUM

1. 84 1.84 0.28 0.45 1. 32 0.91 0.37 0.42 0.06 0.62 11.12 44.00 0.77 0.60 0.24 1.50 3.55 9.82 0.40 1.14 2.70 3.19 1. 75 0.15 0.72 0.17 0.81 0.58 1. 99 0.39 0.77 6.09 1. 80 0.86 1. 42 1. 96 0.27 1.17 0.56 0.07 0.17 1.35 1.09 2.35 6.22 1.06 0.21 0.71 1. 74 0.43 0.11

1.37 1. 08 0.16 0.24 0.79 0.49 0.23 0.26 0.04 0.40 7.31 25.74 0.59 0.45 0.15 1.09 2.99 7.57 0.25 0.81 1. 89 1. 82 1.12 0.12 0.51 0.11 0.45 0.38 1.56 0.23 0.56 4.70 1.11 0.59 0.67 0.96 0.21 0.77 0.44 0.06 0.09 0.83 0.34 1.11 2.71 0.54 0.15 0.41 1.45 0.23 0.07 124.11

RATING AVG 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3'.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00 3.00

78.20

.r

3.10


THE ALLEY/DOUGLASTON WOODS Black-capped Chickadee CODE awl aw10 aw11 aw12 aw13 aw14 awlS aw16 aw17 aw2 aw3 aw4 aw5 aw6 aw7 aw8 aw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.75 0.48 0.40 0.73 0.25 0.25 0.25 0.43 0.25 0.85 0.63 0.43 0.58 0.58 0.40 0.38 0.33

ACERAGE SUM 1.42 1. 96 0.27 1.17 0.56 0.07 0.17 1. 35 1. 09 2.35 6.22 1. 06 0.21 0.71 1. 74 0.43 0.11

0.47

HSIxACRE SUM 1.07 0.93 0.11 0.85 0.14 0.02 0.04 0.57 0.27 2.00 3.89 0.45 0.12 0.41 0.70 0.16 0.04

20.89

RATING AVG 4.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 2.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 2.00

11. 76

2.47

~


~

!

~

THE ALLEY/DOUGLASTON WOODS Ring-necked Pheasant CODE

... .. ~

~

~

~

ag1 ag10 ag11 ag12 ag13 ag14 ag15 ag16 ag17 ag18 ag19 ag2 ag20 ag21 ag3 ag4 ag5 ag6 ag7 ag8 ag9 ao1 ao10 ao11 ao12 ao13 ao2 ao3 ao4 ao5 ao6 ao7 ao8 ao9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG

ACERAGE SUM 1. 84 1. 84

0.54

O.e3 0.78 0.77 0.75 0.69 0.89 0.54 0.88 0.83

0.99

1. 32 0.91 0.37 0.42 0.06

0.62 11.12 44.00

0.83

0.75 0.83 0.69 0.48 0.60

0.77

0.60 0.24 1. 50 3.55 9.82

0.75

0.71

0.40

0.54 0.83 0.52 0.72

1.14 2.70

3.19 1. 75 0.15

0.62 0.70 0.63

0.72

0.60 0.58 0.63 0.50

0.81

0.17 0.58 1. 99 0.39 0.77 6.09 1. 80 0.86

0.67

0.67 0.60 0.52 0.69

4.00

0.22 0.35 0.99 0.63 0.33 0.23 0.05

3.00 4.00 3.00 4.00

0.51 9.57 36.52 0.58 0.50 0.17 0.71 2.13 7.39

4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

0.28 0.61

3.00 3.00 4.00 3.00

4.00

4.00

2.24 1. 65 1. 25 0.09 0.50 0.11 0.49

3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00

0.34

3.00

1.26 0.20 0.51

3.00 3.00

4.06

3.00 3.00

1.08

3.00

0.44

103.22

RATING AVG 3.00 4.00

1. 53

0.28 0.45

0.86

HSIxACRE SUM

3.00

78.52

3.35


THE

ALLEY/DOUGLASTO~

WOODS

Yellow Warbler CODE aol aolO aoll ao12 ao13 a02 a03 a04 a05 a06 a07 a08 a09 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG

ACERAGE SUM 3.19 1. 75 0.15 0.72 0.17 0.81 0.58 1. 99 0.39 0.77 6.09 1. 80 0.86

0.63 0.74 0.51 0.63 0.49 0.49 0.57 0.63 0.46 0.57 0.49 0.74 0.83

0.60

HSIxACRE SUM 2.00 1. 30 0.08 0.45 0.08 0.39 0.33 1. 25 0.18 0.44 2.95 1. 34 0.71

19.27

RATING AVG 3.00 3.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 4.00

11.51

2.77

THE ALLEY/DOUGLASTON WOODS Gray Squirrel CODE awl aw10 awll aw12 aw13 aw14 awlS aw16 aw17 aw2 aw3 aw4 aw5 aw6 aw7 aw8 aw9 <TOTAL>

UNIT HSI AVG 0.33 0.49 0.31 0.65 0.20 0.16 0.20 0.35 0.16 0.69 0.82 0.55 0.49 0.73 0.47 0.16 0.49

ACERAGE SUM 1. 42 1. 96 0.27 1.17 0.56 0.07 0.17 1. 35 1. 09 2.35 6.22 1.06 0.21 0.71 1. 74 0.43 0.11

0.43

HSIxACRE SUM 0.46 0.96 0.08 0.77 0.11 0.01 0.03 0.47 0.18 1.62 5.09 0.58 0.10 0.52 0.82 0.07 0.05

20.89

RATING AVG 2.00 2.00 2.00 3.00 1. 00 1. 00 1.00 2.00 1. 00 3.00 4.00 3.00 2.00 3.00 2.00 1.00 2.00

11.93

2.06

------'----

J


r r

r r

r l


Pit Descriptions - Alley Pond Park ~

....

I. Montauk fine sandy loam . The pit was dug in an upland forest at the southwest part of the park. Slopes were 5 %. The soil developed from glacial till. The soil is well drained. and ground water was absent in this moist soil. The moist pedon description is:

~

Ap (0-8 inches). dark brown (IOYR 3/3) fine sandy loam: weak. fine granular structure: very friable: many fine. common medium. and few large roots: very strongly acid: abrupt. smooth boundary. BWI (8-14 inches) yellowish hrown (IOYR 5/6) sandy loam: weak. medium subangular blocky structure: very friable; many fine common medium. few large roots: I % rock fragments: very strongly acid: abrupt smooth boundary. BW2 (14-23 inches) yellowish brown (IOYR 5/8) sandy loam. with few coarse faint strong brown (7.5YR 5/6) mottles in lower part of horizon: moderate. medium subangular blocky structure: friable; common fine and medium roots: 5% rock fragments: very strongly acid: abrupt smooth boundary. BC (23路31 inches) hrownish yellow (IOYR 6/6) gravelly sandy loam. with common medium prominent strong brown (7.5YR 5/8) mottles: weak coarse subangular blocky structure: most peds are friable. but some are firm and brittle: few fine roots: 15% rock fragments: very strongly acid: clear smooth boundary. CR I (31-43 inches) light brownish gray (2.5Y 6/2) gravelly sandy loam. with common coarse prominent brownish yellow (IOYR 6/8) mottles: massive: film and brittle: 30% rock fragments: very strongly acid: clear waxy boundary. CR2 (43-60 inches) very pale brown (IOYR 7/3) very gravelly loamy fine sand: massive: firm and brittle: 35% rock fragments: strongly acid.


II. Walpole Silt Loam This appears to contain many altered snil cn\'irnnments. The pit was dug next to Little Alley Pond. which is next to the Grand Central Parkway. The major input of water to the pond is drainage from the highway. and the surface of the pond fluctuates significantly during the year. It is not known what the water regime in the area was like before the construction of the Grand Central Parkway. but the designation of the soil does not consider the six inch muck layer that tops it. The soil now is poorly drained and moist most of the time. and the relief of the area is concave. The surface is nearly level and most roots are in the muck la~er. The distribution of mottles indicates that the depth to high water fluctuates widely with the lake surface. The soil developed from local alluvium and outwash and now contains few rock fragments below the surface. The moist pedon description is as follows: Oa (6-0 inches) black (I OYR 2/ I) muck: moderate coarse subangular blocky structure; friable; common fine roots: 5 % rock fragments: slightly acid: abrupt wavy boundary. Ap (0-6 inches) dark brown (IOYR 3/3) silt loam: weak fine granular structure: friable: few fine and very fine roots: fragments: slightly acid: abrupt wavy boundary.

10% rock

C I (6-16 inches) brownish yellow (I OYR 6/6) sandy loam. massive. friable. very few fine and very fine roots: 5% rock fragments: strongly acid: clear waxy boundary. C2 (16-25 inches) light olive brown (2.5 Y 5/4) sandy loam with common medium faint olive yellow (2.5Y 6/6) mottles: massive: friable; 5% rock fragments: moderately acid: abrupt wavy boundary. C3 (25-60 inches) olive brown (2.5Y 4/4) sandy loam with many fine prominent yellowish brown (IOYR 4/6)mottles: massive: friable: 10% rock fragments: moderately acid.

....,


~

~

Muck Soil Charactel"istics

I 0 ~

Map /I

Unit Name

Family

Characteristics

24 ~

Berryland Mucky sand

Typic Haplaquonds sandy. silit'eous mesic

Deep. very poorly drained upland soil: surface layer 10路 thick of black sand over 2路 layer of gray sand.

25

Matunuck Mucky peal

Typic Sulfaquents sandy. mixed. mesic

Formed on very poorly drained thick tidal sand Oats which are subject to inundation by salt water twice daily (salt content 1.000 to 40.000 ppm) Exhibit mucky peat surface layer 12" thick.

120

Manahawkin Mucky peat

Hemic Medisaprists sandy. or sandyskeletal siliceous dysic. mesic. pit < 4.5.

Surface layers (total thickness 39") of highly decomposed organic material over gray sand. Occupy low positions in lake basins. etc. (freshwater).

122

Ipswich Mucky peat

Typic Slllfihemists evic. mesic. pit > 4.5

Deep very poorly drained tidal soils subject to tidal flushing which formed in deep organic deposits (up to 62" thick). Salt concentrations range from 10.000 to 35.000 ppm.

II

0 ~


SOIL DESCRJPTIONS I.

Montauk Series (Typic Dystrochrepts. coar~e路loamy. mixed. mesic): These soils dominate Alley Pond Park and most of Kissena. The soils are very deep. well drained, and coarse. They can be found on slopes ranging from 0 percent to 35 percent. They provide excellent support for woodland vegetation, but their sulface layers are very erosive.

2.

Udipsammenls (wet suostratem): This mappjn~ unit was usedwherever a sandy layer covered the sulface of an otherwIse complex soil profile. such as extensive areas covered with dredge spoils from Kissena Lake. These are labelled Udipsammenls. They are actually four to twelve inches of sandy dredge spoil overlying several different soils. all of which are very wet. The heterogeneity of the buried soils may have less impact on the shallow-rooted vegetation there than the apparent homogeneity of the dredge spoils. Studies now under way may show a correlation between the vegetation present and several properties of the spoil and underlying soil. The fertility of the spoil is relatively high Areas compared to the fill material in other areas of the park. presently mapped as Udipsammenls support wetland. lawn and woodland vegetation on slopes ranging from 0 percent to 15 percent.

3.

Manahawkin Series (Hemic Medisaprists. sandy or sandy-skeletal. SIliceous. dyslc. mesic): These muck soils are found in rather small areas of Alley Pond Park: in two cases they are found in kettle ponds. and in one case along a drainage way into Alley Creek. IBManahawkin mucks formed in organic deposits in fresh water. and they have very poor drainage. slow percolation. and slow recharge. The soils have slopes of 2 percenl or less. and they are useful only if artificially drained for the support of wetland.

4.

Udorthenls (waste substratum): These are highly disturbed soils in which sandy fill material has been incorporated into the top 12 inche~ of the soil. (The incorporation was probably uninten- tional. a result of grading operations.) Some of the areas mapped as Udorthents today were used as dump sites (hence the "waste suostralllm"). These soils vary in their fertility. but mosl are relatively poor in productivity. Young forest now grows on it. Slopes are 2 percent or less.'

5.

Ipswich Series (Typic Sulfihemists. fine evic, mesic): These mucky peats are found only along Alley Creek and are the least disturbed organic soil associaled wilh the creek. These soils are level (slopes are 1 percent or less) and are subject to tidal flooding. so they have a very high salt content. The soils developed in very thick organic deposits and are now very poorly drained. Most usage causes severe impact. so these soils are best left alone.

6.

Matunuck Series (Typic Sulfaquents. sandy mixed. mesic): These soils. wllh an orgamc sulface layer. formed in deep sand deposited by water. They are only found associated with Ipswich mucky peals. They are inundaled by tides twice a day. but the sand allows more sail to drain ~

"""\


~

away then is the case in the Ipswich. Slopes are 3 percent or less. These soils now support Phragmites and were most likely regraded in prior attempts to "rehabilitate" the tidal marsh.

~

... ~

7.

Urban Land: More than 90 percent of the surface of these "soils" is paved, usually for parking lots. Water runs off the surface of the asphalt, making surrounding soils weller. Slopes are 2 percent or less.

8.

Wallington Series (Aerie Fragiaquepts, coarse-silty, mixed. mesic): These Slit loam soils never flood and have a perched water table only in the spring. They are found only in Alley Pond Park next to Matunllck Series soils and in a rather swampy area where several freshwater ponds are located. They now support wetland vegetation, but with artificial drainage; they could support other types of plants. Slopes are 2 percent or less.

9.

BeOitland Series (Typic Hapaquods, sandy. siliceous, mesic): This very poor y dramed sandy soil is found only in Alley Pond Park where Alley Pond used to be located. Phragmites grows in what is now a nonfunctioning wetland. Slopes are 2 percent or less.

10.

Udinuvents, (rarely flooded): These soils are well drained to moderately well drained and occur along the bollom of drainage channels for local runoff. They occupy a swampy area in Alley Pond Park where slopes are less than I percent.

II.

Scio Series (Aquic Dystrochrepts. cOilrse-silty. mixed. mesic): These moderately well drained soils developed in thick deposits of sill and very fine sand carried by the wind. A fill layer with rock fragments more than three inches in diameter occurs deeper than 40 inches. These upland soils, on which shrubs now grow. would be an excellent medium for open woodland. Slopes range from 0 percent to 8 percent.

12.

Udipsamments (level to gently sloping): These- soils. which contain up to tour feet of fill material, currently support road- ways. dumps. ballfields, and picnic areas. Filling. grading and recreation have lefl the soil highly disturbed and relatively infertile. Use potential is probably dictated by landscape position and the origin of fill material from which the Udipsamment was made. Slopes range from 0 percent to 8 percent.

13.

Urban Land. Montauk Complex: These highly disturbed soils are located along the Grand Central Parkway in Alley Pond Park. More than 50 percent of their surface is covered with pavement. Regrading removed some of the top layer of soil, but enough of the Montauk characteristics remain.

14.

Urban Land, Sudbury Complex: These soils are located only in the hIgh speed bicycle track (velodrome) at Kissena Park. As above, they are highly disturbed, but this soil complex is poorly drained.

...


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... ...

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t!niU Fonnatipn'--

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_

TransecU_ _ Initials

_

~

PROCEDURE: (check 1) 1. Auger (bucket) 2. Auger 3. Pit satrple SOIL TESTS:

Soi 1 texture: sand ,

Texture class: silt

,

digit code) Electrical conductivity: ___ lnrnho/cm) (2

Organic matter:

ÂŁ!!.:

--'

Nitrogen: To~l N:

,

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ppm

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Amount:

(enter 1 digit code)

C'CX'lMENTS:

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J

N3..o;e:

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clay_ _'

(use no ITOre than 50 characters)

Measure:


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P r T

S•• p1. NUMb.,

ALLEY PARK


I

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~

~

~

This report was prepared by the staff of the Natural Resources Group: ~

Susan M. Sisinni, Coordinator, Field Operations Marianne Anderson, Field Operations Assistant Matthew Sanderson, Wetland/Wildlife Specialist Richard V. Pouyat, Deputy Director Kenneth J. Corti, Field Technician Helen Forgione, Field Technician


~

.... The Natural Resources Group would like to acknowledge the following people and organizations for their help in conducting the natural resources assessment for Alley Pond, Kissena, and Marine Parks and for assisting in the preparation of this manuscript.

... ...

Technical Consultant Team

...

o

Dr. Lawrence Band, Professor of Hydrology and Geomorphology. CUNY-Hunter College for conducting a hydrogeologic study at Alley Pond Park.

o

Dr. Rowan Rowntree, Project Leader at the U.S. Forest Service's Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Syracuse, New York, for his support of our program.

o

Dr. William Niering. Professor of Botany, Connecticut College. for his comments, recommendations and review of the entitation data.

o

Dr. Andrew Greller. Assistant Professor of Botany, Queens College. for his comments, recommendations and review of the entitation data.

Others o

New York State Department of Environmental Conservation Staff: Drayton Grant. Laurel Remus, Wayne Richter. Mike Matthews. Tom Wolfe. Art Johnson. Mark Levanway, Mike Greer, Craig Thompson. and all other Regional Forestors: Dave Sinclair, Fred Gerty. Ed White, Terry Healey. Scoll Gray. Frank Bulsiewicz. Boh Morrison, and Jim Beil; and Wildlife Biologists: Harry Knoch. Joe Pane. Quentin Van Nortwick, Bob (nslennan. Glenn Cole. R.Dennis Faulknham. John Proud. Larry Myers. and Terry Moore.

o

National Park Service: John Tanacredi. for coordinating Marine Park water quality and fish survey, and Bruce Lane, for piloting the boat and conducting the fish survey.

o

Hunter College: graduate students Susan Osofsky and Karen Stem for conducting hydrologic analysis and field work and making management recommendations.

o

Eugenia Bamaba, Senior Extension Associate. Cornell Laboratory for Environmental Applications of Remote Sensing (CLEARS) and her staff for the development of base and contour maps.

o

Alley Pond Environmental Center: George Prall. Kim Estes. Bill Nieter and staff for providing work space and cooperation for our field technicians.

o

USDA, Soil Conservation Service: Roger Case. Soil Scientist.

o

Margaret Hunt for text editing and manuscript organization.


o

Mark McDonnell for sharing infonnation from New York Botanical Garden and路, making management recommendations.

o

For all those who participated in the collection of field dala and data' assimilation:' Marianne Anderson, Ken Corti, Michael Feller, Bruce Morrison. Susan Sisinni. Matthew Sanderson, Wayne Stem pIer, Fred Lulka. Helen Forgione.William Sinderbrand, Hope Lifrieri, Carol Garfinkel, Therese Braddick, and Rich Pouyal.


,

r

r

r r


u Bay, Roger R., Factors influencinยง soil-moisture relationships in undrained torest bo s, pp.3 5-342. New York: Pergamon Press, 1967. in nternaltona ymposium on Forest Hydrology, William Sopper and Howard Lill, eds. ~

~

~

~

Brady, Nyle C., The Nature and Properties of Soils, 8th edition. New York: MacmIllan Publlshmg Company, Inc., 1974. Davis, Richard A., Depositional Systems: A Genetic Approach to Sedimentary Systems. Englewood Chffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1983. Dunne, T., Moore, Lr., Taylor, C.H., 1975. "Reco~nition and Prediction of Runoff-producing Zones in Humid Regions." Hydrological Sciences Bulletin. 20, no.3, 305-327. Flint, Richard F. and Brian J. Skinner, Physical Geology. New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1977. Lyford, Walter H., Water table fluctuations in ~eriodically wet soils of Central New England. Harvardorest StatIOn, 1964. Harvard Forest Paper #8.

Meyboom, Peter, "Unstead~ gruodwater flow near a willow ring in hummocky moraine., Journal of Hydrology, volA, pp.39-62, 1966. NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, Natural Resources Group. Manual of Plant Formation Entitation. 1987. NYC Department of Parks and Recreation, Natural Resources Group. Manual of Wildlife Habitat Evaluation. 1987.

United Stephenson, David A., "Groundwater flow system analysis in lake environments with management and planning implications.," Water Resources Bulletin, voL7, ppl038-1047, 1971. "


Swarenski, Wolfgang V., HedrogeO!0l\) of northwestern Nassau and northeastern Queensounttes.ruted States GeologlCliI Survey, 1963.

WSP 1637.

Toth, J., "A theoretical analysis of groundwater flow in small drainage basins.," Journal of Geophysical Research, vol.68, pp.4495-4812. 1963.

~

.~"

• . • .-. . . . .

'4"

-

.~

...- _ . _ ••

-""'-

U " . _ ...


1988 Natural Areas Management Plan for Alley Pond Park Queens