European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org
Competency Based Approach Teaching Learning and Teachers’ Role Shyamanta Chakraborty, UGC-Academic Staff College, Gauhati University, Guwahati -781014, Assam, India Abstract: Competency Based Approach Teaching Learning may be defined as the educational capacity building process where competency and commitment are synchronized in a teaching-learning process while at the same time learner achieves real objectives and goals of the system. The process mainly focuses on the growth and development of competency and commitment within the learner and teacher of the system. It is now regarded as one of the effective strategies for sustainability of an effective educational system. The paper tries to design a framework for CBATL by highlighting its Principles, Objectives, Components, Resources and ways for successful achievement which teacher should be aware while cultivating professional competency and commitment within their learners. Paper explains the role of CBATL components and resources while justifies their essentiality in promoting growth and progress of an educational system. Analysis concludes that in the present changing scenario of education and academic training, CBATL could be regarded as essential pedagogy in achieving goals and objectives of an human development process. Key words: Knowledge, Understanding, Competency, Commitment, Human-Resource, Professionalism. 1. Introduction Education is the power to use one’s potentials to maximum. A man is not in the proper sense till he is educated. Education is the instrument whose effective use requires one’s proper growth and development. Since the instrument is in the hands of teacher, they must possess some capabilities i.e. competency for success. Competent teachers are essentially essential in an educational system to make teaching-learning success. Further, teacher being the central point of an educational system it is essential to aware himself about the components of Professional competency, Commitment and the factors or the variables that influence the learners. Competency is the basis of professional development. It provides clarity and appropriate differentiation in human development process. Studies have shown that teacher’s commitment towards profession is influenced by different factors like working environment or situation, self-satisfaction, and the pedagogical system he or she has adopted. In recent years, various studies have been carried out on teaching competency of teacher both in India and abroad. Results show that the ‘Competence-Based Approach’ (CBA) is a solution for successful educational pedagogy that could enhance teachers’ competency, commitment and professionalism. In fact, CBA is the heart of all strategic approaches of human resource management and a challenge of present day. Today’s world is far different from few years back and more specially in the arena of education. Therefore, an effective teaching-learning method is urgently needed, otherwise learner will definitely avoid the system or shift towards other mode of learning such as e-learning, u-learning etc. The present analysis highlights some basic aspects of CBATL that a teaching-learning system sufficiently required for successful and sustainable process of human development and effective managements. 2. Principle and Objectives of CBATL The basic principle of CBATL is teaching-learning by objectives. This means learning through realization of a set of behavioral objectives which led to such a level of fragmentation that the learners no longer able to understand the meaning of what they are asked to do, while on the other hand the set of behaviors learned actually coincided with the objectives they are supposed to learn. It has multi-facetted nature which brings together a variety of seemingly disparate approaches that ultimately develops a ‘sense of competence’. The prime objectives of CBATL are that a teacher has to acquire the basic components of CBATL that could lead to a successful and meaningful conclusion of educational process. 3. CBATL Components Every profession has its own literature, value and concept. A professional has duties and responsibilities to translate those values and concepts into action and reality through proper education. Teaching being one of most important profession, teachers must acquire the basic values or components for his/her profession. Some of them are as follows. 3.1 Concept and Competency
European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org ‘Concept’ is the cognitive science that makes us thinking and behaving accordingly. It is the tool we utilize in solving problems. It is the science that ultimately draws up a picture in mind by mixing knowledge and experiences gathered with time. This helps in developing skill. ‘Competence’ is a description of something that largely depends upon ‘Concept’ that works in our action in a given occupational area or situation. It is the behavioral outcome that a person demonstrates in a situation directly and indirectly. Competency with knowledge and skills measures capability of performing a professional task. It also defines excellent potential. Competency on a particular area or task means to attain the level of mastery required for that. It provides linear basis of understanding in a particular field or task. Therefore, without competency professionalism is meaningless. 3.2 Professional Competency The concept of ‘Professional Competency’ in Human Resource Development (HRD) Process is a relatively new approach. ‘Professional Competency’ is the process of stimulating individual’s growth of competency associated with successful performance. It also refers to growth of soft-skills. It means growing and transforming one’s knowledge, understanding and skills into action in a teaching learning process. It is the central point of HRD. It provides clarity and appropriate differentiation in HRD process. It structures the vision of teaching-learning in professional way. It targets to develop academic skill to a learner in a specified field or area. Teaching is a performance and teacher is the performer therefore, both are highly depended upon professional competency. 3.3 Competency, Performance and Creativity Competency and performance need not to have one-to-one correspondence. This means that a competent teacher may not be a good performer; on the other hand a poor performer may not have lack of competency. Again, the gap between organizational output and industrial requirements can be filled by inculcating two capabilities in learners. Firstly, task performing capability i.e. the competency. Secondly, building conceptual ideas which is purely knowledge and experience based and can be obtained through a time bound curriculum. These two ultimately help in developing creativity which is the ultimate goal of teaching-learning process. In a HRD process there needs a considerable amount of creative activity not only in applying specialized knowledge and techniques to resolve problems but also in framing or setting problems. Importance of higher levels of cognition like relating, comparing, synthesizing, abstracting, etc. are also important in developing creativity. Teachers or learners can continually enhance their professional competency and creativity through following ways: •
Assessing learning needs and developing annual growth plan.
Participating in professional developmental activities etc.
Interacting through seminars/conferences etc. on a specific issue or problem.
Addressing social critical issues, sharing ideas, working on social and institutional activities towards positive solutions.
Designing curriculum and participating similar workshops etc.
Organizing or presenting workshops, seminars on diverse topic(s) etc.
Undergoing or organizing courses for personality development enhance learning etc.
Mentoring peers etc.
4. Resources for CBATL Teaching is a highly regulated professional work. Effective teaching one may called ‘pleasant teaching’ is itself a resource for a teacher and an asset for the educational system. Therefore, a successful strategy for developing teacher’s competency and professionalism is highly necessary. Basic components of teaching resources in CBAT which can enrich and enhance horizon of knowledge and professional competency of teacher are as follows. 4.1 Knowledge and Power of Understanding: Knowledge embodiment makes learner a needed product. Therefore, effective CBATL ensures knowledge construction first. The primary purpose of HRD process that it must foster an extensive and deep knowledge and understanding of subjects/curriculum of areas and related pedagogy. It also provides learners clarity of the expectations inconformity to the changing scenario of environment of academic system. CBATL must facilitate knowledge and understanding through teaching-learning and behavior management strategies. It also helps to know how to use and adapt them including how to personalize learning and providing opportunities for all learners to achieve their maximum potential. This may possible by following ways.
European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org •
Designing employable curricula which can disseminate knowledge through effective teaching-learning.
Conducting classroom training on technical/professional knowledge and skill.
Successful meetings/ interactions with experts from various fields.
Improving, Listening and Writing-skills.
Organizing web-based training specially for quick knowledge and soft skills.
Getting into e-learning courses.
Effective public speaking or presentation.
Organizing mentoring programs etc.
4.2 Professionalism: Teaching is a professional task, more than a technical work. An effective teacher makes things easier while a non-effective teacher makes it more difficult. The task of teaching becomes easier for the learners who are selfmotivated by doing extra reading and work to understand the material rather than motivating them by the teacher or other. There lies the importance of professionalism in teaching. On the other hand, learners generally don’t try to see a non-effective teacher as a challenge to concentrate on lectures and extract from them. The factors which help teachers in growing professionalism are Environmental-adaptability, Building-trust and collaborating teamwork, Effective-communication, Cultural-competency, Acquiring decision-making and problem solving capability, Planning and organizing capacity, Managing stress and tolerance, Acquiring technical / professional knowledge-skill etc. 4.3 Critical Understanding A successful professional should have ability to identify areas of strength and weakness for further development. They must have critical understanding on teaching-learning, behavioral and class room management, different strategies in identifying and using learners’ potential to its optimum level, etc. 4.4 Leadership Ability Teachers are regarded as best social leader. They have to carry work allotted with the system as a leader. They must keep ready themselves to take leading role in developing workplace, policies and practices, and in promoting collective responsibility for effective implementation of policies. Every member has to take lead in planning collaboratively with colleagues in order to promote effective practice. 4.5 Social Responsibility It is ethical that every individual has obligation to act to benefit society at large. This responsibility can be active by performing activities which promotes social and institutional goals. One of the prime goals of education system is to link future to the past through the present. Today’s leader may be manager in future. Therefore, CBATL may be useful tool to plan and help youth to make them socially responsible and ethically strong personality. 4.6 Accepting an Standard Standard is a powerful tool for organizations of all sizes. They help in supporting innovation upgrading outcome quality. Effective standardization promotes forceful competition and enhances qualities enabling the profession to take a leading role in shaping the system. Distinctive competency reflects on skilful applications of education and experience in solving various problems. This becomes more effective when it accompanied by a sense of responsibility and acceptance of recognized standards. Teacher must know how to improve the effectiveness of assessment practice in the workplace, including how to analyze statistical information to evaluate the effectiveness of teaching-learning across the system. These will provide clarity of the expectations in their teaching career inconformity to the changing scenario of academic environment. Standards are also powerful marketing tools. They help in attracting and assuring learners, and also maintaining best practices. 4.7 Teacher’s Personal Development: Personal development is the only way to become one very best. There needs a sincere devotion from teacher for their self-development. Every education reform begins with recognition of importance of teacher in raising student performance. This depends upon teachers’ performance in practice and how much they are committed in improving their practice through appropriate development. Teacher’s professional learning is a complex process, which requires cognitive and emotional involvement individually and collectively. There must be capacity and
European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org willingness to examine where each one stands in terms of convictions and beliefs and enactment of appropriate alternatives for improvement. The factors that may help a teacher for personal development are, (i)
Creative, Constructive and Critical approach towards innovation.
Preparedness to adapt practices having benefits and improvements.
Act upon advice and feedback, and be open to coaching and mentoring.
Willingness to provide new classroom practices in more effective way.
A vision of growth and progress, and ideas in refining approaches where necessary.
4.8 Teacher’s Co-learning Teachers working together and sharing practices with learners are clearly reflected in students’ performance. Teacher’s networks and teams, communities of practice and communities of learning, as well as peer coaching also effect on students’ performance. Teacher’s extensive knowledge on matters concerning equality, inclusion and diversity in teaching generally leads excellent results and outcomes. 4.9 Teaching diversity Diversity is a path for achievement. Diversity means differences in identities and their backgrounds that is not limited to race and ethnicity, class, sexual orientation, gender, age, religion, political opinion, language, and ability. A teacher may diverse issues proactively to ensure that issues related to diversity have the potential to improve rather than obstruct the classroom experience for students. Some of the ideas which are considered as a positive force in promoting academic achievement are as follows. (i)
Building a strong knowledge base by knowing students’ identity, culture, background, gender, race and ethnicity, cognitive, and emotional development.
Adopting methods of multicultural education in the classroom management.
Critical change in policies or practices including identity related biases and privileges may boost additional help in academic achievement.
4.10 Team Work and Collaboration Teaching-learning is team work where teacher is the leader. He or she should lead by example. Teacher should check into the team areas regularly to encourage, guide and nurture learners through the process. Peer moderation is the one of the important criteria in CBATL where team members to evaluate one another’s contribution at the end of the project, which may be reflected in grade. This process can motivate leaner to contribute more equitably. Teacher should make them aware that their individual participation and contribution to the team project is assessable and will contribute in getting their grade. Good team work is itself a facilitator specially in communication, understanding and solving problems. 4.11 Learner Centric Concept The present conventional curriculum practically means everything is for everybody. This is contradictory to the principle of learning and psychology. A curriculum is a framework to guide learner in achieving goal. It must be aligned with the needs and psychology of learner, and available infrastructural support system. Every curriculum has certain aims that must coincide with learner’s goal. It should design so to motivate and explore knowledge and understanding of learner. Therefore, it is necessary to designed learner centric curriculum where teacher's role is to facilitate growth by utilizing the interests and needs of students as a guide towards meaningful utilization of knowledge within the curriculum. 4.12 Teacher’s Self-assessment Teachers are expected to know and understand the relevant strategies to deliver the relevant statutory and nonstatutory curricula. CBATL advocates periodical assessment on impact of teaching on learners’ progress towards the objectives. This is done through internal and external monitoring process. This gives teachers opportunity to systematically gather evidences across a range of activities which after analyzing they can transform into actions for progress towards targets. Teacher can take help some queries in assessing themselves, as follows. •
How much the curriculum could plan and set subject-related targets in developing of learners’ knowledge and understanding?
How far it is able to clear learners’ common misconceptions?
How far it is able to provide to construct and scaffold learning?
European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org •
Can it be able to analyze
learners’ progress and make accurate assessments of their achievement?
4.13 Planning, Monitoring, Evaluating and Gaining Feedback Successful CBATL needs a systematic process of collecting and analyzing information in order to determine whether and to what degree objectives have been or are being achieved. It provides the necessary resources to specify how the activity could be carried and also the steps necessary to undertake in case of unforeseen shortcomings, constraints or obstacles. It involves monitoring, management, evaluation and implementation of effective learner-centric policies. Every learner is an asset of its system. Monitoring means the process by which we gather information regarding the different activities and its probable outcomes of learner’s achievement. Evaluation is the judgment on the effectiveness of actions taken based on their impact on quality of teaching and learning. The components for monitoring in CBATL are (i) how well learners are doing, (ii)how do we compare them with similar system, (iii)what more should we aim to achieve, (iv)what should we do to make it happen, (v)taking actions and reviewing progress etc. CBATL must provide local and national statistical data and other information in order to provide (i) a comparative baseline for evaluating learners’ progress and attainment, (ii) a means of judging the effectiveness of their teaching, (iii) a basis for improving teaching and learning. 4.14 Reviewing System Reviewing means assuring quality. Quality is the responsibility of the teaching staff. Quality assurance is an integral part of the teaching learning process which is meaningless if it is done at the end. Therefore, the system must incorporate a periodical review system for an effective quality assurance and improvement of teaching. This is necessary because (i) to facilitate and ensure the process of continuous quality improvement, (ii) to facilitate bottom-up empowerment of those people who can actually effect improvement, (iii) to ensure that the whole process is non-burdensome, rational, and effective, (v) to ensure that accountability for educational quality must reach all the way to the teaching learning communities. Reviewing process may be done either from the market-place or through some kind of reviewer who is engaging in the same or similar kinds of educational activities. He must be an educational expert or capable to bring relevant specialized skills within it. 5. Conclusion Over the years it has been observed and established that the pedagogical systems with competency based approaches are the strongest among the strategic approaches for human resource development and management. The central focus in CBATL is cultivating competency on learners, the ability to perform to the standards expected in an occupation within a system or a frame of reference which is purely performance and evidence based. This certainly established the credential of ‘CBATL’ which today in the changing scenario of society and learning environment could be considered as one of the most effective pedagogy. The CBATL resources provide description or attributes of a competent educational professional (teacher) which could be equally applied to an occupation in a similar department or an organization. In fact, CBATL lies at the heart of all such academic approaches that could deliver a meaningful conclusion of an educational process. Therefore, it is essential that every teacher or a professional including course tutor, counselor, advisors others should be aware of what they should do and how they proceed while attempting to develop and assess the competence of learners or trainees. Since the success of an educational system largely depends upon competency of its teachers or trainers, they must posses and follow the components and resources of CBATL. In CBATL, the central focus lies on growing competency of both learners and teachers while caring equally all other essential pedagogical qualities. Implementation of these provides scientific ways of teaching-leaning and consequently the most expected success. It also helps learners for their personal development in terms of management and progress. CBATL is equally beneficial for academic trainings and counseling. This is why the human resource management specialists advocate such approaches for promoting organizational health or curing organizational ills which are subjects of present day challenges. Therefore, if CBATL is successful for an educational system, it would equally be applicable to some other specialist practitioners in the of field human resource management and practice, in particular in respect of the processes by which membership of the professional body is accorded to individuals, and by which individuals are prepared for entry to the professional body through Professional Education Scheme etc. Thus, it is imperative that in the near future it would be expected to have prescription of CBATL from the lead-body for personnel management and education. Moreover, the growing emphasis on CBATL will definitely benefit institutions and individuals in accrediting itself by professional body which in turn also helps in providing trainings for professional education and management to assess those aspire to qualification for membership of the Institute or work place.
European Journal of Education and Learning, Vol.3, 2007 ISSN(paper)2668-3318 ISSN(online)2668-361X www.BellPress.org The importance of education is quite clear. It is the most powerful instrument whose effective use could only provide progress to a nation, society or an individual. Since this instrument is in the hands of teacher, they must possess and follow the components and resources of CBATL for its effective purposeful conclusion. An effective teaching-learning system is one that helps to develop or cultivate desirable habits, skills, attitudes and competency within learner and teacher. CBATL is to be understood in terms of one of the best pedagogy to develop skills, competency and thereby the employability. Thus, we can conclude that if skills and knowledge are the engines of economic growth and social progress, professional competency would be the key of success for a teacher. Similarly, CBATL is the tool in achieving goals in an educational system. 6.
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