European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org
A Study of Job Stress on Job Satisfaction among University Staff in Pakistan and their Concomitant aftermaths: Empirical Study Tafakhar Hasnain (Corresponding Author) Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Cell No 03339983500 E-Mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr.Zahid Awan Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Rasheed Muhammad Khattak Govt College of Management Sciences Lakki Marwat KPK (Pakistan) Prof:Dr.Bakhtiar Khan Chairman Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Muhammad Tufail Assistant Professor Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Farhat Ullah Lecturer Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Asfand Yar Khattak Scholar M.Phil Department of Business Administration Gomal University, DIK KPK (Pakistan) Abstract Preponderance of the people expends their time hunting their rationale sloping jobs. Surroundings aside the authority of stressors which aims at sabotashing their mechanism and lives. People very often look to be disgusted reaction not self-complacent rather disgruntled about the outcome of their work. People being least content, their behavioral outlook with peels and customers also depicts their grimness and irritation and state of crestfallenness. University academic staff is encountering a number of problems regarding their jobs; the administration too, is faced spirited pressure from other universities. Universities, observance in view new changing worldwide scenario feel grateful to set new goals to struggle with each other. This change is likely to cause inevitable stress for the university academic staff. Furthermore, this change may affect their job satisfaction and even their physical and psychological health. The factors of job strain that have been scrutinized under this study hold, administration role, relationship with others, workload heaviness, homework interface, role haziness, and performance stress. The sample consists of public universities of KPK, in Pakistan. The fallouts show there is a earth-shattering connection amid four of the
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org construct tested. The fallouts also display that there is momentous adverse connection among job anxiety and job fulfillment. Keywords: Job stress, Job Satisfaction. 1. Introduction Job natural life is one of the crucial remains of our diurnal lives which basis a inordinate accord of anxiety. Due to the practicable vegetation of the job milieu supreme of the people in the dominion are expenses their time for job allied application tenacities ensuing snub the stressor those are influence their work and life. Customarily societies are more concern about their upshot of their work that can even worry the way them extravagance further individuals and how they interconnect with their aristocracies and customers. For instance, people with a stylish proportion of job-related strain may not be thankful with their job and therefore they will not touch joyful working in the institute. They may sense maddened or “burned out” when they European Journal of Social Sciences – Volume 8, Number 1(2009) 122 are having glitches with aristocracies or customers. This may consent an adverse outcome to the institution itself. Therefore, it is very essential for boss and staffs to grab the stress and the stressor that cause all the deadly effects. The numeral universities in Pakistan have augmented very much in the past few years. Due to the swelling number of universities in Pakistan, university imaginary staffs may look more glitches in their job as the managements are pebbledash viable gravity from other universities. Virtually universities are now scenery newfangled aim to compete with other universities as well as the approximate staff is surrounding with the ultimate goal. This may roots the university hypothetical supervises to façade amply of stress and therefore touches their consummation and flush their corporeal or cerebral vigor. The ambition of this study is to ascertain the stressors issues that will influence the academic staffs’ job contentment. We nominated teaching as educators have been unswervingly acknowledged as a cluster suffering high anxiety at work (Sigler and Wilson, 1988). 2. Literature Review Numerous studies originate that fob strain influences the employees’ job pleasure and their overall recital in their work. Since most of the organizations now are more challenging for the better job outcomes? In fact, up to date times have been called as the “age of concern and strain” (Coleman, 1976).The anxiety itself will be pretentious by number of stressors. Nevertheless, Beehr and Newman (1978) had defined stress as a location which will force a individual to deviate from normal operation due to the change (i.e. disrupt or enhance) in his/her psychological and/or physiological condition and the person is enforced to deviate from ordinary functioning. The description that has been identified by researchers, we can terminate that it is truly important for an entity to recognize the stresses that are opposite by him in his career. Some demographic factor may pressure the way a university academic staff act in their workplace. Management role of an organization is one of the aspects that affect professional stress among Workers (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003).Workers in a society can face professional stress through the role stress that the management gives. Position stress means something about an organizational role that produces unhelpful consequences for the individual (Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Management will have its own function that stands. Role associated are anxious with how individuals recognize the potential other have of them and includes role uncertainty and role conflict (Alexandros-Stamatios et. al., 2003). Ancestors and work are consistent and mutually supporting to the level that experiences in one area affect the quality of life in the other (Sarantakos, 1996). Home-work boundary can be known as the overlie among work and home; the two way rapport involves the source of stress at work touching home life and vice versa affects of nautical on home life, weight from work at home, no support from home, absent of steadiness in home life. It asks about whether home problems are brought to work and work has a negative collision on home life (Alexandros-Stamatios G.A et al., 2003). For example, it questions whether the staff have to take work home, or powerlessness to forget about work when the entity is at home. Home-work boundary is important for the workers to trim down the level of work-related stress. According to Lasky (1995) demands connected with family and investments can be a major source of ‘extra-organizational’ constant worry that can cause difficulties, or even hurried, work-place stress. Russo & Vitaliano (1995) argued that the happening of stressors in the headquarters either without delay following a period of continual stress at home, or in coincidence with other major life stressors, is expected to have a marked shock on ending.
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org Several studies have dyed the deleterious penalty of high workloads or work overwork. According to Wilkes et al. (1998) work overloads and time constraints were noteworthy contributors to work stress among population nurses. Workload stress can be defined as lack of enthusiasm to come to work and a reaction of constant stress (i.e. no effort is enough) accompanied by the general physiological, psychological, and behavioral stress symptoms (Division of Human Resource, 2000). Al-Aameri AS. (2003) has mentioned in his studies that one of the six factors of professional stress is strain originating from workload. Alexandros-Stamatios G.A. et al. (2003) also argued that â€œfactors essential to the jobâ€? means explore workload, variety of farm duties and rates of pay. Rapidly varying comprehensive scene is escalating the heaviness of workforce to perform maximum output and develop competitiveness. Indeed, to perform better to their job, there is a condition for workers to carry out numerous tasks in the headquarters to keep alongside each other of varying technologies (Cascio, 1995; Quick, 1997). The eventual results of this heaviness have been found to one of the imperative factors influencing job stress in their work (Cahn et al., 2000). A study in UK indicated that the greater part of the employees were unhappy with the existing society where they were obligatory to work extensive hours and cope with large workloads while concurrently meeting construction targets and deadlines (Townley, 2000). Role uncertainty is another aspect that affects job constant worry in the workplace. According to Beehr et al. (1976), Cordes & Dougherty (1993), Cooper (1991), Dyer & Quine (1998) and Ursprung (1986) role ambiguity exists when an human being lacks in sequence about the requirements of his or her role, how those role necessities are to be met, and the evaluative procedures available to make certain that the role is being performed fruitfully. Jackson & Schuler (1985) and Muchinsky (1997) studies found role haziness to lead to such offputting outcomes as reduces self-belief, a sense of bleakness, anxiety, and misery. 3. Link between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction Several studies have tried to establish the link among stress and job satisfaction. Job fulfillment and job stress are the two hot focuses in human resource management researches. According to Stamps & Piedmont (1986) job satisfaction has momentous affiliation with job stress. One study of general practitioners in England identified four job stressors that were analytical of job disappointment (Cooper, et al., 1989). In other study, VinokurKaplan (1991) avowed that organization factors such as workload and working circumstance were negatively correlated with job satisfaction. Fletcher & Payne (1980) acknowledged that a lack of fulfillment can be a starting place of stress, while high pleasure can assuage the effects of stress. This study reveals that, both of job strain and job happiness were found to be consistent. The study of Landsbergis (1988) and Terry et al. (1993) transpired that high levels of work anxiety are associated with low levels of job happiness. Moreover, Cummins (1990) have emphasize that job stressors are predictive of job disappointment and greater predisposition to leave the institute. Sheena et al. (2005) studied in UK found that there are some occupations that are treatment worse than average scores on each of the factors such as physical wellbeing, psychological well-being, and job satisfaction. The rapport between variables can be very important to academician. If a definite link exists between two variables, it could be possible for a academician to provide intervention in order to increase the level of one of the variables in the hope that the intervention will also pick up the other variable as well (Koslowsky, et al., 1995). In this study, we would like to examine what extent of interrelation between the job stress and job fulfillment exists among university academic staff setting in Pakistan. 4. A Theoretical Framework and Hypothesis In this section a theoretical framework for the job stress behavior is developed based on the objectives and previous literature survey in this area. The model can be developed dependable with previous theory that estimates the effects of several extent thought represent academic and professional stress. The reason to demeanor this study is to classify some momentous person and ecological variables which donate to academic and professional stress and to approximation their direct and indirect belongings on various germane outcomes (such as job satisfaction). This research will provide further approaching as to what extent can the six variables pressure in the job pleasure among both universities. Two main constructs are included in the planned research model below encircling job stress and job fulfillment. Their relationships are illustrated in figure 1 below. The definitions of these variables are listed as follows:
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org (1) According to Beehr (1995) job stress is defined as â€œa situation in which some uniqueness of the work situation are thought to cause poor psychological or physical health, or to cause risk factors making poor health more likely.â€? (2) Job satisfaction includes general elements and specific elements: the whole discernment of job pleasure is well thought-out as general elements; job security, pay, co-worker, supervision and personal growth and development are well thought-out as specific elements (Hackman & Okham, 1980). All six job stressor affect job stress and job anxiety negatively affect happiness among academic staff in Pakistan.
Figure1: A Schematic diagram of the conceptual framework
Relationship with Others Workload Pressure Job Stress
This study infers that there exists a negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. Igharia and Greenhaus (1992) study reveals that job stress affects job satisfaction and career satisfaction negatively. Based on the above discussions, statement of hypothesis is as follows: Hypothesis 1: There is a relationship between management role and job stress. Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between relationship with others and job stress. Hypothesis 3: There is a relationship between home-work interface and job stress. Hypothesis 4: There is a relationship between workload pressure and job stress. Hypothesis 5: There is a relationship between job role ambiguity and job stress. Hypothesis 6: There is a relationship between performance pressure and job stress. Hypothesis 7: There is a negative relationship between job stress and job satisfaction.
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org 5. Methods 5.1. Sample A survey gadget in the form of close-ended opinion poll was developed for the purpose of collecting the main data for the study. This study was conducted in a public university KPK. Factors such as accuracy and confidence, populace size, time and cost constraints were taken into deliberation in selecting sample size. Using the non-probability sampling technique, a total of 300 respondents were selected as a sample of the study from that university. The respondents come from various faculties in order to give better blend between business and non-business academician as well as in term of racial mix stuck between respondents to increase the generalization of the result. The actual field survey was conducted over a period of one month whereby personal interviews were conducted to obtain the requisite information from the respondents. The reasons of using the personal conference are threefold. Initially, it allows the interviewer to display the eligibility of the respondents. Secondly, it also allows a closer direction and better contact between the interviewer and respondents in answering the questionnaire. Lastly, the interviewer was able to assist the respondents when they found difficulty in thoughtful any of the questions in the questionnaire. Two hundred and three academicians completed the questionnaire and the rest did not return it for mysterious reasons. The response rate was 67.66% which was very much acceptable in social science research (Fowler,1988). The participants were 62.56% female and 37.44% male with mean age of 37.6 years. More than 50% of them were married (107 respondent or 52.71%), 71 single, 17 alienated, 8 divorced. The sample represented 192 were Pakistani, 7 Afghani, 3 Irani and only 1 foreigner. The average experience of the participants in their present vocation was 7.2 years. 5.2. Instrument Development This instrument used in this study is composed of 3 parts. The first part deals with job stress. Job stress is measured by “Job Stress Questionnaire, JSQ” planned by Caplan et al. (1975) and Sahu and Gole (2008). This scale included four extent from Caplan et al (1975), namely (1) workload, (2) role conflict, (3) role ambiguity and (4) performance pressure which comprised thirteen items. Each of job stressors was measured on a six-point Likert size in which 1 indicated “strongly disagree”, 2 indicated “disagree”, 3 indicated “somewhat disagree”, 4 indicated “somewhat agree”, 5 indicated “agree” and 6 indicated “strongly agree”. The main basis for this choice of all six job stressor was broadly used in earlier studies. Part 2 includes job fulfillment which is exact using Job Descriptive Index (JDI) (Smith et al., 1969), a unswerving facet measure over time (Kinicki et al., 2002), related across a variety of demographic groups (Golembiewski and Yeager, 1978; Jung et al., 1986) and careful on a six point scale wit least fulfilled (1) to very satisfied (6). The structure this section differed from prior studies insofar as it well thought-out satisfaction as a positive experience. Consequently, there was no talent for disappointment. Part 3 includes a number of demographic questions such as sexual category, age, marital status, race, and schooling level.
5.3. Data Analysis Method Various statistical methods have been employed to evaluate the data together from 500 respondents. These methods comprise cross-sectional psychiatry, description analysis and regression analysis. Each process has used to analysis the affiliation of different variables. Firstly, the method of this study will also engross Cross-sectional types of research tactic based on the rule given by Hussey and Hussey (1997). Their reports state that cross-sectional studies are a positive methodology intended to obtain information on variables in dissimilar contexts. Secondly, expressive analysis refers to the alteration of raw data into a form that would offer information to describe a set of factors in a circumstances that will make them easy to recognize and interpret (Sekaran, 2000; Zikmund, 2000). This analysis will give information for the data through the occurrence distribution, central inclination, and the spreading. Data collected on demographic variables are processed and reported in percentages. Thirdly, numerous regression analysis is an addition of bivariate regression analysis, which allows for the instantaneous investigation of the consequence of two or more sovereign variables on a single interval scale reliant variable (Zikmund, 2000). The reliant variable for this study is Job happiness, whose types of extent are interval. For this study, there are quite a lot of independent variables linking to Job satisfaction, and job stresses
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org whose types of extent are interval and in chorus investigates the several autonomous variables single patchy a multiple linear regression is fixed for these variables.
6. Results and Analysis 6.1. Reliability The internal steadfastness of the items was confirmed by computing the Cronbach’s alpha (Nunnally, 1978). Nunnally (1978) not compulsory that a least amount alpha of 0.6 sufficed for early stage of research. The Cronbach alpha probable for current running role scale was 0.889, relationship with others scale was 0.890, workload weight scale was 0.890, homework boundary scale was 0.908, role uncertainty scale was 0.901, performance pressure scale was 0.894, overall job anxiety 0.805 and the overall job happiness scale was 0.729. As the Cronbach’s alpha in this study were all much higher than 0.6, the constructs were therefore deemed to have enough consistency.
6.2. Normality of Data and Multi-Collinearity This study involves a fairly large sample (203 academicians) and consequently, the inner Limit Theorem could be functional and hence there is no difficulty on familiarity of the data. Two major methods were utilized in order to resolve the presence of multicollinearity among dependent variables in this study. These methodologies implicated sum of both a Tolerance test and Variance Inflation aspect (VIF) (Kleinbaum et al, 1988). The fallout of these analyzes are presented in Table 1. As can be seen from this data, i) none of the Tolerance levels is <or equal to .01; and ii) all VIF values are well below 10. Thus, the actions selected for assessing autonomous variables in this study do not reach levels indicate of multicollinearity. The acceptable Durbin – Watson range is between 1.5 and 2.5. In this analysis Durbin – Watson value of 2.015, which is between the adequate ranges, show that there were no auto correlation problems in the data used in this research. Thus, the actions selected for assessing independent variables in this study do not reach levels indicate of multicollinearity Table 1:
Test of Collinearity: Variable Management Role Relationship with others Workload pressure Homework Interface Role ambiguity Performance Pressure
Tolerance .749 .693 .509 .410 .561 .679
VIF 1.336 1.442 1.964 2.442 1.783 1.472
6.3. Hypotheses Testing To test seven hypotheses the data were analyzed via numerous linear failure analysis following the guidelines well-known by Hair et al. (1998). The purpose of deterioration analysis is to relate a reliant variable to a set of sovereign variables (Mendenhal and Sincich, 1993). Table III present the result of predictors of ICT espousal. The regression coefficient of job stressors on job stress was probable. The overall model is noteworthy at the 1% level. The sovereign variables explain 50% of the variance in the job stress. Of the autonomous variables, workload pressure (+), homework crossing point (+), role ambiguity (+), and performance pressure (+) are the predictors statistically diverse from zero and had a important and direct effect on job stress. The lingering management role (+), relationship with others (-) had no significant direct effect on job stress. Table II presents the fallout of the entity hypotheses being tested. Table 1:
Test of Collinearity: Variable
Constant Management Role Relationship with others Workload pressure Homework Interface
T-value 1.781 .909 -1.032 4.013 2.768
.053 .062 .283 .218
P-value 0.76 .364 .303 .000 .006
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org Role ambiguity Performance Pressure
6.3.1. The Results of Hypothesis 1 The H1 (management role) is not in harmony with a wide assortment of previous result (Alexandros- Stamatios et. al., 2003 and Susan C., 2003, Kahn and Quinn, 1970). Multiple regression analysis shows results of management role (beta = 0.053, p-value = .364). The unimportance of management role may be due to that management of that university which is incredibly much loyal to its academics. 6.3.2. The Results of Hypothesis 2 Surprisingly, the results of this study shows that the association between affiliation with others and job stress is not noteworthy with β=0.055 (ρ=0.239). The unimportance of relationship factor may be due to fact that all the faculty members are very much friendly and obliging. However, we can expect to get stronger involvement if the conflict arises among the colleagues. 6.3.3. The Results of Hypothesis 3 More than a few studies have tinted the poisonous consequences of high workloads or work overload. A study of work stress amongst professionals found that teachers were most likely to experience work overwork and that is one of the source of work stress (Chan et al. (2000). As expected, the results of this study shows that the rapport between workload heaviness and job stress is noteworthy with β=0.283 (ρ=0.001). The result further indicates that the track of the associations is optimistic in which it implies that more work overkill has given the academician, the likelihood to face job stress which will be advanced 6.3.4. The Results of Hypothesis 4 According to Lasky (1995) anxiety associated with relatives and finances can be a major source of ‘extraorganisational’ anxiety that can make problems, or precipitate, work-place stress. The multiple regression analysis shows that the involvement between grounding interface and job stress is significant with β=0.218 (ρ=0.01). The consequence attests that the occurrence of stressors in the headquarters either without delay following a period of unending stress at home, or in coincidence with other major life stressors, is likely to have a noticeable impact on outcome (Russon & Vitaliano, 1995). In addition, with the optimistic coefficient value, it might be concluded that the higher the problem in the home, the probability for the job stress will be greater. 6.3.5. The Results of Hypothesis 5 Most research suggests that role uncertainty is indeed unhelpfully correlated with job satisfaction, job taking part, performance, tension, inclination to leave the job and job performance variables (Rizzo, House, & Lirtzman 1970; Van Sell, Brief, & Schuler 1981; Fisher & Gitelson 1983; Jackson & Schuler 1985; Singh 1998). The result of this study shows that the connection between role uncertainty and job stress is noteworthy with β=0.180 (ρ=0.01). The support for hypothesis 5 reflects that more complex and rapid changes of organization that exist in the facility, the possibility of job stress will be higher. 6.3.6. The Results of Hypothesis 6 The support of H6 (performance pressure) is in line with the fallout found by Chan et al. (2000). Multiple regression analysis shows family member advantage having β=0.209 (ρ=0.001)is the strongest Predictor of job stress. It is probable since past prose has consistently shown that performance pressure now a day is one of most significant and optimistic pressure on job stress (Townley, 2000). 6.3.7. The Results of Hypothesis 7 To support hypothesis 7 we also used multiple deterioration analysis to recognize the effects of job stress versus job satisfaction. With job satisfaction as dependent variable and job stress as sovereign variable, a regression equation to symbolize this relationship is computed. Regress results are shown Tables III and IV. Table III depicts the computer F-value and R quadrangle to understand the overall significance of the regression model. Research model elastic significant p-values (p<0.01) and R square around 10 percent of the difference in job
European Journal of Developing Country Studies, Vol.1 2006 ISSN(paper)2668-3385 ISSN(online)2668-3687 www.BellPress.org satisfaction was explained. Table IV lists detailed data on the statistical coefficients of the regression model. Therefore, hypothesis 7 is supported by the collected data.
Summary of Regression Analysis Effects of Job stress toward Job Satisfaction.
Regression Statistics Value **p<0.01
Durbin Watson Test
Relationship between Job Stress and Job Satisfaction
Standarized of Coefficient
Standarized Regression Cofficient (beta) (p-value)
Job Stress **p<0.01
7. Conclusions Based on the verdict of the study, there are a hardly any key points that can be used to terminate this research paper. It is very vital that the university understand the needs of its employees and make available what is best for the human resources. invariable appraisal programs and admiration should be given to give back and prompt the employees. inspiration is a key factor as well in upsetting job stress among employees. Employees who are extremely provoked will feel more contented and are more enthusiastic to work for the organizations. Concerned whole heartedly, under congenial and bracing atmosphere. Unhealthy job stress among the people in charge in assisting the outlook generation’s education will eventually affect their academic and social abilities. Failure of the enlightening institutions in given that a healthy working setting or even a working environment with the smallest level possible of detrimental job stress would direct to many more harms in the near future, especially in the employees’ work routine in teaching students and managerial part of the university. At the end of the day, both employer and employees are liable when it comes to the matter of handling stress. Since it is the institution, it inner and its exterior environment that cause the stress. The employees mug the stress, and the employers and students will practice the effect of the stresses experienced by the university staffs. 8. Limitation of Study Like other experiential studies, this study is not devoid of its confines. Our sample consisted of two public universities in KPK may limit the generalizability of the results. The study can be strengthened by mounting the model size as the data analysis results and result may vary significantly when the taster size is augmented or decreased. As only one public university can not represent whole universities in Pakistan, more universities’ taking part would create a more mellow results and result. Lastly, more factors or variables know how to also be included in the opinion poll as stress can be caused by many different aspects of the working situation. With an augmented sample size, a more detailed experimental study among sovereign variables and the variables that have numerous categories can be performed. Potential correlation between some of the sovereign variables (e.g. gender, race, education level, organization society, collision of technology, organization environment, affecting demands of work and uncertain work roles) need to be reported in a future study.
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