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“FORMULATION OF AN ECO-FRIENDLY SUNBLOCK”

ALLAN HABER


• CHAPTER 1 •

“FORMULATION OF AN ECO-FRIENDLY SUNBLOCK”

Objective: To formulate a sunblock using eco-friendly materials the student will need to identify the different components in sunblock that don't pollute the environment and will need to look for substances with high spf that don't have an impact on the environment or damage the skin of its users.


• Section 1 •

Materials 1.

• ½ cup  = 12o ml of almond or olive oil

2.

•  Â¼ cup= 60 ml of coconut oil (natural SPF 4)

3.

• ¼ cup= 60 ml of beeswax

4.

• 2 Tablespoons= 30 g of Zinc Oxide

5.

• 1 teaspoon= 15 ml of Vitamin E oil

6.

• 1 teaspoon= 15 ml of Rose oil

7.

• 2 tablespoons= 30 g of Shea Butter

8.

100 ml of water

9.

4 beaker

10. •

1 hot plate

11. •

1 stirring rod 2


Each sunscreen has a different Sun Protection Factor or SPF. The SPF indicates the degree of sunburn protection provided by each sunscreen. SPF is related to the total amount of sun exposure rather than simply the length of sun exposure. It is a common mistake to assume that the duration of effectiveness of a sunscreen can be calculated simply by multiplying the SPF by the length of time it takes for him or her to suffer a burn without sunscreen, because the amount of sun exposure a person receives is dependent upon more than just the length of time spent in the sun.

Objective: To formulate a sunblock using eco-friendly materials the student will need to identify the different components in sunblock that can separate easily from water using lipophilicity.  They will also need to look for substances with high SPF that don't have an impact on the environment or damage the skin of its users. And at the end formulate the sunblock and pack it as a complete product.

Hypothesis: If the different components of a sunblock are identified, then the team can create a green sunblock according to the chemicals that common sunblocks leave on water and the environment in order to be separated easily according to lipophilicity.

Background:

(1) Commercial sunblock has many different chemicals that are not friendly with the environment and people aren't aware of this. Each year between 4000 and 6000 metric tons of sunscreen washes swimmers and snorkelers into coral environments. According to the news and research made by The National Geographic “sunscreens are killing off coral”, and

Sunscreen is any substance or mixture of substances that protect the skin from uv radiation. Sunscreens are available in many different forms like topical lotions, creams, gel, spray, ointment, etc.

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“sunscreen wipes out corals” by Nature News based on scientific study of Roberto Danovaro and his colleagues in a university in Italy. They found that the common sunscreen have four ingredients that can completely bleach corals they are: Oxybenzone (benzophenone-3) it produces excess reactive oxygen species that can interfere with cellular signs and can cause the death of cells. (2) Oxybenzone or (benzophenone-3) is soluble in almost every organic solvent.(3) Other substances such as Butyl Paraben that are preservatives with several suspected human health effects are used in cosmetics mainly are also used in sunscreen, Octinoxate (Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate) is an organic compound formed from methoxycinnamic acid and 2-ethylhexanol, is used in sunscreens and other cosmetics to protect from skin damage. (4). This substances make sunscreen difficult to be treated in a water treatment plant. This is an environmental issues because sunscreen is harming water and making it unsanitary.One of the elements that are eco friendly is the zinc oxide.(5) The zinc oxide is a crystal which have a hexagonal crystal structure. Its molecular weight is 81.37. it has high melting points it is approximately 1200c. This gives it a very strong structure and bond. This is not a very dangerous chemical element. It is almost not flammable and non radioactive. The only risk are at overexposure there can be the following symptoms ,coughing, irritation ,vomiting, nausea and fever.At mos cronial exposere by the respiratory system  it can cause huge iritation and medical atention has to be neded.

oxide has a very high spf. The spf is how much longer would it take to burn from the sun at a normal skin exposure. As in the case of the zinc oxide it has 35 spf. This means that it takes 35 times longer to get a sunburn.(7)Zinc oxide may increase the risk of mutation but it has only been proven with small cells. this doesn't affect much because almost every cell in the exterior of the skin is dead so the zinc oxide would not penetrate.(8) There are many other elements that have a natural spf as the coconut oil that has a 4 spf that for an oil is a big amount. and there a many more as she butter that has a 5 spf. If held together by a good and natural conductor as beeswax , that it is completely natural and safe for the skin. it can be very effective sunscreen with an a 40 spf approximately. And completely eco friendly.(9)

The zinc oxide can be used for plenty of thing as in the textile industry or agriculture. It also has a very impressive sun protection factors.(6)As it can cover the UVA and the UVB of the sun.The zinc 4


• Section 2 •

Results

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6


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• Section 3 •

Analysis of results The hypothesis was complied. The team was able to identify

The green sunblock formulated by the team showed its

the different components of a sunblock and according to them

effectivity as it did not combine with water. This result is

formulate an eco-friendly sunblock according to lipophilicity.

explain with a chemical phenomenon called lipophilicity. Lipophilicity is the attraction between lipids in a substance.

After putting both sunblocks to test the team could confirm the

The green sunblock formulated by the team showed a high

effectivity of its product as well as the aspects that make it

level of lipophilicity which makes it stay in the skin (skin has

green. The sunblock formulated by the team doesn't contain

lipids) and be repelled from H20 (it doesnt have lipids). As the

substances that are harmful to the environment such as

sunblock does not combine (dissolve) with water making it

Oxybenzone (benzophenone-3), Butyl Paraben, Octinoxate

water proof.

(Ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate), 2-ethylhexanol. This substances have been proven by a backup research that are

The sunblock that was formulated by the team can be easily

harmful to the environment as well as difficult for them to be

separated from water. The residue of the sunblock in water

separated from water. Most of the toxic substances that

(was fairly low) stayed in flakes that have an adecuate size fro

commercial sunscreen contain are soluble in most of the

it to be filtratated. After comparing to the commercial

organic solvents in earth which makes them hard to be

sunscreen (it dissolved and had a low water resistance) the

separated, even in a professional treatment plant. By

team was able to prove the effectivity of the sunscreen and at

formulating the green sunblock, the team proved that their

the same time the environmental impact it can make in the

sunblock does not contain those substances, specially

globe.

oxybenzone because the sunblock did not dissolve in water.

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Reference http://www.medicinenet.com/sun_protection_and_sunscreens/page3.htm http://www.ewg.org/2013sunscreen/the-trouble-with-sunscreen-chemicals/ http://wellnessmama.com/2558/natural-homemade-sunscreen-recipe/ (1) http://www.badgerbalm.com/s-35-coral-reef-safe-sunscreen.aspx (2) http://www.ewg.org/skindeep/ingredient/704372/OXYBENZONE/ (3) http://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/summary/summary.cgi?cid=4632 ( (4)http://www.annmariegianni.com/ingredient-watch-list-octinoxate-the-potentially-dangerouschemical-sunscreen (5) http://www.zinc.org/info/zinc_oxide_properties (6)http://www.ewg.org/2013sunscreen/the-trouble-with-sunscreen-chemicals/ (7)http://www.smartskincare.com/skinprotection/sunblocks/sunblock_zinc-oxide.html (8)http://www.medicinenet.com/sun_protection_and_sunscreens/page3.htm (9)http://foodbabe.com/2013/05/05/what-you-need-to-know-before-you-ever-buy-sunscreenagain/

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