Page 1

S.80, A.33-39

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iJ}'.*J1 ~);I ~

- 1901 -


8.80, A.40-42

cJy~I ..):-1

J-30 ~

- 1902 -


Intro. to S. 81.

- 1903 -


Sura At-Takwir 81 Ayat 1-3

Juz'

30 cJ;~1 ~jJ:.1 ~

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 5969 1. When the sun (With its spacious light) Is folded up;5970 2. When the starsS971 Fall, losing their lustre; 3. When the mountains vanish (Like a mirage) ;5972

5969. Verses 1 to 13 are conditional clauses, and the substantive clause is in verse 14. The time wilI come when nature's processes as we know them will cease to function, and the soul wiII only then know by self conviction the results of its actions. With reference to an individual soul, its resurrection is its supreme crisis: the whole world of sense, and even of imagination and reason, melts away, and its whole spiritual scro)) is laid bare before it. 5970. The conditional clauses are twelve, in two groups of six. The first six affect the outer or physical life of man; the last six, his inmost spiritual life. Let us take them one by one. (1) The biggest factor affecting us in the external physical World is the light, heat, and perhaps electric or magnetic energy of the sun. The sun is the source of alI the light, heat, and energy, and indeed the source and support of all the physical life that we know. It is the biggest factor and yet most remote from us in our solar system. Yet the sources of our inner spiritual life will be greater and more lasting, for they wi)) survive it. The sun as the centre of our solar system also stands as a symbol of the present order of things. The physical forces, as defined in Newton's laws of Matter and Attraction, wiII also break up with the break-up of the sun. fs folded up: is folded up, or twisted up, like a sheet or a garment.

5971. (2) Next after the sun, we can derive faint lights from the innumerable stars in the firmament. For all the ages of which we have any record, these stars have remained fixed. Nothing can be more fixed; yet they can and wiII fail. 5972. Cf. lxxviii. 20. (3) On our own earth the mountains-the "eternal hills"-seem the most striking examples of stability; yet they wi)) be swept away like a mirage, as if they had never existed.

- 1904-


A' J'fll ibr-

S.81, A.4-8

~--~~~ ~

!).

4. When the she-camels, Ten months with young, Are left untended;5973

5. When the wild beasts Are herded together (In human habitations);5974 When the oceans5975 Boil over with a swell; 7. When the souls Are sorted out,5976 (Being joined, like with like); 8. When the female (infant), Buried alive, is questioned-

5973. (4) The type of Arab property, as well as the type of the Arab pet, was the camel, and the most precious camel was the she-camel just about to be delivered of her young. She would in normal times be most sedulously cared for. But when all our landmarks of this life vanish, even she would be left untended. Nothing would then be as it is now. 5974. (5) In the present world, the wild animals fear each other, and they all fear man and normally keep away from human habitations. But when this order passes away, there will be scarcely any differentiation between human habitations and the wilds of the forests. 5975. See Iii. 6 and n. 5041. (6) The oceans, which now keep their bounds, will surge and boil over, and overwhelm all landmarks. At present the waters seem to have reached their fixed and normal levels, but the whole equilibrium will then be disturbed. Such will be the complete wreck of this transitory world. at the approach of the dawn of the permanent Reality. But these are physical symbols, relating to the outer nature surrounding the physical nature of man. The remaining six. viz.,: the 7th to the 12th, describe the ordering of the new World, from which all present seeming incongruities will be removed.

5976. Cf. Ivi. 7, where the sorting out into three classes is mentioned, viz.• : Those Nearest to Allah, the Companions of the Right Hand, and the Companions of the Left Hand. That was a sort of broad general division. The meaning in this passage is wider, (7) Whereas in this world of probation, good is mixed with evil, knowledge with ignorance, power with arrogance, and so on,-in the new world of Reality, all true values will be restored, and like will consort with like, for it will be a world of perfect Peace, Harmony, and Justice.

- 1905 -


S.81, A.9-l4

~y~' ~..rJ:-'

J-30 ~

~

For what crime She was killed;s977 10. When the Scrolls

Are laid open ;5918 11. When the SkyS979 Is unveiled;

When the Blazing Fire5980 Is kindled to fierce heat; 13. And when the Garden S981 Is brought near;_S982 14. (Then) shall each soul know What it has put forward. 5983

5977. (8) In this world of sin and sorrow, much unjust suffering is caused, and innocent lives sacrificed, without a trace being left, by which offenders can be brought to justice. A striking example before the Quraish was female infanticide: cf. xvi. 58-59, and n. 2084. The crime was committed in the guise of social plausibility in secret collusion, and no question was asked here. But in the world of Justice, full questions will be asked, and the victim herself-dumb here-will be able to give evidence, for she had committed no crime herself. The proofs will be drawn from the very means used for concealment. 5978. (9) The Scrolls recording the deeds of men, good or bad, will then be laid open before all. Cf I. 17-18, n. 4954; also Ixxxii. 11-12. In the present phenomenal world, things may be concealed; but in the world of absolute Reality, every secret is opened out, good or bad. The whole tale of acts, omissions, motives, imponderable spiritual hurt, neglect, or help will be laid bare. 5979. The Sky, or Heaven as standing for both the Blazing Fire and the Garden, the Home of the Hereafter. (10) Just as when an animal is skinned, its real flesh and blood and inner organs become visible, without any outer coating to hold them together, so the inmost state of every soul will then become plain. 5980. (11) Then will burn the Blazing Fire of the Hell, worse than the fiercest fire. 5981. (12) Lastly the Garden will come in sight,-not yet attained, but visible, or "brought near". For the scales have fallen from the eyes, and the soul knows itself. 5982. See Ixxv. 22, n. 5822; (xxviii. 40, n. 5914; and lxxix, 14, n. 5926. 5983. This is the conclusion. It is only on such conditions that the soul reaches its fuJI realisation. Put forward: cf "the Deeds which his hands have sent forth" in Ixxviii. 40.

- 1906-


S.81, A.15-19 ~

J-30 cJy~I.;I:-' !>. I~

••

15. So verily I call5984 To witness the Planets-598S That recede, 16. Go straight, or hide; 17. And the Night As it dissipates;5986 18. And the Dawn As it breathes away The darkness;-5987 19. Verily this is the word Of a most honourable Messenger,5988

5984. Cf lvi. 75, n. 5258, for the witness that the heavenly bodies bear to the power, beauty, and goodness of Allah, in sending His Revelation. See n. 5798 to Ixxiv. 32, for the significance of an adjuration in the Our-an.

5985. The appeal here is made to three things, the Planets, the Night, and the Dawn. (1) The Planets have a retrograde and a forward motion, and, during occultation, hide or disappear behind the sun or moon, or are otherwise invisible or appear stationary. They behave differently from the millions of stars around them. Yet they are not mere erratic bodies, but obey definite laws, and evidence the power and wisdom of Allah. 5986. How the Night gradually declines after its height at midnight! It seems gradually to steal away, and as Dawn approaches, to merge into Day. So a soul in spiritual darkness graduaUy awakes to its spiritual Dawn through Revelation. 5987. The slow "breathing out" of the darkness by the Dawn, shows us, by beautiful imagery, that these wonderful operations, of which people in their ignorance are frightened if they have to do with darkness, are really beneficent operations of Allah. They have nothing to do with evil spirits, or witches, or magic. For three questions were actually raised about the holy Prophet's Ministry by the ignorant. (1) Did his wonderful works come from himself and not from Allah? (2) Was he possessed of an evil spirit? In other words, was he mad? For that was the theory of madness then current. (3) Was he a soothsayer, or necromancer, or magician? For he had virtues, powers and eloquence, so extraordinary that they could not understand him. 5988. They are told here that all their three theories were foolish. The Revelation was really from Allah. Their wonder should cease if they observe the daily miracles worked round them in nature. The bringer of Allah's Message was the angel Gabriel, and not an evil spirit.

- 1907 -


S.81, A.20-25 ~

~

20. Endued with Power, Held in honour by The Lord of the Throne,5989

21. With authority there, (And) faithful to his trust. 22. And (0 people)! Your Companion is not One possessed;5990

And without doubt be saw him In the clear horizon. 5991 24. Neither doth he withhold Grudgingly a knowledge Of the unseen. 5992 2S. Nor is it the word Of a Satan accursed. 5993

5989. Not only was the bringer of the Revelation, Gabriel, an honourable Messenger, incapable of deceit, but he had, in the angelic kingdom, rank and authority before Allah's Throne, and he could convey an authoritative divine Message. He was, like the holy Prophet, faithful to his trust; and therefore there could be no question of the Message being delivered in any other way than exactly according to the divine Will and Purpose. These epithets could apply to the Prophet himself, but in view of verse 23 below, it is best to understand them of Gabriel. 5990. After describing the credentials of the Archangel Gabriel, the Text now appeals to the people to consider their own "Companion", the Prophet, who had been born among them and had lived with them, and was known to be an honourable, truthful, and trustworthy man. H Gabriel was the one who brought the Message to him, then there was no question of demoniacal possession. And the Prophet had seen him in his inspired vision "in the clear horizon". 5991. Read along with this the whole passage in liii. 1-18 and notes there; specially n. 5092, where the two occasions are mentioned when there was a vision of inspiration: "For truly did he see, of the Signs of his Lord, the Greatest" (Iiii. 18). 5992. Such would be the words of a soothsayer, guarded, ambiguous, and misleading. Here everything was clear, sane, true, and under divine inspiration. 5993. Such as evil suggestions of envy, spite, greed, selfishness, or other vices. On the contrary the teaching of the Qur-an is beneficent, pointing to the Right Way, the Way of Allah. Rajim: literally, driven away with stones, rejected with complete ignominy. ct. xv. 17. The rite of throwing stones in the valley of Mina at the close of the Makkan Pilgrimage [see n. 217 (6) to ii. 197] suggests symbolically that the Pilgrim emphatically, definitely, and finally rejects all Evil.

- 1908 -


S.81, A.26-29 !J:.

~

- 1909-


lotro. to S. 82.

- 1910-


Sura AI-Infitar 82 t1-.

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. When s997 the Sky Is cleft asunder;s998 2. When the Stars Are scattered;S999 3. When the Oceans Are suffered to burst forth;6000

5997. ct. the passage lxxxi. 1-14 and notes. For the three parallel interpretations, see the Introduction to this SUra. There are four conditional clauses here, and the substantive clause is in verse 5. In S. lxxxi, there were 12 conditional clauses, and the conclusion was, similar, but not expressed in precisely the same terms. See lxxii. 5. n. 6002 below. The physical world as we see it now will be destroyed before the final Day of Judgment, establishing the true Reality. In the following four clauses we have a reference to the Lesser Judgment, the individual dawn of the true Reality at Death. 5998. Cf. lxxiii. 18, n. 5769. The beautiful blue sky overhead, which we take for granted in sunshine and storm, will be shattered to pieces before the New World is established. The partition which seems at present to divide things divine from this phenomenal world has to be shattered before each soul knows the reality about itself.

5999. Cf. lxxxi. 2, where the word for "stars" (Nujilm) is different, and the verb is different. Najrn has reference to brightness, and the verb "losing their lustre" was appropriate there, to show the opposite, Kaukob (used here) has more the meaning of a star as fixed in a consteUation; and the opposite of a fixed and definite order is "scattered", the verb used here. In fact, throughout this passage, the dominating idea is the disturbance of order and symmetry. The metaphor behind the scattering of the constellations is that in the present order of things we see many things associated together, e.g., rank with honour, wealth with comfort, etc. In the New World this will be seen to have merely fortuitous. 6000. Cf. Ixxxi. 6, "when the oceans boil over with a swell". Here, "are suffered to burst forth" expresses the end of the present order of things. This may be in two ways, (1) The barrier which keeps within their respective bounds the various streams of salt and fresh water (lv. 20, n. 5185) will be removed; (2) the Ocean will overwhelm the whole Globe.

- 1911 -


J-30

S.82, A.4-8

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4. And when the Graves Are turned upside down;-6001 5. (Then) shall each soul know What it hath sent forward 6002 And (what it hath) kept back. 6. 0 man! what has Seduced thee from Thy Lord Most Beneficent?7. Him Who created thee, Fashioned thee in due proportion/lClO3 And gave thee a just bias;6004 8. In whatever Form6005 He wills, Does He put thee together.

6001. This item is not mentioned in Ixxxi. 1-14. Here it is introduced to show that the whole order of things will be so reversed that even Death will not be Death. We think there is tranquillity in Death: but there will be no tranquillity. Literally, and figuratively, Death will be the beginning of a new Life. What we think to be Death will bring forth Life.

6002. Sent Forward and kept back: may mean: the deeds of commission and omission in this life. Or the Arabic words may also be translated: sent forward and left behind: i.e., the spiritual possibilities which it sent forward for its other life, and the physical things on wbich it prided itself in tbis life, but which it had to leave behind in this life. Or else, the things it put first and the things it put last in importance may change places in the new world of Reality. "The first shall be last and the last shall be first".

6003. Cf. xv. 29. Allah not only created man, but fashioned him in due proportions. giving him extraordinary capacities. and the means wherewith he can fulfil his high destiny. 6004. See n. 834 to vi. 1. Having given a limited free-will, He gave us a just bias through our reason and our spiritual faculties. If we err. it is our will that is at fault. 6005. By "Form" (Surat) here I understand the general shape of things in which any given personality is pla~d, including his physical and social environments, his gifts of mind and spirit. and all that goes to make up his outer and inner life. The Grace of Allah is shown in all these things. for His Will is formed from perfect knowledge, wisdom, and goodness.

- 1912 -


S.82, A.9-17 ~

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Nay! but ye do Reject The Judgment!6006

10. But verily over you (Are appointed angels)6007 To protect you,ll. Kind and honourable,Writing down (your deeds):

12. They know All that ye do. As for the Righteous, They will be in Bliss; 14. And the WickedThey will be in the Fire, 15. Which they will enter6008 On the Day of Judgment, 16. And they will not be Able to keep away therefrom. 17. And what will explain To thee what the Day Of Judgment is?

6006. The goodness and mercies of Al1ah, and His constant watchful care of all His creatures should make men grateful, instead of which they tum away from the Right and deny the Day of Sorting Out, the Day when every action performed here will find its fulfilment in just reward or punishment. 6007. Besides the faculties given to man to guide him, and the Form and Personality through which he can rise by stages to the Presence of Allah, there are spiritual agencies around him to help and protect him, and to note down his Record, so that perfect justice may be done to him at the end. For these Guardian Angels, see l. 17-18, and n. 4954. 6008. I understand this relative clause to govern "the Fire", i.e., the Punishment. It will be postponed as long as possible, to give the Sinner every chance of repentance and amendment. But once the period of probation is past, it will be irrevocable. There will be no going back from it. By inference, the Righteous may individually reach some stage of Bliss at once, possibly in this life, possibly after death, though the Final Judgment will be the general and complete cessation of this fleeting world and the creation of the world of Eternity.

- 1913 -


cJy~1

J-30 !J..

-J:l:-I ~

Again, what will 'explain To thee what the Day Of Judgment is?6009 19. (It will be) the Day When no soul shall have Power (to do) aught For another:6()lO For the Command, that Day t Will be (wholly) with Allah.

6009. We can speak of Rewards and Punishments, the Fruits of Actions, the Resurrection and the Tribunal, the Restoration of True Values, the Elimination of all Wrong, and a hundred other phrases. They might serve to introduce our minds vaguely to a new World, of which they cannot possibly form any adequate conception under present conditions. The question is repeated in verses 17-18 to emphasize this difficulty, and a simple answer is suggested, as explained in the next note. 6010. The answer is suggested by a negative proposition: 'No soul shall have power to do aught for another'. This is full of meaning. Personal responsibility wiJI be fully enforced. In this world we all depend on one another proximately, though our ultimate dependence is always on Allah, now and for ever. But here a father helps a son forward; husband and wife influence each other's destinies; human laws and institutions may hold large masses of mankind under their grip; falsehood and evil may seem to flourish for a time, because a certain amount of limited free-will has been granted to man. This period will be all over then. The good and the pure will have been separated from the evil and the rebellious; the latter will have been rendered inert, and the former will have been so perfected that their wills will be in complete consonance with Allah's Universal Will. The Command, thenceforward, will be wholly with Allah.

- 1914 -


- 1915 -


Sura At-Ta~fif or Al-Mu~affifeen83 Ayat 1-5 JuZ 30 ~

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At- Ta~fif, or Dealing in Fraud.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Woe to those That deal in fraud,_6011

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2. Those who, when they Have to receive by measure From men, exact full measure, 3. But when they have To give by measure Or weight to men, Give less than due. Do they not think That they will be raised Up?_6012 5. On a Mighty Day,

6011. "Fraud" must here be taken in a widely general sense. It covers giving shan measure or short weight, but it covers much more than that. The next two verses make it clear that it is the spirit of injustice that is condemned,-giving too little and asking too much. This may be shown in commercial dealings, where a man exacts a higher standard in his own favour than he is willing to concede as against him. In domestic or social matters an individual or group may ask for honour, or respect, or services which he or they are not willing to give on their side in similar circumstances. It is worse than onesided selfishness: for it is double injustice. But it is worst of aJl in religion or spiritual life: with what face can a man ask for Mercy or Love from Allah when he is unwilling to give it to his fellow-men? In one aspect this is a statement of the Golden Rule. 'Do as you would be done by'. But it is more completely expressed. You must give in full what it due from you, whether you expect or wish to receive full consideration from the other side or not. 6012. Legal and social sanctions against Fraud depend for their efficacy on whether there is a chance of being found out. Moral and religious sanctions are of a different kind. 'Do you wish to degrade your own nature?' 'Do you not consider that there is a Day of Account before a Judge Who knows aU, and Who safeguards all interests, for He is the Lord and Cherisher of the Worlds? Whether other people know anything about your wrong or not, you are guilty before Allah'.

- 1916 -


S.83, A.6-13 ~

~y~1 ~,;J:-I

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A Day when (all) Will stand before The Lord of the Worlds?

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7. Nay! Surely the Record Of the Wicked is (Preserved) in Sijjin. 6013

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And what will explain To thee what Sijjin is? (There is) a Register (Fully) inscribed. 6014 Woe, that Day, to those That deny11. Those that deny The Day of Judgment. 6015 12. And none can deny it But the Transgressor Beyond bounds, The Sinner! When Our Signs are rehearsed To him, he says, "Tales of the Ancients!,,6016

6013. This is a word from the same root as Sijn, a Prison. It rhymes with and is contrasted with 'lIliyin in verse 18 below. It is therefore understood by many Commentators to be a place, a Prison or a Dungeon in which the Wicked are confined pending their appearance before the Judgment-Seat. The mention of the Iscribed Register in verse 9 below may imply that Sijjin is the name of the Register of Black Deeds, though verse 9 may be eUiptieal and may only describe the place by the significance of its contents. 6014. If we take Sijjin to be the Register itself, and not the place where it is kept, the Register itself is a sort of Prison for those who do wrong. It is inscribed fully: i.e., no one is omitted who ought to be there, and for every entry there is a complete record, so that there is no escape for the sinner. 6015. The fact of Personal Responsibility for each soul is so undoubted that people who deny it are to be pitied, and will indeed be in a most pitiable condition on the Day of Reckoning, and none but the most abandoned sinner can deny it, and he only denies it by playing with Falsehoods. 6016. Cf. vi. 25; Ixviii. 15; etc. They scorn Truth and pretend that it is Falsehood.

- 1917 -


S.83, A.14-20

J-30

cJ;~1 ~):-I

14. By no means! But on their hearts Is the stain of the (ill) Which they do ,6017 15. Verily, from (the Light Of) their Lord, that Day, Will they be veiled.6018

16. Further, they will enter The Fire of Hell. 17. Further, it will be said To them: "This is The (reality) which ye Rejected as false! Nay, verily the Record Of the Righteous is (Preserved) in 'IIIiyin. 6019 And what will explain To thee what 'IlIiyun is? 20. (There is) a Register (Fully) inscribed,6020

6017. The heart of man, as created by Allah, is pure and unsullied. Every time that a man does an ill deed, it marks a stain or rust on his heart. But on repentance and forgiveness, such stain is washed off. If there is no repentance and forgiveness, the stains deepen and spread more and more, until tbe heart is sealed (ii. 7), and eventually the man dies a spiritual death. It is such stains that stand in the way of his perceiving Truths which are obvious to others. That is why he mocks at Truth and hugs Falsehood to his bosom. 6018. The stain of evil deeds on their hearts sullies the mirror of their hearts, so that it does not receive the light. At Judgment the true Light, the Glory of the Lord, the joy of the Righteous, will be hidden by veils from the eyes of the Sinful. Instead; the Fire of Punishment will be to them the only reality which they will perceive.

6019. 'Illiyin: the oblique form of the nominative'IIIiyiin, which occurs in the next verse. It is in contrast to the Sijjin which occurs in verse 7 above, where see n. 6213. Literally. it means the 'High Places'. Applying the reasoning parallel to that which we applied to Sijjin, we may interpret it as the Place where is kept the Register of the Righteous. 6020. This repeats verse 9 above. where see n. 6014. But the Register is of the opposite kind, that of the Righteous. It contains every detail of the Righteous.

- 1918 -


S.83, A.21-27

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21. To which bear witness

Those Nearest (to AUah).6021 22. Truly the Righteous Will be in Bliss: On raised couches6022

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Will they command a sight (Of all things): 24. Thou wilt recognise In their Faces6023 The beaming brightness of Bliss. 25. Their thirst will be slaked With Pure Wine sealed;6024

26. The seal thereof will be Musk: and for this Let those aspire, Who have aspirations: 6025 27. With it will be (given)

A mixture of Tasnim: 6026

6021. See lvi. 11, n. 5227; also n. 5223. Those Nearest to Allah will be witnesses to this Righteous Record; or as it may also be rendered, they will be present at the Record, and watch this Record.

6022. Cf. xxxvi. 56. 6023. Ct. lxxv. 22, and lxxvi. 11. 6024. The Wine will be of the utmost purity and flavour, so precious that it will be protected with a seal, and the seal itself will be of the costly material of musk, which is most highly esteemed in the East for its perfume. Perhaps a better interpretation of the "seal" is to take it as implying the final effect of the drink: just as a seal close a document, so the seal of the drink will be the final effect of the delicious perfume and flavour of musk, heightening the enjoyment and helping in the digestion. 6025. If you understand true and lasting values, this is the kind of pure Bliss to aspire, for, and not the fleeting enjoyments of this world, which always leave a sting behind.

6026. Tasnim literally indicates height, fulness, opulence. Here it is the name of a heavenly Fountain, whose drink is superior to that of the Purest Wine. It is the nectar drunk by Those Nearest to Allah (n. 5227 to lvi. 11), but a flavour of it will be given to all. See n. 5835 to lxxvi. 5 (KdfUr fountain), and n. 5849 to lxxvi. 17-18 (Sa/sabri).

- 1919 -


8.83, A.28-34

J-30

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28. A spring, from (the waters) Whereof drink Those Nearest to Allah. Those in sin used To laugh at those Who believed, 30. And whenever they passed By them, used to wink At each other (in mockery); 31. And when they returned To their own people, They would return jesting;

32. And whenever they saw them, They would say, "Behold! These are the people Truly astray!,,6027 33. But they had not been Sent as Keepers over them!6028 But on this Day The Believers will laugh At the Unbelievers: 6029

6027. The wicked laugh at the righteous in this world in many ways: (1) They inwardly laugh at their Faith, because they feel themselves so superior. (2) In public places, when the righteous pass, they wink at each other and insult them. (3) In their own houses they run them down. (4) Whenever and wherever they see them, they reproach them with being fools who have lost their way. when the boot is really on the other leg. In the Hereafter all these tricks and falsehoods will be shown for what they are, and the tables will be reversed. 6028. But the wicked critics of the Righteous have no call in any case to sit in judgment over them. Who set them as Keepers or guardians over the Righteous? Let them look to their own condition and future first. 6029. The tables will then be reversed, and he laughs best who laughs last.

- 1920 -


S.83, A.35-36 !>;

- 1921 -


Intto.

to S. 84.

- 1922-


Sura AI-Inshiqaq 84 Ayat 1-5

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Al-Inshiqaq, or The Rending In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

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1. When the Sky is Rent asunder,6031

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2. And hearkens to6032 (The Command of) its Lord,And it must needs (Do 50);-

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3. And when the Earth Is flattened out,6033

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4. And casts forth What is within it And becomes (clean) empty,

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5. And hearkens to6034 (The Command of) its Lord,-

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6031. The passing away of this world of sense to make way for a new World of Reality is here indicated by two Facts, which are themselves signs for a complete revolution in our whole knowledge and experience. At the beginning of S. lxxxii. and S. lxxxi, other Signs were used, to lead up to the arguments there advanced. Here the two Signs are: (1) the Sky being rent asunder and giving up its secrets, and (2) the Earth being flattened out from the globe it is, and giving up its secrets. See the following notes. 6032. We may think that the heavens we see above us,-high and sacred, seemingly vast and limitless, eternal and timeless-are not created matter. But they are. And they remain just so long as Allah wills it so, and not a moment longer. As soon as His Command issues for their dissolution, they will obey and vanish, and all their mystery will be emptied out. And it must necessarily be so; their very nature as created beings requires that they must hearken to the voice of their Creator, even to the extent of their own extinction. 6033. The Earth is a globe, enclosing within it many secrets and mysteries-gold and diamonds in its mines, heat and magnetic forces in its entrails, and the bodies of countless generations of men buried within its soil. At its dissolution all these contents will be disgorged: it win lose its shape as a globe, and cease to exist. 6034.. See n. 6032. We think the earth so solid and real. All OUf perishable things dissolve into the earth. But the earth itself will dissolve into a truer Reality.

- 1923 -

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And it must needs (Do so);-(then will come Home the full Reality).6035

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thou man! Verily thou art ever Toiling on towards thy Lord-6036 Painfully toiling,-but thou Shalt meet Him. Then he who is given His Record in his Right hand,6037 Soon will his account Be taken by an easy reckoning, And he will turn To his people,6038 rejoicing! But he who is given His Record behind his back,_6039

6035. The substantive clause, to follow the two conditional clauses preceding, may be filled up from the suggestion contained in Ixxxii. 5.

6036. This life is ever fulJ of toil and misery, if looked at as empty of the Eternal Hope which Revelation gives us. Hence the literature of pessimism in poetry and philosophy, which thinking minds have poured forth in all ages, when that Hope was obscured to them. "OUT sweetest songs are those that teU of saddest thought." "To each his suffering; all are men condemned alike a groan!" It is the noblest men that have to "scorn delights and live laborious days" in this life. The good suffer on account of their very goodness: the evil on account of their Evil. But the balance will be set right in the end. Those that wept shall be made to rejoice, and those that went about thoughtlessly rejoicing, shaU be made to weep for their folly. They wiU all go to their account with Allah and meet Him before His Throne of Judgment. 6037. RighI Hand: Cf. xvii 71. These will be the fortunate ones, who spent their lives in goodness and truth: for them the account will be made easy; for even after the balancing, they will receive more than their merits deserve, on account of the infinite grace and mercy of Allah. 6038. His people: should be understood in a large sense, including of course all those nearest and dearest to him. 6039. In Ixix. 24. the wicked are given the Record in their left hand. But their hands will not be free. Sin will tie their hands behind their back: and thus they can only receive their Records in their left hand. behind their back.

- 1924-


A t JLU.;~I ~

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11. Soon will he cry For Perdition,6040 12. And he will enter A Blazing File.

13. Truly, did he go about Among his people, rejoicing!6041 14. Truly, did he think That he would not Have to return (to US)!6042 15. Nay, nay! for his Lord Was (ever) watchful of him! 16. So I do call6CM3 To witness the ruddy glow Of Sunset;6044 17. The Night and its Homing;604S

6040. The wicked win cry for death and annihiliation: but they will neither live nor die: xx. 74. 6041. The tables are now turned. His self-complacence and self-conceit in his lower life will now give place to weeping and gnashing of teeth! Cf. n. 6036 above. 6042. Most of the Evil in this world is due to the false idea that man is irresponsible, or to a mad and thoughtless indulgence of self. Man is not irresponsible. He is responsible for every deed, word, and thought of his, to his Maker, to Whom he has to return, to give an account of himself. To remember this and act accordingly is to achieve salvation; to forget or flout that responsibility is to get into Hell. 6043. The same form of adjuration as in Ixix. 37. The substantive statement is in verse 19 below: "Ye shall surely travel from stage to stage". Nothing in this life is fixed, or will last. Three things are mentioned which on the one hand have remained from age to age for as far back as the memory of man can go, and yet each of them is but a short phase, gone as it were in the twinkling of an eye. See the following notes. So our life here is but a fleeting show. Its completion is to be looked for elsewhere. 6044. (1) The sun seems such a great reality that people worshipped him as a divinity. The beautiful glow it leaves when it sets is but momentary: it changes every

moment and vanishes with the twilight. 6045. (2) The Night is a phenomenon you see during almost half every twenty-four hours in ordinary latitudes. At nightfall, aU the wandering flocks and herds come home. The men scattered abroad for their Iivehood return home to rest and sleep. The Night

- 1925 -

=


S.84, A.18-24

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19. Ye shall surely travel From stage to stage. 6047 20. What then is the matter With them, that they Believe not?-6048 21. And when the Our-an Is read to them, they FalJ not prostrate ,6049 22. But on the contrary The Unbelievers reject (it). 23. But AlJah has full Knowledge Of what they secrete (In their breasts). 24. So announce to them A Chastisement Grievous,

collects them in their homes, and yet this phase of Homing lasts but a little while. Presently all is silent and still. So will it be with our souls when this life is ended with our death. We shall be collected in a newer and larger Homing. 6046. (3) The astronomical Full Moon does not last a moment. The moment the moon is full, she begins to decline, and the moment she is in her "inter-lunar swoon", she begins her career anew as a growing New Moon. So is man's life here below. It is not fixed or permanent, either in its physical phases, or even more strikingly, in its finer phases, intellectual, emotional, or spiritual. 6047. Man travels and ascends stage by stage. In lxvii. 3 the same word in the form !ibaqan was used of the heavens, as if they were in layers one above another. Man's spiritual life may similarly be compared to an ascent from one heaven to another. 6048. Considering man's high destiny, and the fact that this life is but a stage or a sojourn for him, it might be expected that he would eagerly embrace every opportunity of welcoming Allah's Revelation and ascending by Faith to heights of spiritual wisdom. There is something wrong with his will if he does not do so. Notice the transition from the second person in verse 19, where there is a direct appeal to Allah's votaries, to the third person in verses 20-21, where men who are rebels against Allah's Kingdom are spoken of as if they were aliens. 6049. Prostrate: out of respect and humble gratitude to Allah.

- 1926-

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- 1927 -

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Intro. to S. 85.

- 1928 -


Sura AI-Buruj 85 Ayat 1-4

Juz' 30

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 6051 1. By the Sky, with

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Its constellations;6052 2. By the promised Day (Of Judgment);6053 3. By one that witnesses, And the subject of the witness;_6054 4. Woe to the makers Of the pit (of fire),6055

6051. Here is an appeal to three Signs in verses 1-3, and the substantive proposition is in verses 4-8, a denunciation of wicked persecutors of the votaries of Allah, persecutors who burnt righteous men for their Faith. The three Signs are: (1) the Glorious Sky, with the broad belt of the Constellations marking the twelve Signs of the Zodiac; (2) the Day of Judgment, when all evil will be punished; and (3) certain Persons that will be witnesses, and certain Persons or things that will be the subjects of the witness. See the notes following. 6052. See n. 1950 to xv. 16. The Stars of the Zodiac as well as of other Constellations are like the eyes of the Night. It may be that crimes are committed in the darkness of the night. But countless eyes are watching all the time, and every author of evil will be brought to book. 6053. The Day of Judgment, when the Sinner will have to give an account of every deed, open or hidden, is not merely a matter of speculation. It is definitely promised in revelation, and will inevitably come to pass. Woe then to the Sinners for their crimes. 6054. The literal meaning is clear, but its metaphorical application has been explained in a variety of ways by different Commentators. The words are fairly comprehensive, and should, I think, be understood in connection with Judgment. There the Witnesses may be: (1) the Prophets (iii. 81); Allah Himself (iii. 81, and x. 61); the Recording Angels (I. 21); the Sinner's own misused limbs (xxiv. 24); his record of deeds (xvii. 14); or the Sinner himself (xvii. 14). The subject of the witness may be the deed or crime, or the Sinner against whom the testimony cries out. The appeal to these things means that the Sinner cannot possibly escape the consequences of his crime. He should repent, seek Allah's Mercy, and amend his life. 6055. Who were the makers of the pit of fire in which they burn people for their Faith? The words are perfectly general, and we need not search for particular names, except by way of illustration. In ancient history, and in Medireval Europe, many lives were sacrificed at the stake because the victims did not conform to the established religion. In Arab tradition there is the story of Abraham: Nimrod tries to burn him to death, but

- 1929 -


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= on account of Abraham's Faith, the fire became "a means of safety for Abraham": xxi. 69, and n. 2725. Another case cited is that of ~u-Nuwas, the last J:limyarite King of Yemen, by religion a Jew, who persecuted the Christians of Najran and is said to have burnt them to death. He seems to have lived in the latter half of the sixth Christian century, in the generation immediately preceding the Prophet's birth in 570 A.D. While the words are perfectly general, a reference is suggested to the persecution to which the early Muslims were subjected by the Pagan Quraish. Among other cruelties, they were stripped, and their skins were exposed to the burning rays of the Arabian summer sun. 6056. The persecutors sat calmly to gloat over the agonies of their victims in the wellfed fire. 6057. It is suggested that the persecutors will richly deserve to be punished in the Fire of Hell. That Punishment will be far more real and lasting than the undeserved cruelty which they inflicted on men for their Faith in the One True God.

- 1930 -


S.85, A.I0-16

J-30

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They will have the Chastisement Of the Burning Fire. 6058 For those who believe And do righteous deeds, Will be Gardens. 6059 Beneath which Rivers flow: That is the great Triumph. 6060 12. Truly strong is the Grip

Of thy Lord. 13. It is He Who Creates From the very beginning,6061 And He can restore (life). 14. And He is the Oft-Forgiving,

Full of loving-kindness, 15. Lord of the Throne,

Full of all glory, 16. Doer (without let)6062

Of all that He intends.

6058. The "Chastisement of the Burning Fire" has been mentioned here in addition to the "Penalty of Hell". This assumes a special significance in the background of the cruel burning of the Faithful by the "makers of the pit". These criminals would be duly retributed by being subjected to a similar kind of suffering that they had caused their innocent victims. 6059. Cf v. 119, ix. 72 and xxii. 19. 6060. Cf v. 119, n. 833.

6061. For the various words for "Creation" and the ideas implied in them, see n. 120 to ii. 117. 6062. Allah's Will is itself them. He does not change His Will and the execution thereof. of men, described in the next

the Word and the Deed. There is no interval between mind. No circumstances whatever can come between His Such are His Power and His Glory. Compare it with that two verses.

- 1931 -


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17. Has the story Reached thee, Of the Forces-6063 18. Of Pharaoh And the Thamiid? 19. And yet the Unbelievers (Persist) in rejecting (The Truth)!6064 20. But Allah doth Encompass them From behind!6065 21. Nay, this is A Glorious Qur-an, 22. (Inscribed) in A Tablet Preserved!6066

6063. In contrast to the real, all-embracing, and eternal power of Allah, what are the forces of man at their best? Two examples are mentioned. (1) Pharaoh was a proud monarch of a powerful kingdom, with resources and organisation, material, moral, and intellectual, as good as any in the world. When he pitted himself against Allah's Prophet, he and his forces were destroyed. See lxxix. 15-26. (2) The Thamud were great builders, and had a high standard of material civilization. But they defied the law of Allah and perished. See vii. 73-79, and n. 1043.

6064. In spite of the great examples of the past, by which human might and skill were shown to have availed nothing when the law of Allah was broken, the unbelievers persist (in aU ages) in defying that law. But AUah will know how to deal with them. 6065. Allah encompasses every thing. But the wicked will find themselves defeated not only in conditions that they foresee, but from all sorts of unexpected directions, perhaps from behind them, i.e., from the very people or circumstances which in their blindness they despised or thought of as helping them. 6066. "Inscribed in a Tablel Preserved", i.e. Allah's Message is not ephemeral. It is eternal. The "Tablet" is "preserved" or guarded from corruption: xv. 9: for AUah's Message must endure for ever. That Message is the "Mother of the book": see n. 347 to iii. 7.

- 1932 -


Intro. to S. 86.

- 1933 -


SUra A!-Tariq 86 Ayat 1-6

A~-!iiriq,

Juz' 30

or The Night-Visitant.

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

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1. By the Sky6067 And the Night-Visitant6068 (Therein); 2. And what will explain to thee What the Night-Visitant is?3. (It is) the Star Of piercing brightness;4. There is no soul but has A protector over it. 6069 5. Now let man but think From what he is created! 6. He is created from A drop emitted-6070

6067. The appeal here is to single Sign, viz.: the Sky with its Night. Visitant; and the substantive proposition is in verse 4: "There is no soul but has a protector over it". In the last Sura we considered the persecution of Allah's votaries, and how Allah protects them. Here the same theme is presented in another aspect. In the darkest sky shines out most brilliantly the light of the most brilliant star. So in the night of spiritual darknesswhether through ignorance or distress-shines the glorious star of Allah's revelation. By the same token the man of Faith and Truth has nothing to fear. Allah will protect His own. 6068. This is explained in verse 3 below. The "Star of piercing brightness" is understood by some to be the Morning Star, by others to be the planet Saturn, by others again to be Sirius, or the Pleiads or shooting stars. I think it is best to take the "Star" in the collective or generic sense, for stars shine on every night in the year, and their piercing brightness is most noticeable on the darkest night. 6069. If man has a true spiritual understanding, he has nothing to be afraid of. He is protected by Allah in many ways that he does not even know. He may be an insignificant creature as a mere animal, but his soul raises him to a dignity above other creation. And all sorts of divine forces guard and protect him. 6070. See n. 5832. to lxxvi. 2. See also last note.

- 1934 -


S.86, A.7-12

Proceeding from between The backbone and the ribS: 6071 Surely (Allah) is able To bring him back (To Iife)!6072 The Day that (All) things secret Will be tested, 10. (Man) will have No power, And no helper. 6073 By the Finnament6074 Which giveth the returning rain, 12. And by the Earth Which opens out607S (For the gushing of springs Or the sprouting of vegetation),-

6071. A man's seed is the quintessence of his body. It proceeds from his loins, i.e., from his back between the hip-bones and his ribs. His back-bone is the source and symbol of his strength and personality. In the spinal cord and in the brain is the directive energy of the central nervous system, and this directs all action, organic and psychic. The spinal cord is continuous with the Medulla Oblongata in the brain.

0072. The Creator who can mingle the forces of psychic and physical muscular action in the creation of man, as explained in the last note, can surely give a new life after physical death here, and restore man's personality in the new world that wiD open out in the Hereafter. 6073. In that new world, all our actions, motives, thoughts, and imaginings of this life, however secret, will be brought into the open, and tested by the standards of absolute Truth, and not by false standards of custom, prejudice, or partiality. In that severe test, any adventitious advantages of this life will have no strength or force whatever, and cannot help in any way. 6074. The Firmament above is always the same, and yet it performs its diurnal round, smoothly and punctually. So does Allah's Revelation show forth the Truth, which like a circle is ever true to its centre,-which is ever the same, though it revolves through the changing circumstances of our present life.

6075. The earth seems hard, but springs can gush forth and vegetables sprout through it and make it green and soft. So is Truth: hard perhaps to mortals, but through the fertilising agency of Revelation, it allows our inner personality to sprout and blossom forth.

- 1935 -


5.86, A.13-17

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13. Behold this is the Word That distinguishes (Good From EviI):6076 14. It is not a thing For amusement.

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Therefore grant a delay To the unbelievers: Give respite to them Gently (for awhile).6079

6076. See the last two notes. Revelation-Allah's Truth-ean pierce through the hardest crusts, and ever lead us back to the centre and goal of our life: for it separates Good from Evil definitely. It is not mere play or amusement, any more than the Sky or the Earth is. It helps us in the highest issues of our life. 6077. Though Allah in His Mercy has provided a piercing light to penetrate our spiritual darkness, and made our beings responsive to the growth of spiritual understanding, just as the hard earth is responsive to the sprouting of a seed or the gushing of a stream, yet there are evil, unregenerate men who plot and scheme against the beneficent purpose of Allah. But their plots will be of no avail, and Allah's Purpose will prevail. It happened so with the Quraish who wanted to thwart the growth of Islam. It will be so in all ages. 6078. Cf iii. 54.

6079. Gentle forbearance with Evil shows our trust in Allah and Allah's Plan: for it can never be frustrated. This does not mean that we should assist or compromise with evil, or fail to put it down where we have the power. It means patience and humility where we have no visible power to prevent Evil.

- 1936 -


Intro. to S. 87. ~

~

- 1937 -


Sura AI-A'Hi 87 Ayat 1-5 ~

Juz' 30 ~

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Glorify the name Of thy Guardian-Lord 6C80 Most High,

2. Who hath created,6081 And further, given Order and proportion; 3. Who hath measured. 6082 And granted guidance; 4. And Who bringeth out6083 The (green and luscious) pasture, 5. And then doth make it (But) swarthy stubble.

6080. The word "Lord" by itself is an inadequate rendering here for Rabb. For it implies cherishing, guarding from harm, sustaining, granting all the means and opportunities of development. See n. 20 to i. 2. For shortness, perhaps "Guardian-Lord" will be sufficient in the Text. 6081. The story of Creation is wonderful and continuous. There are several processes which we contemplate in glorifying Allah's name. First, He brings us into being. Secondly, He endows us with forms and faculties exactly suited to what is expected of us, and to the environments in which our life will be cast, giving to everything due order and proportion. 6082. Thirdly, He has ordained laws and decrees, by which we can develop ourselves and fit ourselves into His whole scheme of evolution for all His Creation. He has measured exactly the needs of all, and given us instincts and physical predispositions which fit into His decrees. Fourthly, He gives us guidance, so that we are not the sport of mechanical laws. Our reason and our will are exercised, that we may reach the higher destiny of man. 6083. Fifthly, after maturity comes decay. But even in that decay, as when green pasture turns to stubble, we subserve other ends. In so far as we are animals, we share these processes with other forms of material Creation, animal, vegetable, and even mineral, which all have their appointed laws of growth and decay. But man's higher destiny is referred to in subsequent verses.

- 1938 -


J-30

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6. By degrees shall We Teach thee6084 (The Message), so thou Shalt not forget,6085 7. Except as Allah WillS: 6086 For He knoweth What is manifest And what is hidden. 8. And We will make it Easy for thee (to follow) The simple (Path).6087

6084. The soul, as it reaches the Light of Allah, makes gradual progress, like a man going from darkness into light. So the Our-an was revealed by stages. So all revelation from Allah comes by stages. As usual, there are two parallel meanings: (1) that connected with the occasion of direct inspiration to the holy Prophet; and (2) the more general Message to mankind for all time. Everyone who understands the Message must declare it, in words, and still more, in his conduct. 6085. The particular occasion was an assurance to the Prophet, that though he was unlettered, the Message given to him would be preserved in his heart and in the hearts of men. The more general sense is that mankind, having once seized great spiritual truths, will hold fast to them, except as qualified in the following verse. 6086. There can be no question of this having any reference to the abrogation of any verses of the Our-an. For this Sura is one of the earliest revealed, being placed about eighth according to the most accepted chronological order. While the basic principles of Allah's Law remain the same, its form, expression, and application have varied from time to time, e.g., from Moses to Jesus, and from Jesus to Muhammad. It is one of the beneficent mercies of Allah that we should forget some things "of the past, lest our minds become confused and our development is retarded. Besides, Allah knows what is manifest and what is hidden, and His Will and Plan work with supreme wisdom and goodness. 6087. The Path of Islam is simple and easy. It depends on no abstruse mysteries or self-mortifications, but on straight and manly conduct in accordance with the laws of man's nature as implanted in him by Allah (xxx. 30). On the other hand, spiritual perfection may be most difficult, for it involves complete surrender on our part to Allah in all our affairs, thoughts, and desires: but after that surrender Allah's Grace will make our path easy.

- 1939 -


S.87, A.9-15

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Therefore give admonition In case the admonition6088 Profits (the hearer). 10. He will heed Who fears: 11. But it win be avoided By the most unfortunate one,

12. Who will enter The Great Fire,6089 13. In which he will then Neither die nor live. 6090

14. But he will prosper609 1 Who purifies himself. 6092 And remembers the Dame Of his Guardian-Lord, And prays.

6088. This is not so strong as the Biblical phrase, "Cast not pearls before swine" (Matt. vii. 6). The cases where admonition does produce spiritual profit and where it does not, are mentioned below in verses 10 and 11-13 respectively. Allah's Message should be proclaimed to all: but particular and personal admonitions are also due to those who attend and in whose hearts is the fear of Allah; in the case of those who run away from it and dishonour it, such particular and personal admonition is useless. They are the unfortunate ones who prepare their own ruin. 6089. The Great Fire is the final Penalty or Disaster in the Hereafter, as contrasted with the minor Penalties or Disasters from which all evil suffers from within in this very life. 6090. A terrible picture of those who ruin their whole future by evil lives here below. They introduce a discord into Creation, while life should be one great universal concord. And their past clings to them as part of their own will. They are not even like the dry swarthy stubble mentioned in verse 5 above, which grew naturally out of the luscious pasture, for they have grown harmful, in defiance of their own nature. "Neither die nor live": Cf xx. 74.

6091. Prosper: in the highest sense; attain to Bliss or Salvation; as opposed to "enter the Fire".

6092. The first process in godliness is to cleanse ourselves in body, mind, and soul. Then we shall be in a fit state to see and proclaim the Glory of Allah. That leads us to our actual absorption in Praise and Prayer.

- 1940-


S.87, A.16-19 !J:

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16. Nay (behold), ye prefer The life of this world; 17. But the Hereafter Is better and more enduring. 18. And this is In the Books Of the earliest (Revelations),-6093 19. The Books of

Abraham6094 and Moses. 6095

6093. The law of righteousness and godliness is not a new law, nor are the vanity and short duration of this world preached here for the first time. But spiritual truths have to be renewed and reiterated again and again. 6094. No Book of Abraham has come down to us. But the Old Testament recognises that Abraham was a prophet (Gen. xx. 7). There is a book in Greek, which has been translated by Mr. G.H. Box, called the Testament of Abraham (published by the Society for the Promotion of Christian Knowledge, London, 1927). It seems to be a Greek translation of a Hebrew original. The Greek Text was probably written in the second Christian century, in Egypt, but in its present form it probably goes back only to the 9th or 10th Century. It was popular among the Christians. Perhaps the Jewish Midrash also refers to a Testament of Abraham. 6095. The original Revelation of Moses, of which the Present Pentateuch is a surviving recension. See Appendix II. The present Gospels do not come under the definition of the "earliest" Books. Nor couJd they be called "Books of Jesus": they were written not by him, but about him, and long after his death.

- 1941 -


Intro. to S. 88.

- 1942 -


Sura Al-Gashiya 88

1-8

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Has the story Reached thee, of The Overwhelming (Event)?6096 2. Some faces, that Day,6097 Will be humiliated, 3. Labouring (hard), weary,_6098 4. The while they enter The Blazing Fire,-

5. The while they are given, To drink, of a boiling hot spring, 6. No food win there be For them but a bitter DhartmJ 7. Which will neither nourish

Nor satisfy hunger. 8. (Other) faces that Day Will be joyful,

6096. Gashiya: the thing or event that overshadows or overwhelms, that covers over or makes j;ople lose their senses. In xii. 107, it is described as the "covering veil of the Wrath of Allah": where see n. 1790. The Day of Judgment is indicated, as the Event of overwhelming importance in which all our petty differences of this imperfect world are covered over and overwhelmed in a new world of perfect justice and truth. ro97. Cf. lxxv. 22, 24. 6098. On the faces of the wicked win appear the hard labour and consequent fatigue of the task they will have in battling against the fierce Fire which their own Deeds will have kindled. 6099. The root-meaning implies again the idea of humiliation. It is a plant, bitter and thorny, loathsome in smell and appearance, which will neither give fattening nourishment to the body nor in any way satisfy the burning pangs of hunger ,-8 fit plant for Hell, like Zaqqum (lvi. 52; or xvii. 60, n. 2250).

- 1943 -


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17. Do they not look

At the Camels,6103 flow they are made118. And at the Sky,6104 flow it is raised high1And at the Mountains,61OS How they are fixed firm?And at the Earth,6J06 How it is spread out? 21. Therefore do thou remind For thou art One to remind.

6103. In case men neglect the Hereafter as of no account, they are asked to contemplate four things, which they can see in every-day life, and which are full of meaning, high design, and the goodness of Allah to man. The first mentioned is the domesticated animal, which for Arab countries is par excellence the Camel. What a wonderful structure has this Ship of the Desert? He can store water in his stomach for days. He can live on dry and thorny desert shrubs. His limbs are adapted to his life. He can carry men and goods. His flesh can be eaten. Camel's hair can be used in weaving. And withal, he is so gentle! Who can sing his praises enough? 6104. The second thing they should consider is the noble blue vault high above them,-with the sun and moon, the stars and planets, and other heavenly bodies. This scene is full of beauty and magnificence, design and order, plainness and mystery. And yet we receive our light and warmth from the sun, and what would our physical lives be without these influences that come from such enormous distances.? 6105. From every-day utility and affection in the Camel, to the utility in grandeur in the heavens above us, we had two instances touching our individual as well as our social lives. In the third instance, in the Mountains we come to the utility to human kind generally in the services the Mountains perform in storing water, in moderating climate, and in various other ways which it is the business of Physical Geography to investigate and describe. 6106. The fourth and last instance given is that of the Earth as a whole, the habitation of mankind in our present phase of life. The Earth is a globe, and yet how marvellously it seems to be spread out before us in plains, valleys, hills, deserts, seas, etc! Can man, seeing these things, fail to see a Plan and Purpose in his life, or fail to tum to the great Creator before Whom he will have to give an account after this life is done?

- 1945 -

~


S.88, A.22-26

~

~~~~

J-30

~.J'~I ~);-I ~

22. Thou art not one To manage (their) affairs. 6107 But if any turn away And disbelieve,24. Allah will chastise him With a mighty Chastisement. 25. For to Us will be Their Return; 26. Then it will be for Us To call them to account.

6107. The Prophet of Allah is sent to teach and direct people on the way. He is not sent to force their will, or to punish them, except in so far as he may receive authority to do so. Punishment belongs to Allah alone. And Punishment is certain in the Hereafter, when true values will be restored.

- 1946 -


Intro. to S. 89. ~

~

- 1947 -


Sura AI-Fajr 89 Ayat 1-3 ~

J02' 30

cJ.J'~' ~,;.,

~

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

~1~lIII ~\~~~~----~~

1. By the Dawn;6108

2. By the ten Nights;6109

3. By the Even And Odd (contrasted) ;6110

6108. Four striking contrasts are mentioned, to show Allah's Power and Justice, and appeal to "those who understand". The first is the glory and mystery of the Break of Day. It just succeeds the deepest dark of the Night, when the first rays of light break through. Few people except those actually in personal touch with nature can feel its compelling power. In respect both of beauty and terror, of hope and inspiration, of suddenness and continuing increase of light and joy, this "holy time" of night may well stand as the type of spiritual awakening from darkness to Faith, from Death to Resurrection. 6109. By the Ten Nights are usually understood the first ten nights of ~ul-f!;jja, the sacred season of Pilgrimage. From the most ancient times Makkah was the centre of Arab pilgrimage. The story of Abraham is intimately connected with it: see ii. 125-127 and notes, also n. 217 to ii. 197. In times of Paganism various superstitions were introduced, which Islam swept away. Islam also purified the rites and ceremonies, giving them new meaning. The ten days specially devoted to the l;Iajj introduce a striking contrast in the life of Makkah and of the pilgrims. Makkah, from being a quiet secluded city, is then thronged with thousands of pilgrims from all parts of the world. They discard their ordinary dress-representing every kind of costume-to the simple and ordinary /~ram (n. 2t7); they refrain from every kind of fighting and quarrel; they abstain from every kind of luxury and self-indulgence; they hold all life sacred, however humble, except in the way of carefully-regulated sacrifice; and they spend their nights in prayer and meditation. 6110. The contrast between even and odd forms the subject of learned argument among those who deal with the properties of numbers. In any case, even and odd follow each other in regular succession: each is independent, and yet neither is self-sufficient. In ultimate analysis every even number is a pair of odd ones. And all things go in pairs: see xxxvi. 36, and n. 3981. In the animal world pairs are but two individuals, and yet each is a complement of the other. Both abstract and concrete things are often understood in contrast with their opposites. Why should we not, in spiritual matters, understand this life better with reference to the Hereafter, and why should we disbelieve in the Hereafter simply because we cannot conceive of anything different from our present life?

- 1948 -


S.89, A.4-7

J-30

4. And by the Night 61l1 When it passeth away;Is there (not) in these6112 An adjuration (or evidence) For those who understand? 6. Seest thou not How thy Lord dealt With the' Ad (people),-6113 7. Of the (city of) Iram,6114 With lofty pillars,

6111. That is, the last part of the night, just before full day-light. Note the gradations: first, the turn of the night, when just the first rays of daylight break through; secondly, the social and institutional rites of religion, like those during the ten nights of Pilgrimage; thirdly, when the usual contrast between the Here and Hereafter vanishes, and we can see heaven even here; and lastly, when this world vanishes, the ful1light of Day arrives, and we see Reality face to face. 6112, All these Signs draw our attention, like solemn adjurations in speech, to the profoundest mystery of our inner life, viz., how from utter depths of darkness-ignorance or even degradation-Allah's wonderful Light or Revelation can lead us by contrast into the most beautiful sunshine of a glorious spiritual Day. But the contrast suggest also the opposite process as a coroUary,-how resistance to Allah's light would destroy us utterly, converting our greatness or glory to perdition, as happened with the peoples of Arab antiquity, the •Ad and the Ihamiid, and the type of the powerful but arrogant and godless monarch, the Pharaoh of Egypt. Like a man with a bounded horizon, the average man does not understand these long-range mysteries of life, and we have need to pray that we may be of "those who understand". 6113, For the •Ad see n. 1040 to vii. 65. They seem to have possessed an ancient civilisation, which succumbed when they persistently broke Allah's law. 6114. Iram would seem to have been an ancient 'Ad capital, in southern Arabia. It boasted of lofty architecture ("lofty pillars"). Some Commentators understand lram to be the name of an eponymous hero of the •Ad, in which case the fonowing line, "with lofty pillars", should be construed "of lofty stature", The 'Ad were a tall race. '"

- 1949 -

v

v


S.89, A.8-14

J.3O

The like of which Were not produced In (all) the land?611S And with the Thamiid6116 (People), who cut out (Huge) rocks in the valley?10. And with Pharaoh Lord of Stakes?6J17 (All) these transgressed Beyond bounds in the lands. And heaped therein Mischief (on mischief).

13. Therefore did thy Lord Pour on them a sourgc Of diverse chastisements: For thy Lord is Watchful. 6118

6115. This tract of southern Arabia was once very prosperous (Arabia Felix) and contains ruins and inscriptions. It has always been an object of great interest to the Arabia. In the time of MU'iiwiya some precious stones were found among the ruins in this locality. Quite recently, a bronze lion's head and a bronze piece of gutter with a Sabrean inscription. found in Najriin. have been described in the British Museum Quarterly, vol. XI, No.4, Sept. 1937. 6116. For the Ihamiid see n. 1043 to vi. 73. Their civilisation shows traces of Egyptian, Syrian, and (later) Greek and Roman influences. They built fine temples, tombs, and buildings cut out of the solid rock. The cult of the goddess Lat flourished among them. 6117. For "Lord of Stakes", see xxxviii. 12, n 4160. For Pharaoh's arrogance and his fall see xx. 43, 78-79. The three examples given, the 'Ad. the Thamiid, and Pharaoh, show that neither nations nor individuals, however mighty, prosperous, or firmly established they may be, can live if they transgress the law of Allah. The Law of Allah, which is also the law of the higher nature which He has bestowed on us, made them in the first place great and glorious: when they feU from it and "heaped mischief on mischier', they were swept away. 6118. Even though Allah's punishment is delayed, it is not to be supposed that He does not see all things. AUah's prOVidence is ever vigilant: His punishment of evil doers is a form of justice to the weak and the righteous whom they oppress. It is part of the signification of His title as Rabb (Cherisher).

- 1950 -


S.89, A.15-19

Now, as for man,6119 When his Lord trieth him, Giving him honour and gifts, Then saith he, (puffed up), "My Lord hath honoured me." 16. But when he trieth him,

Restricting his subsistence6120 For him, then saith he (In despair), "My Lord Hath humiliated me!" 17. Nay, nay! But ye6121 Honour not the orphans! 18. Nor do ye encourage

One another6122 To feed the poor!19. And ye devour Inheritance-6123

All with greed,

6119. Contrast with Allah's justice and watchful care, man's selfishness and pettiness. Allah tries us both by prosperity and adversity: in the one we should show humility and kindness; and in the other patience and faith. On the contrary, we get puffed up in prosperity and depressed in adversi1y, putting false values on this world's goods. 6120. Subsistence, in both the literal and the figurative sense. Allah provides for all, but people complain if the provision is measured and restricted to their needs, circumstances, and antecedents, and does not come up to their desires or expectations, or is different from that given to people in quite different circumstances. 6121. Even at our own valuation, if we are favoured with superfluities, do we think of the fatherless children, or the struggling poor? On the contrary, too many men are but ready to embezzle the helpless orphan's inheritance, and to waste their own substance in worthless riot instead of supplying the people's real needs. 6122. Kindness and generosity set up standards which even worldly men feel bound to follow out of social considerations even if they are not moved by higher motives. But the wicked find plausible excuses for their own hard路heartedness, and by their evil example choke up the springs of charity and kindness in others. 6123. Inheritance is abused in two ways. (I) Guardians and trustees for the inheritance of minors or women or persons unable to look after their own interests should fulfil their trusts with even more care than they devote to their own interests. Instead of that they selfishly "devour" the property. (2) Persons who inherit property in their own rights should remember that in that case, too, it is a sacred trust. They must use it for the purposes, Objects, and duties which they also inherit. It gives them no licence to live in idleness or waste their days in riotous show.

- 1951 -


5.89, A.20-25

20. And ye love wealth With inordinate love! 21. Nay! When the earth Is pounded to powder,6124

22. And thy Lord cometh, And His angels, Rank upon rank, And Hell, that Day,6125 Is brought (face to face),On that Day will man Remember, but how will That remembrance profit him? 24. He will say: "Ah! Would that I had Sent forth (Good Deeds) For (this) my (Future) Life!"

For, that Day, His Chastisement will be Such as none (else) Can inflict,6126

6124. Our attention is now called 10 the Day of Reckoning. Whelher we failed to respect the rights of the helpless here or actually suppressed those rights in our mad love for the good things of this life, we shall have 10 answer in the realm of Reality. This solid earth, which we imagine to be so real, will crumble to powder like dust before the real Presence, manifested in glory. 6125. The Retribution will at last come, and we shall realise it in our inmost being, all the illusions of this fleeting world having been swept away. Then we shall remember, and wish, too late, that we had repented. Why not repent now? Why not bring forth the fruits of repentance now, as a preparation for the Hereafter? 6126. "Chastisement" in this verse and the "binding in bonds" in the next verse are two distinct phases of the Penalty. "Chastisement" involves pain and agony, such as cannot be imagined anywhere else, or from any other source, for it touches our inmost soul and cannot be compared with anything our bodies may suffer or others may inflict. "Bonds" imply confinement, want of freedom, the closing of a door which was once open but which we deliberately passed by. We see that others accepted in faith and entered that door. This shutting out of what might have been in worse than any other bonds or confinement we can imagine, and may be worse than actual chastisement.

- 1952 -


J-30

26. And His bonds Will be such as None (other) can bind. 27. (To the righteous soul Will be said:) "0 (thou) soul,6127 In (complete) rest And satisfaction! 28. "Come back thou To thy Lord,_6128 Well pleased (thyself), And well-pleasing Unto Him!

"Enter thou, then, Among my Devotees! 30. "Yea, enter thou My Heaven!,,6129

6127. The righteous enter into their inheritance and receive their welcome with a title that suggests freedom from all pain, sorrow, doubt, struggle, disappointment, passion, and even further desire: at rest, in peace; in a state of complete satisfaction. In Muslim theology, this stage of the soul is the final stage of bliss. The unregenerate human soul, that seeks its satisfaction in the lower earthly desires, is the Ammdra (xii. 53). The self-reproaching soul that feels conscious of sin and resists it is the Lawwiima (lxxv. 2, and n. 5810). 6128. Note that Evil finds itself isolated, and cries out in lonely agony (verse 24), while Good receives a warm welcome from the Lord of Goodness Himself,-also that it is the soul which enters heaven, and not the gross body which perishes. 6129. The climax of the whole is: "Enter My Heaven!" Men may have imagined all kinds of heaven before, and many types are used in the sacred Word itself. But nothing can express the reality itself better than "My Heaven"-Allah's own Heaven! May we reach it through Allah's grace!

- 1953路


Intro. to S. 90.

INTRODUcnON AND SUMMARY: SURAT A/路BaJad, 90.

This is an early Makkan revelation, and refers to the relation (by divine sanction) of the holy Prophet with the city of Makkah. He was born in that City, which had already been sacred for ages before. He was nurtured in that City and had (to use a modern phrase) the freedom of that City, belonging, as he did, to the noble family which held the government of its sacred percincts in its hands. But he was an orphan, and orphans in his day had a poor time. But his mind was turned to things divine. He protested against the prevailing idolatry and sin, and his parent City persecuted him and cast him out. He made another City, Yathrib, his own: it became the Madinat-un-Nabi, the City of the Prophet, and it has ever since been called Madinah. We can speak of Madinah as the Prophet's child. But the Prophet ever cherished in his heart the love of his parent City of Makkah, and in the fulness of time was received in triumph there. He purified it from all idols and abominations, re-established the worship of the One True God, overthrew the purse-proud selfish autocracy, restored the sway of the righteous (people of the Right Hand), the liberty of the slave, and the rights of the poor and downtrodden. What a wonderful career centring round a City? It becomes a symbol of the world's spiritual history.

- 1954 -


Sura Al-Balad 90 Ayat 1-4

Juz' 30

f)

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Nay I do swear b y6130 This City;-

2. And, thou art an inhabitant6131 Of this City;3. And the begetter And that he begot;_6132 4. Verily We have created Man into toil and struggle. 6133

6130. The appeal to the close ties between the holy Prophet and his parent City of Makkah has been explained in the Introduction to this Sura. It is a symbol of man's own history. Man is born for toil and struggle, and this is the substantive proposition in verse 4 below, which this appeal leads up to. 6131. 1!i/lun: an inhabitant, a man with lawful rights, a man freed from such obligations as would attach to a stranger to the city, a freeman in a wider sense than the technical sense to which the word is restricted in modem usage. The Prophet should have been honoured in his native city. He was actually being persecuted. He should have been loved, as a parent loves a child. Actually his life was being sought, and those who believed in him were under a ban. But time was to show that he was to come triumphant to his native city after having made Madinah sacred by his life and work.

6132. A parent loves a child: ordinarily the father is proud and the mother, in spite of her birth-pains, experiences supreme joy when the child is born. But in abnormal circumstances there may be misunderstanding, even hatred between parent and child. So Makkah cast out her most glorious son, but it was only for a time. Makkah was sound at heart; only her power had been usurped by an ignorant autocracy which passed away, and Makkah was to receive back her glory at the hands of the son whom she had rejected but whom she welcomed back later. And Makkah retains for all time her sacred character as the centre of Islam. 6133. C/. "Man is born unto troubles as the sparks fly upward" (Job, v. 7); "For all his days are sorrows, and his travail grief' (Ecclesiastes, ii. 23). Man's life is full of sorrow and vexation; but our text has a different shade of meaning: man is born to strive and struggle; and if he suffers from hardships, he must exercise patience, for Allah will make his way smooth for him (lxv. 7; xciv. 5-6). On the other hand no man should boast of worldly goods or worldly prosperity (see verses 5-7 below).

- 1955 -


5.90, A.5-10

iJ".~1

J-3O ~

(\

.):-1

(I

(I.

~

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iii

Thinketh he, that none Hath power over him?6134 "He may say (boastfully): Wealth have I squandered In abundance!"613s 7. Thinketh he that none Beholdeth him~l36 8. Have We not made For him a pair of eyes?9. And a tongue,6137 And a pair of lips? 10. And shown him The two highways?6J38

6134. See the end of last note. If a man has wealth. influence. or power, he should not behave as if it is to last for ever. or as if he has no responsibility for his acts and can do what he likes. All his gifts and advantages are given to him for trial. Allah. Who bestowed them on him, can take them away, and will do so if man fails in his trial. 6135. The man who feels no responsibility and thinks that he can do what he likes in life forgets his responsibility to Allah. He boasts of his wealth and scatters it about, thinking that he can thus purchase the support of the world. For a time he may. But a rude awakening must come soon. for he bases his hopes on unsubstantial things. Or if he spends his substance on self-indulgence. he is weakening himself and putting himself into snares that must destroy him. 6136. Allah watches him. and sees all his acts and motives. and all the secret springs of his follies. But lest he should think the higher forces too remote for him. let him look within himself and use the faculties which Allah has given him. See the next verses following. 6137. The eyes give us the faculty of seeing, and may be taken in both the literal and the metaphorical sense. In the same way the tongue gives us the faculty of tasting in both senses. Along with the lips, it also enables us to speak, to ask for information and seek guidance, and to celebrate the praises of Allah. 6138. The two highways of life are: (1) the steep and difficult path of virtue. which is further described in the verses following, and (2) the easy path of vice and the rejection of Allah. referred to in verses 19-20 below. Allah has given us not only the faculties implied in the eyes. the tongue, and the lips. but has also given us the judgment by which we can choose our way; and He has sent us Teachers and Guides, with Revelation, to show us the right and difficult way.

- 1956 -


)-30

S.90, A.11-17 ~

11. But he hath made not haste On the path that is steep.6139 12. And what will explain To thee the path that is steep?13. (It is:) freeing the bondman;6140

14. Or the giving of food In a day of privation6141

15. To the orphan With claims of relationship,6142 16. Or to the indigent (Down) in the dust. 6143 Then will he be6144

Of those who believe, And enjoin patience, (constancy,

6139. In spite of the faculties with which Allah has endowed man and the guidance which He has given him, man has been remiss. By no means has he been eager to follow the steep and difficult path which is for his own spiritual good. Cf. Matt. vii. 14: "Strait is the gate, and narrow is the way, which leadeth unto live, and few there be that fmd it". 6140. The difficult path of virtue is defined as the path of charity or unselfish love, and three specific instances are given for our understanding: viz. (1) freeing the bondman, (2) feeding the orphan, and (3) feeding the indigent down in the dust. 6141. Feed those who need it, both literally and figuratively; but do so especially when there is privation or famine. 6142. All orphans should be fed and helped. But ordinary orphans will come under the indigent in verse 16 below. The orphans related to us have a special claim on us. They should be near and dear to us, and if charity begins at home, they have the first claim on us. 6143. Persons down in the dust can only be helped from motives of pure charity, because nothing can be expected of them-neither praise nor advertisement nor any other advantage to the helper. Such help is help indeed. But there may be various degrees, and the help will be suited to the needs. 6144. Such practical charity and love will be the acid test of Faith and the teaching of all virtues. The virtues are summed up under the names of Patience (the Arabic word includes constancy and self-restraint) and compassionate kindness. Not only will they be the test by which the sincerity of their Faith will be judged; they will be the fruit which their Faith will constantly produce. v

V

V

v

路1957路

v


5.90, A.17-20

J-3O

- 1958 -


Intro. to S. 91.

~

~"'~~~~~~~~~ INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SiJRAT Asb-Sbams, 91.

This is one of the early Makkan revelations. Beginning with a fine nature passage, and leading up to man's need of realising his spiritual responsibility, it ends with a warning of the terrible consequences for those who fear not the Hereafter.

~

- 1959 -

~


Sura Ash-Shams 91 Ayat 1-5

~

Juz' 30

~~~~(\~~II~(\~

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. By the Sun6J47 And his (glorious) splendour; 2. By the Moon6J48 As she follows him; 3. By the Day as it6J49 Shows up (the Sun's) glory; 4. By the Night as it Conceals it; 5. By the Firmament61SO

6147. Six types are taken in three pairs, from Allah's mighty works in nature, as tokens or evidence of Allah's providence and the contrasts in His sublime creation, which yet conduce to cosmic harmony (verses Hi). Then (verses 7路8) the soul of man, with internal order and proportion in its capacities and faculties, as made by Allah, is appealed to as having been endowed with the power of discriminating between right and wrong. Then the conclusion is stated in verses 9路10, that man's success or failure, prosperity or bankruptcy, would depend upon his keeping that soul pure or his corrupting it. 6148. The first pair is the glorious sun, the source of our light and physical life, and the moon which follows or acts as second to the sun for illuminating our world. The moon, when she is in the sky with the sun, is pale and inconspicuous; in the sun's absence she shines with reflected light and may metaphorically be called the sun's vicegerent. So with Revelation and the great Prophets who brought it; and the minor Teachers who derive their light reflected, or perhaps doubly reflected, from the original source. 6149. The next contrasted pair consists, not of luminaries, but conditions, or periods of time, Day and Night. The Day reveals the sun's glory and the Night conceals it from our sight. So there may be contrasts in our subjective reception of divine light, but it is there, working all the time, and must reappear in its own good time. 6150. The next contrasted pair is the wonderful firmament on high, and the earth below our feet, stretching away to our wide horizons. The sky gives us rain, and the earth gives us food. Yet both work together: for the rain is moisture sucked up from the earth, and the food cannot grow without the heat and warmth of the sun. There are many other contrasts under this head; yet they all point to unity. II

II

- 1960 -

II

II

II


S.91, A.S-Il

J-30

iJy~1 ...;:1:-1

By the Earth And its (wide) expanse: By the Soul, And the proportion and order Given to it;61S2 And its inspiration As to its wrong And its right;Truly he succeeds That purifies it, 10. And he fails That corrupts it!6ls3 11. The Thamiid (people)

Rejected (their prophet) Through their inordinate Wrong-doing. 6154

6151. The md ~dariya in Arabic, in this and the subsequent clauses, is best translated in English by nouns. Thus what would literally be "and the (wonderful) making or construction of it" or "the fact of its (wonderful) construction" is, idiomatically, "its (wonderful) structure." "The (wide) spreading out" of the earth is rendered "its (wide) expanse," and so on. 6152. Allah makes the soul, and gives il order, proportion, and relative perfection, in order to adapt it for the particular circumstances in which it has to live its life. Cf. xxxii. 9. See also n. 120 to ii. 117. He brealhes into it an understanding of what is sin, impiety, wrong-doing and what is piety and right conduct, in the special circumstances in which it may be placed. This is the most precious gift of all to man, the faculty of distinguishing between right and wrong. After the six external evidences mentioned in verses 1-6 above, this internal evidence of Allah's goodness is mentioned as the greatest of all. By these various tokens man should learn that his success, his prosperity, his salvation depends on himself,-on his keeping his soul pure as Allah made it; and his failure, his decline, his perdition depends on his soiling his soul by choosing evil. 6153. This is the core of the Slira, and it is illustrated by a reference to the story of the Thamiid in the following verses. 6154. The allusion to the story of the Ihamiid will be understood by a reference to vii. 73-79; see specially n. 1044. Their prophet was ~alil:', but he had to deal with an arrogant people, who oppressed the poor and denied them their righls of watering and pasture for their cattle.

- 1961 -


S.91, A.12-15

J-30

12. Behold, the most wicked Man among them was Deputed (for impiety).6Iss

But the messenger of Allah 61S6 Said to them: "It is A She-camel of Allah! And (bar her not From) having her drink!" 14. Then they rejected him (As a false prophet), And they hamstrung her61S7 So their Lord, crushed them For their sin and Levelled them. 15. And for Him61Sll Is no fear Of its consequences.

6155. The prophet ~aIi~ was given a cenain she-eamel as a Sign, a test case, "This she-eamel of Allah is Sign unto you: so leave her to graze in Allah's eanh and let her come to no harm, or ye shall be seized with a grievous punishment" (vii. 73). But they plotted to kill her and sent the most wicked man among them to dare and do that deed of impiety. It was probably when she came to drink at the stream that she was hamstrung and killed. See xxvi. 155, and liv. 27. 6156. That is,

~lili~:

see last note.

6157. The man who was deputed to do the impious deed of hamstringing the shecamel had of course the sympathy and co-operation of the whole people. Only he was more daring than the rest. 6158. This verse has been variously construed. I follow the general opinion in referring the pronoun "Him" to "their Lord" in the last verse and the pronoun "its" to the Punishment that was meted out to all, high and low, equally. In that case the meaning would be: God decreed the total destruction of the Ibamud; in the case of creatures any such destruction might cause a loss to them, and they might fear the consequences of such loss or destruction, but Allah has created and can create at will, and there can be no question of any such apprehension in His case. An alternative view is that "him" refers to the prophet ~~, mentioned in verse 13. Then the interpretation would be: ~iili~ had no fear of the consequences for himself; he had warned the wicked according to his commission; he was saved by Allah's mercy as a just and righteous man, and he left them with regrets (vii. 79). Yet another alternative refers "him" to the wicked man (mentioned in verse 12) who hamstrung the she-eamel: lie feared not the consequences of his deed.

- 1962 -


Intro. to S. 92.

. 1963 -


Sura AI-Lail 92 Ayat 1-5

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

"~ll\~JIM .~1'\~.;;':'':1\· -;-, J ~_,!:,~

~

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,

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I. By the Night as it Conceals (the light);6Is9

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2. By the Day as it Appears in glory; 6160 h . 3. BY t e creation of male And female;_6161

4. Verily, (the ends) yc Strive for are diverse. 6162 5. So he who gives (In charity) and fears (Allah),

6159. The evidence of three things in invoked, viz., Night, Day, and Sex, and the conclusion is staled in verse 4, that men's aims are diverse. But similarly there are contrasts in nalure. What contrast can be greater than between Night and Day? When the Night spreads her veil, the sun's light is hidden, but not lost. The sun is in his place all the time, and wiD come forth in aD his glory again in his own good time. Cf xci. 3,4, and n. 6149. Man pursuing diverse aims may find, owing to his own posilion. Allah's lighl obscured from him for a time, but he must slrive hard 10 pUI himself in a position 10 reach it in all its glory. 6160. Md

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as in xci. 5-7; see Ihere n. 6151.

6161. The wonder of the sexes runs through aD life. There is altraction between opposite; each performs its own functions, having special characters, primary and secondary, within limited spheres, and yel bolh have common characleristics in many olher spheres. Each is indispensable 10 the olher. Love in ils noblest sense is Ihe type of heavenly love and the highesl good; in its debasement il leads 10 the lowest sins and the worst crimes. Here, Ihen, slriving is necessary for the highest good. 6162. There are wide conlrasts in the nature and aims of men. These may be broadly divided into two classes, good and evil. As night replaces day on account of certain relative position, but does not annihilate it, so evil may for a time obscure good but cannot blot it out. Again, night in certain circumstances (e.g. for rest) is a blessing; so certain things, which may seem evils to us, may be reaDy blessings in disguise. Whatever our aims or positions, we must seek the highest truth from Ihe light of Allah. Considering these contrasts, do not be surprised or depressed. Men's immediate aims may be different. The duty of aD is to seek the one true Light.

- 1964 -


S.92, A.6-11

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6. And (in all sincerity) Testifies to the Best,_6163 We will indeed Make smooth for him The path to Ease. 6164 But he who is A greedy miser And thinks himself Self-sufficient, And gives the lie To the Best,-!!I6S

to. We will indeed Make smooth for him The Path to Misery; 11. Nor will his wealth Profit him when he Falls headlong (into the pit).6166

6163. The good are distinguished here by three signs: (1) large-hearted sacrifices for Allah and men: (2) fear of Allah, which shows itself in righteous conduct for TaqwiJ, (see n. 26 to ii. 2) includes just action as well as a mental state: and (3) truth and sincerity in recognising and supporting all that is morally beautiful, for 1!usn is the good as well as the beautiful. 6164. So far from there being any hardship in a good life, the righteous will enjoy their life more and more, and Allah will make their path smoother and smoother until they reach eventual Bliss. 6165. The evil are distinguished here by three signs: (1) selfish greed and denial of other people's rights; (2) arrogance and self-sufficiency (xcvi. 6-7); and (3) knowingly dishonouring Truth out of spite, or seeing ugliness where there is beauty. Such men's downward progress gathers momentum as they go, and their end can be nothing but Misery. Where will be their boasted wealth and possessions, or their self-confidence? 6166. Wealth amassed in this world will be of no use at the Day of Final Judgment, nor will any material advantages of this life bring profit by themselves in the Hereafter. What will count will be a life of truth and righteousness, and of goodness to all the creatures of Allah. v

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6167. Allah in His infinite mercy has provided full guidance to His cratures. All through His creation there are sign-posts indicating the right way. To man He has given the five senses of perception, with mental and spiritual faculties for co-ordinating his physical perceptions and leading him higher and higher in thought and feeling. He has besides sent inspired men as prophets for further teaching and gUidance. 6168. In the End man will return to Allah, and even from the beginning of man's life A1lah's mercies and loving care surround him. In the probationary period of man's life, he has a measure of free-will, and he is ellpected to use it in such a way as to bring his whole being into harmony with the universal Will and Law. For he will have to answer for the right use of his talents and opportunities. If man's will has any meaning, he has the choice of accepting Allah's gUidance or rejecting it. and in the latter case he must take the consequences. Hence the warning of the future "Fire" in the nellt verse. 6169. The Fire of Punishment will not reach any ellcept those who have deliberately sinned against their conscience and rejected Allah's Truth. The term used for them is "Ashqd" (superlative degree). Cf. Ixnvii. 11. The corresponding idea in Christian theology is expressed in the following sentence. "All manner of sin and blasphemy shall be forgiven unto men: but the blasphemy against the Holy Ghost shall not be forgiven unto men" (Man. xii. 31). 6170. "Those most devoted to Allah": the Alqd, the Allah-fearing men who live lives of purity, and seek only for the "Face of their Lord Most High". See the verses following. fJ

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18. Those who spend their wealth6171 For increase in self-purification,6172 19. And have in their minds No favour from anyone For which a reward Is expected in retum,6173 20. But only the desire To seek for the Countenance Of their Lord Most High;6174 21. And soon will they Attain (complete) satisfaction.

6171. The spending may be for charity, or for good works, such as advancing the cause of knowledge or science, or supporting ideals, etc. "Wealth" must be understood not only for money or material goods, but also for any advantage or opportunity which a man happens to enjoy, and which he can place at the service of others. 6172. The Arabic root word Zilka implies both increase and purification, and both meanings may be understood to be implied here. Wealth (understood both literally and metaphorically) is not for selfish enjoyment or idle show. It is held on trust. It may be a trial in itself, from which a man who emerges successfully is a man all the purer in his life; and even if he was a good man before, his proper use of his wealth increases his position and dignity in the moral and spiritual world. 6173. The good man does not give in charity or do his good deeds with the motive that he is returning someone else's favour and compensating and rewarding someone for some service done to him or expecting some reward in return for his own good deed: the sole motive in his mind is that he desires the Countenance or Good Pleasure of Allah Most High. This "Countenance" or "Face" (Arabic, Wajh) implies good pleasure or approval; but it implies something more. It also means the Cause,-either the "final cause" or the "efficient cause" of Aristotelian philosophy. For the Atql1 would refer everything, backwards in origin and forwards in destiny, to Allah. Allah is the source of their goodness, as well as its goal or purpose. 6174. The definition of Righteousness, Charity, or Self-sacrifice, becomes thus highly spiritualised. The Atqil are so completely identified with Allah's Will that everything else is blotted out to them. What would seem to be sacrifice from other points of view, becomes their own highest pleasure and satisfaction. Every virtuous man will have his own bliss, for there are degrees in virtue and bliss. This supreme bliss is the portion-not the prize...of supreme virtue. Ii

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Intro. to S. 93.

- 1968路


Sura Ad-Dh~i 93 Ayat 1-3

Juz' 30

In the tulme of Alhlh, Most Graciow, Most Merciful.

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1. By the Glorious Morning Light,617S

2. And by the Night6176 When it is still,3. Thy Guardian-Lord Hath not forsaken thee,6tn Nor is He displeased. 6178

6175. The full morning light of the sun, when his splendour shines forth in contrast with the night which has passed. ct. xci. 1. The growing hours of morning light, from sunrise to noon, are the true type of the growth of spiritual life and work, while the stillness of the night is, to those who know, only a preparation for it. We are not to imagine that the stillness or quiescence of the night is wasted, or means stagnation in our spiritual life. The stillness may seem lonely, but we are not alone, nor forsaken by Allah. Nor is such preparation, without immediate visible results, a sign of Allah's displeasure. 6176. Cf. xcii. 1-2. There Night is mentioned first, and Day second, to enforce the lesson of contrasts: the veil of the night naturally comes first before the splendour of daylight is revealed. Here the argument is different: the growing hours of morning light are the main things and are mentioned first; while the hours of preparation and quiescence, which are subordinate, come second. 6177. As usual, there is the particular assurance to the Holy Prophet, and the general asssurance to mankind: see the Introduction to this Slira. The early years of the Prophet's ministry might well have seemed blank. After inspiration there were days and periods of waiting. A sense of loneliness might well have weighed on his mind. His own tribe of the Quraish jeered at him, taunted and threatened him, and slandered and persecuted him as well as those who believe in him. But his faith was never shaken, not even to the extent of that cry of agony of Jesus: "My God! why hast Thou forsaken me?": (Mark, xvi. 34). Much less did it enter the Prophet's mind to think that Allah was angry with him, as the taunts of his enemies suggested. 6178. See last note. The more general meaning is similar. To the man who prepares for spiritual work and spiritual growth the chief thing is typified by the growing hours of the morning. He should not be discouraged, nor overcome with a sense of loneliness in his early struggles or difficulties. The end will crown his work. Allah's care is always around him. If unsympathetic or hostile critics laugh at him or taunt him with being "mad" or "old-fashioned" or "ploughing his lonely furrow", his steady faith will uphold him. He will never believe that his earnest and sincere devotion to Allah, whatever be its results in this world, can be anything but pleasing to Allah.

- 1969-


S.93, A.4-7

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6. Did He not find thee 6J8J An orphan and give thee Shelter (and care)?6J82 7. And He found thee Wandering, and He gave Thee guidance. 6J83

6179. To the truly devout man, each succeeding moment is better than the one preceding it. In this sense the "hereafter" refers not only to the Future Life after death, but also to ..the soul of goodness in things" in this very life. For even though some outward trappings of this shadow-world may be wanting, his soul is filled with more and more satisfaction as he goes on. 6180. Allah's good pleasure is sure when we serve Him. But we are assured that even our feelings of doubt and suffering will vanish, and we shall have a sense of complete satisfaction, contentment, and active pleasure when our will is identified with the Will of Allah. 6181. Judge the future from the past. Allah has been good experience: trust to His goodness in the future also. Again, there general meaning. Three facts are taken from the holy Prophet's illustration. Metaphorically they also apply to us. And further. themselves types for the spiritual life. See notes below.

to you in your past is a particular and a outer life by way of the outer facts are

6182. (1) There is the case of the orphan, literally and figuratively. OUf holy Prophet was himself an orphan. His father 'Abdulliih died young before the child was born, leaving a little property. The Prophet's mother Amina was in ailing health, and he was chieny brought up by his nurse Halima. His mother herself died when he was only six years old. His aged grandfather :Abdul Muttalib treated him as his own son, but died two years later. Therefore his uncle Abii Tiiiib treated him as his own son. He was thus an orphan in more senses than one, and y~t the love he received from each one of these persons was greater than ordinary parental love. 6183. (2) The holy Prophet was born in the midst of the idolatry and polytheism of Makkah, in a family which was the custodian of this false worship. He wandered in quest of Unity and found it by the guidance of Allah. There is no implication whatever of sin or error on his part. But we may err and find ourselves wllndering in mazes of error, ~'

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8. And He found thee In need, and made Thee independent. 6184 9. Therefore, treat not6185 The orphan with harshness, 10. Nor repulse him Who asks;6186

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thOUgh1, motive, or understanding: we must pray for Allah's grace ever to give us guidance.

The Arabic root !J!laIJa has various shades of meaning. In i. 7, I have translated it by the verb "stray". In \iii. 2 the Prophet is defended from the charge of being "astray" or straying in mind. In xii. 8 and xii. 9S Jacob's sons use the word for their aged father, to suggest that he was senile and wandering in mind. In xxxii. 10 it is used of the dead, and I have translated "hidden and lost" (in the earth). 6184. (3) The holy Prophet inherited not much wealth and was poor. The true, pure, and sincere love of Khadija not only raised him above want, but made him independent of worldly needs in his later life, enabling him to devote his whole time to the service of Allah. So do we all find ourselves in some want or another, which, if we work wholeheartedly and sincerely is supplied to us by the grace of Allah. When we have found the Way, it is a laborious task to climb up in our poverty of spiritual equipment: Allah will give us spiritual riches in love and knowledge. 6185. Verses 9-11 carry on, to a step further, the triple argument of verses 6-8, as explained in the preceding notes. The Prophet treated all orphans with tender affection and respect, setting an example to his contemporaries, who frequently took advantage of the helpless position of orphans, and in any case looked upon them as subordinate creatures to be repressed and kept in their place. Such an attitude is common in all ages. Helpless creatures ought, on the contrary, to be treated as sacred trusts, whether they are orphans, or dependants, or creatures of any kind unable to assert themselves, either through age, sex, social rank, artificial conditions. or any cause whatever. 6186. Then there are the people who come with petitions,-who have to ask for something. They may be genuine beggars asking for financial help, or ignorant people asking for knowledge, or timid people asking for some lead or encouragement. The common attitude is to scorn them or repulse them. The scorn may be shown even when alms or assistance is given to them. Such an attitude is wrong. Charity is of no moral value without sympathy and love. Nor is it charity to give to idle sturdy professional beggars, for show or to get rid of them. They are mere parasites on society. Every petition should be examined and judged on its merits.

- 1971 -


S.93, A.ll

J-30

11. But the Bounty Of thy LordRehearse and proclaim!6187

6187. Besides the petitioners. who ask for help. there is the case of those who do not ask but are nevertheless poor-poor but contented in worldly goods. or poor in knowledge or resources and not even knowing that they are poor. If you are bountifully endowed by Allah, your duty is to make that Bounty spread far and wide. Proclaim it and share it. as the holy Prophet always did. We all receive Allah's grace and guidance in some degree or other. We all owe it as a duty to our fellow-men to be kind and helpful to those less endowed in any respect than ourselves. y

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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SORAT AJ-InshIriUJ or AJ-Sbarf' 94

This short Sura gives a message of hope and encouragement in a time of difficulty. It was revealed to the holy Prophet soon after the last Sura (AdDh~d), whose argument it supplements.

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Sura AI.Inshira~orAJ-Shar~ 94 Ayat 1-6 Juz' 30 ~

In the name of Allah, Most Gracious. Most Merciful. 1. Have We not Expanded thee thy breast?_6188

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6188. Cf. the prayer of Moses in xx. 25. The breast is symbolically the seat of knowledge and the highest feelings of love and affection, the treasure-house in which are stored the jewels of that quality of human character which approaches nearest to the divine. The holy Prophet's human nature had been purified, expanded. and elevated, so that he became a Mercy to all Creation. Such a nature could afford to ignore the lower motives of ordinary humanity which caused shameful attacks to be made on him. Its strength and courage could also bear the burden of the galling work which it had to do in denouncing sin, subduing it, and protecting Allah's creatures from its oppression. 6189. See last note. It is indeed a grievous and galling burden for a man to fight single-handed against sin. But Allah sends His grace and aid, and that burden is removed, or converted into joy and triumph in the service of the One True God. 6190. The Prophet's virtues, the magnanimity of his character, and his love for mankind were fully recognised even in his lifetime, and his name stands highest among the heroic leaders of mankind. The phrase used here is more comprehensive in meaning than that used for various prophets in xxxvii. 119 etc.; "We left this blessing for them among generations to come in later times". 6191. This verse is repeated for extra emphasis. Whatever difficulties or troubles are encountered by men, Allah always provides a solution, a way out, a relief, a way to lead to ease and happiness, if we only follow His Path and show our Faith by patience and well-doing. The solution or relief does not merely come after the Difficulty: it is provided with it. I understand the definite article in a/·'usr in a generic sense, and translate: "every difficulty". In xcii. 7, I have translated Yusr as Bliss, and in xcii. 10 'Usr as Misery. V. 'trv"" ""-v

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Therefore, when thou art Free (from thine immediate task), Still labour hard,6192 8. And to thy Lord Turn (all) thy attcntion. 6193

6192. When thou art free: or when thou art relieved. The words understood may be: from thy immediate task, that of preaching to men, denouncing sin, and encouraging righteousness; or. from the difficulties that confronted thee. When that happens, that does not finish the labours of the man of Allah. It is only one step to them. He has constantly and insistently to go on. When there is rest from the task of instructing the world, the contact with the spiritual kingdom continues, and indeed it becomes more intimate and concentrated. 6193. The kingdom of Allah is everything. Other things arc incidental, and really do not matter. Worldly greatness or success may be a means to an end, but it may also be a hindrance to true spiritual greatness. Allah is the goal of the righteous man's whole attention and desire. v

- 1975 -

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Intra. to S. 95.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMAlty: StiRAT At路na, 95.

This is also a very early Sura. It appeals to the most sacred symbols to show that Allah created man in the best of moulds, but that man is capable of the utmost degradation unless he has Faith and leads a good life. In subjectmatter this Sura closely resembles S. 103.

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6194. The substantive proposition is in verses 4-8, and it is clinched by an appeal to four sacred symbols, viz., the Fig, the Olive, Mount Sinai, and the sacred City of Makkah. About the precise interpretation of the first two symbols, and especially of the symbol of the Fig, there is much difference of opinion. If we take the Fig literally to refer to the fruit or the tree, it can stand as a symbol of man's destiny in many ways. Under cultivation it can be one of the finest, most delicious, and most wholesome fruits in existence: in its wild state, it is nothing but tiny seeds, and is insipid, and often full of worms and maggots. So man at his best has a noble destiny: at his worst, he is "the lowest of the low". Christ is said to have cursed a fig tree for having only leaves, and not producing fruit (Matt. xxi. 18-20), enforcing the same lesson. There is also a parable of the fig tree in Matt. xxiv. 32路35. See also the parable of the good and evil figs in Jeremiah, xxiv. 1-10. But see n. 6198 below. 6195. For the sacred symbolism of the Olive, see n. 2880 to xxiii. 20, and notes 30003002 to xxiv. 35, where the parable of Allah's Light includes a reference to the Olive. But it is possible that the Olive here refers to the Mount of Olives, just outside the walls of the City of Jerusalem (see n. 5038 to Iii. 2), for this is the scene in the Gospel story (Matt. xxiv. 3-4) of Christ's description of the Judgment to come. 6196. This was the Mountain on which the Law was given to Moses. See xix. 52, and n. 2504. The Law was given, and the glory of Allah was made visible. But did Israel faithfully obey the Law thereafter? 6197. "This City of security" is undoubtedly Makkah. Even in Pagan times its sacred character was respected, and no fighting was allowed in its territory. But the same City, with all its sacred associations, persecuted the greatest of the Prophets and gave itself up for a time to idolatry and sin, thus presenting the contrast of the best and the worst. 6198. Having discussed the four symbols in detail, let us consider them together. It is clear that they refer to Allah's Light or Revelation, which offers man the highest destiny if he will follow the Way. Makkah stands for Islam, Sinai for Israel, and the Mount of Olives for Christ's original and pure Message. it

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5.95, A.4-8

4. We have indeed created man In the best of moulds.6199

5. Then do We abase him (To be) the lowest Of the low ,_6200 6. Except such as believe And do righteous deeds: For they shall have A reward unfailing. 7. What then, can after this Make you deny the Last Judgment?6201 8. Is not Allah The wisest of Judges?6202

6199. Taqwim: mould, symmetry, form, nature, constitution. There is no fault in Allah's creation. To man Allah gave the purest and best nature, and man's duty is to preserve the pattern on which Allah has made him: xxx. 30. But by making him vicegerent, Allah exalted him in posse even higher than the angels, for the angels had to make obeisance to him (ii. 30-34, and n. 48). But man's position as vicegerent also gives him will and discretion, and if he uses them wrongly he falls even lower than the beasts. See next note.

6200. This verse should be read with the next. If man rebels against Allah, and follows after evil, he will be abased to the lowest possible position. For Judgment is sure. Those who use their faculties aright and follow Allah's Law will reach the high and noble destiny intended for them. That reward will not be temporary. but unfailing. 6201. Thee: may refer to the holy Prophet, or to man collectively. After this: i.e., when it is clearly shown to you that Allah created man true and pure. that He guides him. and that those who rebel and break His law will be punished and brought down in the Hereafter. who can doubt this, or contradict the Prophet when he gives warning?

6202. Allah is wise and just. Therefore the righteous have nothing to fear, but the evil ones cannot escape punishment. v

- 1978 -

V


Intro. to S. 96. ,j;

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SVRAT lqraa, or AI路'Alaq 96.

Verses 1路5 of this Sura were the first direct Revelation to the holy Prophet. After that there was an interval or break (Fatra) , extending over some months or perhaps over a year. S. lxviii. is usually considered to have been the next revelation in point of time. But the remainder of this Sura (xcvi. 6-19) came soon after the Fatra, and that portion is joined on to the first five verses containing the command to preach, because it explains the chief obstacle to the delivery of the message to man, viz. : man's own obstinacy, vanity. and insolence.

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6203. lqrcw may mean "read", or "recite or rehearse", or "proclaim aloud", the object understood being Allah's Message. In worldly letters he was unversed, but with spiritual knowledge his mind and soul were filled, and now had come the time when he must stand Corth to the world and declare his mission.

6204. The declaration or proclamation was to be in the name oC Allah the Creator. It was not for any personal benefit to the Prophet: to him there was to come bitter persecution, sorrow, and SUffering. It was the call of Allah for the benefit of erring humanity. Allah is mentioned by his title of ..thy Lord and Cherisher", to establish a direct nexus between the source of the Message and the one addressed. The Message was not merely an abstract proposition oC philosophy, but the direct concrete message of a personal Allah to the creatures whom He loves and cherishes. "Thy" addressed to the Prophet is appropriate in two ways: (I) he was in direct contact with the divine Messenger (Gabriel) and Him Who sent the Messenger; (2) he represented the whole of humanity, in a fuller sense than that in which Christ Jesus is the "Son of Man". 6205. C/. xxiii. 14. The lowly origin of the animal in man is contrasted with the high destiny offered to him in his intellectual, moral, and spiritual nature by his "most bountiful" Creator. No knowledge is withheld from man. On the contrary, through the Caculties Creely given to him, he acquires it in such measure as outstrips his immediate understanding, and leads him ever to strive for newer and newer meaning. y

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6206. See n. SS93 to Ixviii. 1. The Arabic words for "teach" and "knowledge" are from the same root. It is impossible to produce in a Translation the complete orchestral harmony of the words for "read", "teach", "pen" (which implies reading, writing, books, study, research), "knowledge" (including science, self knowledge, spiritual understanding), and "proclaim", an alternative meaning of the word for "to read". This proclaiming or reading implies not only the duty of blazoning forth Allah's message, as going, with the prophetic office, but also the duty of promulgation and wide dissemination of the Truth by all who read and understand it. The comprehensive meaniug of qartUl refers not only to a particular person and occasion but also gives a universal direction. And this kind of comprehensive meaning, as we have seen, runs throughout the Qur-an-for those who will understand.

6200. Allah teaches us new knowledge at every given moment. Individuals learn more and more day by day; nations and humanity at large learn fresh knowledge at every stage. This is even more noticeable and important in the spiritual world. 6208. All our knowledge and capacities come as gifts from Allah. But man, in his inordinate vanity and insolence, mistakes Allah's gifts for his own achievements. The gifts may be strength or beauty, wealth, position, or power, or the more subtle gifts of knowledge or talents in individuals,- or Science, or Art, or Government, or Organisation for mankind in general. 6209. Man is not self-sufficient, either as an individual, or in his collective capacity. If he arrogates Allah's gifts to himself, he is reminded-backwards, of his lowly physical origin (from a drop of animal matter), and forwards, of his responsibility and final return to Allah.

- 1981 -


S.96, A.9-16

10. A votary when he (Turns) to pray? II. Seest thou ifll1

He is on (the road Of) Guidance?12. Or enjoins Righteousness? 13. Seest thou if he 6212 Denies (Truth) and turns away? 14. Knoweth he not That Allah doth see? 15. Let him beware! If he Desist not, We will Drag him by the forelock,-6213 A lying, sinful forelock!

6210. The words, may be applied generally to perverse humanity, which seeks not only to rebel against Allah's Law, but also to prevent others from following it. There may however be a reference here to Abii Jahl, an inveterate enemy of Islam, who used in its early days to insull and persecute the holy Prophet and those who followed his teaching. He used, in particular, to use shameful methods to prevent the Prophet from going to the Ka'ba for devotions, and forbid any who came under his influence, from offering prayers or performing devotions. He was arrogant and purse-proud and met his end in the baltle of Badr. 6211. Man's insolence leads to two results: (1) self-destruction through selfmisleading; (2) a false example or false guidance to others. The righteous man must therefore test human example or human guidance by the question, "Is there Allah's guidance behind it?" And visible light would be thrown on it by the question, "Does it lead to righteousness?" A Oouting of Allah and Allah's truth answers the first question in the negative, and conduct which turns back from the eternal principles of Right answers the second. 6212. The usual trick of the ungodly is to refuse to face Truth. If they are placed in a corner, they deny what is obvious to reasonable men, and turn their backs. 6213. Cf. xi. 56, and n. 15SI. The forelock is on the forehead, and is thus symbolical of the summit and crown of the man's power or dignity. To be dragged by it is to suffer the lowest dregs of humiliation. Nos/a'an is a syncopated form of the emphatic first person plural. v

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17. Then, let him call (For help) to his council6214 (Of comrades): 18. We will call On the angels of punishment (To deal with him)!621S 19. Nay, heed him not: But prostrate in adoration, And bring thyself The closer (to Allah)!6216

6214. The Pagan Quraish, who formed an oppressive junta or council to manage the Ka'ba were in sympathy with AbU Jahl, though they did not go to the unbridled lengths to which AbO Jahl went. But they could not, all combined, resist the onward march of the divine mission, though they did all they could to check it. 6215. All the combined forces of evil, though they may have worldly appearances in their favour, and though they may seem to be successful for a time, cannot stand against Allah. He has but to command His forces of punishment to exert themselves, and they will subdue evil, protect Allah's votaries and justify the faith for which the votaries suffer. 6216. The righteous man has no fear. He can disregard all the forces of evil that are brought against him. But he must learn humility: that is his defence. He will bow down in adoration to Allah. He must have the will to bring himself closer to Allah. For Allah is always close to him,-closer to him than his life blood in the jugular vein (I. 16). Man's humility and adoration remove him from being an insolent rebel on the one hand and, on the other, prepare his will to realise his nearness to Allah. v

â&#x20AC;˘ 1983 -

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Intro. to S. 97.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SiJRAT AI路Qadr, 97. It is probably Makkan, though some hold that it was revealed in Madinah.

The subject-matter is the Night of Power (or Honour), in which Revelation came down to the Prophet for the first time through Angel Gabriel.

- 1984 -


Sura AI-Oadr 97 II

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In the name of Alwh, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. We have indeed revealed This (Message) In the Night of Power: 6217 2. And what will explain To thee what the Night Of Power is? 3. The Night of Power Is better than A thousand Months. 6218 4. Therein come down The angels and the Spirit6219 By Allah's permission, On every errand: Peace!.. .This Until the rise of Mom!6220

6217. Cf. xliv. 3 and n. 4690. The 23rd, 25th or 27th night of Ramas!han, as well as other nights, have been suggested as the Night of Power. See, however, the Introduction to this Silra. It is best to take this in conjunction with verse 3 below, which says that the Night of Power is better than a thousand Months. It transcends Time: for it is Allah's Power dispelling the Darkness of Ignorance, by his Revelation, in every kind of affair. 6218. "A thousand" must be taken in an indefinite sense; as denoting a very long period of time. Cf. notes 3632 and 3634 to xxxii. 4-5, and n. 5678 to lxx. 4. This does not refer to our ideas of time, but to "timeless Time". One moment of enlightenment under Allah's Light is better than thousands of months or years of animal life, and such a moment converts the night of darkness into a period of spiritual glory. 6219. The Spirit: usually understood to be the angel Gabriel. 6220. When the Night of spiritual darkness is dissipated by the glory of Allah, a wonderful Peace and a sense of Security arise in the soul. And this lasts on until this life closes, and the glorious Day of the new world dawns, when everything will be on a different plane. and the chequered nights and days of this world will be even less than a dream.

- 1985 -


INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SORAT Al路Baiyina, 98. This Sura was probably an early Madinah Sura, or possibly a late Makkan Sura. In subject-matter it carries forward the argument of the last Sura. The night of revelation is indeed blessed: but those who reject Truth are impervious to Allah's Message, however clear may be the evidence in support of it.

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In the name of Allah. Most Gracious. Most Merciful.

1. Those who disbelieve, Among the People of the Book6221 And among the Polytheists,6222 Were not going to depart (From their ways) until There should come to them Clear Evidence,-6223 Messenger from Allah, Rehearsing scriptures6224 Kept pure and holy:622S 3. Wherein are books Right and straight. 6226

6221. The People of the Book immediately referred to are the Jews and the Christians, who had received scriptures in the same line of prophecy in which carne our holy Prophet. Their scriptures should have prepared them for the advent of the greatest and last of the Prophets. For the Jewish scriptures promised to the Jews, cousins or brethren to the Arabs, a prophet like Moses: "The Lord thy God will raise up unto thee a Prophet from the midst of thee, of thy brethren, like unto me; unto him ye shall hearken" (Deut, xviii. 15). And Christ promised a Comforter (John. xiv. 16; xv. 26; and xvi. 1; see my n. 5438 to Ixi. 6) almost by name. The People of the Book fell from the true, straight. and standard religion, into devious ways, and would not come to the true Path until (they said) they were convinced by the arrival of the promised Prophet. But when the promised Prophet carne in the person of Mu~ammad, they rejected him, because they really did not seek for Truth but only followed their own fancies and desires. 6222. The Polytheists, the Pagans, had not previously believed in any scriptures. But yet, when clear evidence came to them, they should have believed. Yet they rejeeted the holy Prophet because they were not really searching for Truth, but were only following their own fancies and desires. 6223. The aear Evidence was the holy Prophet himself, his life, his personality, and his teaching. 6224. Cf. ii. lSI.

6225. Cf. Ixxx. 13-16. 6226. Qaiyim: straight, as opposed to crooked; standard as opposed to irregular; definite and permanent, as opposed to casual or temporary. Cf. ix. 36; xii. 40; etc.

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4. Nor did the People Of the Book Make schisms,6227 Until after there came To them Clear Evidence. 5. And they have been commanded No more than this: 6228 To worship Allah, Offering Him sincere devotion, Being True (in faith);6229 To establish regular Prayer; And to give zakat; And that is the Religion Right and 5traight.6230 Those who disbelieve, Among the People of the Book And among the Polytheists, Will be in hell-fire, To dwell therein (for aye). They are the worst Of creatures.62J1

6227. The responsibility of the People of the Book is greater than that of Pagans, because the People of the Book had been prepared for the standard and straight Religion by the revelations which they had already received. Yet, when the clear evidence came in Islam, they resisted it, And what is this standard and straight Religion, free of all ambiguity, and free of all casual rights and ceremonies? They are summed up in three eternal principles, as explained in the next verse and the next note. 6228. The three eternal principles of Religion are: (1) sincere devotion to Allah; (2) Prayer and Praise as drawing man nearer to Allah; and (3) the service of Allah's creatures by deeds of practical charity. 6229. Hanif: see n. 134 to ii. 135. 6230. See n. 6226 above. 6231. To be given the faculty of discrimination between right and wrong, and then to reject truth and right, is the worst folly which a creature endowed with will can commit. It must necessarily bring its own punishment, whether the creature calls himself one of the children of Abraham or one of the redeemed of Christ, or whether he goes by the mere light of nature and reason as a Pagan. Honour in the sight of Allah is not due to race or colour, but to sincere and righteous conduct (xlix. 13).

- 1988 -


S.9S, A.7-S I)

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- 1989-


Intro. to S. 99.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT AJ·Zl1ztJJ or AJ·Zalzalah99 This Sura is close in date to the last: it is generally referred to the early Madinah period, though it may possibly be of the late Makkan period. It refers to the tremendous convulsion and uprooting which will take place when the present order of the world is dissolved and the new world of Justice and Truth takes its place. The sign used is that of an earthquake which will shake our present material and phenomenal world to its very foundations. The words in which the earthquake is described are remarkable for both power and graphic aptness. With that shaking all hidden secrets will be brought to light.

·1990 •


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Shaken to her (utmost) convulsion,6235 2. And the Earth throws up Her burdens (from within),6236 3. And man cries (distressed); 'What is the matter with her?,_6237 4. On that Day will she Declare her tidings: 5. For that thy Lord will Have given her inspiration. 6238

6235. To the ordinary human observer a violent earthquake is a terrifying phenomenon, in its suddenness, in its origin, and in its power to destroy and uproot the strongest buildings and to bring up strange materials from the bowels of the earth. The Overwhelming Event (S. Ixxxviii.) which ushers in the Judgment will be a bigger and more far-reaching convulsion than any earthquakes that we know. And yet the incidents of earthquakes may give us some idea of that supreme world-shaking Event. 6236. An earthquake, if accompanied by a volcanic eruption, throws up enormous boulders and lava from beneath the crust of the earth. They are thrown up as if they were a burden to the Earth personified. They may be all kinds of minerals, or treasures buried for secrecy. So in the great and final Convulsion, the dead who had been buried and forgotten will rise; and will be brought to the light of day, and justice will be done in the fun glare of absolute Truth. 6237. The puzzled agony suffered by the victims of violent earthquakes is as nothing compared to the experience of the new and wonderful world which will then open out of the gaze of man. 6238. The present order may be personified as the earth. It will pass away, but the Deeds done therein, even the most secret, will be brought to the full light of day. And this will be because Allah will give the Command, the inspiration or Word, by which alone all events do proceed. The "inspiration" is the Command or direction conveyed by instruction breathed into the Earth personified: she is directed to tell the whole story of what she knows. Cf. xvi. 68, n. 2C1J7.

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6. On that Day will men Proceed in groups sorted out,6239 To be shown the Deeds That they (had done). 7. Then shall anyone who Has done an atom's weight 6240 Of good, see it! 8. And anyone who Has done an atom's weight Of evil, shall see it.

6239. In this world good and evil are mixed together. But then they will be soned out, and each grade of good and evil will be soned out. So they will proceed in companies to receive judgment. And they will be shown the exact impon of everything that they had thought, said, or done, in this life of probation, however they may have concealed or misinterpreted it in this life. Everything will be considered in taking the account, and the account will convince the persons concerned themselves. 6240. Zarrdt: the weight of an atom, the smallest living weight an ordinary man can think of. Figuratively the subtlest form of good and evil will then be brought to account, and it will be done openly and convincingly: he "shall see it".

v v - 1992 -

v


INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT Aj-'Adly", 100.

This is one of the earlier Makkan Sliras. In the depth of its rhythm and sublimity of its language. it may be compared with S. lxxix. Its subject-matter is the irresistible nature of spiritual power and knowledge, contrasted with unregenerate man's ingratitude, pettiness, helplessness, and ignorance.

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1. By the (Steeds)6241 That run, with panting (breath), 2. And strike sparks of fire,6242 3. And push home the charge In the morning,6243 4. And raise the dust In clouds the while,6244 5. And penetrate forthwith Into the midst (of the foe)

En masse;_624S

6241. The substantive proposition is in verses 6-8 below, and the metaphors enforcing the lesson are in verses 1-5 here. They have at least three layers of meaning: (I) Look at the chargers (mares or swift camels) panting for war on behalf of their masters. Off they go, striking fire with their hoofs by night at the behest of their riders; they push home the charge in the morning, chivalrously giving the enemy the benefit of daylight; and regardless of Dashing steel or the weapons of their enemies they boldly penetrate into the midst of their foe, risking their lives for the Cause. Does unregenerate man show that fidelity to his Lord Allah? On the contrary he is ungrateful to Allah; he shows that by his deeds; he is violently in love with wealth and gain and things that perish. (2) By the figure of metonymy the brave fidelity of the war-horse may stand for that of the brave men and true who raUy to the standard of Allah and carry it to victory, contrasted with the poltroonery and pettiness of unregenerate man. (3) The whole conflict, fighting, and victory, may be applied to spiritual warfare against those who are caught and overwhelmed in the camp of Evil. 6242. With their hoofs. If we suppose the march to be in the dead of night, the sparks of fire would be still more conspicuous. 6243. We may suppose a surprise attack, but yet a chivalrous attack by daylight. The foe is punished through his own lethargy and unpreparedness, apart from the strength, fire, and spirit of the forces of righteousness. 6244. The clouds of dust typify the ignorance and confusion in the minds of those who oppose Truth. 6245. The forces of evil mass themselves for strength, but their massing itself may become a means of their speedy undoing.

- 1994·

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Truly Man is, To his Lord,6246 Ungrateful; And to that (fact) He bears witness (By his deeds);6247 And violent is he In his love of wealth. 6248 Does he not know,When that which is In the graves is Scattered abroad6249 10. And that which is (Locked up) in (human) breasts Is made manifest11. That their Lord had been Well-acquainted with them, (Even to) that Day?6250

6246. Man, i.e., unregenerate man, in contrast to those who receive guidance and wage unceasing war with Evil, is ungrateful to his Lord and Cherisher, Him Who created him and sustains him, and sends His blessings and favours at all times. The ingratitude may be shown by thoughts, words, and deeds,-by forgetting or denying Allah and His goodness, by misusing His gifts, or by injustice to His creatures. 6247. Man himself, by his conduct, proves the charge of treason against himself. 6248. What an evil choice he makes in committing treason against his own Benefactor by going after the petty baubles of this world's wealth of neeting gains? 6249. Dead bodies, secret plots, evil thoughts and imaginings, long since buried, will yet stand fonh before the Judgment-seat of Allah. Instead of being closely hidden or blotted out-as they will have been from the consciousness of mankind,-they will stand out as from the consciousness of Allah, which is all-embracing and never suffers from sleep or fatigue. 6250. Allah's knowledge is full and vigilant at all times. But on that day it will reveal to men secrets which they had long forgotten, for the Book of their Deeds will be made manifest at Judgment. it

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. The (Day) of Clamour:625I

2. What is the (Day) Of Clamour? 3. And what will explain To thee what the (Day) Of Clamour is? 4. (It is) a Day whereon Men will be like moths Scattered about,62S2 5. And the mountains Will be like carded wool.6253

6251. The Day of Noise and Clamour is the Day of Judgment, when the whole of the present order of things will be overthrown with a tremendous convulsion. Cf. n. 6235 to xcix. I, and n. 6096 to Ixxxviii. All our present landmarks will be lost. It will be a stunning experience to begin with, but it will inaugurate a new world of true and permanent values, in which every human deed will have its true and just consequences, as if weighed in the balance. See verses 6-11 below. 6252. Moths are frail light things. To see them scattered about in a violent storm gives some idea of the confusion, distress, and helplessness in which men will be at first overwhelmed on the Day of Account. Old memories will be like a book almost blotted out. New hopes will be vague in a new world just rising on the horizon. But it will be a perfectly just world, and no good action will be lost and no evil one but will have its compensating value estimated.

6253. Cf. n. 5682 to lxx 9. The mountains are solid things, which seem as if nothing could move them. But in that tremendous cataclysm they will be scattered about like flakes of leased or carded wool. This is a metaphor to show that what we consider very substantial in this life will be as an airy nothing in the next world.

- 1997 -

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Then, he whose Balance (of good deeds)62S4 Will be (found) heavy, 7. Will be in a Life Of good pleasure and satisfaction. 62Ss 8. But he whose Balance (of good deeds) Will be (found) light ,Will have his home In a (bottomless) Pit. 62S6 10. And what will explain To Thee what this is? 11. (It is) a Fire Blazing fiercely!

6254. The Good Deeds will be weighed and appraised. This appraisement will be of the nicest and justest kind: for it will take into account motives. temptations. provocations, surrounding conditions, antecedents. subsequent amends, and all possible connected circumstances. Against them. presumably, will be deeds of the opposite kind, appraised in the same way. If the good predominates, the judgment will be in the man's favour, and he will be ushered into a life of good pleasure and satisfaction. This will of course be on another plane. 6255. Cf xcviii. 8, and n. 6233, but perhaps the Bliss is not of the same grade for all men. In every case it is bliss, but bliss suited to the particular nature of the individual concerned. 6256. Just as grades of bliss are indicated for the righteous, so apparently we are to understand grades of punishment suited to the sins of the individual sinners concerned.

- 1998 -


Intro. to S. 102.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT At-Takiithur, 102.

This probably early Makkan Sura gives a warning against acquisitiveness,

i.e., the passion for piling up quantities or numbers, whether in the good things of this world, or in man-power or in other forms of megalomania, which leave no time or opportunity for pursuing the higher things of life.

- 1999路


Sura At-Takathur 102

Ayat 1-6

In the name of Allah,

I. The mutual rivalry For piling up (the good things Of this world) diverts you 6257 (From the more serious things), Until ye visit the graves. 6258 But nay, ye soon shall Know (the reality). Again, yc soon shall know! 5. Nay, were ye to know With certainty of mind,625Y (Ye would beware!) 6. Ye shall certainly see Hell_fire!6260

6257. Acquisitiveness, that is, the passion for seeking an increase in wealth, position, the number of adherents or followers or supporters, mass production and mass organisation. may affect an individual as such. or it may affect whole societies or nations. Other people's example or rivalry in sueh things may aggravate the situation. Up to a certain point it may be good and necessary. But when it becomes inordinate and monopolises attention. it leaves no time for higher things in life. and a clear warning is here sounded from a moral point of view. Man may be engrossed in these things till death approaches. and he looks back on a wasted life. as far as the higher things are concerned. 6258. That is, until the time comes when you must lie down in the graves and leave and pomp and circumstance of an empty life. The true Reality will then appear before you. Why not try to strive for a little understanding of that Reality in this very life'? 6259. Three kinds of yaqin (certainty of knowledge) are described in n. 5673 to Ixix. 51. The first is certainty of mind or inference mentioned here: we hear from someone. or we infer from something we know: this refers to our own state of mind. If we instruct our minds in this way. we should value the deeper things of life better. and not waste all our time in ephemeral things. But if we do not use our reasoning faculties now, we shall yet see with our own eyes. the Penalty for our sins. It will be certainty of sight. We shall see Hell. See next verse. But the absolute certainty of assured Truth is that described in Ixix. 51. That is not liable to any human error or psychological defects. 6260. See xix. 71-72. and n. 2518.

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6261. We shall be questioned. i.e.â&#x20AC;˘ we shall be held responsible for every kind of joy we indulge in-whether it was false pride or delight in things of no value, or things evil. or the enjoyment of things legitimate.-the last, to see whether we kept this within reasonable bounds. 'iI

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- 2001 -


Intro. to S. 103.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT AI"A!r, 103. This early Makkan Siira refers to the testimony of Time through the Ages. All history show that Evil came to an evil end. But Time is always in favour of those who have Faith, live clean and pure lives, and know how to wait, in patience and constancy. Cf the theme of S. xcv.

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through the Ages.

In the name of Allah. Most Gracious. Most Merciful. 1. By the time,6262 2. Verily Man Is in loss,6263 3, Except such as have Faith, And do righteous deeds,6264 And (join together)626S In the mutual enjoining Of Truth, and of Patience and Constancy.

6262. AI-'Asr may mean: (1) Time through the Ages, or long periods, in which case it comes near t~ the abstract idea of Time. Dahr; (2) or the late afternoon, from which the 'A~r canonical prayer takes its name (see n. 271 to ii: 238). An appeal is made to Time as one of the creations of Allah, of which everyone knows something but of which no one can fully explain the exact significance. Time searches out and destroys everything material. No one is secular literature has expressed the tyranny of "never-resting Tune" better than Shakespeare in his Sonnets. For example, see Sonnets 5 ("never-resting Time"). 12 ("Nothing gainst Time's scythe can make defence"). and 64 ("When 1 have seen by Time's fell hand defaced The rich proud cost of outworn buried age"). If we merely run a race against Time, we shall lose. It is the spiritual part of us that conquers Time. See verse 3 below. For the "afternoon" idea see next note. 6263. If life be considered under the metaphor of a business bargain, man, by merely attending to his material gains, will lose. When he makes up his day's account in the afternoon, it will show a loss. It will only show profit if he has Faith. leads a good life, and contributes to social welfare by directing and encouraging other people on the Path of Truth and Constancy. 6264. Faith is his armour. which wards off the wounds of the material world; and his righteous life is his positive contribution to spiritual ascent. 6265. If he lived only for himself. he would not fulfil his whole duty. Whatever good he has. especially in mordl and spiritual life, he must spread among his brethren, so that they may see the Truth and stand by it in patient hope and unshaken constancy amidst all the storm and stress of outer life. For he and they will then have attained Peace within. v

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Appendix: 7.

APPENDIX NO.7

Oaths and Adjurations in the Qur-an I. An oath is an invocation of the name of Allah or of some person or object held sacred by the person using the invocation. to witness the truth of a solemn affirmation and to emphasize that affirmation. 2. An adjuration is a solemn appeal to a person or persons to do some act or to believe some important statement by the evidence of something great or sublime or remarkable or out of the ordinary. 3. On these subjects as thus defined. let us review the teaching of the holy Our-an. 4. Among the Pagan Arabs the use of oaths became so common that it almost ceased to have any solemn meaning. On the other hand, when they wanted to suppress the rights of women or do some unjust acts, they would resort to an oath to do so, and then plead that they were bound by their oath when pressure was brought to bear on them to desist from their injustice. Thus, they doubly dishonoured oaths: they took the name of Allah lightly, and on the other hand. they made an oath an excuse for not doing what was right and just. It is much to be feared that our own contemporaries are not free from such forms of disrespect to Allah. 5. Such practices are condemned in the strongest terms in the Our-an. "Make not Allah's name an excuse in your oaths against doing good, or acting rightly, or making peace between persons" ii. 224). Perjury is condemned as deception which hurts both the deceiver and the deceived. "Take not your oaths to practise deception between yourselves, with the result that someone's foot may slip after it was firmly planted, and ye may have to taste the evil consequences of having hindered men from the Path of Allah. and a mighty Wrath descend on you" (xvi. 94). See also iii. 77. You must not only fulfil your oaths, but you must fulfil all convenants, express or implied, and all your obligations of every kind, without reference to an oath: v. I, n. 682. 6. Considering the harm caused by thoughtless oaths, in which there was no intention to deceive or to do wrong, it is provided that they may be expiated for. "Allah will not call you to account for what is futile in your oaths, but He will call you to account for your deliberate oaths: for expiation feed ten indigent persons....or clothe them, or give a slave his freedom. If that is beyond your means, fast for three days. That is the expiation for the oaths ye have sworn. But keep to your oaths" (v. 89). See also ii. 225 and lxvi. 2.

- 2004-


7. Some examples may be cited of the false oaths which were used fOf deception. The Hypocrites, "in whose hearts is a disease", "swore their strongest oaths by Allah" that they would be with the Muslims, but treachery was in their hearts (v. 52-53). See also xxiv. 53. On the other hand, the oath of Joseph's wicked brethren, "By Allah!", in speaking to their father, xii. 85), seems to be a mere expletive, used lightly, and therefore worthy of condemnation. 8. In passages like the following, the oath seems to be emphatic and solemn as in a court of law:xii.

66

xii.

73 57

xxii. xxvi. xxxvii.

97 56

xxxviii. 82 xlvi.

34 ...

By Joseph's brethren, at Jacob's request. By Joseph's brethren, to the Egyptians. By Abraham, to the Polytheists. By the denizens of HeU, when they realise their wrong. By the righteous one in heaven, when he realises the great danger he escaped in life. By the Power of Evil, who solemnly swears by the power of Al1ah. By the denizens of Hell, when they realise the Truth.

9. In the foUowing passages addressed by Allah to men, an appeal is made to man's realisation of Allah's own greatness, goodness, and glory, or Allah's special relationship to man as Creator, Cherisher, and Protector, to teach him the lesson of truth and right conduct. In English phrase it might be rendered: "As 1 am thy Lord Allah, believe in Me and follow My Word."

iv.

65

xv.

92

xvi.

56

xvi.

63

xix. xxiv.

68

lxiv. Ii.

"By "By "By "By "By "By

thy Lord" (they can have no real faith until...). thy Lord" (We will call them to account). Allah" (ye shall be called to account). Allah" (We sent apostles). thy Lord" (We shall gather them together). my Lord" (said by the Prophet to assure men of the coming of the Hour of Judgment). Do. Do. "By the Lord of heaven on earth" (this is the very Truth). See also lxx. 40 (paragraph 12 below).

3

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10. Another way in which an appeal is made to men is by the evidence of the life of the Holy Prophet, whose truth and purity were known to them, or by the holy Qur-an, whose wonderful power over men's hearts was a miracle which they witnessed before their eyes:-

xv.

72

...

"By thy life"

- 2005 -

(to enforce the lesson of the unspeakable crime of Lot's people).


xxxvi. xxxviii.

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xliii.

2

xliv. l.

2

"By the Our-iin, Full of Wisdom" "By the Our-an, Full of admonition" "By the Book that Makes things clear" ...Do... "By the Glorious Our-an".

1

(to show the error of the Unbelievers). (to show that Revelation is reasonable and conformable to truth). ....Do.... (to quell the wonder of the ignorant).

11. Now we come to the great passages in the Makkan Suras, in which men are adjured to tum to the wonders of the spiritual world by striking phrases full of sublimity, and using the wonders of the heavens and the earth by way of illustration. They are the despair of the translator, because the words used are widely comprehensive, with little that is precise in them. There are layers upon layers of meaning, and only the profoundest spiritual experience can probe their depths. An attempt has been made in the notes to analyse and explain some of their meanings. All that we can do here is to bring them together into juxtaposition, to help the earnest student. They may be divided into three categories: (1) those introduced by the words "La uqismu" (I do swear or 1 do call to witness), (2) those introduced by the particle wa, which is the general form of adjuration, and (3) those, mainly concerned with the Judgment to come, which are introduced by the adverb "i~" (when). 12. La Uqsimu (with the first person singular) implies that special attention is drawn to something by a personal and beneficent God, and an appeal is made to His creatures:-

75

... "The setting of the stars." ... "What ye see and what 38 ye see not." ... "The Lord of all points 40 in the East and the West." 1-2 ... "The Resurrection Day and the self-reproaching spirit." 15-18 ... "Planets, Night, and spirit."

Ivi. lxix. lxx.

lxxv.

lxxxi.

lxxxiv.

16-18 ... "The ruddy glow of sunset, the Night, the Moon." ij

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Other glories may set, but not the glory of Revelation. Revelation is good for both outer and inner life. Allah's Kingdom extends everywhere. Evil should be eschewed.

Nature may vary, but Allah's Light is ever the same. Man must travel from stage to stage.

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Man is created for toil and struggle, but Allah has given him guidance.

1-3

13. The great Signs, introduced by the particle wa, by which man is adjured to tum to the higher life, are rich in suggestive imagery, which loses part of its charm by any attempt at precise definition:xxxvii. Ii.

Ii. Iii. liii. Ixviii. Ixxiv. Ixxvii. Ixxix. Ixxxv. lxxxvi. Ixxxvi.

"By those who range themselves in ranks". "By the (Winds) that scatter broadcast" etc. "By the heaven with its numerous Paths" etc. "By the Mount (of Revelation)" etc. "By the Star when it goes down." "By the Pen and by the Record which men write". "By the Moon, the Night, the Dawn". "By the (Winds) sent forth (to man's profit)" etc. "By the (angles) who tear out" etc. "By the Sky (displaying) the Zodical Signs" etc. "By the Sky and the Night-Visitant (therein)". "By the Firmament which returns (in its round), and by the Earth" etc. "By the Break of Day", etc. "By the Sun and its (glorious) splendour, By the Soul..." etc.

1 1-4 7 1-6

I 1 32-34 1-5 1-5 1-3 I 11-12

Ixxxix. xci.

1-5 1-8

xcii.

1-3

xciii. c. ciii.

1-3 1-5 1

"By By "By "By "By

the Night as it conceals (the light); the Day as it appears in glory" etc. the Fig and the Olive" etc. the (Steeds) that run with panting breath" etc. (the Token of) Time (through the Ages)".

14. The great Signs introduced by the adverb "when" (i楼i) do not in form belong to the category of Adjurations, but their meaning and imagery bring them within this category. They refer to the end of the present order of things, and the inauguration of the new world of perfect eternal values, but they need not necessarily be understood in a definite sequence of time such as we know it, for the spiritual world overlaps the material:Ixxvii. Ixxxi. lxxxii. Ixxxiv. xcix. :Illl

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15. Every Sign is connected with the argument of the passage concerned, by way of metaphor or illustration. See n. 5798 to Ixxiv. 32. The appropriate meaning suggested is explained in the notes to each passage as it occurs.

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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SOKAT Al·Humaza, 104.

This Makkan Sura condemns all sorts of scandal, backbiting, and selfish hoarding of wealth, as destroying the hearts and affections of men.

• 2009 -


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Sura AJ-Humaza 104 Ayat 1-7

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AI-Humaza, or the Scandal-monger. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. J. Woe to every (Kind of) scandal-monger And backbiter, 6266 2. Who pileth up wealth And Jayeth it by, 3. Thinking that his wealth Would make him last For ever! 4. By no means! He will Be sure to be thrown into That which Breaks to Pieces. 6267 5. And what will explain To thee That which Breaks To Pieces? 6. (It is) the Fire Of Allah Kindled (to a blaze), 7. The which doth mount (Right) to the Hearts: 6268

6266. Three vices are here condemned in the strongest terms: (1) scandal-mongering, talking or suggesting evil of men or women by word or innuendo, or behaviour, or mimicry, or sacrcasm, or insult; (2) detracting from their character behind their backs, even if the things suggested are true, where the motive is evil; (3) piling up wealth, not for use and service to those who need it, but in miserly hoards, as if such hoards can prolong the miser's life or give him immortality: miserliness is itself a kind of scandal. 6267. lfu!ama: that which smashes or breaks to pieces: an apt description of the three anti-social vices condemned. For scandal-mongering and backbiting make any sort of cohesion or mutual confidence impossible; and the miser's hoards up the channels of economic service and charity, and the circulation of good-will among men.

6268. The Fire of Punishment mounts right up 10 the heans and minds of such men, and shuts them out of the love of their fellows. "Hearl" in Arabic means not only the seat of affection, pity, charity, elc., but also of understanding and intelligent appreciation of things. i(j

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6269. Those guilty of these vices will be choked and suffocated, for this Vault of Fire will cover them all over, and its scorching columns will extend over a far wider area than they imagine.

â&#x20AC;˘ 2011 -


Intro. to S. 105.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SORAT AI-FlI, 105.

This early Makkan Sura refers to an event that happened in the year of the birth of our holy Prophet, say about 570 A.D. Yaman was then under the rule of the Abyssinians (Christians), who had driven out the Jewish I;Iimyar rulers. Abraha Ashram was the Abyssinian governor or viceroy. Intoxicated with power and fired by religious fanaticism, he led a big expedition against Makkah, intending to destroy the Ka'ba. He had an elephant or elephants in his train. But his sacrilegious intentions were defeated by a miracle. No defence was offered by the custodians of the Ka'ba as the army was too strong for them. But a shower of stones, thrown by flocks of birds, destroyed the invading army almost to a man.

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Seest6270 thou not How thy Lord dealt With the Companions Of the Elephant?6271 2. Did He not make Their treacherous plan Go astray? 3. And He sent against them Flights of Birds,6272 4. Striking them with stones6273 Of baked clay. 5. Then did He make them Like an empty field6274 Of stalks and straw, (Of which the com) Has been eaten Up.627S

6270. Seest thou not?-i.e. with thy mental vision. The incident happened in the very year of the holy Prophet's birth, barely two months before it.

6271. These were the troops of Abraha the Abyssinian, who invaded Makkah with a large anny, in which were some elephants. See Introduction to this Slira. 6272. The miracle consisted in the birds coming in large flights and flinging stones at the anny which destroyed the whole of Abraha's anny. 6273. Sijjil: see n. 1579 to xi. 82. The word also occurs at xv. 74. Stones of baked clay, or hard as baked clay, are part of the miracle in the story.

6274. A field, from which all the com has been eaten up and only straw with stalks or stubble is left, is a field dead and useless. And such was the anny of Abraha,-dead and useless. Another possible rendering would be: "like eaten straw and stubble found in the dung of animals". The meaning would be the same, but much more emphatic. 6275. The lesson to be drawn is twofold. For the Pagan Quraish of Makkah it was: Allah will protect His own; if you persecute the holy Prophet, he is greater than the mere building of the Ka'ba: will not Allah protect him? For men in all ages it is: 'a man intoxicated with power can prepare annies and material resources against Allah's holy Plan; but such a man's plan will be his own undoing; he cannot prevail against Allah'. v

- 2013-

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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT Quraisb, 106.

This Makkan Sura may well be considered as a pendant to the last. If the Quraish were fond of Makkah and proud of it, if they profited, by its central position and it guaranteed security, from their caravans of trade and commerce, let them be grateful, adore the One True God, and accept His Message.

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2. Their familiarity with the journeys By winter and summer ,_6TT1 3. Let them worship the Lord Of this House,627s 4. Who provides them With food against hunger, 6279 And with security Against fear (of danger).6280

6276. The Quraish were the noblest tribe of Arabia, the tribe to which belonged the holy Prophet himself. They had the custody of the Ka'ba, the central shrine of Arabia, and their possession of Makkah gave them a triple advantage: (1) they had a commanding influence over other tribes; (2) their central position facilitated trade and intercourse, which gave them both honour and profit; and (3) the Makkah territory being by Arabian custom inviolable from the ravages of war and private feuds, they had a secure position. free from fear of danger. This honour and advantage they owed to their position as servants of the sacred shrine of the Ka'ba. They owed it to Allah. Was it not therefore right and fitting that they should adore the One True God, and listen to His Message of Unity and Purity, brought by His Prophet? In those days of general insecurity, their prestige as custodians of Makkah enabled them to obtain Covenants of security and safeguard from the rulers of neighbouring countries on all sideS-Syria, Persia, Yaman, and Abyssinia-protecting their trade journey in all seasons. 6277. See last note. especially section (2). On account of their trade journeys to the warmth of Yaman in the winter and the cooler regions of Syria and the north in the summer, the Quraish became practised travellers and merchants, acquired much knowledge of the world and perfected their language as a polished medium of literary expression. 6278. The Ka'ba. 6279. Their trade caravans enriched them, and drew people from distant parts to visit Makkah and bring their merchandise and gifts thither. 6280. Their territory being inviolable. they did not suffer from the dangers of constant warfare nor from private feuds of vengeance or breaches of the peace in their secure homes.

â&#x20AC;˘ 2015 -


Intro. to S. 107.

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SORAT Al.MiJ'dn, 107.

This Sura-at least the first half of it-belongs to the early Makkan period. The subject-matter is the meaning of true worship. which requires Faith, the practical and helpful love of those in need, and sincerity rather than show in devotion and charity.

- 2016 -


SUra AI路Ma'un 107

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Seest thou one Who denies the Judgment6281 (To come)'l 2. Then such is the one Who repulses the orphan, 3. And encourages not6282 The feeding of the indigent. 4. So woe to the worshippers 5. Who are neglectful Of their Prayers,6283 6. Those who (want but) To be seen,6284 7. But refuse (to supply) (Even) neighbourly needs. 628S

6281. Din may mean either (1) the Judgment to come, the responsibility in the moral and spiritual world, for all actions done by men, or (2) Faith, Religion, the principles of right and wrong in spiritual matters, which often conDict with selfish desires or predilections. It is men who deny Faith or future responsibility. that treat the helpless with contempt and lead arrogant selfish lives. 6282. The Charity or Love which feeds the indigent at the expense of Self is a noble form of virtue, which is beyond the reach of men who are so callous as even to discourage or forbid or look down upon the virtue of charity or kindness in others. 6283. True worship does not consist in the mere form of prayer, without the heart and mind being earnestly applied to seek the realisation of the presence of Allah, and to understand and do His holy Will. 6284. Cf iv. 142: "When they stand up to prayer, they stand without earnestness, to be seen of men, but little do they hold Allah in remembrance."

6285. Hypocrites make a great show of hollow acts of goodness, devotion, and charity. But they fail signally if you test them by little acts of neighbourly help or charity, the thousand little courtesies and kindnesses of daily life, the supply of needs which cost little but mean much.

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Intro. to S. 108. ~

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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SORAT AJ-Kau1!Jar, lOS.

This very brief early Makkan Sura sums up in the single meaningful word

Kau!lJ.ar (Abundance) the doctrine of spiritual Riches through devotion and sacrifice. The converse also follows: indulgence in hatred means the cutting off of all hopes of this life and the Hereafter.

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AI-Kaut/!ar, or Abundance. In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. To thee have We Granted the Abundance. 6286

2. Therefore to thy Lord Tum in Prayer And Sacrifice. 6287 3. For he who hateth thee,-6288 He will be cut off (From Future Hope).

6286. AI-Kauth.ar literally means "good in abundance". It is the abundant bounty which Allah bestowed on Prophet Muhammad (peace be on him). This includes a river (or fountain) in heaven of this name ~hich Allah has promised the Prophet (peace be on him).

6287. He who grants these blessings is Allah, and to Allah alone must we tum in adoration and thanksgiving, and in sacrifice. Nahr=sacrifice: in a restricted ritual sense, the sacrifice of camels: see n. 2813 to xxii. 36. But the ritual is a mere Symbol. Behind it is a deep spiritual meaning: the meat slaughtered feeds the poor. and the slaughter is a symbol of the self-sacrifice in our heans...It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches Allah: it is your piety that reaches Him" (xxii. 37). 6288. Hatred and spite are not constructive contributions to the work of this world, but its opposites. Abu Jahl and his Pagan confederates vented their personal spite and venom against the holy Prophet by taunting him with the loss of his two infant sons by Khadija, but where were these venomous detractors a few years afterwards, when the divine Light shone more brilliantly than ever? It was these that were cut off from aU future hope, in this world and the next. y

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Say: 0 ye That reject Faith!6289

2. I worship not that Which ye worship, 3. Nor will ye worship That which I worship.6290 4. And I will not worship That which ye have been Wont to worship 5. Nor will ye worship That which I worship.

6289. Faith is a matter of personal conviction, and does not depend on worldly motives. Worship should depend on pure and sincere Faith, but often does not: for motives of worldly gain, ancestral custom, social conventions or imitative instincts, or a lethargic instinct to shrink from enquiring into the real significance of solemn acts and the motives behind them, reduce a great deal of the world's worship to sin, selfishness, or futility. Symbolic idols may themselves be merely instruments for safeguarding the privileges of a selfish priestly class, or the ambitions, greed, or lust of private individuals. Hence the insistence of Islam and its Prophet on the pure worship of the One True God. The Prophet firmly resisted all appeals to worldly motives, and stood firm to his Message of eternal Unity. 6290. Verses 2-3 describe the conditions as they were at the time when this sUra was revealed, and may be freely paraphrased: 'I am a worshipper of the One True God, the Lord of all, of you as wen as of myself; but you on account of your vested interests have not the win to give up your false worship, of idols and self. Verses 4-5 describe the psychological reasons: â&#x20AC;˘ I, being a prophet of Allah do not and cannot possibly desire to follow your false ancestral ways; and you, as custodians of the false worship, have Dot the will to give up your ways of worship, which are wrong'. The "will" in the translation represents less the future tense than the will, the desire, the psychological possibility: it tries to reproduce the Arabic noun-agent.

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6291. 'I, having been given the Truth, cannot come to your false ways: you, having your vested interests, will not give them up. For your ways the responsibility is yours: I have shown you the Truth. For my ways the responsibility is mine: you have no right to ask me to abandon the Truth. Your persecutions will be vain: the Truth must prevail in the end'. This was the attitude of Faith then: but it is true for all time. Hold fast to Truth, "in scorn of consequence".

- 2022 â&#x20AC;˘

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Intro. to S. 110. '"

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INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SiJRAT An.N8ÂĽr, 110.

This beautiful Sura was the last of the Suras to be revealed as a whole, though the portion of the verse v. 4, "This day have I perfected your religion for you" etc., contains probably the last words of the Our-an to be revealed. The date of this Sura was only a few months before the passing away of the holy Prophet from this world, Rabi' I, A.H. 11. The place was either the precincts of Makkah at his Farewell Pilgrimage, Zulhijja, A.H. 10, or Madinah after his return from the Farewell Pilgrimage. . . Victory is the crown of service, not an occasion for exultation. All victory comes from the help of Allah.

- 2023 â&#x20AC;˘


Sura An-Nasr 110 Ayat 1-3

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or Help.

In the name of Allah,

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Of Allah, and Victory, 2. And thou dost see The People enter Allah's Religion In crowds,6292 3. Celebrate the Praises Of thy Lord, and pray For His Forgiveness:6293 For He is Oft-Returning (In forgiveness).

6292. The Prophet migrated from Makkah to Madinah, a persecuted man. In Madinah all the forces of truth and righteousness rallied round him, and the efforts by the Makkans and their confederates to destroy him and his community recoiled on their own heads. Gradually all the outlying parts of Arabia ranged themselves round his standard, and the bloodless conquest of Makkah was the crown and prize of his patience and constant endeavour. After that, whole tribes and tracts of country gave their adhesion to him collectively, and before his ministry was finished, the soil was prepared for the conquest of the wide world for Islam. What was the lesson to be learnt from this little epitome of the world's history? Not man's self-glory, but humility; and power but service; not an appeal to man's selfishness or self-sufficiency, but a realisation of Allah's Grace and Mercy, and the abundant outpouring of Allah's Praises in word and conduct. 6293. Every man should humble himself before Allah, confess his human frailties, and seek Allah's grace;-attributing any success that he gets in his work, not to his own merits, but to the goodness and mercy of Allah. But the Prophet of Allah had also another duty and privilege,-to pray for grace and forgiveness for his people in case of them had exulted in their victory or done anything that they should not have done. v

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AI-lAhab, or The Flame. In the name 01 Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful.

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Of the Father of F1ame!6294 Perish he! 2. No profit to him From all his wealth, And all his gains! 3. Burnt soon will he be In a Fire Of blazing Flame! 4. His wife shall carry The (crackling) woodAs fuel!_629S

5. A twisted rope Of palm-leaf fibre Round her (own) neck!

6294. Aba Lahab. "Father of Flame", was the nick-name of an uncle of the holy Prophet, from his fiery hot temper and his ruddy complexion. He was one of the most inveterate enemies of early Islam. When the holy Prophet called together the Ouraish and his own kith and kin to come and listen to his preaching and his warning against the sins of his people, the "Father of Flame" Oared up and cursed the holy Prophet, saying "Perdition to thee!" According to the English saying, "the causeless curse will not come". His words were futile, but his power and strength were equally futile. The star of Islam rose higher and higher every day, and its persecutors dwindled in strength and power. Many of the leaders of persecution perished at Badr, and Abli Lahab himself perished a week after Badr, consumed with grief and his own fiery passions. Verse 3 was prophetic of his end in this very life, though it also refers to the Hereafter. 6295. Abii Lahab's wife was a woman of equally passionate spite and cruelty against the sacred person of the holy Prophet. She used to tie bundles of thorns with ropes of twisted palm-leaf fibre and carry them and strew them about on dark nights in the paths which the Prophet was expected to take, in order to cause him bodily injury. "To carry firewood" may also be symbolical for carrying tales between people to embroil them. This was also one of her vices. But she was laying up for herself another kind of Fire and another kind of Rope, the Fire of Punishment, and the Rope of Slavery to Evil. Thus does Evil prepare its own fate. This is the general lesson of sustained craft and cruel wrong-doing recoiling on the wrong-doer's head. See also Introduction to this Slira. v

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- 2026 -


Intra. to S. 112. /!

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT Al.lkbla~, 112.

This early Makkan Siira sums up in a few terse words the Unity of the Godhead-often professed, but frequently mixed up in the popular mind with debasing superstitions.

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. l. Say: He is Allah,6296 The One;6297

2. Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;6298 3. He begetteth not, Nor is He begotten;6.."99

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6296. The nature of Allah is here indicated to us in a few words, such as we can understand. The qualities of Allah are described in numerous places elsewhere, e.g., in Iix. 22-24, Ixii. I, and ii. 255. Here we are specially taught to avoid the pitfalls into which men and nations have fallen at various times in trying to understand Allah. The first thing we have to note is that His nature is so sublime, so far beyond our limited conceptions, that the best way in which we can realise Him is to feel that He is a Personality, "He". and not a mere abstract conception of philosophy. He is near us; He cares for us; we owe our existence to Him. Secondly. He is the One and Only God. the Only One to Whom worship is due; all other things or beings that we can think of are His creatures and in no way comparable to Him. Thirdly. He is Eternal, without beginning or end, Absolute. not limited by time or place or circumstance, the Reality. Fourthly, we must not think of Him as having a son or a father, for that would be to import animal qualities into our conception of Him. Fifthly, He is not like any other person or thing that we know or can imagine: His qualities and nature are unique. 6297. This is to negative the idea of Polytheism, a system in which people believe in gods many and lords many. Such a system is opposed to our truest and profoundest conceptions of life. For Unity in Design. Unity in the fundamental facts of existence, proclaim the Unity of the Maker. 6298. Samad is difficult to translate by one word. I have used two, "Eternal" and "Absolute':. The laller implies: (1) that absolute existence can only be predicated of Him; all other existence is temporal or conditional; (2) that He is dependent on no person or things, but all persons or things are dependent on Him, thus negativing the idea of gods and goddesses who ate and drank, wrangled and plolled, depended on the gifts of worshippers, etc.

6299. This is to negative the Christian idea of the godhead, "the Father", "the onlybegotten Son" etc. 6300. This sums up the whole argument and warns us specially against Anthropomorphism, the tendency to conceive of Allah after our own pattern, an insidious tendency that creeps in at all times and among all peoples.

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This early Makkan Sura provides the antidote to superstition and fear by teaching us to seek refuge in Allah from every kind of ill arising from outer nature and from dark and evil plottings and envy on the part of others.

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In the rnune of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Say: I seek refuge6301 With the Lord of the riawn. 6302 2. From the mischief Of created things;6303

3. From the mischief Of Darkness as it overspreads;6304 4. From the mischief Of those who blow on knots;6305

6301. In Allah's created world, there are all kinds of forces and counter-forces, especially those pUI in motion by beings who have been endowed with some sort of will. The forces of good may be compared to light, and those of evil 10 darkness. Allah can cleave the depths of darkness and produce light (vi. 96), and therefore we should cast off fear and take refuge in divine guidance and goodness. 6302. Falaq is the Dawn or Daybreak, the cleaving of darkness and the manifestation of light. This may be understood in various senses: (I) literally, when the darkness of the night is at its worst, rays of light pierce through and produce the dawn; (2) when the darkness of ignorance is at its worst, the light of Allah pierces through the soul and gives it enlightenment: xxiv. 35; (3) non-existence is darkness, and life and activity may be typified by light. The author and source of all true light is Allah, and if we seck Him, we are free from ignorance, superstition, fear, and every kind of evil.

6303. See n. 6301 above. Our trust in Allah is the refuge from every kind of fear and superstition, every kind of danger and evil. Three special kinds of mischief are specified in the next three verses, against which our best guard is our trust in A11ah, the Light of the heavens and the earth. They are: (1) physical dangers, typified by darkness. (2) physical dangers within us, typified by Secret Arts, and (3) physical dangers from without us, resulting from a perverted will, which seeks to destroy any good that we enjoy. 6304. The darkness of the night, physical darkness, is a good type of physical dangers and difficulties. Many people arc afraid of physical darkness, and all are afraid of physical injuries, accidents, and calamities. We should not fear, but having taken reasonable precautions, trust in Allah. 6305. 'Those (feminine) who blow on knots', this having been a favourite form of witchcraft practised by perverted women. Such secret arts cause psychological terror. They may be what is called magic, or secret plottings, or the display of false and seductive charms (iii. 14), or the spreading of false and secret rumours or slanders to frighten men or deter them from right action. There is fraud in such things, but men are swayed by it. They should cast off fear and do their duty.

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6306. Malignant envy, translated into action, seeks to destroy the happiness or the material or spiritual good enjoyed by other people. The best guard against it is trust in Allah with purity of hean.

• 2031 •


Intoo. to S. 114. ~

INTRODUCTION AND SUMMARY: SURAT An路NiIs, 114. This early Makkan Sura is a pendant to the last Sura, and concludes the Holy Our-an, with an appeal to us to trust in Allah, rather than man, as our sure shield and protection. It warns us specially against the secret whispers of evil within our own hearts.

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In the name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. 1. Say: I seek refuge6307

With the Lord And Cherisher of Mankind,6308 2. The King (or Ruler) Of Mankind, 3. The God (or JUdge) Of Mankind,4. From the mischief Of the Whisperer6309 (Of Evil), who withdraws (After his whisper),5. Who whispers Into the hearts of Mankind,-

6307. The previous Sura pointed to the necessity of seeking Allah's protection against external factors which might affect an individual. Here the need of protection from internal factors, mankind being viewed as a whole, is pointed out. For this reason the threefold relation in which man stands to Allah is mentioned, as explained in the next note. 6308. Man's relation to Allah may be viewed in three aspects: (1) Allah is his Lord, Maker, and Cherisher; Allah sustains him and cares for him; He provides him with all the means for his growth and development, and for his protection against evil; (2) Allah is his king or ruler; more than any earthly king, Allah has authority to guide man's conduct, and lead him to ways which will make for his welfare; and He has given him laws; and (3) Allah is He to Whom mankind must return, to give an account of all their deeds in this life (ii. 156); Allah will be the Judge; He is the goal of the Hereafter, and the only Being entitled to man's worship at any time. From all these aspects man could and should seek Allah's protection against evil. 6309. Evil insinuates itself in all sorts of insidious ways from within so as to sap man's will, which was given to man by Allah. This power of evil may be Satan, or evil men or the evil inclinations within man's own will: for there are "evil ones among men and Jinns, inspiring each other with flowery discourses by way of deception" (vi. 112). They secretly whisper evil and then withdraw, to make their net the more subtle and alluring.

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6310. This last clause amplifies the description of the sources from which the whisper of evil may emanate: they may be men whom you may see or invisible spirits of evil working within. See lut note. So long u we put ourselves in Allah's protection, and trust in Allah, evil cannot reaDy touch us in our essential and inner life. Ii'

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INDEX

Abbreviations used in the Index App. = Appendix; Intra. = Introduction to Sura; n. = note; nn. = notes; p. = page; pp. = pages; S. = Sura. Aaron, 6: 84; 20:29-36, 90-94. 'Abasa, S. 80. Abbreviated Letters, App. I, pp. 134-137. Ablutions, 4:43; 5, 6. Abraham, fulfilled God's Commands, 2: 124; and Ka'ba, 2:125-127; 3:96, 97; religion of, 2:130, 135; not Jew or Christian, 3:67; nor Pagan, 3:95; rejects worship of heavenly bodies, 6;75-79; argues with sceptic, 2:258; argues with his father against idolatry, 6:74; 19:41-50; argues with his people against idols, 21:51-71; 26:70-82; 29:16-18, 24-25; 37:83-98; on life to the dead, 2:260; preaches to his people, 6:80-83; prays for father, 9:113-114; 26:86; sacrifice of son, 37:99-111; angels visit him to announce son, 11:69-73; 15:51-56; 51:24-30, pleads for Ui!'s people, 11:74-76; his prayer, 14:35-41; 26:83-87; a model, 16:120-123; safe in the fire, 21:69; Book of, 53:37; 87:19; n. 6094; his example in dealing with Unbelievers, 60:4-6. AbU Lahab (Father of Flame), 111:1-5; Intro. 1l1:p. 2025; n. 6294. 'Ad people, 7:65-72; n. 1040; 11:50-60; 25:38; 26:123-140; 29:38; 41:15-16; 46:21-26; 51:41-42; 54:18-21; 69:4-8; 89:6-14. Adam, creation, 2:30-34; fall, 2:35-39; 7:19路25; oil

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INDEX Adam (conld.) two sons (Abel and Cain), 5:27-31; tempted by Satan. 20:120-121. 'Adiydl, S. 100. Adjurations, Oaths and, in Qur=an. App. No.7: pp. 2004-2008 Admonition, 87:9-13; 88:21-26, Adultery. 17:32; 24:2-3, 4-10. A1?-qtif, S. 46. A1?-zab, S. 33. 'Aisha, n. 2962 to 24:11; n. 5529 to 66:1. Akala, n. 776 to 5:66; 13:35. A 'la, S. K7. 'A/aq, S. 96. A/-i'/mrdn, S. 3. 'Ali, J:ladhrat, Intro. 9: p. 494-495. Allah, see God. A~mad, coming prophesied, 61:6; n. 5438. 'An 'tim, S. 6. Anbiyda, S. 21. An/iii, S. 8. Angels, plea to God, 2:30-34; Gabriel and Micha:l, 2:97-98; not sent except for just cause, 15:7-8; sent for warning to men, 16:2; the impious and the angels, 25:21-22; on the Day of Judgment, 25:25; as messengers with wings, 35:1; pray for forgiveness for all on earth, 42:5, n. 4531. unbelievers give female names to, 53:27; and the Spirit ascend to God, 70:4; on errands of justice and mercy, 79:1-5; to protect men, 82:10-12; recording angels, 50:17-18. Animals, form communities, 6:38; serve man, 16:5-8; dumb animals, duty to, n. 5839 to 76:8. AnkabiU, S. 29. Allfiir, D. 5383 to 59: 9; n. 5474 to 63:7. Apes, transgressors become as, 2:65; 7:166.

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INDEX Apostates, 47:25. Apostles, see Prophets. Appendices: 1. Abbreviated Letters, pp. 134-137. 2. Tauriit, pp. 329-332. 3. lnjil pp. 333-335. 4. Tharndd Inscriptions at J:lijr, pp. 1087-1088. 5. First contact of Islam with world movements: contemporary Roman and Persian Empires, pp. 1198-1206. 6. Comparative chronology of the early years of Islam, pp. 1207-1208 7. Oaths and Adjurations in the Qur=an, pp. 2()()4.2008. A'riiJ, S. 7. 'A~r, S. 103. Assemblies, gradations of Muslim, n. 5461 to 62:9. Ayiit, see Signs of God. 'Aziz, an attribute of God, n. 2818 to 22:40; title of Egyptian nobleman, n. 1677 to 12:30. Badr (battle), 3:13; n. 352; lessons of. pp. 467-468; 8:5-19. 42-48. Baiyina, S. 98. Bakka (Makkah) 3:96. Bawd, S. 90. Balance, 42:17; 55:7-9; 57:25; 101. 6-9. Bani lsrii-il. S. 17. Band Nadhir, n. 5369; 49:2-6. Baptism of God, 2:138. Baqara, S. 2. Bartiat. S. 9. Barzakh, 23:100; n. 2940; 25:53; 55:20. Beast (of the Last Days). 27:82, n. 3313. Believers, fear God, 3:102; to fear nothing else, 10:67; hold together, 3:103; enjoin right and forbid wrong, 3:104, 110; protected from hann. 3:111; 5:105 protected by angels. 41:30-31; warned against Unbelievers, 3:118-120, 196; 9:23-24; 60:13; Ii

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INDEX

Believers (contd.) their lives sacred, 4:92-93; not to slight those who salute, 4:94; those who strive and fight, 4:95; 9:20-21, 88-89; if weak and oppressed, 4:97-100; not to sit where God's Signs are ridiculed, 4: 140; 6:68; to prefer Believers for friends, 4:144; 5:57-58; witnesses to fair dealing, 5:8; duties to God, 5:35; 66:8; not to ask inquisitive questions, 5:101-102; grades of dignity, 8:4; described, 8:2-4; 9:71, 111-112; 10:104-106; 13:20-24, 28-29; 23:1-11, 57-61; 28:53-55; 32:15-17; 42:36-39; 49:7, 15;

to be firm, 8:45; to obey and not lose heart, 8:46; not to be weary and faint-hearted, 47:35; affection between their hearts, 8:63; to conquer against odds, 8:65-66; adopt exile, fight for God (Muhiijir), 8:72, 74-75; help and give asylum (A"fiir) , 8:72; ask for no exemption from danger, 9:43-45; protect each other, 9:71; rejoice in their bargain, 9:111; 61:10-11; to be with those true in word and deed, 9:119; to study and teach, 9:122; will be established in strength, 14:27; to practise prayer and charity, 14:31; to say what is best, 17:53-55; to be heirs, to inherit Paradise, 23:10-11; promise to, 29:55-57; manners, 24:62-63; evil will be blotted out from, 29:7; their ills removed, 47:2; conduct, 33:69-71; 48:29; prayer for them by those round Throne of God, 40:7-9; not to despair or exult, 57:23; to make peace, 49:9; to avoid suspicion and spying, 49:12; to remember God in humility, 57:16; v

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Believers (contd.) sincere lovers of Truth and witnesses, 57:19; receive special Mercy, Light, and Forgiveness, 57:28; do what they say, 61:2-3; helpers to God's work, 61:14; trust in God, 64:13; persecuted, but will reach Salvation, 85:6-11. Bequest, 2:180. Birds, 67:19; Blasphemy, monstrous, to attribute begotten son to God, 19:88-92. Book (of record of deeds), 18:49; 36:12; 54:52-53. Book, (Revelation), is guidance sure, 2:2; to be studied, 2:121; (Qur-in), verses fundamental and allegorical, 3:7; (Qur-iin), light and guide, 5:15-16; People of the, 3:64-80, 98-99, 113-115, 187, 199; 4:47, 153-161; appeal to People of the, 5:59-60, 68; their hypocrisy, 5:61-63; forgiven if they had stood fast to their lights, 5:66; know but refuse to believe, 6:20; mother or foundation of the, 3:7; n. 347, 13:39; 43:4; for each period, 13:38; on a blessed Night, 44:3-4; from God, 46:2. See also Qur-dn. Revelation.

Booty, 48:15; see also Spoils of War. Brotherhood, one, of the Righteous, 21:92; of the Prophets, 23:52-54. Burdens, of others, none can bear, 6:164; 17:15; 29:12-13; 35:18; 39:7; 53:38; unbelievers will bear double, 16:25; no soul has burdens greater than it can bear, 2:286; 7:42; 23:62. Bunlj, S. 85. Cave of Thaur, 9:40; n. 1302. Cave, Companions of the, 18:9-22, 25-26. Certainty, three kinds, n. 5673 to 69:51; n. 6259 to 102:5.

- 2039-


INDEX

Certainty, 56:95. Charity, (zakat) 2:110,117, n. 179, 195, 215, 219, 254, 261-274, 3:134; 30:39; 57:18; 63:10; 64:16-17; objects of, 2:273; 9:60; meaning of, n. 5001 to 51:19. Children, 2:233; 42:49-50. Christ, see Jesus. Christians, 2:138-140; 5:14; who became Muslims, n. 3385 to 28:53; n. 3476 to 29:47; nearest in love to Islam, 5:82-85. Chronology of early years of Islam, App. No.6. Cities Overthrown, 69:9; n. 5644. Cleanliness, 4:43; 5:6. Commerce that will never fail, 35:29. Confederates, p. 1235; 33:9-20, 22-27. Consultation, mutual, 42:38, on. 4578-4579. Courtesy, 4:86. Covetousness, 3:180; 4:32; 57:24. Cowardice, 3: 122. Chronology, comparative, of early Islam, App. No.6, pp. 1207-1208 Creation, words for, n. 120; n. 916, n. 923; nn. 5405-5406; begins and repeated, 10:4; n. 1389; 27:64; 29:19-20, n. 3440; a new, 13:5; 14:48; 17:49, 98; 21:104, n. 2758; 35:16; for just ends, 15:85; 16:3; 44:39; 45:22; 46:3; doth obeisance to God, 16:48-50; not for sport, 21:16-17; of man, 23:12-14, nn. 1872-1874; in six Days, 7:54, n. 1031; 32:4, n. 3632; 57:4; variety in, 35:27-28; God commands 'Be' and it is, 2:117; 16:40; n. 2066; 36:82; 40:68; also n. 5164 to 54:50; in true proportions, 39:5; of heaven and earth greater than creation of man, 40:57, n. 4431; 79:27; purpose of 51:56-58. Criterion, 2:53, n. 68; 8:29; 21:48-50; 25:1. Dahr, S. 76. Dahr, 76:1. v

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INDEX David, 6:84; 21:78-80; 34:10-11; 38:17-26; fights Goliath, 2:251. Day, 7:54; n. 1031; 22:47; 32:4, 5, n. 3634; 41:12, n. 4477; 70:4; n. 5678. Dead will be raised to life, 6:36. Death, by God's leave, 3:145; inevitable, 3:185; 4:78; confusion of the wicked, 6:93-94; angels reproach Unbelievers, 8:50-54; in death the transgressor will not die, 14:17; 20:74; 87:13; for wrong doers, 16:28-29; for righteous, 16:30-32; taste of, 3:185, n. 491; 21:35; n. 2697; 29:57; n. 3490; first, 37:59; not the end of all things, 45:24-26; and changed form thereafter, 56:60-61; scene at, 56:83-87; 75:26-29; sincere men flee not from death, 62:6-8. Degrees, according to good and evil done, 6:132. Despair, deprecated, 3:139, 146; not of the Mercy of God, 39:53. Desert Arabs, 9:90-99, 101-106; 48:11-12, 16; 49:14. Desertion in fight, 4:89-91. Determinism, n. 5996 to 81:28-29. DlUlri, 88:6. DhulJti, S. 93. Differences, decision with God, 42:10. Difficulty, with every, there is relief, 94:5-8. Discipline, 3:152; 61:4. Discord, incited by Evil, 41:36. Disease in the hearts of Hypocrites and Unbelievers, 2:10; 5:52; 8:49; 9:125; 22:53; 24:50; 33:12, 32, 60; 47:20, 29; 74:31. Disputations deprecated, 29:46. Distribution of property taken from the enemy; an/til, if after fighting, 8:41; /ai if without fighting, 59:7-8, n. 5379. Distribution of Charity, 2: 177. Divorce, 2:228-232, 236-237, 241; 65:Intro. 1-7; see also 4:35. See also ~ihiir v

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Dower, 2:229, 236-237; 4:4, 19-21, 25. Du!!liin, S. 44. "Earn" (kasaba) , meaning n. 3626 to 31:34. Earth, will be changed to a different Earth, 14:48; n. 1925; prepared for God's creatures, 15:19-20; 26:7; n:25-28; spacious is God's Earth, 29:56; n. 3489; manageable for man, 67:15; convulsion of, a symbol, 99:1-6. Eating (akala) = enjoyment, 5:66, n. 776; 77:43, 46, n. 5886. Elephant, Companions of the, Intro. 105, 105:1-5. Elias (Elijah), 6:85; n. 905; 37:123-132. Elisha, 6:86; 38:48. Evidence, re transactions, 2:282-283; re bequests, 5:106-108; re charges against chaste women, 24:4-10 Evil, 4:51-55, 123; 10:27-30; 26:221-226; 42:36-39; comes from ourselves, but good from God, 4:79; makes fools of men, 6:71; recompensed justly, 6:160; not external. but a taint of the soul, nn. 1948-1949 to 15:15-16; wiJJ destroy Evil, 19:83; will come to evil end, 30:10; deceives evil, 59:15-17; repel evil with good, 13:22; 23:96; 41:34. Evil Spirit, rejected, accursed, 3:36; 15:17; 16:98; Excess forbidden, in food, 5:87; in religion, 4:171; 5:77-81. Eyes, ears, and skins will bear witness against sinners, 41:20-23, nn. 4487-4490. Ezekiel, n. 2743 to 21:85. 'Face' of God, 2:112, 272; nn. 114, 321; 6:52; 13:22; 18:28; 28:88; 30:39; 55:27; n. 5189. Faith, rejecters of, 2:6-7, 165-167; 3:4, 10, 12, 21-22, 90-91, 116, 181-184; 4:136, 137, 167-168; ransom not accepted, 5:36-37; follow ancestral ways, 5:104; destroyed, 6:6; ask for angel to be sent down,

- 2042-


7',

INDEX

Faith, Rejectors of (contd.) lie against their own souls, 6:24; will see Truth in Hereafter, 6:28-30; will be in confusion, 6:110; hearts inclined to deceit, 6:113; taste evil result of conduct, 64:5-6; their way and worship repudiated, 109:1-6; signs of, 2:165, 285; sellers of, 3:77, 177; strengthened in danger and disaster, 3: 173; and righteousness, 5:69; followed by unbelief, 16:106-109; seven jewels of, n. 2870 to 23:9; and charity, 57:7-11. Fajr, S. 89. Fa1lIq, S. 113. False gods, 7:194-198; n. 1167; 16:20-21; 21:22, 24; 34:22-27; 41:47-48; 46:5-6; 53:19-24; 71:23-24. Falsehood perishes, 21:18; deludes, 51:8-11. Famines in Makkah, 23:75, n. 2921; 44:10, n. 4696. Fasting, 2:184-185, 187. Fate, man's fate on his own neck, 17:13, n. 2187. Fat-~, S. 48. FatilJa, S. 1. Fi~ma, Hadhrat, Intro. S. 33; n. 3715 to 33:33. Fii!;r, S. 35. Fatra, Intro 73. Fear of God, what is, 2:2, n. 26; 98:8, n. 6234; as He should be feared, 3:102, n. 427; command to People of the Book and Muslims, 4:131; piety and restraint (Taqwa) , 47:17; unseen, 67:12, n. 5569; of His displeasure, 70:27, n. 5692; righteousness, 74:56, n. 5808. Fear of men, 4:77. Fear no evil, 3:175. Fear as motive for reclamation, 2:74, n. 82; n. 4267 to 39:16; in Signs of God, 17:59, n. 2247,

- 2043-


INDEX

Fear, none for the Righteous, 2:38; or for Believers, 2:62; or those who submit to God, 2:112; or who spend for God, 2:262, 274; or who believe and do good, 2:271; 5:69; or who believe and amend, 6:48; 7:35; or for friends of God, 10:62; or for God's devotees, 43:68; or for those who remain firm in God, 46:13. Fig, 95:1. Fighting, in cause of God, 2:190-193; 4:84; prescribed, 2:216; 2:244; in Prohibited month, 2:217; by Children of Israel, 2:246-251; in cause of God and oppressed men and women, 4:74-76; till no more, 8:39; against odds, 8:65; in case of,9:5-6; 12, 13-16; those who believe not, and reject Truth, 9:29; with firmness, 9:123; permitted to those who are wronged, 22:39-41; when, and tin when, 47:4; and the faint-hearted, 47:20; exemptions from, 48:17. Fil, S. 105. F1re, parable, 2:17-18; God's gift, 56:72-73. Fire, see Hell. Food, lawful and unlawful, 2:168, 172-173; 5:1, 3-5, 87-88; 6:118-119, 121, 145-146; 16:114-118; less important than righteousness, 5:93. Forbidden, conduct, 6:151-152; 7:33; not things clean and pure, 7:32. Forgiveness, 2:109; 4:48, 110, 116; 7:199; 39:53; 42:5; 45:14 53:32; 57:21; duty of Believers, 42:37, 40; 45:14; Forgiveness, by Believers, for people of the Book, 2:109; words for, n. 110 to 2:109; by God, for sins other than joining gods with God, 4:48, 110, 116; 11

-2044-

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INDEX Forgiveness (conld.) hold to, and command the right, 7:199; God forgives all sins, 39:53; angels pray for forgiveness of aU beings on earth, 42:5; forgive, even when angry, 42:37; and reconciliation, 42:40; Believers to forgive those who do not look forward to the days of God, 45:14; God forgives those who avoid great sins and shameful deeds, 53:32; be foremost in seeking, 57:21; Fraud, 83:1-6. Free-will, to train human will, n. 599 to 4:70-80; in God's Plan, n. 935 to 6:107; no compulsion to believe, 10:99, n. 1480; Truth offered, to be accepted or rejected 18:29, n. 2731; limited by God's Will, 74:56; 76:29-31, nn 5860-5862; 81:28-29, n. 5996; just bias, 82:7, n. 6004. Friday Prayers, 62:9-11. Friends, 3:28. Fruits and eating, meaning of 43:73, nn. 4671-4672; 47:15, n. 4834; n:42-43, nn. 5884-5886. Furqtin, S. 25. Gabriel, 2:97, 98; n. 3224 to 26:193; 66:4; n. 5988路89 to 81:19-21. Gambling, 2:219; 5:90. Game, not to be killed in Sacred Precincts, 5:94-96. Qdshiya, S. 88. Glad Tidings to men, 2:25; 5:19; 16:89; 48:8; etc. God, Cherisher, 1:2; 6:164; Guardian-Lord, 2:21-22; as a Guardian on a Watch-Tower, 89:14; protector, 2:257; 3:150; 22:78; sets guardians over man, 6:61; Helper, 3:150; 4:45; 40:51; help of, how to be celebrated, 110:1-5; refuge to Him from all ills and mischiefs, 113:1-5; 114:1-6; Creator of all, 2:29, 117; 6:73;

路2045 -


lNDEX God (contd.) creates and sustains all, 7:54; 11:6-7; 13:16-11; 21:30-33; 66:2-3; created all nature, 25:61-62; to Him belongs the heritage of the heavens and the earth, 3:180; 15:23; 19:40, n. 2492. gives Sustenance, 29:60-62; 51:58; Lord of Bounties. 3:174; His Bounties open to all. 17:20-21; Most Bountiful. 96:3; Merciful, 4:26; 5:74; 6:12, 54, 133; Most Kind, 9:117-118; Full of loving kindness, 85:14; Beneficent, 52:28; His love bestowed on the Righteous. 19:96; Forgiving, 4:25, 26; 5:74; 15:49; 16:119; 39:53; 85:14; guides, 6:71. 88; 92:12; ordains laws and grants guidance, 87:3; calls to Home of Peace, 10:25; God, His favours. Gardens and fruits, 6:141; cattle. 6:142; mercy after adversity. 10:21; traverse through land and sea, 10:22; in life and death. 10:31, 56; 22; Cherisher and Sustainer, 10:32; direction, healing, guidance, mercy, 10:57; gifts from heaven and earth, 14:32-33; numberless, 14:34; 16:18; cattle and things ye know not. 16:5-8; rain. com, and fruit. 16:10-11; night and day. sun. moon and stars, gifts from heaven and earth, 16:12-13; sea and ships, 16:14; 17:66; mountains. rivers. roads, 16:15路16; cattle and fruits. 16:66-67; the Bee, 16:68-69; bestowed variously; be grateful, 16:71-73; in our birth, our faculties and affections. 16:77-78; in our homes and in the service of animals. 16:80-81; subjection of earth and sea, 22:65.

-2046-


INDEX

v v v 路2047 -


INDEX God, His favour (contd.) expanded thy breast, 94:1. removed thy burden, 94:2; raised high thy esteem, 94:4; God, present everywhere, 2:115; 7:7; gave you life, 2:28; 6:122; gives life and death, 3:156; 6:95; 15:23; takes the souls of men, 39:42; to Him go back aU questions for decision, 3:109, 128; to Him tend all affairs, 42:53, n. 4603; to Him is the Goal, 53:42; to Him is the return of aU, 96:8; Unity, 2:163; 6:19; 16:22; 23:91-92; 37:1-5; 38:65-68; 112:1-4; One, not one in a Trinity, 5:72; nor one of two, 16:51; no begotten son, 2:U6; 6:100; 10:68; 19:35; 23:91; nor consort nor daughters, 6:100-101; 16:57; 37:149-157; 43:16-19; no partners, 6:22-23, 136-137, 163; Wise, 4:26; 6:18; best Disposer of Affairs, 3:173; 73:9; Most High, Great, 4:34; 87:1; Irresistible, 6:18, 61; Doer of all He intends, 85:16; power, 2:284; 3:29; 6:12-13, 65; 10:55; 16:77-81; 53:42-54; 85:12-16; self-Sufficient, 6:133; Ready to appreciate service, 14:5; 35:30; 64:7; Most Forbearing, 2:225, 235, 263; 3:155; 5:101; 22:59; 64:17; Wisest of Judges, 95:8; Justice, 21:47; never unjust, 4:40; Best of planners, 3:54; 13:42; will separate evil from good, 3:179; His Wrath, 1:7; 7:97-99; quick in retribution, but forgiving and merciful, 7:167; 13:6; Swift in taking account, 24:39; Best to decide, 10:109;

-2048-


INDEX God (contd.) Best of those who show mercy, 23:109, 118; Most Merciful of those who show mercy, 7:151; 12:64, 92; 21:83; decision with Him, 42: 10; Exalted in power, Wise, 31:9; 39:1; Free of all wants, 31:26; 35:15; Worthy of all praise, 31 :26; Ample in forgiveness, 53:32; living, 2:255; 40:65: Eternal, 2:255: 20:111: His Artistry, 27:88, n. 3319 His Face will abide for ever, 55:27: all will perish except His own Self, 28:88: His knowledge, 2:284; 3:5, 29; 6:3, 117; 13:8-10; 16:23; 21:4; 31:34; 34:2; 64:4; His dominion, 3:189; 4:126; 5:120: 67:1: Command rests with him, 6:57; 13:41; Lord of the Throne of Glory Supreme, 9:129; 23:86: 40:15; 85:15; Lord of the Throne of Honour, 23:16; Lord of the heaven and earth, 16:77; Lord of Power, 51:58, n. 5034; Lord of the two Easts and the two Wests, 55:17; 70:40; 73:9; Lord of the Dawn, 113:1; n. 6302: Lord of the Ways of Ascent, 70:3: God in heaven and God on earth, 43:84; To Him belong the End and the Beginning, 92: 13; listens to prayer, 2:186; sends calm or tranquillity, 3:154; 9:26: 48:4, 18, 26; purges, 3:141, 154; tests, 3:142, 154, 166; 6:53; 29:2-5; 67:2; sees all, 3: 163: sufficeth, 3:173; 8:64; 39:36; 65:3; will lighten difficulties, 4:28: sanctifies, 4:49: recognises all good, 4:147; will accept from the Good the best of their deeds, and pass by their ill deeds. 29:7; 46:16; removes affliction. 6:17; deUvers from dangers. 6:63-64;

路2049 -


INDEX

God (contd.) sends revelations, 6:91; orders aU things, 6:95·99; gives Light to men, 6:122; His Light will be perfected, 9:32-33; 61 :8; is the Light of heavens and earth, 24:35-36; changes not His Grace unless people change themselves, 8:53; 13:11; will not mislead, 9: 115; suffers not reward to be lost, 9:120-121; 11:115, sufferers in His Cause to be rewarded, 16:41-42; doth provide without measure, 24:38; witnesses all things, 10:61; understands the finest mysteries, 67:14; will show them the truth of their conduct meaning, n. 5340 to 58:6;

nature of, 2:255; 3:2-3, 6, 18; 6:95-103; 25:2-3, 6; 32:2-9; 40:2-3; 43:84-85; 57:1-6; 59:22-24; 112:1-4; nn. 6296, 6300; 114:1-3; n. 6308; close to man, 2:186; ever near, 34:50; near to man, 50:16; 56:85; compasses mankind round about, 17:60; with you wherever ye may be, 57:4; only Reality, 6:62; 31 :30; the Truth, 20:114; to Him belong the Forces of heavens and earth, 48:7; decrees unalterable, 6:34; 18:27; His word finds fulfilment, 6:115; no vision can grasp Him, 6:103; most beautiful names, 7:180; 17:110; 20:8; 59:24; worship of, 2:114, 152; to be worshipped and trusted, 11:123; sincere devotion due to Him, 39:3, 11; 40: 14; we trust in Him, 67:29; His promise is true, 4:122; 14:47; seek His Face, 6:52 ; 18:28; dedicate life to Him, 6:162; call on Him humbly, with fear and longing, 7:55-56; forget Him not, 59:19; to God, tum thy attention, 94:8;

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INDEX

God (Contd.) all Creation speaks of Him, 13:12-13; 17:44; 24:41-46; 57:1; praise and glory to Him, 1:1; 17:111; 30:17-19, 34:1; 37:180-182; 45:36-37; 55:78; 56:74, 96; 59:1; 61:1; 62:1; 64:1; 87:1; and His Signs, 10:J.6; 13:2-4; see Signs of God; His Command must come to pass, 16:1; His command is but a single Act, 54:50, and n. 5164; all good from Him, 16:53; what He commands, 16:90-91; what is with Him will endure, 16:96; His words inexhaustible, 18:109; 31:27; rejecters of, will not injure God, 47:32; rejecter of, described, 50:24-26; who are His servants, 25:63-76; those most devoted to God, 92:17-21; claim to exclusive friendship of, condemned, 62:6; "so please God," 18:23-24. Golden Rule, n. 6011 to 83:1. Goliath, 2:249-251. Good, rewarded double, 4:40; rewarded ten times, 6:160; increased progressively, 42:23. Good and Evil, 4:79, 85. Good for evil, 23:96; 28:54; 41:34; n. 4504. Gospel, 5:47; App. No.3, pp. 333-335. Ifadid, S. 57. I;Iaf~a and 'Aisha, n. 5529 to 67:1.

I;Iajj, see Pilgrimage. Ifajj, S. 22. Haman, 28:6, 38; 29:39; 40:36-37. /fii-Mim, S. 41. Hands and feet will bear witness against sinners, 36:65, n. 4011. Ifiiqqa, S. 69 Hiriit, 2:102. /fashr, S. 59. Heaven, as gardens, in nearness to God, rivers flowing, eternal home, 3:15, 198; Maidens pure and holy, cool shades, 4:57;

路2051 -


INDEX

Heaven (conld.) for righteous deeds, 4:124; truthfuJ to profit from truth; gardens with flowing rivers; eternal home; God weD pleased with them, and they with God; the great Salvation, 5:119; no lurking sense of injury in hearts, 7:43; mercy from God, Good Pleasure, Gardens, eternity, 9:21-22; Gardens, mansions, Good Pleasure of God, 9:72; Gardens, fountains, peace and security, no lurking sense of injury, nor fatigue, 15:45-48; Gardens of Eternity, rivers, adornments, thrones, 18:31; 22:23; Gardens of Eternity, no vain discourse, peace, sustenance, 19:61-63; Gardens as hospitable homes, 32:19; Gardens of eternity; adornments; sorrow removed; no toil or weariness, 35:33-35; joy; associates; cool shade; couches; alI they caIl for; Peace, 36:55-58; fruits; honour and dignity; gardens; couches; cup; chaste women, 37:41-49; final return, gardens of eternity, ease, fruit and drink, chaste women; 38:49-52; lofty mansions, rivers, 39:20; garden, peace, eternity, angels singing, 39:73-75; meads of gardens; alI they wish for; Bounty, 42:22; no fear nor grief; Gardens; rejoicing; dishes and goblets of gold; eternity; satisfaction, 43:68-73; security, gardens and springs, adornments, companions, fruit, no further death; supreme achievement, 44:51-57; parable of garden, rivers, Grace from God, 47:15; Garden; peace and security; more than all they wish; In Our Presence, 50:31-35; Garden, happiness, food and drink; couches; maidens; families; service, 52:17-24; Gardens and Rivers; Assembly of Truth; Presence of Sovereign Omnipotent, 54:54-55; Gardens, Springs, Fruits, Carpets, Chaste maidens, 55:46-17; nearest to God; Gardens; couches; Service; Fruits and Meat; Companions; no frivolity nor taint of 111; Peace, 56:11-38; nearest to God; Rest and Satisfaction; Garden of Delights; Companions; Salutation of Peace, 56:88-91;

- 2052-


INDEX Heaven (conld.) Light runs before them; Gardens; Eternity; Highest Achievement, 57:12; Bliss; Garden; Fruits. 69:21-24; Cup; Fountain of Abundance, 76:5-6; Garden; Adornments; Couches; No Excess of Heat or Cold; Shades; Cup; Fountain; Service; Realm Magnificent, 76:5-22; Fulfilment of heart's desires; Gardens; Companions; Cup; no-Vanity or Untruth, 78:31-35; Garden, 79:41; Thrones (Couches); In their faces the Beaming Brightness of Bliss, Pure Wine; Spring, 83:22-28; Joy; Striving; Garden; no-Vanity; Spring; Couches; Cushions; Carpets, 88:8-16; Rest and Satisfaction; coming back to God; well-pleased and wellpleasing to Him; among God's Devotees; God's Heaven, 89:27-30; Gardens of Eternity; Rivers; God well pleased with them, and they with Him, 98:8; in its highest sense. n. 6174 to 92:17-20; salutation in, 10:10; 15:46; 56:91; "My Heaven," said by God, 89:30, n. 6129. Hell. skins roasted and renewed, 4:56; of no profit are hoards and arrogant ways, 7:48; for such as took religion to be amusement, and were deceived by the life of the world, 7:51; filled with jinns and men, 11:119; drink. boiling fetid water. 14:16-17; Death will come, but will not die, 14:17; fetters, liquid pitch, faces covered with Fire, 14:49-50; garment of Fire, boiling water. maces of iron, 22:19-22; Blazing fire. furious, 25:11-12; Sinners bound together; will plead for destruction, but the destruction will be oft-repeated. 25:13-14; Punishment to cover them from above and below, 2S:55; Fire, wicked forced into it every time they wish to get away, 32:20; men repeatedly warned, 36:63; Tree of Zaqqum, and boiling water, 37:62-67; 44:43-48; 56:52-55; to bum in Hell and taste of boiling fluid; and other Penalties, 38:55-58;

- 2053-


HeU (con/d.)

INDEX

Unbelievers led in crowds; previously warned; abode of the arrogant; 39:71-72; dispute and self-recrimination, 40:47-50; to dweU for aye; punishment not lightened; overwhelming despair, 43:74;

God not unjust; sinners unjust themselves, 43:76; capacity unlimited, 50:30; Sinners known by their marks, 55:41; Hell, which they denied; boiling water, 55:43-44; Blast of Fire, Boiling Water, Shades of Black Smoke, 56:42-44; drawing in its breath, bursting with fury, 67:6-8; record in left hand; vain regrets, 69:25路29; seize him, bind him, bum him, make him march in a chain, 69:30-37;

naught doth it permit to endure, and naught doth it leave alone, 74:26-29;

Over it are Nineteen, 74:30-31; a place of ambush; destination for transgressors; to dwell therein for ages; taste there nothing cool nor drink, save boiling fluid, or intensely cold, 78:21-25; Day when hell-fire shaU be placed in full view, 79:35路39; stain on sinners' hearts; Light of God veiled from them; enter the Fire, 83:14-16; faces humiliated, enter the Fue; drink boiling water; food bitter D1Illri, 88:2-7; brought face to face; will then remember; chastisement and bonds, 89:23-26;

bottomless Pit; fire blazing fiercely, 2:9-11; That which Breaks to Pieces; wrath of God, 104:4-9; they will neither die nor live, 20:74; 87:13; to it are seven Gates, 15:44, n. 19n; is it eternal? n. 951 to 6:128; 11:107, n. 1608; who will pass over it? 19:71, n. 2518; 102:6. Hereafter, not a falsehood, 6:31; man must meet God, 6:31, Home in the 6:32; Wrath of God, 6:40-41; 12:107; Home of Peace, 6:127; wrong-doers will not prosper, 6:135;

-2054-


INDEX

Hereafter (contd.) prophets and those to whom Message was sent will be questioned, 7:6; deeds will be balanced, 7:8-9; no intercession for those who disregarded Hereafter, 7:53; Fire and Garden endure, except as God wills, 11:107-108; the arrogant and the weak in the, 14:21; wrong-doers will ask for respite, 14:44-46; Home of the, 28:83; 29:64; better than silver and gold, 43:33路35; denied by men, 50:12-14; better than the present, 93:4. Hijr, see Rocky Tract. Hijr, S. 15. Hijra dates, App. No.6. pp. 1207-1208. J:limyarites, nn. 3263, 3264 and 4715. Houses, manners about entering, 24:27-29. Hud, 7:65-72; 11:50-60; 26:123路140; 46:21-26. Had, S. 11. l:Iudaibiya, Intra. 48; Intra. 60, n. 5422. Ifujurtil, S. 49. Humaza, S. 104. Humility, 6:42-43; 7:161; 57:16; shadows show humility to God, 13:15; 76:14. l;Iunain, 9:25-26; n. 1274. J:liir, companions in heaven, 44:54, no. 4728-29; 52:20, n. 5053. Hypocrites, do not believe in God and the Last Day, 2:8; deceive themselves, 2:9; disease in their hearts, 2:10; make mischief, 2:11-12; fools and mockers, 2:13路15; barter guidance for error, 2:16; deaf, dumb, and blind, 2:17-18; in terror and darkness, 2:19-20; dazzling speech; led by arrogance, 2:204-206; refuse to fight, 3:167-168; resort to evil; turn away from Revelation; come when seized by misfortune; to be kept clear of and admonished, 4:60-63; tarry behind in misfortune; wish to share good fortune, 4:70-73;

vvvvvvvvvvvvv - 2OS5 -


INDEX

Hypocrites (contd.) thrown out of the way; reject Faith; renegades; to be seized and slain, 4:88-89; wait events; think of overreaching God; distracted in mind, 4:141-143; in lowest depths of Fire; no helper, 4:145; afraid of being found out, 9:64-65; understanding with each other; perverse; curse of God, 9:67-69; not to be taken as friends, 58:14-19; liars and deceivers, cowards, 59:11-14; liars; screen misdeeds with oaths, 63:1-4. Iblis (see also Satan), 2:34; 7:11-18; 15:31-44; 17:61-65; 18:50, 20:116-123; 38:71-85. Ibrahim, see Abraham. Ibrahim, S. 19. 'Iddat, 2:228, 231-232, 234-235; 33:49; 65:4, 6-7. Idris, 19:56-57; 21:85. IMllas, S. 112. 'IIliyiin, 83:18-21. Immorality, 4:15-18. 'Imran, family of 3:35. Inji{ar, S. 82. Inheritance, 2:180, 240; 4:7-9, 11-12, 19, 33, 176; 5:1()6:.108. Injil, App. No.3. pp. 333-335. Injury, forgiveness or self-defence, 42:39-43. lnsan, S. 76. Inshiqiiq, S. 84. InshiTiilJ, S. 94. Inspiration, 17:85-87; 40:15; 42:3, 7, 51-53. Intercession, 6:51, 70; 10:3; 19:87; 39:44; 43:86; 53:26. Intoxicants, see Wine. lqraa. S. 96. Iram, 89:7. Isaac, 6:84; 21:72; 37:112-113. Islam, described, n. 434 to 3:110; nn. 4547-48 to 42:15; to be first to bow in, 6:14, 163; 39:12; vanguard of, 9:100; heart opened to, 39:22; a favour and privilege, 49:17. v' y 'y

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- 2056-

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INDEX

Ismii'il, 2:125-129; 6:86; 19:54-55; 21:85. Israel, Children of, 2:40-86; favours, 2:47-53; 2:60, 122; 45:16-11; contumacy, 2:54-59, 61, 63-14; 5:71; 7:138-141; their relations with Muslims, 2:15-19; their arrogance, 2:80, 88, 91; their Covenants, 2:83, 86, 93, 100; 5:12-13, 73; their love of this life, 2:96; ask for a king, 2:246-251; divided and rebellious, 1:161-171; twice warned, 17:4-8; no. 2114-2182; delivered from enemy, 20:80-82; origin of the name, n. 3441 to 29:21; given Book and Leaders, 32:23-25; 40:53-54; the learned among them knew the Qur-an to be true, 26:191, n. 3227. Jacob, 2:132-133; 6:84; 19:49, n. 2501; 21:12. Jdthiya, S. 45.

Jesus, a righteous prophet, 6:85; birth, 3:45-47; 19:22-33; apostle to Israel, 3:49-51; disciples, 3:52-53; 5:111-115; taken up, 3:55-58; 4:157-159; like Adam, 3:59; not crucified, 4:151; no-more than apostle, 4:171; 5:75; 43:59, 63-64; not God, 5:17, 75; sent with Gospel, 5:46; not son of God, 9:30; Message and miracles, 5: 110; 19:30-33; prays for Table of viands, 5:114; taught no false worship, 5:116-118; disciples declare themselves Muslims, 5: III ; mission limited, n. 1861 to 13:38; followers have compassion and mercy, 57:27; disciples as God's helpers, 61:14; as a Sign, 23:50; 43:61; prophesied ~mad, 61 :6. Jews, will listen to falsehood, 5:41-42;

v - 2051-

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INDEX

Jews (contd.) utter blasphemy, 5:64; enmity to Islam, 5:82; who became Muslims, n. 3227 to 26:197; n. 3385 to 28:53; n. 3476 to 29:47; and Christians, 2:140; 4:153-161, 171; 5:18 See also Israel, Children of. Jihad, n. 1270 to 9:20; see also Fighting; Striving. Jinn, S. 72. Jinns, 6:100; n. 929; 15:27; 34:41; 46:29-32; 55:15; 72:1-15. Job, 6:84; 21:83-84; 38:41-44. John (the Baptist), see Yal}ya. Jonah (or Jonas, or Yiinus), 4:163; 6:86; 10:98; n. 1478; 37:139-148; n. 4119; (~un·niin) 21:87; n. 2744; 68:48-50; (Companion of the Fish). Joseph, 6:84; his story, 12:4-101; his vision, 12:4-6; jealousy of his brothers, 12:7-10; their plot, 12:11-18; sold by his brethren, 12:19-20; bought by 'Aziz of Egypt, 12:21; tempted by 'Aziz's wife, 12:22-29; her ruse, 12:3~34; in prison, 12:35-42; interprets King's vision, 12:43-54; established in power, 12:55-57; his dealings with his brethren, 12:58-93; reunion of whole family, 12:94-101; Judgment, must come, 6:51; 6:128; 34:3-5; 40:59; 51:5-6, 12-14; 52:7·10; 56:1-7; 64:7-10; 95:7; will come suddenly, 7:187; 36:48-50; as the twinkling of an eye, 16:77; 54:50; Hour known to God alone, 33:63; 67:26; 79:42-46; is near, 54:1-5; n. 5914 to 78:40; men will be sorted out into three classes, 56:7-56; Foremost in Faith, nearest to God, 56:11-26; Companions of Right Hand, 56:27-40; :fj

- 2058-


INDEX

Judgment (contd.) Companions of Left Hand, 56:41-56; Lesser Judgment, 75:22-30; n. 5822; n. 5914 to 78:40; the Great News, 78:1-5; deniers of, U17:1-7. Judgment Day, full recompense only then, 3:185; earth changed, and men gathered; Book of Deeds, 18:47-49; men surge lite waves; trumpet blown; Unbelievers will see and hear, 18:99-101; sectarian differences to be solved; Distress for lack of Faith 19:37-39 rejecters of the message will bear a grievous burden, 20:100-101; tumpet will sound; sinful in terror; interval will seem short, 20:102-104; they will follow the Caller; trump of their feet; all sounds humbled, 20:108; no Intercession except by permission, 20:109; no fear for the righteous, 20:112; rejecters will be raised up blind, 20:124-127; scales of Justice, 21:47; True Promise will approach fulfilment; sobs of Unbelievers; the Good will suffer no grief, 21:97-103; heavens will be rolled up like a scroll; new creation, 21:104; tem"ble oonvulsion; men in drunken riot; Wrath of God, 22:1-2; Trumpet is blown; Balance of Good Deeds, heavy or light, 23:101-104; Voice of Judgment, 23:105-111; Tune will seem short, 23:112-115; false worship will be exposed, 25:17-19; heavens rent asunder; angels sent down; Dominion wholly for God, 25:25-26; wrong-doer's regrets, 25:27-30; terror for evil-doers, not for doer of good, 27:83-90; guilty in despair, no Intercessor, 30:12-13; justice done, 36:51-54; joy and peace for the Good, 36:55-58; Day of Sorting Out, 30:14-16; 37:~21; Wrong-doers questioned; recriminations, 37:22-23; oontrast between the righteous, with sound hearts and those straying in evil, 37:88-102; II

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INDEX Judgment Day (contd.) Wrong-doers' arrogances, 37:33-36; retribution for evil, 37:37-39; felicity for servants of God, 37:40-61; Tree of zaqqlim, 37:62.()8; wrong-doers rushed on their fathers' footsteps, 37:69-74; trumpet; all in heaven and earth will swoon; second trumpet, renewed Earth will shine with God's Glory; recompense, 39:67-70; no intercession; justice and truth, 40:18-20; sudden; friends will be foes, except the righteous, 43:66-67; no fear on God's devotees, 43:68-69; dealers in falsehood to perish; righteous to obtain Mercy, 45:27-35; not to be averted; Fire for the false and the triflers, 52:7-16; wrong-doers swoon in terror, 52:45-47; Caller to a terrible affair, 54:6-8; no defence for the evil; known by their Marks, 55:35-44; mutual gain and loss, 64:9-10; Shin to be laid bare, 68:42-43; trumpet; Great Event; Angels will bear the Throne; nothing hidden; Good and Evil recompensed, 69:13-37; sky like molten brass; no friend will ask after friend; no deliverance for evil, 70:8, 18; wicked will issue from sepulchres in haste, 70:43-44; Will know reality, not known whether near or far, 72:24-25; children hoary-headed; sky cleft asunder; 73:17-18; trumpet; Day of Distress for those without Faith, 74:8-10; stars become dim; apostles collect; sorting out, 77:7-15; woe to Rejecters of Truth. 77:29-50; sorting out; Trumpet; heavens opened; mountains vanish, 78:17-20. Spirit and Angels stand forth; Day of Reality, 78:38-40; commotion and agitation, 79:6-9; single Cry. 79:13-14; Deafening Noise; no one for another; some Faces beaming; some dust-stained, 80:33-42; sun, stars. mountains. outer nature change; souls sorted out; World on High unveiled, 81:1-14; sky cleft asunder; stars and Oceans scattered; Graves turned upside down; each soul will know its deeds, 82:1-5;

路2060 -


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Judgment Day (contd.) no soul can do aught for another, 82:17-19; sky and earth changed; man ever toiling on towards his Lord; Record of Good or ru, 84:1-15; things secret tested, 86:9-10; Overwhelming Event; Faces humiliated and Faces joyful, 88:1-16; Earth pounded to powder; Lord cometh; hen and heaven shown, 89:21-30; Earth in convulsion; man in distress; sorted out, 99:1-8; Contents of graves scattered abroad; of human breasts made manifest; Lord wen acquainted, 100:9-11; Noise and Oamour; Good and Evil rewarded, 101:1-11; Judi, Mount, 11:44. Jumu'a, S. 62. Justice, 4:58, 65, 105, 135; 7:29; 16:90; 57:25. Ka'ba, built by Abraham, 2:125-127; no killing of game, 5:9"'96; asylum of security for men, 5:97. KIJ/iriln, S. 109. KlJjilr, Cup mixed with, 76:5. Kahf, S. 18. Kautlulr (Fount of Abundance), 108:1-2; n. 6286; Intra. 108. Kauthar, S. 108. Keys of heavens and earth, 39:63; 42:12. Khadija the Great, n. 3706 to 33:28; n. 6288 to 108:3. Khaibar expedition, n. 3705 to 33:27; Intra. S. 33. Khandaq, battle, Intro. S. 33; 33:9-20. Khaula, pleading woman, n. 5330 to 58:1. Kindred, rights of, 2:83, 177; 4:7-9, 36; 8:41; 16:90; 17:26; 24:22; 42:23. Knowledge (Certainty), n. 5673 to 69:51; 102:5-7; n. 6259; of five things, with God alone, 31:34, no. 3625, 3627.

lAhab, S. 111. Lail, S. 92. Languages, variations in man's-and colours, 30:22, n. 3527. Lat, 53:19. y

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- 2061 -


INDEX La[ff, n. 2844 to 22:63; D. 4552 to 42:19. "Leaves to stray", 14:4; 16:93, D. 2133; 39:23. Life sacred, 17:33. Life of this world, 6:32; 57:20. Light, manifest, 4:174; and Darkness, 6:1; parable of, 24:35-36; goes before and with Believers, 57:12-15; 66:8; provided by God, that Believers may walk straight, 57:28; of God, veiled from unbelievers, 83:15. Lingam, worship of, n. 4112 to 37:123. Loan, beautiful, to God, 2:245, n. 276; 57:11, 18; 64:17; 73:20. Loss (spiritual), 39:15. Lote-tree, 34:16; o. 3814; 53:14-18; o. 5093; 56:28. Luqmiin, 31:12; n. 3593; his teaching, 31:12-19. Luqmiln, S. 31. Lli! (Lot), 6:86; 7:80-84; o. 1049; l1:n-83; 15:57-n; 21:74-75; 26:160-175; 27:54-58; 29:26, 28-35; 37:133-138; 51:31-37; 54:33-39; his wife disobedieot, 11:81; 15:60; 66:10.

Mairib Dam, no. 3812-13 to 34:16. Ma'tJrij, S. 70. Madyan, 7:85-93; o. 1053; 11:84-95; 29:36-37. Magians (Majiis), 22:17, o. 2789.

MtlidD, S. 5. Man, vicegerent 00 earth. 2:30; 6:165; tested by God. 2:155; 3:186; 47:31; 57:25; things men covet. 3:14; duty. 4:1-36; 17:23-39; 29:8-9; 30:38; 31:33; 46:15; 70:22-35; created from clay, for a term, 6:2; 15:26; called to account. 6:44; will return to God. 6:60, 72; 10:45-46; confusion of the wicked at death. 6:93-94; plots against own soul. 6:123; 10:44; personal responsibility. 6:164; ungrateful, 7:10; 36:45-47; 74:15-25; 100:1-8; itvvvitililvvvililit

-2062-

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INDEX Man (contd.) warned against Satan, 7:27; knows of God, but misled by Evil, 7:172-175; and family life, 7:189-190; limited Free-wiD, 10:99, n. 1480; behaviour in and out of trouble, 10:12; 11:9-11; 16:53-55; 17:67-70; 29:10, 65-66; 30:33-34; 31:32; 39:8, 49; 41:49-51; 42:48; 89:15-16; God's spirit breathed into him, 15:29; lowly in origin, but blessed with favours, 16:4-8; 32:7-9; 35:11; 36:77-78; 76:1-3; 77:20-24; 80:17-32; 86:5-8; 96:2-5; prays for evil, 17:11; is given to hasty deeds, 17:11; 16:37; his fate fastened round his neck, 17:13; to be judged by his Record, 17:71; his physical growth, 22:5; 23:12-14; 40:67; death and resurrection, 23:15-16; tongues, hands, and feet wiD bear witness against men, 24:24; n. 2976; made from water, 25:54; relationships of lineage and marriage, 25:54; should submit Self to God, 31:22; not two hearts in one breast, 33:4; to worship God, 39:64-66; misfortunes, due to his deeds, 42:30; angels note his doings, 50:17-18, 23; his growth and activity depend on God, 56:57-74; to be created again after death in new forms, 56:60-61; riches and family may be a trial, 64:14-15; created and provided for by God, 67:23-24; 74:12-15; is impatient, 70:19-21; who wiD be honoured ones among men, 70:22-35; evidence against himself, 75:14-15; n. 5819; his arrogance, 75:31-40; 90:5-7; loves the fleeting world, 76:27; seduced from God, 82:6-12; painfuUy toiling on to God, 84:6; travels from stage to stage, 84:16-19; guilty of sins, 89:17-20; y

- 2063-

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INDEX Man (contd.) created into toil and struggle, 90:4;

gifted with faculties, 90:8-10; strives for diverse ends, 92:4-11; created in best of moulds, 95:4; abased unless he believes and does righteousness, 95:5-6; transgresses all bounds, 96:6-14. Manit, 53:20. Mankind, one nation, 2:213; 10:19; created from single pair, 4:1; 39:6; 49:13; transgress insolently, 10:23; heed not, though Reckoning near, 21:1-3; pattern according to which God has made mankind, 30:30; honour depends on righteousness, 49: 13. Manners, about entering houses, 24:27-29; in the home, 24:58-61; in the Prophet's presence, 29:62-63; 49:1-5; in the Prophet's houses, 33:53; to bless and salute the Prophet, 33:56; not to annoy Prophet or believing men or women; 33:57-58; require verification of news before belief, 49:6; among the community, 49:11; in assemblies, 58:11. Marriage, to unbelievers or slaves, 2:221; to how many, lawful, 4:3; dower not to be taken back (in case of divorce), 4:20-21; prohibited degrees, 4:22-24; if no means to wed free believing women, 4:25; if breach feared, two arbiters to be appointed, 4:35; if wife fears cruelty or desertion, amicable settJement, 4:128; tum not away from a woman, 4:]29; with cbaste ones among People of the Book, 5:5; of adulterers, 24:3; to those who are poor, 24:32; those who cannot afford marriage, to keep themselves chaste until God gives them means, 24:33; Prophet's Consorts, 33:28-29, 50-52; n. 3706 to 33:28; without cohabitation, no 'Iddat on divorce, 33:49; conditions for the Prophet, 33:50-52; n. 3706 to 33:28. v

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-2064-

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INDEX

Martyrs, not dead, 2:154; 3:169; rejoice in glory, 3:170-171; receive forgiveness and mercy, 3:157-158; will receive best Provision. 22:58-59. Manit, 2:102. Mary (mother of Jesus). birth. 3:35-37; annunciation of Jesus, 3:42-51; 4:156; 19:16-21; in child birth. 19:23-26; brought the babe to her people. 19:27路33; guarded her chastity, 21:91; 66:12. Maryam, S. 19. Mi'an. S. 107. Measure and weight, give full, 17:35; 83:1-3.

Mecca. (MAKKAH) Billa. 3:96; relation to Prophet, Intro, 90; 90:1-4; city of security. 95:3; n. 6197. Medina (Madinah). Intro. 33; 33:9-27; Intro. 90. Miracles, see Signs of God. Mi'raj. p. 772; 17:1. Mischief on land and sea, 30:41; of created things, 113:1-5; 114:4-6. Monasticism disapprOVed. 57:27; n. 5321. Months, number of, 9:35-37. Moses. and his people, 2:51-61; advises Israelites, 5:23-29; guided by God. 6:84; and Pharaoh, 7:103-137; 10:75-92; 11:96-99; 17:101-103; 20:42-53;, 56-79; 23:45-49; 25:35-36; 26:10-69; 28:4-21. 31-42; 40:23-46; 43:45-56; 51:38-40; 79:15-26; resists idol-worship, 7:138-141; sees the Glory on the Mount. 7:142-145; reproves his people for calf worship. and prays for them, 7:148-156; his people, 7:159-162; his Book. doubts and differences, 11:110; to teach his people gratitude, 14:5-8; nine Clear Signs. 7:133; n. 1091; 17:101; to the junction of the two Seas. 18:60-82; no. 2404-2405; his call. 19:51-53; 20:9-56; 28:29-35; vvvvvvvvvvv

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路2065 -

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INDEX

Moses (contd.) his c:bildhood, mother, and sister, 20:38-40; 28:7-13; converts Egyptian magicians, 20:70-73; 26:46-52; indignant at calf-worship, 20:86-98; and the Fare, 27:7-14; 28:29-35; his mishap in the City, 28:14-21; in Madyan, 28:22-28; guided to straight way, 37:114-122; Books of, 53:36; 87:19; vexed by his people, 61:5. Mosque (of Qubia), 9:107-108; D. 1355. Mosques, 9:17-19, 28. Mountains, 20:105-107; 21:31; 31:10; 59:21; DO. 5398-5399; 73:14; 101:5. Muddath-!!Jjr, S. 74. Mubijirs, 59:8-9, DO. 5382-5383; D. 5474 to 63:7. MuI]ammad, the holy Prophet, his mission, 7: 158; 48:8-9; respect due to Apostle, 2:104; 4:46; DO more than an apostle, 3:144; gentle, 3:159; seDt as favour to Believers, 3:164; 4:170; and to People of the Book, 5:19; a mercy to Believers, 9:61; mercy to aU creatures, 21:107; as a mercy from God, 28:46-47; 33:45-48; 36:6; 42:48; 72:20-23, 27路28; 76:24-26; his work, 3:164; 4:70-71; 6:107; 7:156-157; 10:2; 52:29-34; 74:1-7; not mad or possessed, 7:184; 68:2; 81:22; warner, 7:184, 188; 15:89; 53:56-62; anxious for the Believers, 9:128; brings Message as revealed, 10:15-16; his teaching, 11:2-4; 12:108; 34:46-50; to deliver revelation entirely as it comes to him, 11:12-14; 46:9; God is witness to his mission, 13:43; 29:52; 46:8; heart distressed for men, 15:97; 16:127; 18:6; 25:30; to invite and argue, in ways most gracious, 16:125-128; v

-2066-

v v

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INDEX Mu~ammad

(contd.) inspired, 18:110; 53:2-18; mocked, 25:41-42; 34:7-8;

asks no reward, 25:57; 34:47; 38:86; 42:23; his duty, 27:91-93; 30:30; his household (consorts), p. 1100, 33:28-34, 50-52, 53, 55, 59; 66:1, 3-6; close to Believers, 33:6;

beautiful pattern of conduct, 33:21; seal of the Prophets, 33:40; universal Messenger to men, 34:28; fealty to him is fealty to God, 48:10, 18; apostle of God, 48:29; resist him not, 58:20-22; foretold by Jesus, 61: 6; foretold by Moses, 46:10; n. 4783; his Religion to prevail over all religions, 61:9; unlettered, 7:157; 62:2; leads from darkness to light, 65:11; to strive hard, 66:9; exalted standard of character, 68:4; not a poet or soothsayer, 69:40-43; devoted to prayer, 73:1路8, 20; 74:3; witness, 73:15-16;

and the blind man, 80:1-10; saw the Angel of Revelation, 53:4-18; n. 5092; 81:22-25; to adore God and bring himself closer to him, 96:19; rehearsing scriptures, 98:2. MulJtunmad, S. 47. Mujadila, S. 58. Mulk, S. 67, meaning of, n. 5555 to 67:1. Mil-min, S. 40. Mil-minan, S. 23. MumtalJana, S. 60. Mun4fiqan, S. 63. Murder, 2:178-179; 5:32. MUTSaliit, S. 77. Muslim men and women, befitting conduct, 33:35-36. MuzzammiJ, S. 73.

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INDEX

Nabaa, S. 78. Na!y!ir, Banu, Jews, Intro. S. 59; n. 5369 to 59:2; D. 5380 to 59:7; n. 5386 to 59:11. NalJl, S. 16. Najm, S. 53. Names, most beautiful, of God, 7:180; n. 1154; 17:110; 20:8; 59:24. Noml, S. 27. Ntls S. 114. Nasr, 71:23; n. 5721. N~r, S. 110. Nature declares God's praises, 24:41-44; 50:6-11; shows God's goodness, and that His Promise is true, 78:6-16. Nazi'at, S. 79. "Neither die nor live", 20:74; 87:13. New Moon, 2:189. News, to be tested, 4:83. Niggards condemned, 17:29, 47:38. Night as a symbol, 79:29; 92:1; 93:2. Night of Power, 97:1-5. Nisiia, S. 4. Noah, 6:84; 7:59-64; 10:71-73; 11:2549; 21:76-77; 23:23-30; 25:37; 26:105-122; 29:14-15; 37:75-82; 51:46; 54:9-15; 69:11-12; 71:1-28; unrighteous SOD not saved, 11:45-47. wife unrighteous, 66:10. Notes, scope of, p. 5. NaIJ, S. 71. Nar, S. 24. Nursing of wounded, pp. 1235.

Oaths, 2:224-227; 5:89; 16:94; 24:22, 53; 66:2; 68:10. Oaths and adjurations in Qur-in, App. No. 7 pp. 2004-2008. Obligations to be fulfilled, 5:1; D. 682. Obedience, 3:132; 4:59, 64, 66, 80-tn; 5:92; 14:12; 8:2~25, 46; 24:51-52, 54; 47:33; 64:11-12. Olive, as a symbol, 23:20; D. 2880; 24:35; DO. 3000-3002; 95:1; n. 6195. Orphans, 2:220; 4:2, 6, 10, 127; 17:34; guardians of, 4:6.

-2068-


INDEX Pairs, in all creatures, 13:3; n. 1804; 31:10; 36:36; n. 3981; 42:11; 43:12; 51:49; 53:45. Parables, man who kindled a fire, 2:17-18; rain-laden cloud, 2:19-20; goat-herd, 2:171; hamlet in ruins, 2:259; grain of com, 2:261; bard, barren rock, 2:264; fertile garden, 2:265-266; rope, 3:103; frosty wind, 3:117; dog who lolls out his tongue, 7:176; undermined sand-cliff, 9:109-110; rain and storm, 10:24; n. 1412; blind and deaf, 11:24; garden of joy, 13:35; ashes blown about by wind, 14:18; goodly trees, with roots, branches, and fruit, 14:24-25; evil tree, 14:26; slave venus man liberally favoured, 16:75; dumb man venus one who commands justice, 16:76; woman who untwists her yarn, 16:92; City favoured but ungrateful, 16:112-113; two men, ODe proud of his possessions and the other absorbed in God, 18:32-44; this life like rain, pleasant but transitory, 18:45-46; fall from Unity, like being snatched up by birds or carried off by winds, 22:31, D. 2806; a Oy, 22:73; Ught, 24:35-36; mirage, 24:39; depths of darkness, 24:40; spider, 29:41; partners, 30:28; Companions of the City, 36:13-32; one master and several masters, 39:29; Garden promised to the Righteous with four kinds of rivers, 47:15; seed growing, 48:29; rain and physical growth, 57:20; mountain that humbles itself, 59:21; on.

- 2069-


INDEX

Parables, (contd.) donkey, 62:5; if stream of water be lost, 67:30; People of the Garden, 68:17-33. Parents, kindness to, 17:23; 29:8; 31:14; 46:15-18. 'Partners' of God, a falsehood, 10:34-35, 66; 16:86; 28:62-64, 71-75; 30:40; 42:21. Passion or Impulse, worship of, 25:43, n. 3097. Path, see Way, Patience and perseverance, 2:45, 153; n. 61; 3:186, 200; 10:109; 11:115; 16:126-127; 20:130-132; 40:55, 77; 46:35; 50:39; 70:5; 73:10-11. "Peace," the greeting of the Righteous, 7:46; 10:10; 14:23; 36:58 Peace, incline towards, 8:61. Peace, SalOm, meaning, 19:62, n. 2512. Peace, Sakina, Tranquillity, 9:26, 40; 47:4, 18, 26. Pearls, well-guarded, 52:24; n. 5058; 56:23; n. 5234. Pen, 68:1; 96:4-5. Penalty for sin, 3:188; 6:15-16; 10:50-53; 11:101-104; 13:34; 16:88; 46:20; 70:1-3. Persecution with Fire, 85:1-11. Persian Empire, p. 1174; App. No.5 pp. 1198-1206. Persian Capitals, pp. 1205-1206. Personal responsibility, 6:164; 10:30; 14:51; 53:38-41. Pharaoh, cruelty, 2:49; drowned, 2:50; people of, 54:41-42; dealings with Moses, 7:103-137; 10:75路92; see Moses; body saved, on account of repentance, 10:90-92; denies God, 28:38; 79:24; a man from his People confesses Faith, 40:28-44; arrogant to the Israelities, 44:17-33; wife righteous, 66:11; n. 5549; sin and disobedience, 69:9; 73:16; 85:17-20; 89:10-14. Pilgrimage, 2:158, 196-203; n. 217; 3:97; 5:2; 22:26-33. Piling up (the good things of this world), 102:1-4. Pledge, everyone in pledge for his deeds, 52:21; 74:38. Pleiades, n. 5085 to 53:1; n. 6068 to 86:1; Plotters, 16:45-47. v

Ii

- 2070-


INDEX

Poets, 26:224-227, 36:69; 69:41. Prayer, 1:1-7; 2:238-239; 3:8, 26-27, 147, 191-194; 4:43; 5:6; 11:114; 17:78-81; 23:118; 50:39-40; 52:48-49; 73:1-8, 20; be steadfast in, 2:110; during travel, or in danger, 4:101-104; for Unbelievers, 9:113-114; due to God alone, 13:14-15; Prayers, the five canonical, 11:144, no. 1616-1617; 17:78-79, n. 2275; 20:130, n. 2655; 30:17-18, n. 3521; why all prayers not answered, n. 4565 to 42:27. Precautions in danger, 4:71. Priests and anchorites, 9:31, 34. Prisoners of War, 8:67-71. Prohibited Degrees in marriage, 4:22-24. Property, 2:188; 4:5, 29; to be distributed equitably, 59:7-9. Prophet's Consorts, extra responsibilities and duties, 33:28-34; n. 3706; who are to be, 33:50-52; nn. 3741-3754; respect due to them, 33:53-55; nn. 3755-3760; respect due to Prophet's Consorts and believing men and women, 33:56-58, nn. 3761-3763. Prophet's wives and daughters and all believing women to be modest, 33:59-62, nn. 3764-3770. Prophets, 2:253; continuous line, 3:33-34; 4:163-165; 5:19; 4:84-90; 23:23-50; 57:26-27; covenants from, 3:81; 33:7-8; never false to their trusts, 3:161; rejected, 3:184; 6:34; 25:37; 34:45; 51:52-55; slain, 3:183; all to be believed in, 4:150-152; to give account, 5:109; mocked, 6:10; 13:32; 15:11; 21:41; why sent, 6:48, 131; 14:4-6; had enemies, 6:112; 25:31; rehearse God's Signs, 7:35-36; sent to every people, 10:47; 16:36; had families, 13:38;

- 2071 -


INDEX

Prophets, (contd.) human, but guided, 14:10-12; 16:43路44; 17:94路95; 21:7-8; 25:7-8, 20; persecuted and threatened, 14:13; witnesses against their people, 16:89; and Apostles, meaning, 19:51, n. 2503; one brotherhood, 23:52路54; some named, some not, 40:78. Prosperity (spiritual), 87:14-15; success, 91:9-10. Publicity versus secrecy, 4:148. Punishment, for man's arrogance and rebellion, 96:15-18; abiding-for wilful rebellion, but not after repentance, nor for minor sins, n. 5944 to 79:37-39. Qadir, n. 655 to 4:149. Qadr, S. 97. Qat. S. 50. Qa/am, S. 68. Qamar, S. 54. Qari'a, S. 101. Qiirlin, 28:76-82; 29:39. Q~tlf, S. 28. Qibla, 2:142-145, 149-150. Qiriiats, Basra and Kufa, n. 2666 to 21:4; n. 2948 to 23:112. QiyanuJl, S. 75. Qubaa (Mosque), 9:107-108; n. 1355. Quraish, S. 106. Quraish, unbelieving, 54:43-46, 51; appeal to, 106:1-4; on. 6276-6280. Qurai!a Tribe, nn. 3701-3704 to 33:26-27. Qur=an, punctuation marks, p. 19. inspired Message, 4:82; 6:19; cannot be produced by other than divine agency, 2:23; 10:38; 11:13; n. 2289 to 17:89; verses, fundamental and allegorical, 3:7; 11:1; God is witness, 6:19; God's revelation, 6:92; 17:105-107; 27:6; 45:2; follow it and do right, 6:155; respect and attention due to, 7:204-206;

- 2072-


INDEX Qur-an (con/d.)

Book of Wisdom, 10:1; 31:2; 36:2; in Arabic, 12:2; 13:37; 41:44; 42:7; 43:30; described, 13:31, 36-37; 14:1; 56:TI-80; makes things clear, 15:1; 25:33; 26:2; 27:1; 28:2; 36:69-70; 43:2; not to be made into shreds, 15:91; purpose of revelation, 16:64-65; language pure Arabic, 16:103; good news and warning, 17:9-10; and the Unbelievers, 17:45-47; healing and mercy, 17:82; explains similitudes, 17:89; 18:54; 39:27; no crookedness therein, 18:1-2; teaching, 18:2-4; 19:97; 20:2-7; 26:210-220; easy, 19:97; 44:58; 54:17, 22, 32, 40; revealed in stages, 17:106; 25:32; 76:23; 87:6-7; "my people took it for nonsense", 25:30; solves Israel's controversies, 27:76; recite Our-an, 73:4; and pray, 29:45; carries own evidence, 29:47-49, 51; guide and mercy, 31:3; Truth from God, 32:3; 35:31; beautiful Message consistent with itself, 39:23; instructs mankind, 39:41; 80:11-12; no falsehood can approach it, 41:42; same Message to earlier prophets, 41:43; 43:44-45; not sent to worldly leaders; 43:31-32; seek earnestly to understand, 47:24; admonish with, 50:45; taught by God, 55:1-2; to be received with humility, 59:21; how to be read and studied, 2:121; 75:16-18; in books of honour and dignity, 80:13-16; Message to all the Worlds, 81:26-29; Unbelievers reject it, 84:20-25; Tablet Preserved, 85:21-22; See also Book, and Revelation.

- 2073-


INDEX Ra'd, S. 13. RalJfm, meaning, n. 19. RalJmdn. meaning, S. 19. RalJmdn, S. 55. Raiment of righteousness is best, 7:26. Rain, God's gift, 56:68-70. Rama!!han, 2:185.

Ransom, sought in vain by sinners, 3:91; 10:54; 13:18. Rass, Companions of the, 25:38; n. 3094; 50:12. Reality, the sure, 69:1-3. Record, 50:4. 69:19, 25; 83:7-9, 18-21; 84:7-15. Religion, no compulsion in, 2:256; of Islam, 3:19-20, 83-84; no excesses in, 4:171; 5:77-81; perfected, 5:3; not play and amusement, 6:70; do not divide and make sects, 6: 159; 30:32; universal, n. 1834 to 13:19-22; no difficulties imposed in, 22:78; standard religion is to establish pattern according to which God has made man, 30:30; same for all prophets, 42:13-15; ancestral, 43:22-24; right way of, 45:18. Remembrance of God, what is, n. 5476 to 63:9. Repentance, with amendment, accepted, 4:54; 42:25. Respite for Evil, 3:178; 10:11; 12:110; 14:42-44; 29:53-55; 86:15-17. Resurrection, 16:38-40; 17:49-52; 19:66-72; 22:5; 46:33-34; 50:3, 20-29, 41-44; 75:1-15; 79:10-12; 86:5-8. Retaliation disapproved, 5:45. Revelation, doubts solved, 2:23; of Moses and Jesus, 2:87; abrogated or forgotten, 2:106; guidance, 3:73; to Prophet and those before him, 5:48; Word that distinguishes Good from Evil, 86:11-14; do not entertain doubt about, 6:114; 11:17; purpose of, 7:2, 203;

v

v v .." v - 2074-

v v


INDEX

Revelation (contd.) in stages, 16:101; through the Holy Spirit, 16:102-103; 26:192-199; to be proclaimed, 96:1; nature of, 41:2-4; ~8; 69:50-51; 81:15-21; See also Book, and Qur=an, Revile not false gods, 6:108. Reward, without measure, 3:27; 39:10; meaning of, D. 3070 to 25:15; better than deed deserves, 28:84; 30:39; according to best of deeds, and more, 24:38; 29:7; 39:35; for good, no reward other thaD good, 55:60. Righteous, company of the, 4:69; shall inherit the earth, 21:105; described, 51:15-19; 76:5-12. Righteousness, 2:177, 207-208, 212; 3:1~17, 92, 133-135, 191-195; 4:36, 125; 5:93; 7:42-43; 16:97; steep path of, 90:11-18. Rocky Tract, Companions of, 15:80-85; D. 2002; inscriptions at Hijr, pp. 1087-1088. Roman Empire, p. 1049; 30:2-5; App. No.5, pp. 1198-1206. Ram, S. 30. Saba, 27:22; n. 3263; 34:15-21; on. 3810-3819. Saba, S. 34. Sabbath, transgressors of, 7:163-166; made strict, 16:124. Sabians, 2:26, n. 76; 5:69; 22:17. Sacrifice, 22:34-37. S'ad ibn Mu'~, Intro. S. 33; D. 3697 to 33:23; nn. 3702-3704 to 33:26. $iid, S. 38. ~afa and Marwa, 2:158. ~aff, S. 61. $ii!fiit, S. 37. Sajda, S. 32. ~iili~, 7:73-79; 11:61-68; 26:141-159; 27:45-53. Salman, Intro. S. 33. Salsabil, 76:18. Salvation, n. 833 to 5:119; n. 3070 to 25:15; and n. 5904 to 78:31.

- 2075 -


INDEX

Simiri, 20:85; n. 2605, 2608; 20:95-97. Satan (see also Iblis), 2:36; 4:117-120; 24:21; excites enmity and hatred, 5:91; resist his suggestions, 7:200-201; deceives, 8:48; reproaches own followers, 14:22; evil spirit, rejected, accursed, 3:36; 15:17; 15:34; 16:98; has no authority over Believers, 16:99-100; suggests vanity, 22:52-53; is an enemy, 35:6; 36:60. Scandal, 24:19; 104:1. Scriptures, people of the, 2:62; kept pure and holy, 98:2. Secrecy, when permissible, 4:114; in counsels, disapproved, 58:7-10, 12-13. Sects and divisions disapproved, 30:32; 42:13-14; 43:64-65, n. 4664; 45:17, 28. Seed, grows by God's providence, 56:63-67. Seven Tracts or Firrnaments, 2:29; 23:17, n. 2876; 65:12, n. 5526; 67:3, n. 5559; 71:15. Shadow, 25:45; n. 3099. Shameful things to be shunned, 7:28. Shams, S. 91. She-camel as a Symbol to Thamud, 7:73; n. 1044; 17:59; 26:155-158. Ship, sailing of, as a Sign, 2:164, n. 166; 14:32; 16:14; n. 2034; 17:66, n. 2261; 22:65; 31:31; 35:12; 42:32-33; 45:12; 55:24. Shu'aib, 7:85-93; n. 1054; 11:84-95; 29:36-37. Shu'arda, S. 26. Shara, S. 42. Siege of Madinah, 33:9-27; nn. 3679, 3680. Signs of God, demanded by those without knowledge, clear to those with Faith, 2:118; in the creation of the heavens and the earth, 2:164; 3:190; made clear, that men may consider, 2:219-220; sign of authority to the prophet Samuel, 2:248; denial of, 3:11, 108; rejecters, deaf and dumb, in darkness, 6:39;

- 2076-


INDEX

Signs of God (contd.) in all things, 6:95-99; wicked demand special Signs, 6:124; rejecters make excuse, 6:156-158; consequences of rejection, 7:36-41; 146-147; rejecters wrong their own souls, 7:177; rejecters get respite, 7:182; rejecters lose guidance, 6:186; day and night as Signs, 17:12; in nature and all creation, 10:5-6; 30:20-27; 45:3-6; self evident Signs, the Book, 29:49路51, n. 3481; winds and ships, 30:46; 42:32-35; ships, 31:31; the Night, sun and moon, 36:37-40; the Ark through the Flood, and similar ships, 36:41-44; in this life, 39:59; rejecters are deluded, 40:63; rain and revived Earth, 41:39-40; in the farthest regions of the earth, and in their own souls, 41:53; rejected or taken in jest, 45:8-9; on earth, in your own selves, and in heaven, 51:20-23; creation of man from Seed, 56:57-59; death, 56:60-62; seed in the ground, 56:63-67; water, 56:68-70; fire, 56:71-73; mocked, 68:15, n. 5603; camels, sky, mountains, earth, 88:17-20; fo~s of nature, 89:1-5; no special Sign (miracle) given, 6:109; 10:20; 13:7; 17:59; nn. 2244-2245; 21:5-6, on. 2668-2669. Sijjin, 83:7-9. Sin, 4:30-32, 36-39, 107-112, 116; 7:100-102; 10:54; 74:43-48; wrong doers will be cut off, 6:45; to be eschewed, 6:120; causes destruction, 7:4-5; 77:16-19; will not prosper, 10:17; and Faith have different goals, 68:35-41; God forgives all sins, 39:53, and n. 4324. 19:52; n. 2504; 95:2; n. 6196. v v -2077-


, ,

. , , ,-,

INDEX

Sinners, 23:63-n; 26:200-209; 83:29-36; their hearing, sight, and skins will bear witness, 41:20-23; different witnesses against them, n. 6054 to 85:3. ~ira! bridge, n. 2518 to 19:71. Sirius (Dog Star), n. 6068 to 86:1; Slander, 9:79; 24:23; 68:11-12. Solomon, 2:102; 6:84; 21:79, 81-82; 27:15-44; 34:12-14; 38:30-40; and the ants, 27:18-19; and the Hoopoe, 27:22-26; and the Queen of Saba, 27:22-44. Son, adopted, 33:4-5. Soul, burden not greater than it can bear, 2:286, 7:42; 23:62; responsibility, 3:30; 74:38; justly dealt with, 16:111; taste of death, 21:35; n. 2697; human, three stages of development, n. 5810 to 75:2; enters heaven, not body, 89:27-30, n. 6128. Spendthrifts condemned, 17:26-29; 25:67. Spirit, the, 70:4; n. 56n; 78:38; 97:4; the holy, God strengthened Jesus with, 2:87, 253; God's, breathed into man, 15:29; of inspiration, 17:85-86, n. 2285; God strengthens Believers with, 58:22, n. 5365. Spoils of war, 8:1, 41; p. 467-468; n. 1179; n. 1209; Star, adjuration by, 53:1; 86:1-4. Stars, 7:54; 16:12, 16; 22:18; 37:6-10; n. 4036-4037; 67:5; n. 5562; 77:8; 81:2; 82:2. Straight Way, 1:6; 6:153; etc. Striving, 9:20, 81; 22:78; 25:52; 29:69; n. 3502; 61:11; Suffering, adversity, and prosperity, 7:94-96. Sun, 91:1. Superstitions, 5:103; 6:138路140, 143-144. SOra, revelation increases faith, 9:124-127; meaning, p. 13; n. 15. Sustenance, literal and figurative, 10:59, n. 1447; 16:73, n. 2105; 19:62, n. 2513, 42:12; n. 4540; 51:57-58, n. 5033; 67:21, n. 5579. Suwa', 71:23; n. 5721.

v v

ij

v - 2078-


INDEX

TabUk, p. 494; n. 1302; 9:40-42, 43-59, 81-99, 120-122. TaÂŁabun, S. 64. '[a-Ho, S. 20. Ta~rim, S. 66. Taif, city, Intra. S. 72. Takathur, S. 102. Takwir, S. 81. '[aliiq, S. 65. Tall,t (tree), 56:29; n. 5238. Taliit, 2:247-249. Taqwa, meaning, 2:2, n. 26; 59:18-19, nn. 539-539-A. Tariq, S. 86. Tasnim, 83:27-28. '[a{/if, S. 83. Tauba, S. 9. Taurat, App. II, pp. 329-332. Term appointed, for every people, 7:34; 10:49; 15:4-5; 16:61; 20:129; Testing, by God, 3:154, n. 467, 34:21, n. 3821. Thamud, 7:73-79; n. 1013; n. 1054; 11:61-68; 25:38; 26:141-159; 27:45-53; 29:38; 41:17; 51:43-45; 54:23-31; 69:4-8; 85:17-20; 89:9-14; 91:11-15; inscriptions at l:Iijr, pp. 1087-1088. Theft, punishment, 5:38-39. TIme, n. 5678 to 70:4; Intro. 76; 76:1; 103:1-3; n. 6262. Tin, S. 95. Traffic and Trade, 4:29. Transition between second and third person, n. 6048 to 84:20; between "We" and "Me", see "We" and "Me". Travel through the earth 6:11; 22:46; 27:69; 29:20-22; 30:9, 42; 35:44; 40:21, 82; 47:10. Treasures of God, 6:50; n. 867; 6:59; 11:31; 15:21. Treaties, p. 494, 9:1-4; n. 1249; 9:7-10. Trench (or Ditch), Battle of the, n. 3032 to 24:55; Intro. S. 33; nn. 3679-3682 to 33:9-11. Trials, 2:214-218. Trumpet, on Day of Judgment, 6:73; 23:101; 39:68, n. 4343; 69:13. Trust offered to Heavens, Earth, and Mountains, undertaken by Man, 33:72-73; no. 3777-3784. q

q

q

q

q

q

q

q

~

- 2079-

v v

~


INDEX Trusts, 4:58; 8:27. Truth, 23:70-71, 90; Rejecters of, 77:1-50; 98:1-6. Tubba', 44:37; n. 4715. Tar, s. 52. UJ.1ud, lessons of, 3:121-128, 140-180; battle, n. 442. 'Umar, l;Iadbrat, conversion, p. 877, Intro. 20. Ummat, 2:143-144. 'Umra, 2:196; n. 212. Unbelievers, plot in vain, 8:30; despise revelation, 8:31; challenge a Penalty, 8:32-35; prayers empty, 8:35; spend for wrong purposes, 8:36; past forgiven, if they repent, 8:38; 9:11; break covenants, 8:56; will not frustrate the godly, 8:60-61; protect each other, 8:73; described, 9:73-78; 14:3; win wish they had believed, 15:2; will bear double burdens, 16:25; to be covered with shame, 16:27; dispute vainly, 18:56-57; their efforts wasted, 18:102-106; their arrogance, 19:73-82; 35:43; deeds like mirage, 24:39; as in depths of darkness, 24: 40; mutual recriminations at Judgment, 34:31-33; self-glory and separatism, 38:2-14; dispute about the Signs of God, 40:4-6; hate Truth, 43:78; will tum back from fight, 48:22-23; their high-handedness, 48:25-26; vain fancies, 52:35-44; give them not friendship but kind and just dealing, 60:1-9; rush madly, 70:36-39. Unity, 2:163; 6:19; 112:1-4.

- 2080-


INDEX Usury, 2:275-276; n. 324; 2:278-280; 3:130. 'Uzair, 9:30; 'Uzza, 53:19.

Vain discourse to be avoided, 6:68. Vicegerent, 2:30. Victory, uses of, 48:1-3; 110:1-3. through help of God, 61:13. Virtues, see Righteousness, and Believers. Wadd, 71:23; n. 5721. "Wait ye, we too shall wait," 9:52; 10:102; 11:122; 20:135; 44:59; 52:31.

Waqi'a, S. 56. War against God, 5:33-34. Warning before destruction, 17:16. given in three ways, n. 4267 to 39:16. Waste not, 6:141; 7:31. Water, animals created from, 21:30; n. 2691; 24:45; n. 3021; 25:54; two seas, 25:53; n. 3111; 18:60; nn. 2404-2405; 35:12; 55:19-20; n. 5185. God's Throne over the waters, 11:7, and n. 1502; circulation of, 23:18; n. 2878. Way, the, 1:6; n. 22; 42:52-53; nn. 4602-4603; 90:10-18; etc. "We" and "Me", transition between the first person plural and singular in reference to God:2:38, n. 56; 2:150-151; 31:10, 11, nn. 3590, 3592; 68:44, n. 5625; 70:40, n. 5702. Wealth, hoarding condemned, 104:2-3, nn. 6266-6267. Wicked, their faces headlong in the fire, 27:90, n. 3320; 67:22; n. 5580. Widows, 2:234-235, 240. Will of God, 10:99-100; nn. 1480-1481; n. 3509 to 30:5; 81:29; 82:8. Will of man, n. 3046 to 24:62; free-will versus Detenninism, n. 5996 to 81:28-29; n. 6004 to 82:7. Winds, like heralds of glad tidings, 7:57-58; 15:22; 30:46, 48, 51. Wme, 2:219; 5:90, heavenly wine, 47:15; 76:21; 83:25; Witnesses, among men, 2:143; 22:78; at Judgment, n. 6054 to 85:3. Woman, wronged, plea accepted, 58:1-2. Women, 2:222-223; 4:15, 19-22, 34, 127; to be reverenced, 4:11 false charges against, 24:4-5, 11-20; n. 2962; 24:23-26; modesty, 24:30-31; believing, refugees, 60:10-12; v

- 2081路

V

v


INDEX the four perfect, n. 5549 to 66:11. Wood, Companions of the, 15:78; n. 2000; 26:176-191. World, this, but play and amusement, 6:32; 29:64; 47:36; 57:20; deceives men, 6:130; not to be preferred, 9:38-39; 13:26; 28:60-61; gets its reward, but not in Hereafter, 11:15-17; 17:18; 42:20; man loves, 75:20-21; 76:27. Worship, true worship and charity, 107:2-7. what is worship, n. 1626 to 11:123; Writing, for contracts, 2:282. Wrong-doers, 11:18-22, 101-104, 116-117; 39:47. See also Unbelievers.

Yasuth, 71:23; n. 5721. Y~ya (John the Baptist), birth, 3:39; 6:85; his character and position, 19:12-15; reverenced God, 21:90. Yo-Sin, S. 36. Ya<iiq, 71:23; n. 5721. Yunus, S. 10. Yiinus, see Jonah. Yilsuf, S. 12. Yiisuf, see Joseph. Zaid the freedman, 33:37-38, on. 3722-3723. Zainab, daughter of Jahsh, n. 3706 to 33:28; 33:37-38; and on. 3722-3723; n. 3745 to 33:50. zainab, daughter of Khuzaima, n. 3706 to 33:28; n. 3745 to 33:50. Zakariya, 3:37-41; 6:85; 19:2-11; 21:90. Zakat (Regular Charity), 2:43, 110, 177, 277; 4:162; 5:55. ZanjabTI, 16:17. Zaqqiim, n. 2250 to 17:60; 37:62-66; n. 4913; 44:43-46; 56:52. ~iiriyot, S. 51. ~ar, 33:4; n. 3670; 58:2-4. Zilztil, S. 99. Zodiacal Signs, 15:16. Zukhruf, S. 43. ~ul kifl, 21:85; n. 2143; 38:48. ~ul-qarnain, 18:83-98; n. 2428. Zumar, S. 39. ~un-nUn, 21:87-88; n. 2714; 68:48路50; see also Jonah.

-2082-


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Table of Names of Suras Showing The makkan and The madinah ones. Sural AI-FatilJa· AI-Baqarah. AI-i-'Imriin. An-Nisiia. AI-Miidah. AI-An 'lim. AI-A'riif. AI-Anfiil. At-Tauba. Yanus. Had. Yiisuf. Ar-Ra'd. Ibrahim. AI-IJijr. An-NalJl. AI-Isriia. AI-Kahf. Maryam. Ti-Hii. AI-Anbiyaa. AI-Ijajj. AI-Mam;nan. An-NUT. AI-Furqin. Ash-Shu'araa. An-Naml.

I

2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 II

12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

21 22 23 24

2S 26

27

AI-Q~~.

28

AI-'AnkabiU. AT-Riim. Luqmiin. As-Sajda. AI-AlJzab. Saba. Fa!;r. Yi-Sin.

29

A!-~iffit. ~iid.

~I

No. Page

30

31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38

2 Makkan 5 Madinah 138 Madinah 204 Madinah 275 Madinah 336 Makkan 396 Makkan 467 Madinah 494 Madinah S44 Makkan 580 Makkan 621 Makkan 670 Madinah 689 Makkan 709 Makkan 730 Makkan 772 Makkan 815 Makkan 852 Makkan 877 Makkan 915 Makkan 947 Madinah 976 Makkan 1001 Madinah 1031 Makkan lOSS Makkan 1089 Makkan 1116 Makkan 1149 Makkan 1174 Makkan 1209 Makkan 1224 Makkan 1235 Madinah 1271 Makkan 1295 Makkan 1316 Makkan 1339 Makkan 1369 Makkan

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Table of Names of Siiras Showing The makkan and The madinah ones. Surat Az-Zumar. Qiifir. Fu~~i1at.

Ash-Shura. Az-Zukhruf. Ad-Dukhiin. AI·ldthiya.

39 40

41 42 43 44

45

AI-A~qdf.

46

MulJammad.

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

AI-Fat-~.

AI-l:fujuriit. Qiif. A~-?iiriyat.

A!-rur. An-Najm. AI-Qamar. Ar-Ra~miin.

AI-Wiiqi'a. AI-l:fadid. AI-Mujiidila. AI-lfashr. AI-Mumt~ana.

Af-~aff.

AI-Jumu'a. AI·Muniijiqiin. At·Ta(dbun. A!-raliiq. At-Tal}rim. AI-Mulk. AI.Qalam. AI-ljiiqqa. AI-Ma'arij. Niih. AI-linn. AI-Muzzammil. AI.Mudda!!!tJ!;r. AI-Qiytimat. AI·/nsiin.

~I

No. Page

64

65 66

67 68 69 70 71

72 73 74 75 76

1392 1422 1452 1472 1495 1518 1530 1542 1558 1572 1587 1596 1608 1622 1635 1647 1659 1672 1686 1702 1714 1727 1736 1743 1749 1755 1763 1771 1780 1791 lS03 1813 1822 1829 1838 1845 1855 1862

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~

Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Madinah Madinah Madinah Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Madinah Makkan Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Madinah Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Madinah

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Table of Names of Suras Showing The makkan and The madinah ones. Surat AI-Mursaliil. An-Nabaa. An-Nazi'iit. 'Abasa. At-Talcwir. AI-/n!i!iir. AI-MlJ!affifeen. AI-/nshiqdq• AI-Buriij. At-r... .. anq AI-A'Iii. AI-Gashiya. AI-Fair. AI-Balad. Ash-Shams. AI-Lail. Adh-DhulJii. AI-sharif· At-TIn. AI- J\lDq. AI-Qadr. AI-BaiyimJ. AI- ZalzalQh. AI-'Adiyiit. AI-QtJri'a. At- Ta/ulthur. AI-'~.

AI-Humaza. AI-Fil. Quraish. AI·Mii'an. AI-Kauthar. AI·Kiiflriin. An-N~r.

AI-MQsad. AI-/~.

AI-Falaq. An-Nas.

No. Page 77

78 79 80 81 82

83 84

8S 86

87 88 89

90 91 92

93 94 95 96 97 98 99

100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107

lOS 109 110 III 112 113 114

1870 1879 1887 1896 1903 1910 1915 1922 1928 1933 1937 1942 1947 1954 1959 1963 1968 1973 1976 1979 1984 1986 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002

2009 2012 2014 2016 2018 2020 2023

2025 2027 2029 2032

Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Madinah Madinah Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan Madinah Makkan Makkan Makkan Makkan

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The_Holy_Quran_Part_5  

S.80,A.33-39 -1901- ~ 8.80,A.40-42 -1902- ~ Intro.toS.81. -1903- Juz' 30 cJ;~1 ~jJ:.1 Sura At-Takwir 81 Ayat 1-3 -1904- ~ A'J'fll ibr- -1905...

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