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Brazil

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Contents General Information

4

History 6 Nature 24 People 34 Economy & Transportation

44

Culture 52

Brazil Personalities PelĂŠ

56 57

Ronaldo 63 Ayrton Senna

69

Anderson silva

74

Heitor Villa-Lobos

77

Paulo Coelho

80

Gisele BĂźndchen

83

Adriana Lima

86

Ronaldinho 89 Eduardo Saverin

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94


Brazil Cuisine

97

Feijoada 98 Pão de Queijo Moqueca Capixaba

99 100

Acarajé 101 Vatapá 102 Farofa 103 Coxinhas 104

Brazil Travel

109

Açaí 105

Rio de Janeiro

110

Quindim 106

São Paulo

118

Brigadeiro 107

Brasília

121

Caipirinha 108

Recife

124

Salvador

127

Other Places

130

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General Information Location

Brazil (Brasil) is the largest country located in South America. It is bordered by French Guyana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela to the north, Colombia to the northwest, Peru and Bolivia to the west, Paraguay and Argentina to the southwest and Uruguay to the east. Ecuador and Chile are the only countries of South America not to have any border with Brazil. The country has access to the Atlantic Ocean to the east and is home to the Amazon River, the largest river by discharge volume of water in the world, and its basin. Brazil covers an area of about 8.515.767 km2, has a density of 24,35 persons/km2 and its capital is located in the city of Brasília, which hosts approximately 2.600.000 people. Brazil’s national anthem is called “Hino Nacional Brasileiro!”, which translates to “Brazilian National Anthem!” and was written by Osório Duque-Estrada on the music of Francisco Manuel da Silva, while the motto of the country, which is also written on the country’s flag, is “Ordem e Progresso”, which translates to “Order and Progress”.

The country is organized as a federal presidential constitutional republic and is divided into 5 regions and 26 states. Brazil’s total population reaches up to about 210.000.000 persons. Other important Brazilian citizens living abroad can be found in countries like: United States of America (1.070.000), Japan (210.000), Paraguay (200.000), Portugal (140.000) and Spain (130.000). The country’s national day is celebrated on 7 September. Brazil’s economy is the world’s 9th largest by nominal GDP and 7th largest by GDP (PPP) as of 2016. A member of the BRICS group, Brazil until 2010 had one of the world’s fastest growing major economies, with its economic reforms giving the country new international recognition and influence. Brazil’s national development bank plays an important role for the country’s economic growth. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, BRICS, Unasul, Mercosul, Organization of American States, Organization of Ibero-American States and the CPLP. Brazil is a regional power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs, with some analysts identifying it as an emerging global power. One of the world’s major breadbaskets, Brazil has been the largest producer of coffee for the last 150 years.

Flag

The first flag of the Brazilian Republic was adopted on 15 November 1889. It was designed by Raimundo Teixeira Mendes, with the collaboration of Miguel Lemos and Professor Manuel Pereira Reis. The drawing was executed by Décio Villares. The flag of Brazil is green with a large yellow diamond in the center that resembles the colors of the imperial flag. Within the rhombus there is a blue circle with white stars of five 4


different dimensions and a white band passing through it. The motto “Ordem e Progresso” is inscribed on the band and is inspired by the motto of Auguste Comte’s positivism: “L’amour pour principe et l’ordre pour base; le progrès pour but” (Love as a principle and order as the basis; Progress as the goal) . The constellations that appear in the national flag correspond to their appearance on the sky in the city of Rio de Janeiro at 8 and 30 minutes on 15 November 1889 and must be considered as seen by an outside observer of the celestial sphere. It has often been said that the national colours of Brazil, green and yellow, are a representation of the natural richness of the nation. Green represents the exuberance of the Amazon Forest, while the yellow diamond represents the gold reserves of the country. From 1500 to 1900, from the Brazilian territory there was extracted more gold than it was in the rest of the world. In fact, the current Brazilian flag is inspired from the old Brazilian Imperial Flag. The two flags are almost identical and the green colour stands for the real family of Pedro I, the first emperor of Brazilm while the yellow one stands for the House of Habsburg of Pedro I’s wife, Leopoldina. The difference between the old imperial flag and the current Republican flag lies in the royal coat of arms, which was replaced by a blue circle that reproduces the sky above Rio de Janeiro on the morning of 15 November 1889, the day of the Declaration of the Republic. The number of stars changed with the creation of new states. Originally there were 21 stars. The star representing the Federal District is Sigma Octantis, also known as Polaris Australis or the Polar Star of the Southern Hemisphere, whose position near the southern sky pole makes it visible, albeit with difficulty in low lightness, from across the nation every day and every hour. This fact gives the star, which is meant to represent the Brazilian capital, a special meaning. The current version of the national flag of Brazil was adopted on 11 May 1992. The stars and constellations that appear on the flag are: Procyon (Canis Minoris); Canis Major: five stars, the largest depicting Sirius; Canopus (Carinae); Spica (Virginis); Hydra: two stars, the largest depicting Alphard; Crux Australis: five stars, the largest depicting Alpha Crucis; Sigma Octantis (Octantis, south pole star); Triangulum Australe: three stars of similar size and Scorpius: eight stars, the largest depicting Antares.

The Brazilian Real is the official currency of the country

symbol of the country, adopted on 19 November 1889. The coat of arms consists of the central emblem surrounded by a coffee branch on the left and a tobacco one on the right. In the blue circle from the center there is represented the constellation of the Southern Cross surrounded by an outer circle with 27 stars, symbolizing the 26 states of Brazil plus the Federal District of Brasília. Below the blue ribbon, the first line writes the official name of the country (República Federativa do Brasil - Federal Republic of Brazil), while in the second line there is written the Republic’s founding date, 15 November 1889.

Coat of Arms

The Coat of Arms of Brazil is the official heraldic 5


History Pre-colonial period

The first humans arrived in Brazil about 60.000 years ago according to the international archaeological research carried out at the prehistoric sites of Pedra Furada in Serra da Capivara National Park (listed as World Heritage by UNESCO in 1991), situated in the southeast of the State of Piauí (central Brazil). In 2003, traces of an evolved civilization were discovered near the upper Xingu River. Based on research made over the past 20 years, a map containing no fewer than 19 villages has been updated. Some of these villages would have had a population of 2.500 to 5.000 inhabitants. Unlike the majority of other civilizations that have developed along the coasts, it seems that this civilization has developed in harmony with the forest and its resources. This civilization had reached its apogee somewhere between 1200 and 1400 AD after an existence of more than 1000 years. At the end of the 15th century, the whole territory of modern Brazil was inhabited by semi-nomadic tribes, containing more than 200 ethnic groups, which didn’t practice any kind of private property. The Tupinambá people formed the most important ethnic group. These populations were skilled in fishing, hunting, gathering and farming. These indigenous populations often painted their skin colour differently. Their staple food was cassava, but they also cultivated corn and tobacco. They also have invented the hammock and the blowgun.

The colonial period

Portuguese navigator Pedro Álvares Cabral discovered the Brazilian coasts on 22 April 1500. Some historians, including the Brazilian academic authorities, attribute this discovery to Spaniard Vicente Yañez Pinzon, companion of Columbus, which made a voyage in 1499. His discovery was attested by Columbus himself, Diego de Lepe and Rodrigo de Bastidas. The Spaniards didn’t claim this land due to the stipulations mentioned within the Treaty of Tordesillas, signed in 1494. The Portuguese used to build crosses on all the lands they discovered, thus the first name of the colony was “The land of the True Cross” (Terra de Vera Cruz). However, the Portuguese settlers who settled on the coasts of the newly discovered country called it Brazil because of its 6

Portuguese explorer Pedro Álvares Cabral landing in Porto Seguro, Brazil

rich resources of Brazilwood (Pernambuco tree), with the help of which they obtained a vermeil dye (Brasil is derived from the Portuguese word “Brasa”, which means “ember”). The indigenous people were then called Brazilians. The native populations have easily allowed the Portuguese to cut wood in exchange for tools, sheets or glassware. As the Spaniards had no power in Brazil due to the Treaty of Tordesillas, French King Francis I tried to establish himself in Brazil with the help of navigator Verrazano in 1523. The French continued the colonization of the country, especially around the bay of Guanabara. During the summer of 1554, Nicolas Durand de Villegagnon secretly visited the Cabo Frio region on the Brazilian coast, where his compatriots usually hid. He aimed to transform this area into a powerful military and naval base from which the French Crown could attempt to control the trade routes with the West Indies. France Antarctique was the name given to the ephemeral French colony which occupied the bay of Rio de Janeiro from 1555 to 1567. This attempt of French colonization lasted ten years and ended in a massive failure of the Huguenots against the Portuguese forces. In response to other French attempts

Battle of Scheveningen (1653) between the Dutch and the English


Landscape of the valley of Serra da Capivara National Park

at the territorial conquest of Brazil, such as Equinoctial France near São Luís (Maranhão) between 1612 and 1615, the Portuguese Crown decided to intensify the colonization of Brazil and improve its status. Since “Brazilian wood” was no longer sufficient to ensure the economic development of the new territory, King João II of Portugal entrusted the territory to the great lords (donors) who granted vast estates to settlers in order to cultivate sugarcanes there. On 22 January 1532, Martim Afonso de Sousa founded the first colonized settlement: Vila de São Vicente. The donation system was generalized in 1532 as defense posts were donated to various Portuguese nobles. Brazil was divided into 15 hereditary Captaincies, each entrusted to a master-donor. The King of Portugal delegates to each of them a part of his military, judicial and administrative powers. These master-donors were entitled to 20% of the land of the captaincy, were granted the right to turn the indigenous people into slaves and to collect certain royalties. The settlers were in the service of the military captain and had to pay a certain amount of taxes to the

Brazilwood or Pernambuco Tree

captain. They received a concession of land (sesmaria) and the right to spread Catholicism over the territories whose maintenance was to be paid by the king. The king retained the perception of the tithes (10th part of a tax), the monopoly of Brazilwood and spices, as well as the tax of quinto (the 5th part of the precious stones and precious metals extracted). The first Portuguese settlers have turned the Amerindians into slaves so that they can exploit sugar cane or precious wood. The fact that these people were mostly illiterate will be seen as a feudal regression. However, the indigenous populations, who were already decreasing in numbers, were fleeing inland or preferring to commit suicide rather than being slaves. It was only then that the Portuguese had decided to bring black slaves from Africa. The first African slaves were deported to Brazil in 1532. In 1600, the future state of Brazil became the world’s largest producer and exporter of sugar and fully participated in triangular trade. The colonists then exchanged agricultural productions for money or goods (furniture, clothing) from Europe and tried to copy the way of life of the Portuguese aristocrats (fidalgos). Ergo, they themselves became afidalgados. In 1630, the Dutch West Indies Company (WIC) chased the Portuguese from the cities of Recife, Natal and Salvador in order to secure part of the sugar production. Recife became the capital of the colony known under the name of Mauritsstaad. Local populations revolted against the Dutch presence following the Insurrection of Pernambuco (Insurreição Pernambucana). Thus, the First Anglo-Dutch War (1652-1654) began and at the end of it, Portugal managed to recover these territories. The Portuguese bought slaves from Nigeria, Cameroon, Gabon, Ghana, Congo, Mozambique, Tanzania, Kenya, Zimbabwe and especially from Benin and Angola in 7


Pernambuco Insurrection

exchange for manufactured goods or fruits from South America. The Angolan coast also became a Portuguese colony run in Luanda by a governor who was none other than a big Portuguese owner. Portuguese slavers even deported nephews of Manikongo rulers. Upon their arrival in Brazil, families and their black compatriots were separated so as not to arouse solidarity between slaves and nevertheless learn Portuguese. The slaves worked from sunrise to sunset and usually got only one meal a day. The average life expectancy of a slave was only 5 years since the moment he started working and the mortality rate then exceeded the number of births, ergo prompting the Portuguese to import new slaves from Africa. Then, they often died due to fatigue, malnutrition or illness. The African slaves were renamed by their masters and bore the surname of these. The slaves lived in the senzala around their master’s villa. Other employees of the master usually checked out the place at night in order to see whether the slaves are trying to run away or prepare for a revolt. The slaves who managed to escape were marked with a hot iron if they were caught up. To insure their obedience, the masters sought to intimidate them, and have them beaten by their overseers. Even a poor white person had at least two slaves back then. On Sunday, the slaves had a day of rest. It is on Sunday that the slaves of Kong 8

origin (Angola and Congo) organized the congada, a feast in honour of their former monarch from Africa. The congada is supposedly to be at the origin of the carnival of Rio. White women were rarely seen in a colony where violence prevailed. The masters usually had several women or mistresses, black and indigenous, so it wasn’t unusual for the masters to have metis children. The children of slaves and masters could also be slaves or servants, craftsmen and small peasants. White mistresses often used to prostitute their slaves. If the Roman Catholic Church didn’t condemn for a long time black slavery, it condemned that of the indigenous

Slavery in Brazil (by Jean-Baptiste Debret)


African slaves being brought to Brazil

folk. The Portuguese then differentiated the types of mestizos as following: caboclo (half-breed of white and indigenous), cafuzo (half-breed of indigenous and black) and mulato (black and white breed). In 1570, the total number of Brazil numbered about 20.000 whites, 30.000 blacks and 800.000 indigenous people. In 1650, the white population was estimated at 70.000 people, the black population at 100.000, and the MĂŠtis population at 80.000. The black element and the crossbreeding played an important role in the demography and the Brazilian culture. The colonial era marked the history of the country through the supremacy of the white people, especially the great landowners, racism, interbreeding, but also the segregation between master and slaves, which later led to the segregation between the rich and the poor. The revolts of the slaves were numerous. There was almost one big revolt per year. In the 18th century, the slaves that were working in sugar cane fields in Pernambuco revolted and fled to the mountains. They founded the autonomous territory of Quilombo dos Palmares. This rebellion, which lasted nearly a century, was the longest slave uprising in history. In 1775, the slavery of the indigenous people was abolished and the use of African slaves was increased. The slave trade was

then also assured by the large Brazilian owners and the foreign non-Portuguese traffickers. After three centuries of Portuguese colonization, the political power then fell in the hands of the great landowners that were possessing lands, slaves and were especially armed with impressive mercenaries. They traded freely and payed only taxes to the Portuguese crown. The influence of foreign traders was also important. Portugal then started to have lesser authority over its colony.

The United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and Algarve

In 1808, the King of Portugal, JoĂŁo VI, had to flee from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro before the Napoleonic troops could invade his country. Rio became the capital of the Portuguese colonial empire. In that particular moment, the country lost its colonial status and started to trade with all the other countries, according to the Carta RĂŠgia. The prohibition that referred to the establishment of factories was lifted and the first university was then founded. England protected Brazil in exchange for commercial contracts. After the departure of the Napoleonic troops from Portugal, the royal court remained in Rio. After an uprising in Portugal, on 24 August 1820, the Portuguese Court had to move back 9


Sugar cane plantation slaves during a ceremonial dance in Brazil (by Dirk Valkenburg)

which penalized its trade balance and generated a high deficit. Since 1821, the Portuguese Courts issued a decree, stating that Brazil would return to being a province controlled directly by Portugal. Soon after, they approved the sending of troops to Pernambuco, Bahia and Rio de Janeiro, on the pretext of ensuring order. On 30 September 1821, the Portuguese Court approved a law that deprived all of the Brazilian governors, creating a governmental council composed of five or six members per province, subordinated directly to the Court of Lisbon. The regent prince would have been just the governor of Rio de Janeiro. Despite this, Pedro de Alcântara subordinated to the dictates of Portuguese politicians. Finally, in the face of the aggressiveness of Portuguese MP’s, the antitrust feelings of the Brazilians and the possible proclamation of Brazil’s independence by Pedro I in Brazil, the Brazilian representation at the court denied the ratification of the new Portuguese constitution and left from Lisbon. The Portuguese court ordered Dom Pedro to return to Europe and sent a fleet to look for him.

to Portugal from Brazil, where it had fled during the Peninsular War. A regency of five people governed the country until 4 July 1821, when King João VI assumed his duties as constitutional king after leaving Brazil on 26 April 1821. In February 1821, following the spread of the Liberal Revolution in Portugal, the population of Pará got rid of the governor. A provisional junta was formed on 10 February 1821. In Recife, it was the governor who adhered to the Revolution and elected members of the Constituent Assembly of Lisbon. In Rio de Janeiro, the government tried to buy some time and sent prince Dom Pedro on a mission to Lisbon. However, the garrison, led by a lawyer named Macamboa decided to stir up and proclaim the constitution “just as the court have voted”. King João VI of Portugal accepted the constitution. Freedom of the press was then proclaimed. Following the return of King João VI to Portugal, the Court of Lisbon intensified its political pressure to reduce the privileges of Brazil. Among the main causes, there was that of commercial control, whose Colonial Pact was broken by the Port’s Opening Order to Friendship Nations, and the ever-diminishing political domain over the former colony, mainly because there was the royal family. In turn, Portugal was devastated by the Napoleonic wars and the invasion of English trade, 10

João VI, ruler of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves


Dom Pedro I of Brazil

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Brazilians were excluded from key positions in the Brazilian administration. Dom Pedro, supported by the population, decided to remain in Rio on 9 January 1822, a day known since then as Dia do Fico (I’ll Stay Day). He proclaimed the independence of Brazil on 7 September 1822 in São Paulo and took the title of Emperor of Brazil.

Independence and Empire

Dom Pedro I, supported by José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, proclaimed the independence of the country but was not recognized by Portugal until August 1825, after 35 months of political confrontations but without much armed conflict, contrary to the case of the Spanish colonies. The monarchy relied on the people to counterbalance the rich Brazilian landowners, and tried to attract European immigrants. De facto, the country was under British influence, its main trading partner and major donor. In 1822 there were 920.000 white people, 2.000.000 blacks, 700.000 Métis and 360.000 indigenous. The monarchy became constitutional

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José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva

in 1824. The following period will experience many conflicts over decades. In 1831, after the death of João VI, the daughter of Pedro I, Maria da Glória was to reign in Portugal. However, under the impulse of the Holy Alliance, Pedro’s brother, Dom Miguel, claimed the throne. This act prompted Dom Pedro I to support his daughter and abdicate in favor of his son, Pedro II, aged only 5. He entrusted his son to José Bonifácio de Andrada e Silva, tutor of the young emperor. In the 1850’s, Pedro II pledged to fight against slavery and slave imports was therefore forbidden. Coffee cultivation was expanding and increasing the importance of landowners, especially those from São Paulo. The War of the Triple Alliance against Paraguay, from 1865 to 1870, was won thanks to the important regiments of black people. The black slaves were gradually freed starting from 1871. Pedro II also developed public education and had built a railway. As the Brazilian monarch continued to fight against slavery, in 1871 the Empire proclaimed that the children of the slaves were from there on free at birth. Brazilian slavery was therefore condemned in the long term. The fazendeiros and masters responded by searching for white slaves. They attracted European immigrants through various connections and promised them land. Once they arrived in Brazil they were asked to pay lots of money as a visa. The fazendeiros then lend them money which they had to repay by working for them but their working conditions were the same as those of the black slaves. The Lei Áurea of 1888 completely abolished slavery in Brazil and raised the resistance of the masters who then committed themselves to overthrow the Empire. The fazendeiros then created a republican party and paid Marshal Da Fonseca to organize a coup d’etat. The Empire and Pedro II of Brazil were overthrown in 1889. The Republic was then proclaimed, but slavery could no longer be restored. Councilor Ruy Caetano Barbosa, Minister of the Provisional Government after the proclamation of the Republic in 1889, ordered the burning of all the files in which the genealogy of the slaves and their masters was recorded, probably because many members of the Brazilian government themselves possessed slaves. Until 1888, the country imported more than 8 generations of African slaves. Brazil is thus the country from South America which has received most black slaves with about 5.5 million Africans deported from the 16th century to 1850, or 40% of the total.


Dom Pedro II of Brazil in 1850

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The Proclamation of the Republic (by Benedito Calixto)

Old Republic

The Old Republic refers to the period from 1889 to 1930. São Paulo monopolized the central power of an oligarchic Republic in which the growing middle class was pushing for a change. After the coup d’état of 1889, the Republic took the model of the United States of America. It was organized as a federal state with bearing arms tradition for individuals. Then the celestial sphere, as it was visible at the time of the proclamation of the new regime, was added to the Brazilian flag of 1822, which had a green background and a yellow diamond. The Empire died after having displeased the nobles that were possessing slaves. The new form of government was therefore a conservative republic that was born against a progressive empire. The period between 1889 and 1930 was that of the great landowners. It is also known as Café com leite Republic (“Coffee with Milk Republic”) since it was based on the coffee industry of São Paulo and dairy-bovine industry of Minas Gerais. The landowners were nicknamed “the coronels”. The various presidents didn’t run any election campaigns as it was enough for them to have a certain number of generals in the army that could vote in their favor. The great landlords who paid these generals alternated, so there was a president from São Paulo and then one from Minas Gerais. Indeed, the end of slavery has led to a decrease in the power of the sugar industry in the North-East in favor of the coffee industry of the South-East and the State of São Paulo, which ultimately monopolized the central power (coffee accounted for 60% of exports). While the many European immigrants (4 million from 1822 to 1920) settled in the South regions, the arrival of immigrants greatly increased the population from the cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo but most of the population became white. The 14

The Imperial family spending the last days in Brazil

blacks and the mestizos left the North-East en masse. The State of São Paulo became the most populated region. The government imposed taxes to put an end to Italian immigration in order to ensure the supremacy of Portuguese culture. Immigrants were well integrated. The European immigrants who settled in the southern regions of Brazil were mostly Italian, German, Portuguese or Spanish. This immigration enriched the country considerably as there were many intellectuals

Immigrants working on coffee plantations in Brazil


Collection of the Lyceum of Arts and Crafts in São Paulo (1910)

and graduates. Doctors, pharmacists, white-collar workers, merchants and their descendants have founded hospitals, workshops, factories, breweries and shops. Spanish and Italian immigrants created the first unions and brought a socialist and anarchist ideology. Immigration has also changed the culinary traditions (pizza, beer, spaghetti, vineyards). Nevertheless, many descendants of immigrants remained poor. One of the main characteristics of Brazil then emerged as the dominant white society excluded blacks and indigenous and the black population systematically practiced exogamy in order to integrate into the white society. It was the era of branqueamento (whitening). The blacks had very few feelings regarding community and identity. Racist insults against blacks were then very frequent among the blacks themselves who unconsciously believed in their inferiority and were still affected by the white prejudices. The result was an

enormous mixing as the number of blacks, whites and indigenous sharply declined and that of the mestizos increased, but nevertheless the political power belonged to a “purely” white elite. Brazil participated in the First World War by allying with the Allies in 1917 and sending troops. The increase in trade allowed the expansion of the middle class which, nevertheless, remained the subject to the coffee oligarchy, but which opposed it on social and political questions. After the fall of commodity prices, from 1906 to 1914, the post-war revival did not last long. Brazil was in crisis starting from 1922 and the popular strikes of 1924 were responded by the government with the establishment of the martial law. The 1929 crisis ruined the country’s external markets, ruined the country itself and sowed discredit on the oligarchy and its government. The “Café com leite Republic” was overthrown by the coup d’état of 4 October 1930 and 15


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Branqueamento era typical representation: Black grandmother, mulatto daughter and white son-in-law and grandson. For the government of that time, every generation from Brazil had to become whiter.


German General Otto Freter Pico, Commander of the 148th Infantry Division, and General Mario Carloni surrendering to the Brazilian Expeditionary Force after the Battle of Fornovo di Taro.

Getúlio Vargas became president-dictator.

Vargas, populism and development

The coup d’état of 4 October 1930 and the arrival at power of Getúlio Vargas resulted in the downfall of the coffee oligarchy and the rise of the middle class. The middle classes and planters from the peripheral states raised Vargas to power in 1930. He established a stronger, more centralized and executive state, engaging the country in the power of the universal voting, allowing women to vote and establishing the secret ballot, which finally released the Brazilian system from the weight of the Coronelismo. Brazil will become the only Latin American country which alongside Mexico will act militarily against the Axis by dispatching the Brazilian Expeditionary Force to Italy. Getúlio Vargas took power in 1930 because of a coup d’etat then legally became president in 1934. He became a dictator in 1937, establishing the Estado Novo. He eventually gave up power in 1945 but managed to return to power from 1951 to 1954, when he accused, discredited and cornered himself then committed suicide and turned back the public opinion in his favor and that of his camp. Vargas knew how to deal

with the emergence of the middle class by developing his populism. Despite his presidential monopoly from 1930 to 1945, Brazil experienced a democratic period from 1945 to 1964. The supremacy of the two “café com leite states” was reduced but still remained. Juscelino Kubitschek succeeded him. From 1961 to 1964, President João Goulart undertook a policy of social reforms. Traditional oligarchs and CIA maneuvered in such manner to cause his fall. The coup d’etat of 1964 overthrew him and established a repressive military dictatorship.

Military Dictatorship (1964-1985)

Established in 1964, the military regime ended in 1985 after a strong desire for democratization. From 1964 onwards, the rule of law was gradually violated: while for many the coup d’état opened only to a temporary “anti-communist” restoration of the country in the context of the Cold War, the military will sustain itself permanently in power and gradually install a true dictatorship. Brazil preceded many other Latin American countries (coup d’état of General Onganía in Argentina in 1966, coup d’état of 11 September 1973 in Chile by Pinochet, coup d’état of Juan María Bordaberry 17


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GetĂşlio Vargas in 1930


in Uruguay in 19731, etc.). Supported by the United States of America, the 1964 putsch was prepared by a long impregnation of the officers of the Brazilian army following the doctrine of national security and the theories of the counter-revolutionary war, which attribute a political and administrative role to the army by reinforcing the importance of the civilian population in the conduct of the war. Although in 1964 no guerilla or armed leftwing movement existed in Brazil, the latter being born precisely in reaction to the military dictatorship, the generals justified their putsch by the specter of communism, which took after the Cuban revolution of 1959 a particular relief in Latin America. The Constitution was suspended, the Congress dissolved and the president assumed dictatorial powers, while a counter-insurgency military force was established, first with the creation of the War Training Center in 1964 in the Manaus jungle. Death squads were set up by the state in order to track down any form of opposition. The period from 1968 to 1974 is known in Brazil as the “Years of Lead”. In the 1970’s, Brazil participated in Operation

Condor, a vast plan of coordination between the Latin American military dictatorships in order to fight opponents of military regimes all over the continent. This operation caused hundreds of deaths. In Brazil, there were a large number of revolutionary armed groups that have formed in reaction against the non-neutral military dictatorship. Most of them have taken shape in student circles. Among them were the MR-8, based rather in Rio de Janeiro or the ALN - Ação Libertadora Nacional (National Liberation Action), based in São Paulo. In November 1969, Carlos Marighella was assassinated by the Brazilian security forces. The dictatorship ended only in 1984. This regime was criticized for the increase of the Brazilian debt that it accumulated, as well as for its repressive nature: hundreds of Brazilians were deported, imprisoned, tortured or killed. Censorship was frequent.

The Return of Democracy (1985-2002) A new political regime was established. It was legally in 1988 and was based on the of 1988. Brazil then entered

named New Republic and juridical founded Brazilian Constitution a democratic phase,

Vladimir Palmeira, the leader of the civil movement, speaking during the Walk of the Hundred Thousand in 1968

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Manifestations of the Diretas Já group in Brasilia in front of the National Congress

accentuated by presidential elections every 4 years. On 15 January 1985, the majority of the members of the Congress chose Tancredo Neves as the new president. Nevertheless, he fell ill the day before the scheduled oath. His health problems got worse and he died after having undergone 7 operations. It was therefore Vice-President José Sarney who became President. He officially became president on 21 April 1985 and served until 15 March 1990. Among the difficulties that Sarney had to face the most important ones were the country’s external debt, galloping inflation and corruption. He also had to ensure that the process of democratic transition was still going well. Thus, Sarney launched the Plano Cruzado which initially allowed the limitation of inflation, but after one year, prices increase and inflation accelerated again. In 1988, a new constitution was promulgated. In December 1989, the Brazilians nominated a president for the first time since 1960 by popular vote. A second round was necessary. Fernando Collor de Mello, then supported by Sarney, defeated Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva and became president in 1990. Inflation was not controlled then and it was at a rate of 25% per month. Fernando de Mello launched shortly after taking office the Collor plan in order to reduce the price increase. The plan was designed to limit the supply of 20

Estado Novo Propaganda


money. Thus large portions of consumer bank accounts were forcibly converted into non-cashable government bonds. But, curiously enough, the government printed new notes at the same time. All accounts of more than 1.200 Brazilian cruzeiros were frozen for 18 months. Collor also proposed to freeze wages and prices and reduce government spending. But soon after the implementation of the Collor plan, the price increase accelerated to 25% per month. The Collor government also privatized companies such as steel maker Acesita. In 1992, Fernando Collor de Mello’s brother, Pedro, accused him of corruption. The accusations were directed mainly against Paulo Cesar Farias, the campaign manager of Collor, who had enriched himself. The Congress and the press began to investigate the case and the Congress finally voted Collor’s dismissal on 29 December 1992. Later, he will be found not guilty. Vice-President Itamar Franco succeeded Collor. Franco assumed the presidential functions starting from 2 October 1992 and was in charge of the country until 1 January 1995. When he became head of state, Brazil was in a deep economic crisis: inflation was at a rate of

João Baptista de Oliveira Figueiredo, 30th President of Brazil and last military dictator (1979-1985)

Politician Ulysses Guimarães holding the 1988 Constitution

1.100% in 1992 and almost 6.000 % in 1993. He chose Fernando Henrique Cardoso as Minister of Economy, who will set up the Plano Real which will finally put an end to the inflation. Subsequently, Fernando Henrique Cardoso, Minister of Economy under Itamar Franco, won the elections twice on 3 October 1994 and 4 October

Fernando Henrique Cardoso, former Minister of Economy and President of Brazil

21


Presidents Itamar Franco, Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Fernando Henrique Cardoso and José Sarney, at the funeral of Pope John Paul II in 2005

1998. He won the 1998 elections in the second round with about 53% of the votes against about 32% of the votes for Lula who came in second. Thanks to his Plano Real, Fernando Henrique Cardoso was elected in the first round in 1994. However, dissensions within the coalition made the reforms advocated by Cardoso more difficult to impose. During his two terms, he approached certain leaders like Bill Clinton or Ernesto Zedillo.

Modern Brazil

Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, who ran for the 4th time in the presidential election won the second round against José Serra, the candidate supported by Cardoso. Lula’s mandate began on 1 January 2003. Brazil had to face several problems. On the one hand, 8.2% of the population still lived on less than one US dollar per day in 2001, a figure that stood at 14% in 1990. On the other hand, Brazil was faced with an enormous external debt, which stood at 48.2% of the gross national income in 2003. Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva wanted to restore Brazilian finances while encouraging economy through social impulses (increasing minimum wage, etc.) However, less than two years after taking office, 22

the Partido dos Trabalhadores (PT, Party of Workers, the President’s party) was bogged down in one of the country’s biggest financial scandals. Party’s personalities such as its secretary general, Silvio Pereira, its president, José Genoino, and its treasurer, Delubio Soares, were involved in the scandal and had to resign. The crisis spread to Lula’s entourage, causing the resignation of his most important collaborator, José Dirceu, founder and main organizer of the PT and the ALN - Ação Libertadora Nacional. President Lula da Silva made a trip to Africa and asked for forgiveness for capturing and deporting Africans as slaves from the 16th to the 19th centuries. The Brazilian parliament also adopted the principle of positive discrimination for the black minority. The black minority is much more self-conscious and organized (TV channels, anti-racist organizations) and manages to openly expose racism of which it is a victim. On the other hand, more recent research shows that the mix of races in Brazil is a reality that far surpasses the color of the skin. Dilma Rousseff, a candidate supported by Lula, succeeded him to the presidency of the Republic on 1 January 2011.


Luiz Inรกcio Lula da Silva

Dilma Rousseff, 1st female President of Brazil

Nowadays, Brazil is a regional power in Latin America and a middle power in international affairs, with some analysts identifying it as an emerging global power

23


Nature Landforms

Brazil is the 5th largest country in the world, after Russia, Canada, the United States of America and China, and the 3rd largest in America, behind Canada and the United States of America. In Brazil, there can be found the Pantanal in Mato Grosso do Sul, one of the world’s largest swamps and a UNESCO biosphere reservation, the Banana Island, the largest river island in the world, the Marajó Island, the largest fluviomaritime island, the Anavilhanas, one of the largest river archipelagoes or the Amazon River, the largest river in the world. Brazil has a complex system of rivers and 9 large river basins, all of which flow into the Atlantic Ocean. The most important river is the Amazon River, which runs through the Amazonian rainforest and whose drainage basin, with an extension of 7.050.000 km², is the largest in the world. At the borders with Argentina and Paraguay and within the Iguazu National Park there are 275 waterfalls that descend from various heights for about 4 kilometers. Other major rivers are,

24

Amazon River

in addition to the Amazon River, with a length of 6.280 kilometers out of which 4.000 are navigable, the Parana and São Francisco, the longest river flowing entirely on the Brazilian territory across five states. Half of its 2.900 kilometers are navigable. Other rivers of Brazil are Iguazú (which gives the name to the Iguazú waterfalls), the Negro, São Francisco, Xingu, Madeira and Tapajós. The Paraná flows south among the Río de la Plata Basin, reaching the Atlantic between Argentina and Uruguay. The headwaters of the Paraguai, the Paraná’s major eastern tributary, constitute the Pantanal, the largest

Marajó Island


contiguous wetlands in the world. The Paraná system covers 14,5% of the country. The Brazilian territory is crossed by two imaginary geographical lines: the equator, which passes through the mouth of the Amazon River Basin, and the Tropic of Capricorn, which crosses the city of São Paulo. The country occupies a vast area along the east coast of South America and covers much of the interior of the continent. Brazilian territory also encompasses a number of archipelagos, such as Fernando de Noronha, Atol das Rocas, Abrolhos, Penedos de São Pedro e São Paulo, Trindade and Martim Vaz. The size, relief, climate and natural resources make Brazil a geographically diverse country. The Brazilian topography is also very diverse, and includes several hills, mountains, plains, plateaus and smaller hills. Much of the land is located at an altitude between 200 and 800 meters above sea level. Most of the highlands are located mainly in the southern part of the country. Northwestern Brazil is a plateau composed of a broad terrain that is interrupted by some hills. The southeastern region is more rugged with a complex mass of mountain ranges and sierras reaching altitudes of more than 1.200 meters above sea level. These rugged terrains include the Mantiqueira Mountains, Serra do Espinhaço and the Serra do Mar Mountains. In the north, the Guyanese shield constitutes a main drainage trench, separating the rivers that run south of the Amazon basin from the rivers that flow into the Orinoco River system in Venezuela to the north. The highest point in Brazil is Pico da Neblina, located on the border with Venezuela, having a total altitude of 2.994 meters. The Brazilian landscape is dominated by the

Pico da Neblina, highest point in Brazil

Trindade and Martin Vaz volcanic archipelago off the coast of Brazil

Amazon Plain, a huge low plain, and by the Brazilian Plateau (Planalto Central). The Mato Grosso Plateau is taller than the Brazilian Plateau, but the highest elevations are reached in the northeastern Guyanese Plateau: over 3.000 meters. The relief has medium low altitudes, almost 2/3 of the inland having altitudes lower than 300 meters. There are two major types of landforms: the plateaus and the plains. The Brazilian Plateau occupies the central-eastern part of the country, having an average altitude of 800 meters. In the west, the Mato Grosso Plateau is the most important one and in the south, along the Atlantic Ocean coast, there are higher peaks, up to 2.800 meters, like the Serra do Mar and do Espinhaço Mountains. The highest mountains are in the Tumucumaque, Pacaraima, and Imeri ranges, among others, which traverse the northern border with the Guianas and Venezuela. The country has access exclusively to the Atlantic Ocean. A stretch of the largely unpopulated South American coastline stretching from Cape Orange in the north to the Chuy stream in the south, with a total length of 7.491 km or 9.198 km if the coastal entrances are considered makes it the 15th longest coast in the world. Of the 26 Brazilian states, 9 of them don’t have access to the coastline and nor does the Federal District. Most of the 17 coastal states have their capital located near the coast, except for Porto Alegre (capital of Rio Grande do Sul), Curitiba (capital of Paraná), São Paulo (capital of São Paulo), Teresina (capital of Piauí), Belém (capital of Pará) and Macapá (capital of Amapá). Porto Alegre, Belém and Macapá are located near great navigable rivers, accessible from the coast. The coastal zone has a variable width, from 300 km in the north equatorial region, decreasing to 170 km in Ceará, 50 km in the cape of São Roque, 30 km in Bahia and continuing south with an average of 100 to 25


Mato Grosso Plateau

170 km until the Chuy stream. The depths are small, approximately 20 meters and correspond to the relief of the continental shelf. Along the coastline there are rectilinear coasts, with bays, beaches, dunes, mangroves and restingas with steep and abrupt areas, reefs, cliffs and other smaller formations. The Brazilian beaches (2.095 in total) are famous in the world and receive a large number of tourists every year. Most of the islands of Brazil are located very close to the coast, from which they are separated by narrow passages and canals. Many of them are usually located near the mouths of the rivers, formed by great sedimentary contributions. The most remarkable of them is the great Marajó archipelago, located near the mouth of the Amazon. A famous expression in Brazil is “do Oiapoque ao Chuí”, which means “from the extreme south to the extreme north of the country”. However, currently, the most northern inland point of the country is the Caburaí Mountain, located in the state of Roraima, while the southernmost point is in Santa Vitória do Palmar.

to state. Nevertheless, most of the country has a tropical climate. Based on the Köppen classification system, the most accurate in this domain, it is estimated that Brazil has no less than five main climatic types: tropical, equatorial, semi-arid, temperate and subtropical. The wide variety of climatic conditions produces certain environments that differ considerably from one region to another. These environments range from equatorial forests in the north to semi-arid deserts in the northeast, tropical savannas in the center and temperate climate in the south. Due to the cumulative effects of several factors, such as relief, territorial sprawl, and especially the

Climate

Brazil’s climate includes a wide range of different weather conditions, which may radically vary from state 26

Ipanema Beach in Rio de Janeiro


Pantanal tropical wetland area in Mato Grosso do Sul

dynamics of air masses, Brazil’s climate is extremely diverse. Winds influence both temperatures and rainfall, causing climatic differences at regional level. Interferences of air masses occur most frequently between the equatorial (continental and oceanic), tropical (continental and oceanic) and polar oceanic masses. The climate of Brazil is very humid, with various characteristics. For example it is very humid-warm in the Septentrion, very humid-subtropical in the southern region and São Paulo and very humid-warm tropical in a narrow strip of seashore between Rio Janeiro and São Paulo. The wet climate is also encountered in other regions of the country: wet-warm equatorial weather is dominant in Acre, Rondônia and Roraima, and has some influences in Mato Grosso, Amazonas, Pará and Amapá. Tropical weather is present in São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul. Various varieties of wet climate influence other parts of Brazil. The arid and semi-arid climate is limited to the North-East region. Although the Brazilian climate is very varied, it remains relatively stable and meteorological disasters occur at a relatively low frequency. However, the great cyclone Catarina caused significant losses in the regions of Rio Grande do Sul and Santa Catarina in 2004. The highest recorded temperature in Brazil was 44.7°C in

Bom Jesus, Piauí, on 21 November 2005. At the other extreme, the lowest temperature was -17.8°C in Urubici, Santa Catarina, registered on 29 June 1996. In northern Brazil, where the Amazon River is located, the climate is equatorial. In this region and especially in the Amazon jungle, the world’s largest forest, the seasons are generally rainy. Temperatures range from 26°C to 27°C. When the rainy season arrives, specifically the period of the year from November to March, there are torrentially rainfalls over the forest, almost without interruption. In the dry season, which

Equatorial climate in Meeting of Waters, Amazonas

27


Brazil map of Köppen climate classification

lasts from July to September or November, temperatures range from 26 to 40°C. Rain usually falls but it generally lasts less than in the rainy season. Central and Eastern Brazil enjoy a tropical savannah climate. These regions are as vast as the Amazon Basin, but have a very different climate as they are further south and at a higher elevation. Temperatures undergo few changes during the seasons. Thus, temperatures range from 27°C in September to 25°C in July. In northeastern Brazil, the climate varies from 22 to 30°C over the course of the year. The climate is semi-arid, warm and dry with continental or oceanic 28

tendencies and short rainy seasons. Precipitation difference between altitudes is even more extreme since this region of semi-arid climate generally receives less than 800 mm rainfall, most of them falling in a period that covers three to five months each year and, when there is less rainfall, there are long periods of drought. In the Pantanal region between Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul, the geographic diversity and its extent mean that the climate varies considerably. In the north, where the climate is hot and humid all year round, the city of Cuiabá is known to be one of the hottest in Brazil. In the Mato Grosso do Sul state,


Semi-arid climate in the Serra da Capivara National Park, Piauí

sudden temperature drops can occur during winter. From December to May, the entire Pantanal region is experiencing a strong rainy season. During this period, the rivers overflow and flood the great plains of the Pantanal region with, in some cases, up to nearly 3 meters of water. The animals then take refuge in the dry land islands (cordilheiras). In March, jaguars come out and regroup in order to look for new territories that aren’t flooded. The further south one descends, the more temperate the climate is. Past the Tropic of Capricorn, the four seasons are more easy to distinguish and, while the coast has a subtropical type of climate with mild winters and hot summers, the extreme south has cold winters with temperatures sometimes less than 0°C. In the middle of winter, in July and August, temperatures range from 13 to 18°C in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná and São Paulo. In some cities, there may even be occasional snowfalls, but they are rare. In São Joaquim, considered to be the coldest city in Brazil, five to seven days of snow are common every year, with the most favorable months being July and August. Along the coast, summer is very hot.

Tropical savanna climate in Cerrado, Pirineus State Park, Pirenópolis, Goiás

The “Great Drought” of 1877-1878 was the most serious recorded in the country and provoked the death of close to half a million people. South of Bahia, starting from São Paulo, the distribution of rainfall changes as rainfall occurs throughout the year. The south and southeast region have mild climate conditions with warm winters and one average annual temperature not exceeding 18°C. Winter frosts are quite common here as well as occasional snow fall in the higher areas.

Flora

Snow in São Joaquim, Santa Catarina

Covered in part by the Amazon, the largest forest basin on the planet, Brazil is one of the world’s richest seven countries in terms of biodiversity. Brazil’s vast territory includes various ecosystems, such as the Amazon rainforest, known as the world’s largest rainforest, and the largest reservoir of biodiversity. In addition to the Amazonian forest, Brazil also has other important ecosystems, such as the Atlantic Forest, the Cerrado Savanna and the Caatinga Forest. Two of these forests cover an area at least equal to or even greater than France. Thus, the Caatinga, with an area of nearly 731.320 km2, is larger than France. The same applies to Subtropical climate in Intervales State Park, São Paulo

29


Corsage Orchid is the national flower of Brazil

the Cerrado Savanna with its approximately 2.000.000 km2. But the Atlantic forest, due to the significant deforestation it has undergone, has been greatly reduced, reaching today an area of 95.000 km2, compared with nearly 1.360.000 km2 before the end of the 1990’s. Brazil contains part of the largest rain forest biome in the world, the Amazon. This region is home to more than 21 million people and contains 1/5 of the world’s freshwater supplies in its Amazon River. It is also its important biodiversity that gives it its value. There are a multitude of species of flora and fauna and many are still to be discovered. Rainforest dominates the Amazonian Basin, where the vegetation is particularly lush and consists of hundreds of species of plants distributed according to the degree of soil moisture. This vegetation includes palms and plants of the euphorbiae family (from which the rubber tree is also part). Along the coast there grow lush mangrove forests, cocoa trees, dwarf palms and numerous other species, including Brazilwood. This plant, called Paubrasilia by the autochthonous population, derives from the name of the country. The most cultivated 30

fruits are pineapple, mango, banana, grape, orange, fig and guava. On the plateaus, the lush vegetation along the river valleys is more laborious in the mountainous areas, where deciduous species of flora grow. Temperate areas are abundant in conifers, while in the arid sections of the plateaus are cacti and shrub vegetation are common. However, the Amazonian forest (covering 56,1% of the total area of Brazil) is experiencing an extremely

Coffee Plantation near the town of Ibiraci


Heliconia flowers in the tropical forests of the Amazon

Brazilwood and Coconut Trees

rapid rate of deforestation that threatens this ecosystem. The main causes are bovine breeding (80% of deforested area), logging for construction and agriculture including coffee, sugarcane and soybean crops. Already 17% of the forest has been razed at this point and the destruction continues at an alarming rate. Deforestation causes the complete fragmentation or disappearance of habitats and many species are sensitive to it. In addition, the rainforest stores a significant amount of carbon dioxide. The rapid destruction of these forests contributes significantly to climate change as much of the carbon dioxide is disposed of when the biomass of these forests is burned for soil fertilization. Indeed, this favors agriculture or the growth of herbaceous plants for cattle, but for a short time. This type of land use inevitably leads to desertification in the long run, making the terrain unproductive and unusable. In 2007, 18,5% of the country’s territory was subject to environmental protection. There are numerous national parks, biological reserves and anthropological reserves across the Brazilian territory. Brazil also has natural areas recognized as human

heritage and biosphere reserves under the protection of UNESCO. In 1992, Brazil hosted the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development in Rio de Janeiro, also known as the Earth Summit, during which, in addition to promoting environmental initiatives, the definition of sustainable development was elaborated. At international level, Brazil has ratified a number of treaties, including the Antarctic Treaty, the Convention on the Law of the Sea, and the Northern Hemisphere Convention (1940). On the basis of the Amazonian Cooperation Treaty (1978), the country cooperates to protect the Amazon River Basin.

Serra dos Ă“rgĂŁos National Park

Fauna

The rich fauna of Brazil reflects the variety of natural habitats: tropical rainforests, mountains and subtropical forests, savannas, pampas, marshes, coasts and others. Scientists estimate that the total number of plant and animal species in Brazil reaches up to about four million. More than six hundred species of mammals are present in Brazil, including several of the feline family, such as jaguar, puma and ocelot. Other mammals include sloths, South American tapir (Tapirus terrestris), armadillos, sea dolphins, foxes, capybaras (large aquatic rodents some of which can weigh up to 66 kg), and about thirty species of monkeys. Brazil, with its 1.704 known species, has the largest variety of birds in the world, after Colombia and Peru, including 230 endemic species of birds like the rheas, curassow, raptors, parrots, toucans, woodpeckers, mountain roosters, cotingas, tyrants, etc. There are at least 40 of turtles in Brazil, 120 species of lizards, 230 species of snakes, 5 species of alligators, 330 species of amphibians, and 1.500 species of freshwater fish. Naturalists have identified more 31


The Pantanal Jaguar is the national animal of Brazil

than 100.000 invertebrates, including more than 70.000 insects. The Amazonian forest contains the highest concentration of biological organisms and although no one knows the exact number, scientists estimate that they constitute between 15 and 30% of the world’s known species. Originally from the state of Bahia, there are the Spix-Ara and Ara parrot, two of the most threatened parrots in the world. The Spix-Ara is extinct in the natural state, while the Ara parrot is still present in nature, but its number is decreasing rapidly. It is estimated that there are still about 450 free specimens. There can be found many deer in the southern regions. The forests are populated by various species of tropical monkeys and tropical birds, especially parrots and toucans. Among the reptiles, there are numerous species of alligators and snakes, including the mute crotch, the lancehead and the boa. In the rivers and along the Atlantic coast there is a big population of turtles and fish (including piranha and barracuda). The vast river basin of the Amazon River is entirely covered by tropical and savannah forests, which constitute the largest green lungs of the planet, which can affect the 32

climate and reduce the excess of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. The Amazonian River Basin is also a prodigious biodiversity reservoir for the quantity and variety of plant and animal species located in it. In Brazil there are also several species of bats, the most famous one certainly being the vampire bat

Lear’s Macaw


(Desmodus rotundus), the only exemplary that only feeds on the blood of other vertebrates. Obviously there is no danger to human beings! Large number of deer, foxes and raptors can be found in the southern regions. In the areas covered by the rainforest, there are several species of monkeys: the Pygmy marmoset, which with its 76 cm in length, including tail, and its weight of one hundred and eighty grams, is the smallest monkey in the world. There are also two other species with a curious look, including the bald uakari is a very special monkey whose face is similar to the bald head of a bald man! Brazil’s environmental concerns are so acute that they have caused international reactions. The country’s natural heritage is threatened by intensive economic activities such as cattle breeding, agriculture, logging, mining, oil and gas extraction, intensive fishing, urbanization, fires, climate change, livestock trade, dams, water pollution and invasive species. In many parts of the country, rapid economic development threatens the natural environment, the solution of which, together with social issues, is one of the most important tasks on the Brazilian government agenda.

Toco Toucan

Blue poison dart frog

Bald Uakari

Piranha dwells in the Amazon River

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People Language

Portuguese is the official language of Brazil and is spoken by almost all its inhabitants. Brazil is the only Portuguese speaking country in the Americas and Portuguese is an important part of Brazilian national identity, ergo giving it a distinct national culture from that of its neighbors who speak Spanish. The way Portuguese is spoken in Brazil was influenced by the African and indigenous languages. As a result, it differs, mostly in phonology, from the spoken language in Portugal and other Portuguese speaking countries. However, several other minority languages are spoken in Brazil. These are spoken by indigenous peoples and descendants of immigrants of various nationalities. Portuguese is Brazil’s main language since the 18th century. It was spread throughout the country by Portuguese settlers during the 16th century. The expansion of the Portuguese language in Brazil was not the result of a normal spread because the governments that followed succeeded in favoring the Portuguese language, thus becoming the official language of the country. The Portuguese state and the independent Brazilian state took unfavorable policies towards other languages. The first linguistic policy applied within the country was the so-called “Diretório dos Índios” of 1758, according to which the Marquis of Pombal

34

forced the use of Portuguese language in the colony and banned the teaching of indigenous languages , in particular the “língua geral”, based on the Indigenous language of the people who prevailed in Brazil until the 18th century. Also, the languages spoken by various groups of immigrants who arrived in Brazil since 1850 were another target of these repressive actions. The “Estado Novo” (1937-1945) of Getúlio Vargas represented the climax of the repression against the use of other foreign languages through the nationalization of education which culminated in the repression of the German and Italian speaking populations. The 1940 Brazilian census showed that more than a million people spoke German (644.458) or Italian (458.054) in a national population of 50 million people, which is quite a significant number. The nationalization policy of the “Estado Novo” established the compulsory teaching of the Portuguese language in schools and forbade the use of other languages through a concept of “idiomatic offense” invented by the “Estado Novo”. Consequently, many people who spoke different languages than Portuguese were arrested. In 1942, for example, 1,5% of the population of the southern city of Blumenau, inhabited mainly by German immigrants, was marginalized because of the use of German language. However, following the 1988 Constitution, the Brazilian state declared Portuguese the official language of the country. Moreover, the indigenous populations received the right to learn their own language even in schools. However, the same thing did not happen for other languages spoken by immigrant descendants. The Brazilian government has always chosen to legitimize

Portuguese is the official language of Brazil


Museu da Língua Portuguesa in São Paulo

Portuguese as the only national language. Obviously, the Portuguese language spoken in Brazil was not only imposed by state policies. This language was adopted by a part of the colonial population because it was considered to be the one that could more easily facilitate social contacts, particularly with the African born population. Portuguese settlers and their descendants never exceeded 30% of the total Brazilian population, and non-white ethnic groups (blacks, mules, creoles and indigenous peoples) always swung around 70% of the population until the middle of the 19th century. Thus, most of the Brazilian population has learned Portuguese through the practical use of the language, although they came from families of different origins. The Brazilian people learned a different Portuguese, far from what is considered the official one. In the 19th century, only 0,5% of the population was literate. In 1872, 99,9% of the slaves, 80% of the free people and 86% of the women were illiterate. The Portuguese language developed in Brazil, therefore, orally, given the absence of a proper educational system. The Brazilian Portuguese, brought by the colonists of

Portugal, is very close to that spoken in Portugal. It differs in terms of words, expressions and accents linked in particular to the cultural mix and the South American peculiarities (climate, vegetation, food) of the country. The differences between European Portuguese and Portuguese American are very much the same as those between other European languages (French, English, Spanish) of their American correspondents. It is estimated that when the Portuguese arrived in Brazil in the 1500’s, about 1.078 languages were spoken in the country. Because of the linguistic policy that has already been imposed by the Portuguese state, and then by the Brazilian state, most of these languages have disappeared in time or are disappearing. The 2010 census has registered 305 indigenous groups who spoke 274 different languages. Of the indigenous people who were at least 5 years old (786.674 people), 37,4% spoke an indigenous language, while 76,9% spoke Portuguese. The populations that are speaking indigenous languages are found mainly in the North region of Brazil. The municipality of Serafina Corrêa, for example, has the Venetian language as official in the municipality, alongside the Portuguese. In addition, 35


Religion

German colonies from South Brazil

the teaching of the Italian language is present in the following Brazilian municipalities: Venda Nova do Imigrante, Francisco Beltrão, Antônio Prado, Brusque, Criciúma, Bragança Paulista and São José dos Campos. The German language is mainly spoken in the states of Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina and Espírito Santo. In fact, the German language spoken there is the Hunsrückisch dialect, which is mainly spoken in Hunsrück, southwestern Germany, from where many immigrants came to Brazil. Another Germanic dialect present in Brazil is the East Pomeranian, spoken in Pomerania, a historical region located in northern Poland and Germany. The teaching of Spanish is compulsory during the last 3 years of secondary school. In 1999, the Brazilian State of Amapá made compulsory the teaching of French in public schools, following a 1998 federal law requiring public schools in the country to teach at least one foreign language. The choice of the Amapá state for the French language is explained by a desire for rapprochement with the French Guiana or even a desire to open up, given the geographical isolation of this State from the rest of Brazil. 36

Religion in Brazil evolved from the encounter of the Catholic Church with the traditional religion of the descendants of African slaves and indigenous peoples. The predominant religion is Catholicism (64,6%), followed by Protestantism with 22,2%. Particularly interesting in Brazil has been the progressive and steady rise of Protestants, from 15,4% in 2000 to 22,2% in 2010, while during the same period, the Catholic Church declined from 73,6% to 64,6%, thus losing about 12 million faithful. In just thirty years, the proportion of Protestants has risen from 6,6% to 22,2%. In particular, the Pentecostal Evangelicals in 2009, according to a study realized by Centro de Políticas Sociais by Fundação Getúlio Vargas (FGV), accounted for almost 13% of the entire Brazilian population. Other evangelical religious movements account for 7% of the total population, while other minor religions account for not more than 7% of the total. Among these, 1,65% of the Brazilians follow Spiritism, a philosophical doctrine, which in Brazil has one of the highest numbers of adepts. According to the 2000 Census, 0,31% of the total population follow the AfroBrazilian religion, 0,13% are Buddhists, 0,05% Jewish, 0,02% Islamic, while 0,01% are following indigenous religions. 7,35% of the Brazilians are atheists. Since the 16th century, the main religion in Brazil is Roman Catholicism. It was introduced by the missionaries who accompanied the Portuguese explorers and settlers who arrived in the country. Brazil is considered to be the largest Catholic country in the world in terms of number of practitioners, with 64% of the Brazilian population claiming to be Catholic. However, its hegemony must be relativized by the importance of religious syncretism in the country. Popular traditions related to Catholicism in Brazil

People celebrating the Festa do Divino Espírito Santo


The Basilica of the National Shrine of Our Lady of Aparecida, the second largest in the world

include the pilgrimage to Our Lady of Aparecida, the patron saint of the country. Other popular traditional celebrations, characteristic of the country, are the Círio de Nossa Senhora de Nazaré (in Belém) and the Festa do Divino Espírito Santo. Since the end of the 20th century, there has been a certain lack of interest in the traditional forms of religiosity, particularly due to the fact that a large number of people declared themselves to be “nonpracticing Catholics”. Only 20% of Brazilians declare themselves “practicing Catholics”. The movement of the Catholic Charismatic Renewal (CCR) came to Brazil in the mid-1970’s and began to assert itself in the 1990’s. The movement claims to renew the way of approaching evangelization and to renew the traditional practices of rituals and Catholic mysticism, based in particular on personal experience. It is close to certain aspects to the Pentecostal movements, through the adoption of fundamentalist positions and the rejection of religious syncretism. With a large number of laypeople, the RCC now represents a significant proportion of practicing Catholics in the country. One of the most famous communities of this movement is the Canção Nova, presided over by Father Jonas Abib and has a television

channel. Another icon of the RCC in Brazil is Father Marcelo Rossi, a media and mass culture phenomenon. Under a denomination unit, Brazilian Catholicism encompasses many different realities, including some dissenting ones among which the Catholic Apostolic Church of Brazil. Protestantism is the second religion of Brazil, represented mainly by the Evangelical Churches, having about 52 million followers in 2014. Protestantism refers to a wide variety of distinct congregations, characterized

Belém Cathedral

37


Christ the Redeemer Statue in Rio de Janeiro

by a free interpretation of the Bible. No institutions or groups represent Protestants as a single community. Each group has full religious and administrative autonomy, unlike other Christian religious movements. The first Protestants arrived in Brazil in 1811, following the arrival of the Portuguese royal family and the opening of ports to the allied nations guaranteed by the Treaty of Commerce and Navigation. English traders established the Anglican Church in the country in 1811. Other churches were established following different waves of immigration: the Germans brought with them the Lutheran Churches in 1824 and the Adventist in 1890, while the Americans brought the Baptist and Methodist churches. Missionaries Robert Kalley and Ashbel Green Simonton established the Congregational (in 1855) and Presbyterian (1859) Churches for the Brazilian people. In 1910, Pentecostalism, particularly represented by the Christian congregation in Brazil and the Assemblies of God, arrived in the country. Since the 1950’s, the current diversified through the creation of many other movements, while other traditional Protestant currents also turned to Pentecostalism. In the 1970’s, a neo-Protestant movement emerged, focusing 38

on the middle and upper classes, having a more liberal discourse about traditions and less emphasis on divine manifestations. In recent decades, Protestant churches, especially Pentecostal churches, are progressing rapidly. It is the religious current with the highest rate of growth. Protestantism is particularly strong in Rio Grande do Sul, due to the presence of descendants of German settlers of Lutheran faith and in the great capitals of the south-east of the country such as São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Goiânia and Brasília. Many practitioners of Afro-Brazilian religions, as well as many spiritualists, also declare themselves “Catholics” and follow certain rites of the Catholic Church. This type of religious tolerance associated with syncretism is a particular historical feature of religion in Brazil. In recent years, however, religious intolerance has developed, which has necessitated the creation of a “day against religious intolerance” by President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva on 21 January. Other religions such as Mormonism, Jehovah’s Witnesses, Orthodoxy, Islam, Judaism, Spiritism, Neo-paganism and shamanism are also present across the territory of Brazil. At the last census, carried out in 2000 by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and


People during a celebration of Orisha, in Candomblé of Ile Ase Ijino Ilu Orossi

Statistics (IBGE), following the question “What is your Santa Ana, Nuestra Señora de Loreto and Santa religion?”, more than 35.000 different types of answers Maria Mayor (Argentina), Ruins of Sao Miguel das were given and more than 1.000 names were cited. The Missoes (Brazil) IBGE survey takes into account the statements of the • Pampulha Modern Ensemble interviewees. This movement of diversification of the • Rio de Janeiro: Carioca Landscapes between the offer in the Brazilian religious field changes the social Mountain and the Sea structures of the country in depth. • Sanctuary of Bom Jesus do Congonhas • São Francisco Square in the Town of São Cristóvão • Serra da Capivara National Park World Heritage On UNESCO’s list there can be found 14 cultural • Valongo Wharf Archaeological Site Natural Objectives objectives and 7 natural objectives in Brazil: • Atlantic Forest South-East Reserves Cultural Objectives • Brazilian Atlantic Islands: Fernando de Noronha • Brasilia and Atol das Rocas Reserves • Historic Centre of Salvador de Bahia • Central Amazon Conservation Complex • Historic Centre of São Luís • Cerrado Protected Areas: Chapada dos Veadeiros • Historic Centre of the Town of Diamantina and Emas National Parks • Historic Centre of the Town of Goiás • Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves • Historic Centre of the Town of Olinda • Iguaçu National Park • Historic Town of Ouro Preto • Jesuit Missions of the Guaranis: San Ignacio Mini, • Pantanal Conservation Area 39


Demographics

According to the 2010 census, the population of Brazil exceeded over 190 million inhabitants. In 2013, the country recorded a number of 200.362.000 people, thus making Brazil the 5th most populous country in the world. The population density is low, having about 24 inhabitants/km2, a number comparable to other South American countries. The rate of urbanization stands at 84,90% of the total population. Brazil has one of the most ethnically diverse populations in the world. In 2010, the fertility rate was estimated at 1.81 children per woman, which is below the generational turnover threshold. The population of Brazil increased significantly between 1940 and 1970 due to a decline in the mortality rate, while the birth rate also showed a slight decrease over the same period. In the 1940’s, the population growth rate was at 2.4% per annum, only

40

then to rise to 3% in 1950 before stabilizing at 2.9% in 1960. At the same time, life expectancy grew from 44 to 54 years and up to 72 years in 2010. The population growth rate has tended to decline since 1960, from 3.04% between 1950 and 1960 to 1.13% in 2011. In 2050, it is estimated that the rate will be at a value of -0.29264%, thus completing the Demographic Transition. The dramatic fall regarding fertility rates can be explained by the choices made by women and not by any kind of government policy. Brazil has a multiethnic society. The Brazilian population consists mainly of the descendants of Indians, Portuguese settlers, African slaves and various groups of immigrants who arrived in Brazil especially between 1820 and 1970. Immigrants were mainly Italians and Portuguese, but also Germans, Spaniards, Japanese and Syrian-Lebanese people. According to

Brazilian States by Population


the Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística, most of the Brazilian population is considered to be white (47.3%). 43.1% is mulatto and 7.6% black. 1.1% of the population is of Asian origin and 0.4% are indigenous people. Many people of European origins can be found throughout Brazil. They are more numerous in the South and South-East States, for instance in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul in the South Region and São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo in the South-East Region. In particular, in the 19th century, the majority of the European immigrants settled in those areas rather than in the rest of Brazil. African-born people are present throughout Brazil, but they are numerous in the Central Coast States, as well as throughout the North-East Region of Brazil. They can also be found in the states of Espírito Santo, Rio

de Janeiro, and in the states of Minas Gerais and São Paulo. The way they are scattered across Brazil can be explained by the fact that in the past a large number of Africans, mostly from Angola, came to work in sugar cane fields, gold mines and coffee plantations, which were mostly located in those areas. Mulatto and mestizo people are found all over Brazil. According to genetic studies, most Brazilians have a certain degree of ancestors with mixed ethnicity. Asians represent 2% of the Brazilian population. Most Asians are of Japanese origin, although many Korean and Chinese immigrants have arrived in the last decades. It is estimated that there are about 2.5 million Brazilians of Japanese origin, 787.000 Chinese and 545.000 Koreans. Asians of Japanese origin are more common in the states of São Paulo, Paraná, Mato Grosso do Sul and Pará. There are about 240 tribes living in Brazil, accounting

Brazilian States by Population Density

41


Population Distribution Map of Brazil

for a total of about 1.000.000 people. Most indigenous people are living in the northern states. The country also has the largest number of uncontacted tribes in the world according to the Brazilian Department of Indigenous Affairs. The last uncontacted groups are still living in the Brazilian Amazon forest. The largest metropolitan areas are São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte, all of them located in the South-East region, having 21.2, 12.1 and 5.1 million inhabitants, respectively. Almost all state capitals are the largest cities of their respective states, with the exception of Vitória, capital of Espírito Santo, and Florianópolis, the capital of Santa Catarina. There are also several important metropolitan areas that do not belong to the capital of any state, such as Campinas, Santos, Vale do Paraíba (in São Paulo), Vale do Aço (in Minas Gerais) and Vale do Itajaí (in Santa Catarina). Brazil is divided into 5 regions and 26 states as following: State (+ Regions)

Capital

Acre (North Region)

Rio Branco

Amazonas (North Region)

Manaus

Roraima (North Region)

Boa Vista

Amapá (North Region)

Macapá

Pará (North Region)

Location of Brazil’s groups of people

Maranhão (North-East Region)

São Luís

Piauí (North-East Region)

Teresina

Ceará (North-East Region)

Fortaleza

Bahia (North-East Region)

Salvador

Paraíba (North-East Region)

João Pessoa

Rio Grande do Norte (North-East Region) Pernambuco (North-East Region)

Natal

Alagoas (North-East Region)

Maceió

Sergipe (North-East Region)

Aracaju

Goiás (Central-West Region)

Goiânia

Mato Grosso (Central-West Region) Mato Grosso do Sul (Central-West Region) Espírito Santo (South-East Region)

Cuiabá

Minas Gerais (South-East Region)

Belo Horizonte

Recife

Campo Grande Vitória

Rio de Janeiro (South-East Region) Rio de Janeiro São Paulo (South-East Region)

São Paulo

Belém

Paraná (South Region)

Curitiba

Rondônia (North Region)

Porto Velho

Santa Catarina (South Region)

Florianópolis

Tocantis (North Region)

Palmas

Rio Grande do Sul (South Region)

Porto Alegre

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1 2 3 4

City São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Salvador Brasília

State São Paulo Rio de Janeiro Bahia Federal District

Population 11.500.000 6.500.000 2.800.000 2,600, 000

5

Fortaleza

Ceará

2.500.000

6 7

Belo Horizonte Minas Gerais Manaus Amazonas

8 Curitiba 9 Recife 10 Porto Alegre

Paraná Pernambuco Rio Grande do Sul

2.450.000 1.800.000 1.700.000 1.600.000 1.450.000

11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

Belém Goiânia Guarulhos Campinas São Luís São Gonçalo Maceió Duque de Caxias 19 Teresina 20 Natal

Pará Goiás São Paulo São Paulo Maranhão Rio de Janeiro Alagoas Rio de Janeiro

1.400.000 1.350.000 1.250.000 1.100.000 1.050.000 1.000.000 950.000 880.000

Piauí Rio Grande do Norte

830.000 810.000

Administrative Divisions of Brazil

43


Economy & Transportation Economy

Brazil’s economy, with a gross domestic product of 4.365 billion $, is ranked 6th in the world. The national industry is highly developed and provides the country with a dominant position in the region. Brazil disposes of immense agricultural and zoo-technical resources (coffee, cocoa, soy, corn, sugar cane, cattle), as well as large fields of gold, silver and iron. It is one of the most important producers of steel and oil. Brazil is part of the so-called BRICS association (Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa). Between 2003 and 2006, Brazil had a 3.3% economic growth, compared to an average of 7.3% for other developed countries. Sea transport is strategic for the country but many ports are structurally obsolete. The streets and neighborhoods of large cities are abnormally developed in relation to the collective functional needs. The country tends to become heavily urbanized, and labor costs are attractive to foreign investment. Bureaucracy needs to be reformed in order to further boost investments. The new elected President of the Republic, Dilma Rousseff, who replaced Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva at the end of 2010, intends to follow the socio-economic policy of her predecessor, who was the

44

powerful Minister of the House of Commons, a ministry considered a sort of right wing of the Presidency of the Republic. The governmental programs have not updated to the market needs as in Brazil the central authority always intervenes with unilateral program initiatives. However, the great potential of biofuels, soybean and mineral supplies remains high for the country. In 2006, investments grew by 7% and wages by 8%. Since 2006, the economy has recovered with renewed vigor (7-8%), thanks to the new project that aimed for the acceleration of the economic growth, the CAP. In the petroleum industry, Petrobras still develops strongly, even in the light of the recent discoveries of “Pre-Salt”, estimated at around 60 to 100 billion barrels of oil on the offshore platform off the national coast. Brazil is also the 3rd global manufacturer in the field of civil aviation air transport with its Embraer. The struggle against poverty remains high despite the “Bolsa Familia” (an economic aid to poor families) which has contributed enormously to the improvement of the qualitative level of more than 38 million people, a percentage nevertheless high compared to more than 200 million inhabitants of the country. Agriculture alone produces 10% of Brazil’s national income and occupies mainly the flat territories of the Atlantic coast. The main crops consist of coffee, which Brazil is the world’s biggest exporter, soy (2nd exporter after the United States of America) and wheat (especially in the South), but also rice, corn, sugar

São Paulo Stock Exchange


Brazil’s Export Tree Map (2014)

canes and cocoa. Production is mainly directed towards export and this forces the country to import foodstuffs in order to meet the domestic food needs. Brazil’s agriculture still exhibits colonial structures: 1% of the owners own about 40% of the cultivated land, which is organized in large land properties where extensive livestock farming is practiced. In other cases, capitalist businesses are dedicated to agriculture of plantation. There are also minifundios, small holdings run by poorer farmers and cultivated with corn, rice, manioc and wheat. 22% of the soil is used by large farms for breeding. Around 29.900.000 cattle are being bred, followed by 26.460.000 pigs, sheep and goats (both around 22 million heads). The subsoil is rich in raw materials. The country provides 30% of the world’s iron exports. In addition, there can be found manganese, zinc, gold, pond, precious stones and coal deposits. In Brazil, the industry has only developed since the second half of the 20th century. However, its growth has been rapid, and productions are very diverse. Supported by foreign capital and especially in São Paulo and Belo

Horizonte, the industry sector sees the prevalence of the metallurgical, chemical, textile, food industries and lately mechanical compartments (cars, aerospace) and electronics (radiotechnics, microelectronics). In Brazil, there is a ratio of one visitor per year for every 35 inhabitants. The largest countries from which tourists come to Brazil are: Argentina (43%),

Petrobras P-51 oil platform

45


Harvester on a rice plantation in Santa Catarina. Brazil is the 3rd largest exporter of agricultural products in the world

Uruguay (9%), USA (9%), Paraguay (5%), Germany (5%) and others (30%). The main tourist poles are: Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Bahia, Foz do Iguaçu, Amazonian Region, Minas Gerais, Recife and Olinda, Fortaleza, Natal and Pantanal. Brazil also has lots of national parks that can be visited and very beautiful landscapes are awaiting tourists. Among the most famous national parks, there can be mentioned the following: Iguazu Falls, Lençois Maranhenses, Chapada Diamantina, Fernando de Noronha Park, Itatiaia, Serra da Capivara, Jericoacoara, Monte Pascoal, Monte Roraima, Pau

46

Brazil is the most popular destination of South America

Brasil, Tijuca, Serra dos Órgãos, Sete Cidades, Serra da Canasta, Ubajara, Pico da Neblina, Vale do Catimbau, Chapada dos Guimaraes.

Transportation

With a road network covering 1.8 million kilometers, including some 200.000 km of paved ones, roads are the main transport routes for passengers and cargo in Brazil. The roads are, however, often in a disastrous state, generally worse in the north than in the south. The first investments in road infrastructure took place in the 1920’s under the presidency of Washington Luís and continued under Getúlio Vargas and Gaspar Dutra. President Juscelino Kubitschek (1956-1961), who founded the current capital of the country, Brasilia, was responsible for the installation of major carmakers in the country (Volkswagen, Ford and General Motors established car factories in Brazil during his tenure). Since the 1990’s, the country has received large foreign investments in its territory in order to allow the installation of other major manufacturers such as Iveco, Renault, Peugeot, Citroen, Honda, Mitsubishi, Mercedes-Benz, BMW, Hyundai , Toyota and other. Brazil now holds the 7th largest automotive industry in


Brazil’s Economic Activity

the world in terms of production. Borracharias (tire stations for tires) are located along the roadside on all major overland roads. Buses run reliably between all major cities at regular intervals and also between smaller cities. There are different price classes from the simple coach to the fully-airconditioned bus with TV’s and travel companions. Inner city buses run sunrise to sunset. Transit buses run from

the Rodoviária. Tickets are available at the respective bus company. Buses are generally punctual, reliable, comfortable and clean. Bus rentals are more prevalent in pre-Carnival periods and affect the metropolitan areas of São Paulo and Rio de Janeiro. There are approximately 4.000 airports and air fields of all sizes in Brazil. With 2.500 airports (including 721 airstrips in total), Brazil is the second largest country 47


Brazilian Highway

in the world in terms of airports, only behind the United States of America. São Paulo-Guarulhos International Airport, located in the metropolitan area of São Paulo, is the largest, most important and most frequented airport in Brazil with nearly 20 million annual passengers. The large number of visitors to São Paulo-Guarulhos airport is due to its advantageous geographical position and to the fact that it is the place or transit of the majority of the national commercial traffic. The São Paulo-Guarulhos airport makes possible the connection between São Paulo and practically all the big cities of the world. In addition to São Paulo-Guarulhos, Brazil has other 34 international airports and 2.464 regional airports. The country also has an extensive railway network of 28.857 km of railways, the 10th largest on the planet. The Brazilian government is trying to encourage this mode of transport, hence the project to build a new high-speed train, the Rio de Janeiro - São Paulo TAV (Trem de Alta Velocidade), which will link the two most important metropolises in the country. This project, 48

once completed, will mark Brazil’s entry into the small circle of countries possessing this type of transport. Steam-powered, horse-drawn and electric tramways operated in Brazil from 1859 until 1989, but new systems were introduced in the 1980’s and 1990’s in Rio de Janeiro and Campinas with no success. Nevertheless, that may change soon as studies are being conducted to introduce tramway systems in Goiânia.

Brazil’s famous Neobus


São Paulo – Guarulhos is the most important international airport from Brazil

Azul Linhas AĂŠreas Brasileiras is one of the most important air carriers of Brazil

49


Train in Brazil

Curitiba now plans a “light metro” to replace “bus rapid transit (BRT)” in a major corridor, while in Cariri, the Cariri MetroTram that will run between Crato and Juazeiro do Norte is under construction. Not all the state’s capitals have metros. Only 11 out of 27 cities, respectively Belo Horizonte, Brasília, Fortaleza, João Pessoa, Maceió, Natal, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Salvador and São Paulo, which represent less than 1% of the 5.565 municipalities in Brazil have a metro system in place. The common

50

Metrô-Leve (VLT) de Brasília

factor between these systems is the usage saturation, as they are unbelievably crowded. The term “crowded” generally refers to no space in the metro. Brazil has a large number of ports. Among the 37 principal ones, the most important one is that of Santos. The country also has 50.000 km of waterways. The trade and cargo fleet consists of about 475 ships. The largest Brazilian ports are located in Belém, Fortaleza, Ilhéus, Imbituba, Manaus, Paranaguá, Porto Alegre, Recife, Rio de Janeiro, Rio Grande, Salvador, Santos and Vitória. Radio taxis are for the most part new, clean, and the drivers, many of whom speak some English, are professional and trustworthy. You pay a bit more, but you do avoid the usual hassles. You can pre-book a radiotaxi return at the airport when you first arrive. Before you are ready to be picked up at your hotel, it’s best to call the radio taxi number to confirm your pre-arranged time and place for your departure. Yellow-metered taxis can sometimes be problematic. It’s very likely that 90% of metered drivers are honest and trustworthy, but you may occasionally encounter a swindler driving a metered cab. You can order taxi from almost any big city in Brazil and it comes very fast, usually less than 5 minutes.


Rio de Janeiro Metro Map

Port of Santos

Rio de Janeiro Metro

Nissan Leaf Taxi in Brazil

51


Culture Brazilian Proverbs

1. Quem tudo quer, nada tem. (He who wants everything loses everything.) 2. Não adianta chorar sobre o leite derramado. (It’s no use crying over spilt milk.) 3. Em casa os santos nunca realizam milagres. (At home saints never perform miracles.) 4. Não coloque o carrinho antes do cavalo. (Do not put the cart before the horse.) 5. Quem não tem cão, caça com gato. (If you don’t have a dog, you hunt with a cat.) 6. Nunca prometa uma pessoa pobre e nunca deve uma pessoa rica. (Never promise a poor person, and never owe a rich one.) 7. Um homem velho com uma manga rasgada nunca desonrava ninguém. (An old man with a torn sleeve never dishonored anyone.) 8. Deus ajuda quem cedo madruga. (God helps those who wake up early.) 9. A terra não está com sede do sangue dos guerreiros, mas pelo suor do trabalho do homem. (The earth is not thirsty for the blood of the warriors but for the sweat of man’s labor.) 10. Se alguma vez forçasse a sopa, os pobres só teriam garfos. (If it were ever to rain soup, the poor would only have forks.) 11. Água mole em pedra dura, tanto bate até que fura. (Soft water can break the hardest stone.) 12. Onde o sangue foi derramado, a árvore do perdão não pode crescer. (Where blood has been shed the tree of forgiveness cannot grow.) 13. A cavalo dado não se olham os dentes. (One shouldn’t look a gift horse in the mouth.) 14. As árvores com a maioria das folhas não produzirão necessariamente frutas suculentas. (The trees with most leaves will not necessarily produce juicy fruit.) 15. A alegria de um homem pobre não dura muito. (The joy of a poor man does not last long.) 16. Não há bem que sempre dure, nem mal que nunca acabe. (There’s no good that lasts forever nor evil that never ends.) 17. A pobreza não é um crime, mas é melhor não mostrar isso. (Poverty is not a crime, but it’s better not to show it.) 52

18. Se Deus não lhe concede glória, conte com a fama. (If God does not grant you glory, be content with fame.) 19. Gato escaldado tem medo de água fria. (A scalded cat is afraid of water.) 20. Na casa de um ferreiro, os ornamentos são feitos de madeira. (In the house of a blacksmith the ornaments are made of wood.)

Brazilian Holidays Holiday

Period

Dia Mundial da Paz (New Years Day) Carnaval de Rio (Rio Carnival) Carnaval de Rio (Rio Carnival) Quarta-Feira de Cinzas (Ash Wednesday) Sexta-Feira da Paixão (Good Friday) Tiradentes (Tiradentes Day)

1 January

Dia do Trabalho (Labour Day) Corpo de Deus (Corpus Christi) Dia da Rebelião do Estado (State Rebellion Day) Dia da Independência (Independence Day) Nossa Senhora da Aparecida (Lady of Aparecida) Dia dos Servos Civis (Civil Servants Day) Dia de Todos-os-Santos (All Saints Day) Dia de Finados (All Souls Day) Proclamação da República (Republic Day) Zumbi dos Palmares (Black Consciousness Day) Natal (Christmas Day)

1 May

Variable (February) Variable (February) Variable (February / March) Variable (March / April) 21 April

Variable (May / June) 9 July 7 September 12 October Variable (October) 1 November 2 November 15 November 20 November 25 December


Brazilian beaches are among the most beautiful in the world

Statue of Jesus Christ the Redemeer

53


The Rio de Janeiro Carnival is the most awaited event of the year in Brazil

Football is considered a religion in Brazil

54


Capoeira is a martial arts style that was developed in Brazil. It combines elements of dance, acrobatics and music.

Brazilian Favela

Brazilian man preparing for a festival

Brazilian Jiu Jitsu is among the most practiced form of martial arts in the world

55


Brazil Personalities

56


Pelé Edson Arantes do Nascimento (b. 23 October 1940 in Três Corações, Minas Gerais, Brazil) known as Pelé, is a retired Brazilian professional footballer who played as a forward. He is widely regarded as the greatest football player of all time. In 1999, he was voted World Player of the Century by the International Federation of Football History & Statistics (IFFHS). That same year, Pelé was elected Athlete of the Century by the International Olympic Committee. According to the IFFHS, Pelé is the most successful league goal scorer in the world, scoring 1281 goals in 1363 games, which included unofficial friendlies and tour games. During his playing days, Pelé was for a period the best paid athlete in the world. During his career, Pelé proved to be a complete player, capable of combining technique and athletic skills, intelligence and speed, precision in passes and a remarkable sense of goal. In this regard, he scored five goals in a single match on at least six occasions, scored four goals in a single game thirty times and added to that, he also scored ninety-two hat-tricks. Pelé’s dribbling repertoire included a particular technique which in Brazil is called “drible da vaca”. A perfect example of this skill occurred during the match against Uruguay in the 1970 World Cup, when Pelé left the ball slide past the goalkeeper on one of his side without touching it and then went on the other side of goalkeeper Ladislao Mazurkiewicz Iglesias, thus disorienting the opponent. Skillful with both of his feet, Pelé was also a great header despite his relatively small stature. In the final of the afore mentioned Football World Cup, he scored a goal via an athletic jump. Son of former footballer Dondinho (born João Ramos do Nascimento) who prematurely ended his career due to a knee injury, and Maria Celeste Arantes, Pelé was initially nicknamed Dico by his relatives. At the age of 5 years old, in 1945, Edson Arantes moved with his family to Bauru. As a child, he earned some extra remuneration by cleaning shoes and when his father told him to play football, given the family’s poverty, he could not buy a ball and thus the little boy usually played with a sock or cloth filled with paper and tied with a lace or even with a mango fruit. It was during this period that one of his schoolmates gave him the nickname Pelé (according

Pelé

to one of Pelé’s autobiographical films, Jose Altafini was among them). The nickname was given in order to make him angry, as Pelé pronounced Pilé resembled the name of local Vasco da Gama goalkeeper, Bilé. Though he has never hidden the fact that he didn’t like it, Pelé remained and will remain forever in the history of football known by this appellative. In fact, Pelé has always proudly remembered how his real name, Edson, by whom he would like to be called, was given to him in honor to Thomas Alva Edison. The first football team for which Pelé played was Bauru, a local amateur team, where he was briefly noticed by Waldemar de Brito, former Brazilian national of the thirties and forties, who at the age of 15 convinced him to take a trial for Santos. In 1956, Waldemar de Brito told Santos’s leadership that the 15 years old boy would become the best player in the world. Pelé then joined the youth team of Santos and played for a season before embarking on the first team. Pelé debuted with the Santos shirt on 7 September 1956 in a friendly against Corinthians de Santo André, substituting Del Vecchio and scoring in the 36th minute a goal in the 7-1 victory for Santos. In 1957, at the beginning of the season, Pelé, nicknamed 57


Pelé at the 1958 World Cup Final

Gasolina in honor of a Brazilian singer, gradually became a first team player and, at the age of 16, became the top scorer of the Paulista Championship. Ten months after signing his first professional contract, the boy also received his first call up from the national team. After the 1962 World Cup, several European teams offered important figures in order to buy the young player, but the Brazilian government declared Pelé a “National Treasure” in order to avoid any possible transfer. On 22 November 1964, in a match between Santos and Botafogo which ended with the score 11-0, Pelé beat goalkeeper Machado eight times, ergo setting a new scoring record in a single match of the Paulista Championship, which formerly belonged to Arthur Friedenreich, which scored seven goals in 1929. On 19 November 1969, Pelé scored his 1.000th goal of his career. The goal, called O Milésimo (The Millesimo), was scored against Vasco da Gama goalkeeper Edgardo Andrada from a penalty kick at the Maracanã Stadium. According to Pelé, his best goal of his career was scored at the Rua Javari Stadium on 2 August 1959 in a match of the Paulista Championship against Clube 58

Atlético Juventus. Since there is no visual recording of that game, the goal has been rebuilt with the help of a computer animation at Pelé’s request. In the memory of that goal, in August 2006 a bust and a plate outside the Rua Javari Stadium were made. In March 1961, Pelé scored the so-called “gol de placa”, a magnificent strike against Fluminense, which was so spectacular that a commemorative plaque was made along a dedication to the best goal ever scored at the Maracanã. In the sixties and seventies, Santos was considered the best team in the world. The continents played controversial battles with innumerable teams, a kind of Harlem Globetrotters of football. Singular is an incident occurred in Colombia where a referee expelled “O Rei”: the audience became so angry that Pelé came back on the field and it was the referee who had to leave the green field. In 1967, the two factions that were fighting the civil war in Nigeria signed a 48-hour truce in order to be able to watch Pelé play a friendly match in Lagos. This episode was the testimony that Pelé’s figure transcended sports boundaries more than any other athlete in the world, thus entering history as


Pelé playing for Santos in 1960

one of the major contemporary icons. On 27 May 1971, at the Luzhniki Stadium in Moscow, he attended the farewell party of Lev Yashin, whom he considered “a great goalkeeper and a man of great generosity.” In 1974, after 19 seasons wearing the Santos shirt, Pelé decided to withdraw from football after playing with great football players like Zito, Pepe and Coutinho, winning 10 Paulista titles, 5 consecutive Taça Brasil from 1961 to 1965, a record for the Brazilian football (then the Brazilian Championship still didn’t exist and the national cup was in fact won by the best team in the country), 3 Rio-Sao Paulo tournaments, a Taça de Prata, 2 Coppa Libertadores, 2 Intercontinental Cups and an Intercontinental Champions Super Cup. In 1975, after a year spent away from the playground, Pelé signed for New York Cosmos, a North American Soccer League (NASL) team who offered him, with the approval of the Brazilian government, a contract of about 4.5 million $ for three years. Warner Communications, owners of the club, wanted Pelé because of his technical skills, in order to promote football in North America and managed to get together the likes of exceptional players such as Pelé, Carlos Alberto, Franz Beckenbauer and Giorgio Chinaglia. Pelé began playing for the New York Cosmos on 15 June 1975 in a friendly against Dallas Tornado, ended with the score of 2-2, where he scored a goal and was the author of an assist. With the New York Cosmos team he managed to win the 1977 season of the North American football championship. In all of his three seasons spent at New York, he was included in the NASL All Star Team, of which was nominated MVP in 1976. On 1 October 1977, Pelé ended his football career by playing a friendly between New York Cosmos

and Santos, his two teams. The game was played in a sold out Giants Stadium and was broadcasted by televisions from 38 countries around the world. The Brazilian played in the first half for the New York Cosmos and for Santos in the second half. The match was won by the American team. Reynaldo scored the first goal for Santos and Pelé scored from a penalty kick in the first half for New York Cosmos. The last goal was scored by Mifflin who at half time had taken Pelé’s place in the New York Cosmos squad. During the half time break, the New Yeark Cosmos team withdrew Pelé’s number 10 and at the end of the game, “O Rei” held a flag of Brazil in his right hand and a flag of the United States in his left, while he was ascended on the shoulders by his team mates and brought to triumph outside the field. After his retirement, J.B. Pinheiro, Brazil’s ambassador to the United Nations, stated: “Pelé has been playing football for twenty-two years and during that period he has promoted friendship and fraternity more than any ambassador.” Pelé retired from the football world after scoring 1.281 goals, thanks to which he won the title of the greatest goleador of football history. Arthur Friedenreich, according to some sources, perhaps even for a transcript error, would have scored even more: 1.329 goals from 1909 to 1935 but unlike O Rei there are no official statistics to confirm it and therefore for FIFA, the primacy belongs to Pelé. Pelé debuted in the Brazilian national team on 7 July 1957, three months before his 17th birthday, against rivals Argentina who defeated Brazil with the score of 2-1. The only Brazilian goal was scored by Pelé. Pelé

Pelé playing for Santos in 1960

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Pelé and Omar Sívori in 1963 before a Santos-Juventus friendly

was called up by the Brazilian National Team for the 1958 World Cups in Sweden. Pelé played the first match in the World Cup against the USSR in the group stage. He was the youngest player of the tournament and the youngest ever to have played a game of the final phase of the World Cup. He scored his first goal in the World Cup against Wales on 19 June 1958. His goal allowed Brazil to qualify for the semi-finals. In the semi-finals against France, played on 24 June, Pelé scored a hattrick and the game ended with the score of 5-2. Thanks to these goals he became not only the youngest player in the history of the World Cup (17 years and 239 days) but also the youngest player to score three goals (17 years and 244 days) in a single match. On 29 June 1958, Pelé played at the Råsunda Stadium in the final against hosts Sweden and at the age of 17 years and 249 days he was the youngest player to play a World Cup Final. The Seleção defeated Sweden with the score of 5-2, thus winning its first world title, 60

also thanks to two goals scored by “O Rei”. Pelé’s first goal, a ball that overcame the defender, followed by a precise shot, was later chosen as one of the greatest goals in World Cup history. At the end of the tournament, Pelé scored 6 goals in 4 games that he played in, the same number of goals scored by German Helmut Rahn (who played 6 games) and ended up behind French Just Fontaine, who in that edition scored 13 goals. He managed to score at least one goal in all of the 6 matches played by his national team. In 1959, Pelé played in the South American Football Championship in Argentina. Brazil came second in the tournament behind Argentina and Pelé was the top scorer with 8 goals in 6 games. On 30 May 1962, against Mexico, in the first World Cup match held in Chile, where Brazil, led by Moreira, was already qualified as the holder of the title, Pelé was involved in Zagallo’s first goal and scored the second one after dribbling four defenders to end the game with the score


of 2-0. On 2 June 1962, however, in the second game against Czechoslovakia, “O Rei” injured himself as he was attempting a shot from afar and was replaced by Amarildo. Because of that injury, Pelé missed all the other matches in the competition, but Garrincha led Brazil to its second World Cup title. Initially, Pelé was not rewarded with any medal since he had not played the final but in November 2007, FIFA announced that he would also receive a gold medal, along other 122 World Cup winners whom, before 1978 did not receive any. At the 1966 World Cup held in England, Brazil, who was coached by Vicente Feola, was already qualified in the group stage because the team won the previous World Cup. The 1966 tournament was marked by a very tough game and Pelé was one of the players who didn’t made it. With a goal scored from a penalty kick on 12 July 1966 against Bulgaria in the first match of the tournament, O Rei became the first player to score in three different World Cup editions. After that game, Pelé had to stop playing in order to recover from a knee injury which occurred immediately after a rough intervention by Bulgarian defender Žekov and was forced to stay on the bench in the second match against Hungary, lost by the Seleção with the score of 3-1. He was again available in the third match of the qualifying round against Eusébio’s Portugal, but several violent clashes with Portuguese defenders (particularly one with João Morais), tolerated by English referee McCabe, forced Pelé to play a good part of the match limping as the Brazilian team was out of substitutions. Legendary picture of Pelé taken in 1963 Brazil was defeated again with the score of 3-1 and was Cup. thus eliminated for the first time in the first round of the When he was called by the Brazilian National World Cup since 1934. After the end of the tournament, Team in 1969, Pelé responded to the call and played 6 Pelé declared that he would no longer play in the World qualifying matches for the 1970 World Cup scoring as many goals. The Brazilian team, who participated in the final phase of the 1970 World Cup in Mexico, which would be the last one for Pelé, was coached by Zagallo and was radically different from that of the 1966 World Cup. Several other players such as Garrincha, Nílton Santos, Djalma Santos and Gilmar were already retired. On 3 June 1970, in the first game against Czechoslovakia, Pelé scored the second goal in a 4-1 victory following Gérson’s assist, thus becoming along German player Uwe Seeler, one of the few players to score in four different editions of the World Cup. On 10 June 1970, in the last round of the group stage, O Rei scored a double against Romania, which, alongside Jairzinho’s goal, allowed the Brazilians, already The Brazilian football legend with Brazilian President Dilma Rousseff in 2011

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qualified, to win the game with the score of 3-2. In the quarter-finals against Peru, Pelé didn’t score any goal but provided an assist to Tostão for the third goal of the Seleção. The game ended with the score of 4-2. Even in the semifinals against Uruguay, “O Rei” did not appear among the scorers, but provided Rivelino with an assist for the 3-1 victory. On 21 June 1970, Brazil faced Italy in the final, who qualified after defeating West Germany in the extra time with the score of 4-3. It was Pelé who scored the first goal of the game in the 18th minute, scoring with his head following Rivelino’s cross, and then also assisted Jairzinho and Carlos Alberto’s goals. With that goal, “O Rei” became the second player to score in two different World Cup finals after Vavá. Brazil won the match by 4-1, thus conquering, just like Pelé, the third World Cup title and thus keeping the Jules Rimet Cup permanently. Burgnich, an Italian defender who had the task of marking O Rei in the final, declared after the game: “Before the game I repeated to myself that he was flesh and bone just like anyone, but I was wrong.” After the 1970 World Cup victory, Pelé played another 4 friendly matches with the Seleção, the last of which was on 18 July 1971 in Rio de Janeiro against Yugoslavia. In 1976, Pelé was called up to the United States for a match against Italy. The match was included in the United States Biennial Tournament program. With the Brazilian shirt, Pelé played 92 games in total (67 wins, 14 draws and 11 defeats), scoring 77 goals (the best goal scorer of the Brazilian National Team with an average of 0.837 goals per game) and winning 3 World Cup titles. With both Garrincha and Pelé in the field, the Brazilian national team never lost a match. After ending his competitive career, Pelé, unlike many of his colleagues, preferred not to become a football coach. Initially, Pelé published some autobiographies and performed in several documentaries. He also composed some music tracks, including the full soundtrack of the 1977 “Pelé” film. In 1981, along with other celebrities of the sixties and seventies, including Michael Caine and Sylvester Stallone, played in Escape to Victory, a movie about Allied soldiers who were trying to escape from a Nazi concentration camp during World War II. In 1992, he was appointed United Nations Ambassador for Ecology and Environment and in June 1994 he was appointed Goodwill Ambassador for UNESCO. In 1995, Brazilian President Cardoso appointed him an extraordinary minister for sport. During this time, Pelé proposed a law to reduce corruption in Brazilian football, which became known as the “Pelé Law”. O Rei 62

occupied that post until April 1998 when he resigned. As FIFA Football Ambassador and member of the Football Committee, he was chosen to draw the 2002 World Cup qualifiers in Japan and South Korea and was invited as a guest at the 2006 World Cup opening in Germany along with top model Claudia Schiffer. He also supervised FIFA’s drafting of FIFA 100, a list of 125 live players (123 men and 2 women) considered to be the best in the world. In November 2007, he was the guest of honor for the 150th anniversary celebration of Sheffield, the oldest football team still existing, who played a friendly match with Inter, which ended with the score of 5-2 for the Nerazzurri. Pelé inaugurated an exhibition in which the original handwritten copy of the football rules was first exposed to the public after 40 years. In August 2010, he was appointed Honorary President of the New York Cosmos club in order to succeed in reviving the New York football team. He was assisted by Éric Cantona, Giorgio Chinaglia, Carlos Alberto and actor Robert De Niro. On 27 July 2011, along with Argentinian Lionel Messi and Mexican Hugo Sánchez, he was nominated “Cultural-Historical Heritage of Humanity” by the International Capital of Culture following a popular poll, attended by 327.496 people from 72 different countries. On 12 August 2012, he participated in the Closing Ceremony of the London Olympic Games in the presentation segment of the Olympic Games held in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. On 15 June 2015, Pelè participated in the Electronic Arts conference at the Electronic Entertainment Expo 2015, physically climbing the stage with the amazement of all those present, where he told the story that led him to his over 1.000 career goals, while presenting the football themed video game FIFA 16.

Pelé holding the World Cup


RONALDO Ronaldo Luís Nazário de Lima (b. 18 September 1976 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) commonly known as Ronaldo, is a Brazilian retired professional footballer who played as a striker. Popularly dubbed “O Fenômeno” (The Phenomenon), he is widely considered to be one of the greatest football players of all time. In his prime, he was known for his dribbling at speed, feints, and clinical finishing. Ronaldo was a complete striker, skilled with both feet, strong physically and prolific in front of the goal. In his extensive technical repertory there were feints, dribbling and double steps. A quick runner, the Brazilian has been one of the world’s fastest players, capable of reaching a maximum speed of 36 km / h. His career was covered with injuries, some of which were very serious. However, he managed to maintain his high performances even after losing part of his speed and mobility. Although he was not a specialist, he was a discreet penalty taker. Third son of Nelio Nazário de Lima and Sonia dos Santos Barata, Ronaldo Luís Nazário de Lima was born in the neighborhood of Bento Ribeiro, in the

northwestern area of Rio de Janeiro. His parents called him Ronaldo in honor of physician Ronaldo Valente, who gave birth to the child. He was first married to Milene Domingues, who on 6 April 2000 gave birth to Ronald, then to Daniella Cicarelli and later married to Maria Beatriz “Bia” Anthony from whom he had two daughters: first Maria Sofia, born on 24 December 2008, and then Maria Alice, born on 6 April 2010. Ronald plays in the Canillas, a twin team of Real Madrid, where Theo, son of Zinédine Zidane also plays. In December 2012, following an official note on the O Globo newspaper site, separation from his wife, Bia Anthony, was announced. Ronaldo started shining from a very young age with the futsal team of Valqueire and at the age of sixteen years old he was hired by São Cristóvão, a team of the homonymous Rio de Janeiro district, where he was immediately noticed among the youths, starting with a hat-trick against Tomazinho and scoring 44 goals in 73 matches across three seasons. In 1993, he moved from the Carioca to the Mineiro Campeonato as he was contracted by Cruzeiro of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais), following Jairzinho’s indications. In his first season at Cruzeiro, Ronaldo played for both the youth and first team. With the youth team, he was the best goal scorer in the team in the Supertaça Minas Gerais.

Ronaldo Luís Nazário de Lima

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Ronaldo in a duel with Italian defender Paolo Maldini while playing at Inter Milano

He made his debut for the first team on 25 May 1993, at the age of 16 years and eight months, against Caldense in a match valid for the Mineiro Championship. After a series of friendly matches played in August 1993, Ronaldo became the national champion as he scored 12 goals in 14 matches, being the best player of the team and the third overall, only behind Guga (14 goals) and Clóvis (13). Out of these 12 goals, the first one, which was also Ronaldo’s first goal in the shirt of the first team of Cruzeiro in an official match, was scored on 9 September 1993 against Bahia. During the 1993 season, Ronaldo won the Brazilian Cup with Cruzeiro, although he has never featured for his team during the competition and the South American Super Cup, scoring eight goals in four matches (a hat-trick and 64

a double against Colo-Colo and then a goal and another double against Nacional, which eliminated Cruzeiro in the quarter-finals). The following year, however, Ronaldo became the top scorer of the Mineiro Championship, which was won by Cruzeiro. The Brazilian striker managed to score 22 goals in 18 games, besides another 2 in 8 games played in the Libertadores Cup, both being scored in Belo Horizonte against Argentinean teams: the first one in a 1-1 against Vélez Sarsfield and the second one in a 2-1 win against Boca Juniors, which he scored after dribbling 4 opponents, including the goalkeeper. In 1994, Ronaldo went to play in Europe after being bought by PSV Eindhoven for 6 million $. He was already crowned world champion with Brazil, although


Ronaldo scoring a goal at FC Barcelona

he never played any game in the 1994 FIFA World Cup held in the United States of America. In his two seasons spent there, in 57 matches, Ronaldo managed to score 42 goals in the national championships and other 12 in the national and international cups in 57 matches. In 1996, not even at the age of 20 years old, Ronaldo was sold to Barcelona for 20 million $. In Spain, he won his first international trophy, the Cup of Cups in the 1996-1997 season, scoring the decisive penalty kick to defeat Paris Saint-Germain with the score of 1-0. With the Catalan team he maintained a high performance, scoring 47 goals in 49 official games, out of which 34 goals were scored in 37 appearances in the League, thus managing to win the title of Pichichi. Ronaldo was for a long time in the attention of Inter’s scouters and in June 1997 he was bought by the Nerazzurri club, although he had renewed his contract with Barcelona less than a month before. The Lombard company paid the entire 48 billion Italian lire clause in the player’s contract, plus a further compensation of about 3 billion Italian lire set by FIFA, which made this purchase the most expensive in the history of football at that time. He started in Serie A on 31 August against Brescia, against whom his team won by 2-1. On the next fixture of the championship he scored his first goal in a 4-2 victory against Bologna. His 25 goals (a record for a debut in Italy) were not enough for Inter to win the league or for him to triumph among the top scorers: Oliver Bierhoff, in fact, scored 2 goals more than the Brazilian. However, he won the UEFA Cup, the only trophy of his Milanese experience, where he scored in the final against Lazio, which ended with the score of 3-0. That season, more precisely in December

1997, he also received the Golden Ball. At the end of the following year, the Brazilian was entrusted with the role of captain of the team, which created a little tension in the locker room. In the 1999-2000 season, he was the victim of serious injuries, which greatly reduced his contribution to the team. The first one he suffered was against Lecce in 1999 (in a match in which he scored his 50th goal for the Nerrazzuri) when he injured his curved tendon of his right knee. After surgery, he returned on the field on 12 April 2000. In the Coppa Italia final (again against Lazio) he suffered a knee injury again in the 6th minute of the confrontation and the tendon completely broke. Immediately operated by Dr. Gérard Saillant, his return to duty was estimated at the beginning of 2001. The consequences of the trauma suffered and the rehabilitation, however, allowed him to return to the field only at the end of that year. On 9 December 2000, he played against Brescia, scoring a goal. Despite his contribution in terms of goals, Inter didn’t win the championship. On the last day, Inter suffered a 4-2 defeat against Lazio, exactly 4 years after the continental triumph, being surpassed at the top of the table by Juventus and AS Roma. The striker, who was substituted by Mohammed Kallon during the match, was seen in tears by the cameras. The summer of 2002 marked an increasingly complicated relationship with Nerazzurri coach Héctor Cúper. The rupture between the manager and the player was so big that on 31 August, in the last hours of the day, the Brazilian striker was transferred to Real Madrid. The Iberian club paid 45 million € for Ronaldo’s services. With the champions of Europe, in December he won the Intercontinental Cup against the Club Olimpia. He was the author of the first goal of the match, which finished with the score of 2-0. At the end of the year, he

Ronaldo during a press conference in June 2005

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was awarded the Golden Ball for the second time. The 2002-2003 season allowed him to add a Spanish title to his palmarès, to which he contributed with 23 goals. The 2004-2005 and 2005-2006 seasons were more mixed. Real Madrid with Ronaldo, Raúl, Zinedine Zidane, David Beckham, Michael Owen and Robinho couldn’t win any trophy. The media accused the Brazilian of being overweight. After a tough 2006-2007 season that saw Ronaldo relegated to the bench and even in the stands by coach Fabio Capello, he decided to return to Italy at AC Milan during the winter transfer period. Real Madrid won the La Liga that year. Ronaldo was the top goal scorer of the league in 2004. He played 177 matches and scored 104 goals for Real Madrid. On 30 January 2007, Ronaldo transferred to AC Milan for a total of 7.5 million €. A purchase contract clause provided that in the eventuality of achieving a qualifying spot for the 2007-2008 Champions League edition, AC Milan would have to pay Real Madrid a further 500.000 € fee. According to the UEFA regulation, which prohibited any player from playing in a European sports season with two or more teams, Ronaldo couldn’t play in the 2006-2007 Champions League edition with the Italian team, having previously been used by Real Madrid.

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In the 2007-2008 season he was stroke by several injuries, which forced him to miss lots of matches in various competitions. He returned back on the field on January 2008, but suffered a new serious injury the following month. He entered the field for a few minutes in the match against Livorno and an attempt to hit the ball resulted in the breakage of the curved tendon of his left knee. The Brazilian was operated the following day in Paris by Eric Rolland following the advice of Gérard Saillant, the physician who had operated him eight years earlier. The striker has carried out the recovery program both in Italy and Brazil. On 29 April 2008, news came out that Ronaldo was found in the company of three transsexual prostitutes in a motel in Rio de Janeiro. The police then reported that the three tried to extort the player 50.000 real (about 20.000 €) so that they wouldn’t say anything to the media. On 30 June 2008, his contract with AC Milan ended and he decided not to renew it for the following season. The Brazilian striker, therefore, since 1 July 2008 has remained without a contract for the first time since he started playing. Finally, Ronaldo made his return to the competition on 4 March 2009 in a Brazilian Cup on the Itumbiara field. He signed with Brazilian squad Corinthians and entered that game in the 67th minute

Ronaldo and Brazilian team mate Roberto Carlos celebrating a goal while at Real Madrid


substituting Jorge Henrique, but did not score. In the 2008-2009 season, Ronaldo has reached the 30 goals milestone. On the 16th match day of the Paulista Championship, he scored his first double, but that was not enough for his team to win. Corinthians won the championship that year and Ronaldo won his first trophy since his return to his country of origin. In addition, he was elected by the journalists as the best player in the championship. On 1 July 2009, Ronaldo won a second trophy with his new club, conquering the Brazilian Cup at the expense of Internacional Porto Alegre. He scored a goal in the final. At the beginning of 2010, he announced his intention to retire in 2011, not wishing to continue anymore beyond the terms of his contract. However, being conscious that his physical condition was no longer up to date, he decided to retire on 14 February 2011, following a hasty elimination of Corinthians a few days earlier in Copa Libertadores. Ronaldo has joined the Brazilian youth national team while he was playing for Cruzeiro. With the Under-17 National Team, he took part in the South American Under-17 Tournament from 1993 held in Colombia, where he was the top scorer with 8 goals. Ronaldo’s national debut for the big team took place on 23 March 1994 against Argentina but he scored his first goal with the Brazilian National Team in the next game against Iceland. He was among the 22 called up players for the 1994 World Cup held in the United States of America, but he didn’t play any game. As Brazil won the World Cup Final against Italy, Ronaldo was crowned world champion at the age of 17 years old. He participated in the 1996 Olympic football tournament in Atlanta, where the Brazilian national team won the bronze medal and Ronaldo was the second best player in his team (5 goals in 6 games), only behind Bebeto (top scorer alongside Hernán Crespo with 6 goals). During the competition, Ronaldo had the name “Ronaldinho” written on his shirt so that people wouldn’t confuse him with his team mate, Ronaldo Guiaro. In 1997, he won the Copa America in addition to triumphing in the Confederations Cup the same year. He led world champions Brazil in the 1998 World Cup held in France, where the team reached the final of the competition against the home team. The night before the last match in Paris, Ronaldo suffered some convulsions. Initially, he was excluded in favor of Edmundo, but was reinstated shortly before the start of the final. However, he didn’t play at his best and France

Ronaldo representing the Brazilian National Team at World Cup 2006

defeated Brazil with the score of 3-0 and won the World Cup. The fever that Ronaldo had caught the night before the match became a worldwide media case. In 1999, he won another Copa America, being the top scorer of the competition alongside Rivaldo. After two and a half years of absence caused by injuries sustained during his period at Inter, Ronaldo returned to the national team a few months before the start of the 2002 World Cup, which was played in South Korea and Japan. Ronaldo was the best goal scorer of the tournament and was the star of the team which arrived in the final for the third consecutive time. This time Brazil faced Germany, which they defeated with the score of 2-0, both goals being scored by Ronaldo. Ronaldo also participated in the 2006 World Cup held in Germany, his 4th personal in which he scored 3 goals in the 5 games played by Brazil, which was eliminated in the quarter-finals after losing 1-0 against France. After the World Cup, the Seleção undertook a great generational change and numerous 67


players including Cafu, Roberto Carlos and Ronaldo himself were left out of the national team. Ronaldo has managed to become the best goal scorer in the final stages of the tournament. In three World Cup editions he scored 15 goals (4 in 1998, 8 in 2002 and 3 in 2006), one more than Gerd Müller, former record holder, and two more than Just Fontaine. German player Miroslav Klose broke Ronaldo’s record in 2014. A few days after the announcement of his retirement from football, the Seleção decided to organize a farewell match for Ronaldo five years after his last appearance on 1 July 2006. A friendly match was played against Romania on 7 June 2011 at Pacaembu Stadium of São Paulo, home of Corinthians, the last team for which the Phenomenon has played. Ronaldo played the last 15 minutes of the first half, replacing Fred, the author of the only goal of the match. For the national team, Ronaldo has managed to score 62 goals in 98 matches, being one of the most prolific goal scorers ever for the Brazilian national team. He scored only 15 goals few than Pelé. After retiring from football, Ronaldo founded, together with Marcus Buaiz, a sports-marketing company

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named 9INE that deals with the image management of Brazilian footballers and Brazilian sportsmen. In December 2011, he joined the board of the Brazilian Local Organizing Committee (Comitê Organizer Local from Copa-COL) for the 2014 World Cup held in Brazil. From the end of September to mid-December 2012 he attended the Brazilian reality show Medida Certa, broadcasted by Rede Globo. On 12 December 2014, Ronaldo acquired 10% of Fort Lauderdale Strikers, a militant club in the North American Soccer League, becoming a minority shareholder. On 15 January 2015, at a press conference, he stated that he would exclude a possible coaching career in the future and intends to establish a youth academy in the United States of America. During his career, Ronaldo had 518 appearances and scored 352 goals with club teams. With the Brazilian National Team he featured in 98 games and scored 62 goals. The average goals scored for his club teams was 0.68 goals / game, while the average with the national team was 0.63. Overall, for both national and club teams he has played in 616 matches and scored 414 goals with an average score of 0.67 goals per game.

O Fenômeno suffering an injury while playing for Corinthians


ayrton senna Ayrton Senna da Silva (b. 21 March 1960 in São Paulo, Brazil – d. 1 May 1994 in Bologna, Italy) was a Brazilian racing driver who won three Formula One world championships for McLaren in 1988, 1990 and 1991, and is widely regarded as one of the greatest Formula One drivers of all time. He died in an accident while leading the 1994 San Marino Grand Prix for Williams. He was the son of Milton Da Silva and Neide Senna, whose family was of Neapolitan origin. Born in a wealthy family, Senna had the opportunity to approach the world of motoring from an early age. Ayrton raced with his first go-kart at the age of 4 years old, in 1964. Later, he was extremely pleased to get behind the steering wheel of tractors and agricultural machinery at his father’s farms, mimicking that he was driving them. In 1973, when he was 13 years old, he officially debuted in karting competitions, competing for the first time at the Interlagos Circuit, near São Paolo, his

hometown. He then received from his father a yellow helmet with two horizontal stripes, one blue and one green, representing the national colors of Brazil. He would then use that helmet for the rest of his life. His greatest performance in karting was the South American continental title, which he won in 1977. Senna has participated several times in the Karting World Championship but has never won it. It would later prove to be his greatest regret. In 1981 he moved to Europe, more precisely in the UK, where he made his Ford Formula 1600 debut, winning the championship in the first year. A year later, he promoted to Ford Formula 2000 and became the champion of the UK and Europe. In 1983, he signed an agreement to participate in Formula 3, the British Championship, which he easily won it, setting a record of victories that would remain for more than a decade. Then he attracted the attention of big Formula 1 teams like McLaren, Williams, Brabham and Lotus. Eventually, Brabham offered him a race pilot contract, the other three preferring to have him for a year as a test pilot. At Brabham, however, another Brazilian named Nelson Piquet was the main pilot. He opposed Senna’s arrival in the team, so the deal fell apart

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and Senna signed an agreement with Toleman. Senna chose Toleman because he wanted to make a debut in Formula 1 and as Toleman was a small team with limited financial and technical resources, in the case of positive results, it would have promoted Senna’s talent. The pilot’s debut took place in the Brazilian Grand Prix where he started the race from the 16th positon on the starting grid, with a time of 1.5 seconds better than that of his teammate, but didn’t end the race due to turbocharger problems. The second race, the South African Grand Prix, brought him the first point after ending the race on the 6th position. A new 6th place preceded the San Marino Grand Prix, the only race in which Senna failed to qualify because the turbocharger failed in the qualifiers and the team didn’t have a spare one. He proved his true value in the Monaco Grand Prix, where the race took place in rainy conditions. Starting from the 13th position, Senna had a remarkable evolution and in the 19th round he exceeded Niki Lauda, the pilot who would win the championship that year. He ended the race on the second place. Only Alain Prost was in the way of Senna’s first Formula One win when Jackie Ickx, the race’s director back then, decided to interrupt the race, motivating that pilots could no longer compete in safe conditions. Practically, Senna was denied his first victory because in the 31st lap, when the race was interrupted, he was a few seconds faster than Prost. All his life Senna criticized Jackie Ickx for his decision. The Monaco podium was not the only one of that year. He also managed excellent performances at Silverstone and Estoril, thus Senna finished the season with a total of 13 points, ranking on the 9th place in the championship. At the end of the season he moved to Lotus. Although it hadn’t won a world title for years and Colin Chapman had died in 1982, Lotus was still a Formula One force in those years, so Senna’s choice was a particularly wise one. The first year at Lotus brought Ayrton his first victory, propelling him among the top pilots of the championship. Thus, after a 4th place in Brazil, at the Interlagos Circuit, where he had obtained a podium position a few months earlier, he won his first race after leaving from pole position and at the end he managed to set the best runway. It was a rainy race just as it had been in Monaco a year before and Senna had already become an experienced pilot in such weather conditions. The pole position at Estoril was the first out of an incredible 65 series, his record being beaten only in 2006 by Michael Schumacher. However, the latter had many more disputed races. Two other consecutive pole 70

Ayrton Senna and his favourite passion: aeromodelism

positions followed at Imola and Monaco, but he had to wait a few months before winning again, this time in Belgium. A few podiums and point rankings gave Senna a well-deserved 4th place in the world championship, just ahead of Elio de Angelis, his team mate at Lotus. The second year alongside the British team was equally productive as Senna managed to win the races in Spain and the United States. He also obtained eight pole positions, one more than in 1985. Before the 1987 season, Lotus signed an agreement with Honda on the supply of engines. In fact, Honda went to Lotus to make this offer and not the other way around as the Japanese wanted to have Senna under their protective wing, considering him the best future pilot. They weren’t wrong because in 1987 Senna finished the season on the 3rd position after winning two races in Monaco and again in the US. Senna had become “Honda’s greatest son”, just as Soichiro Honda himself called him. However, at the end of the year, Honda signed an agreement with McLaren, one of the conditions being to bring in Ayrton Senna as pilot. The six years spent at McLaren were the most productive of his entire career. He won three world titles and two times was world vice-champion. He has won 35 races and 49 pole positions. While at Lotus he was the team leader, at McLaren the situation was different, especially since his new teammate was Alain Prost, double world champion at that time. The two had during the two seasons they had worked together at McLaren a rivalry that most of the time exceeded the limits of sportiness. In 1988, during his first McLaren year, Ayrton managed to obtain his first world title after a close struggle with Alain Prost. Together, the two won 15 of the 16 races of the season, Senna winning 8 of them. Although throughout the 16 races Prost collected


Ayrton Senna’s 1991 Helmet

more points, Senna finally won the world title in the light of the FIA decision taken at the start of the season, which took into account only the best 11 results of each pilot. The rivalry between Senna and Prost reached its peak level in 1989 at Suzuka when both Senna and Prost had chances to win the world title. Before the race, the two drivers agreed in the presence of Ron Dennis that whoever would be the first at the end of the first round, to win the race. Prost had a better start and got himself in charge, but Senna was just behind him and in the final chicanery of the lap, the Brazilian went

into an overrun on the inside, but was stuck by Prost in a non-sporting manner. The two re-entered the race, but Senna was helped by the route’s commissioners to come back on track. What followed was absolutely fantastic: from the 25th position at the end of the first round, Senna finished the race 1st. However, he was disqualified because he returned to the route helped by race commissioners, which was forbidden by regulation, and the title was won by Alain Prost, who after that race left McLaren and moved to Ferrari. Brought to replace Alain Prost, Gerhard Berger couldn’t rise at Senna’s level. However, the Austrian’s contribution to Senna’s 71


life was decisive, as he himself said, “Senna taught me to be a Formula One pilot and I taught him to enjoy life.� Senna obtained two more consecutive world titles in 1990 and 1991, but the 1990 title also has its own story. Although he left McLaren, at Ferrari, Prost found a team able to help him fight for the world title, so before the same race from Suzuka, Senna and Prost were dueling for the world title. To win it, Senna needed the Frenchman to abandon. Prost had a better start and got himself in charge, but Senna hit him from behind when the two cars entered the first turn, causing a double abandon. It was the policy that Senna paid to his former colleague for what had happened a year before. The FIA immediately took position, especially since telemetry data showed that Senna had no intention of braking. After long talks where Senna was threatened even with super-license suspension and exclusion from the championship, the FIA still decided to crown the Brazilian world champion. In 1992, Williams was better than McLaren and Senna couldn’t do much. He won three races that year, the first being in Monaco after an electrifying race where he battled with Nigel Mansell. In the first part of the race Senna was on the 3rd position, far away from the two Williams pilots, Nigel Mansell and Riccardo

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Patrese, but went on to occupy the second place when Patrese abandoned. Then, towards the end of the race, Nigel Mansell, who was comfortable driving, had a flat tire and stopped at the stands to change it but came out just behind Senna. For three rounds the two dueled in each turn, but eventually Senna managed to win the race. Two more victories followed, one in Hungary and another one in Italy, but at the end of the season Ayrton Senna finished 4th in the world championship. Disappointed that McLaren was unable to cope with rivals Williams that year, Senna announced his retirement from Formula One and left for the US where he tested an Indy Car. However, he later changed his mind and signed a new one-year deal with McLaren, which then had Ford engines. The Donington Park race in 1993 was to be one of his best Formula One victories. He started the race from the 4th position and went behind a place at the start, but at the end of the first lap he was already at the lead after four sensational overtakes. At the end of that year, Ayrton Senna, who finished the championship on 2nd position went to Williams in the quest of his 4th world title. Ayrton broke up from McLaren after winning the races in Japan and Australia, his last two Formula 1 victories, before moving to Williams where he replaced

The Brazilian pilot in his Marlboro McLaren Honda


Alain Prost and was regarded as the top candidate for the world title the year. He obtained the pole position in Brazil in the first race of the year, but abandoned for technical reasons. A similar scenario took place in the second race when he started again in pole position and again abandoned, this time being taken off the track by Nicola Larini in the first turn of the race. The San Marino Grand Prix was the darkest race of the history of the Formula One World Championship. During the qualifying phase on Friday, Rubens Barrichello suffered a very serious accident, but the Brazilian made it out alive. Then, after only one day, Roland Ratzenberger suffered a fatal accident. Visibly marked by these two events, Senna didn’t know whether to compete or not. He telephoned Alain Prost (the two had reconciled in the meantime) and told him he was afraid to compete, but the French persuaded him to do so. Eventually he decided to compete. He desperately needed a victory because Michael Schumacher already had 20 points and he none. In case he would have won the race he had already prepared the flag of Austria to fly it in the wind in the memory of Roland Ratzenberger. He had a very good start and installed himself on the 1st position, not knowing that the series of black events would continue. Jyrki Juhani Järvilehto was strongly hit from behind by Pedro Lamy and after five laps behind the Safety Car, the race resumed. However, in the 7th lap, Ayrton Senna’s car refused to be controlled anymore at the Tamburello turn and hit the concrete wall at a speed of 218 km/h. Just two seconds before the impact, his speed was 312 km/h. As a result, Ayrton Senna suffered severe brain injuries. Immediately on the spot, Professor Sid Watkins was aware of this, but all his attempts to revitalize him were doomed to failure. Senna was transported by helicopter to the hospital in Bologna where doctors declared him death at around 18:40 local time. His death was caused by a piece of suspension that broke off at the moment of impact and hit him just above his right eye. His helmet didn’t resist. Ayrton Senna was 34 years old and was buried at the Morumbi Cemetery in São Paulo. Some of Ayrton Senna’s most famous quotes are: To be the second means to be the first to lose; I always learn about my own limitations: about the limitations of my body, about my psychological limitations. It’s a way of living for me and In Formula 1 you are always exposed to dangers: the danger of harming yourself, the danger of dying. It is part of life and you either accept it professionally or abandon it and stop doing it anymore. I like it so much that I can’t abandon it anymore. Ayrton Senna Wax Statue at Madame Tussauds

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Anderson silva Anderson da Silva (b. 14 April 1975 in São Paulo, Brazil) is a Brazilian mixed martial artist and former UFC Middleweight Champion. Silva holds the longest title streak in UFC history, which ended in 2013 after 2.457 days, with 16 consecutive wins and 10 title defenses. He has 13 post fight bonuses, the second most in UFC history. UFC president Dana White and several mixed-martial-arts publications have called Silva the greatest mixed martial artist of all time. Named by many as one of the best MMA fighters of all time, Anderson Silva bases his fighting technique mainly on striking accuracy, fast jabs and a good kick technique, with continuous distance movements and approach to opponent. He is also considered a counterstrike specialist, as he often awaits his opponent’s initiative so he could surprise him. Although known for his standing combat technique, Silva has proved to be more than a successful Brazilian Jiu Jitsu fighter after managing to subdue strong wrestlers like Chael Sonnen and Dan Henderson.

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Since the age of 4 years old, he and his older brother were raised by his uncle in Curitiba because their mother could no longer financially support them. His uncle had a police man salary and had to grow 5 children so he couldn’t pay for Anderson’s Brazilian jiujitsu lessons. Silva nevertheless trained with the children from the neighbourhood that could afford lessons. He finally started to know the martial arts world when he was 12 years old and his family registered him in a taekwondo club. At the age of 16 years old, he practiced Muay Thai in order to receive the black “Prajied”. Anderson Silva is an expert in Brazilian jiujitsu (3rd degree black belt in 2005), capoeira (yellow rope) and judo (black belt). He has evolved in several training camps, including the “Chute Boxe Academy”, the “Muay-Thai Dream Team”, “Black House” the team he created and the team of his friend, Antônio Rodrigo Nogueira, named “Brazilian Top Team”. Before becoming a professional MMA fighter, The Spider, as he is nicknamed, has worked at a McDonald’s and as an archivist. Currently, he has 3 sons and 2 daughters with his wife, Dayane. The Spider started his career as a professional MMA fighter in 1997 in a Brazilian Freestyle Circuit 1 tournament in the welterweight category (less than

Anderson Silva during a MMA fight


Anderson Da Silva – The Spider

80 kg). He became the champion of that tournament after defeating Fabrício Camões by technical knockout in the final. His first defeat occurred on 27 May 2000 against Luiz Azeredo following an unanimous decision in the Mecca World Vale Tudo 1 tournament. In 2001, he went to Japan to defeat Tetsuji Kato in his 7th fight so he could face the Shooto champion. By then, he had 6 victories and 1 defeat. The same year, his career was strongly vitalized thanks to his victory against the famous Japanese Shooto champion, Hayato Sakurai, who hasn’t been defeated in his first 20 fights (18 wins and 2 draws). In 2002, he won a fight against Roan Carneiro in Brazil at the Mecca World Vale Tudo 6 tournament before returning to Japan to sign a contract with Pride Fighting Championships, the world’s first MMA promotion at that time. He went on to win 3 fights in this Japanese organization before suffering his 2nd defeat of his career during his 13th professional fight against Daiju Takase via a triangle choke. He was defeated by submission on 8 June 2003 in Yokohama during the “Pride 26: Bad to the Bone” tournament and was forced to leave the Chute Boxe Academy as well as Pride FC in

order to join Nogueira in Brazilian Top Team and later to form the Muay Thai Dream Team. After two victories at Conquista Fight 1 in Brazil and “Gladiator FC: Day 2” in South Korea, he flew to England and fought in the Cage Rage promotion. He became the middleweight champion in September 2004 after defeating Lee Murray on a unanimous decision at “Cage Rage 8: Knights of the Octagon”. He suffered the same year his 3rd defeat at the Pride Shockwave 2004 tournament in Japan against Ryo Chonan. In 2005, he defended his Cage Rage middleweight title twice and then suffered his 4th defeat in his 20th bout against Yushin Okami at the 2006 Rumble on the Rock 8 in Honolulu, Hawaii, United States of America. He was able to defend his title at Cage Rage by KO against Tony Fryklund in April 2006. Two months later, he made his debut in the Ultimate Fighting Championship (UFC) at Ultimate Fight Night 5. In October 2006, he defeated American Rich Franklin by KO during the “UFC 64: Unstoppable” and became the new middleweight champion of the UFC. Since his debut in UFC, he then obtained 16 victories in 7 years in the American promotion and was 75


able to defend his title of middleweight champion 10 times. He even fought 3 times against heavyweights in this series of wins. Silva’s 5th and 6th defeats of his career then took place in July 2013 against Chris Weidman during the “UFC 162: Silva vs Weidman”, respectively in December 2013 against the same opponent during the “UFC 168: Weidman vs Silva 2”. Anderson then suffered a fracture of his tibia that required surgery just after his 39th fight. He then resumed training in May 2014 and became a coach of the television series “The Ultimate Fighter: Brazil 4”. His 40th fight took place on 31 January 2015 and ended with a unanimous victory against Nick Diaz at UFC 183. However, he was caught in the anti-doping test he took few days before the fight. After serving a year of punishment, Anderson Silva returned to the Octagon on 27 February 2016 to face Englishman Michael Bisping at the UFC in London where he lost by unanimous decision of the judges. On 7 July 2016, he faced Daniel Cormier at UFC 200 in Las Vegas, but also lost the match after the judges’ decision. Anderson Silva fought last time in the ring on 11 February 2017 against Derek Brunson at UFC 208 where he won via unanimous decision.

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During his professional career, Anderson Silva won 34 fights and suffered 6 defeats. He won 20 times by knockout, 6 by submission and 8 defeats via decision. On the other hand, he suffered 1 disqualification, 1 defeat by decision, 2 abandonments and 2 KO. The “biggest MMA fighter of all time” according to UFC president Dana White also set some records during his career: • Record for the longest series of wins by winning 16 consecutive fights in October 2012, thus breaking Royce Gracie’s 11 consecutive victories in 2010; • Record for the highest number of title defenses in the UFC by defending his UFC middleweight belt successfully 10 times in a row until his 5th defeat in July 2013; • Record for the longest reign of a UFC champion (2.457 days); • Record for the highest number of knockdowns with 17 hits and the same record in the middleweight division with 12 hits; • Record for the highest number of fights won in the middleweight division with 14 wins; • No. 1 in significant strike accuracy (67.8%).

Anderson Silva in 2016


Heitor Villa-Lobos Heitor Villa-Lobos (b. 5 March 1887 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – d. 17 November 1959 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) was a Brazilian composer, described as “the single most significant creative figure in 20th century Brazilian art music”. Villa-Lobos has become the best known South American composer of all time. A prolific composer, he wrote numerous orchestral, chamber, instrumental and vocal works, totaling over 2.000 works by his death in 1959. His music was influenced by both Brazilian folk music and by stylistic elements from the European classical tradition, as exemplified by his Bachianas Brasileiras (Brazilian Bachian pieces). His Etudes for guitar (1929) were dedicated to Andrés

Segovia while his 5 Preludes (1940) were dedicated to Arminda Neves d’Almeida, a.k.a. “Mindinha”, both being important works in the guitar repertory. Heitor Villa-Lobos was born in 1887 in the Laranjeiras neighborhood of Rio de Janeiro. He was the son of Raul Villa-Lobos, a librarian and amateur musician and of Noêmia Villa-Lobos, a housewife. In 1905, Villa-Lobos made his first trip to the northeastern Brazilian states and gathered information on the folk music of these territories. Villa-Lobos himself created a certain halo of mystery around these trips. For some, his story of adventures with northeastern cannibal tribes was totally unreliable. He then studied at the National Institute of Music in Rio de Janeiro, although his compositional style was never listed in any academic standard. His music always remained personal and idiosyncratic. Villa-Lobos said many years later: “My music is natural, like a waterfall”. He also said: “One foot

Heitor Villa-Lobos

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in the academy and you change for the worse”. Following other ethno-musical trips to the interior of the Amazon basin in 1913, Villa-Lobos returned to Rio de Janeiro. In the same year, he married pianist Lucília Guimarães. Already an appreciated composer, he was invited by Graça Aranha (18681931) to join the Modern Art Week. In the event, which marked the beginning of Modernism in Brazil, Villa-Lobos presented three shows, including “African Characteristic Dances”. In Rio de Janeiro, on 13 November 1915, at the age of 28 years old, he performed a concert of his new music. In 1923, due to his merits, he won a government scholarship to study in Paris. In the city, he was directly influenced by the work of Russian Igor Stravinsky. In Paris, Villa-Lobos received support from other Brazilian artists such as Tarsila do Amaral (1886-1973). In 1924, he returned to Brazil because the budget received for his stay in Europe was insufficient. The resumption of the European project only occurred in 1927, when the conductor remained for three years in Paris. It is at this stage when he received international recognition. Upon his return in 1930, Villa-Lobos was appointed director of musical education in Rio de Janeiro. His performance resulted in the creation, within the federal government, of the National Conservatory of Orpheonic Singing. Villa-Lobos presented his educational plan in 1936, first in Prague and later in Berlin, Paris and Barcelona. He wrote to his wife Lucília asking for a divorce and assumed his romance with Arminda Neves de Almeida, who then became his companion. Back in Brazil, he directed the opera “Colombo” at the Centenary of Carlos Gomes and composed “Ciclo Brasileiro” and “O Descobrimento do Brasil” for the film with the homonym name produced by Humberto Mauro, at the request of Getúlio Vargas. In 1940, Villa-Lobos discovered in Montevideo, Uruguay, a young guitar player: Abel Carlevaro, who caught his attention because of his high musical level. Villa-Lobos invited the young Uruguayan to Rio de Janeiro so he could present his guitar works and offer him lessons of his musical skills for several months. The Brazilian shared with Carlevaro some of his works, gave him manuscripts of several of his “Studies and Preludes”, and shared with him his compositional ideas and his discoveries of the deep Brazilian music. In 1942, when maestro Leopold Stokowski and The American Youth Orchestra were appointed by President Roosevelt to visit Brazil, maestro Stokowski held concerts in Rio de Janeiro and asked Villa-Lobos to select the best 78

Villa-Lobos at his home

musicians and samba musicians in order to record the Brazilian Native Music Collection. Villa-Lobos chose Pixinguinha, Donga, João da Baiana, Cartola and others, who under his baton performed presentations and recorded a record collection for Columbia Records. One of his favorite singers was the Brazilian soprano Bidu Sayão, with whom he had an artistic relationship that lasted thirty-eight years. In 1944, VillaLobos made a trip to the United States of America where he was appreciated as a director and as a critic. Some American orchestras commissioned him for important new works, and he even wrote in 1959 the music of a Hollywood film called Green Mansions, directed by famous actor Mel Ferrer and starring Ferrer himself and Audrey Hepburn. The 1940’s were a period of triumph on the international stage for the Brazilian. In 1945 he founded the Brazilian Academy of Music. Two years before his death, the conductor composed “Forest of the Amazon” for the trailer of a movie of Metro Goldwyn Mayer. He performed concerts in Rome, Lisbon, Paris, Tel-Aviv, in addition to making an important presence on the Latin American musical scene. As a composer and director of his own music, Villa-Lobos was invited in important cities such as Los Angeles, New York and Paris. Practically residing in the United States between 1957 and 1959, Villa-Lobos returned to Brazil to celebrate the anniversary of the Rio de Janeiro Municipal Theater. With his health shattered, Heitor was hospitalized for treatment. Despite his travels around the world, his home was always in Rio de Janeiro, where he died in 1959, being a victim of cancer. Heitor Villa-Lobos was buried in the São João Batista cemetery in Rio de Janeiro. Villa-Lobos was a notoriously prolific composer.


Many of his works were arrangements of previous works. Especially in his later years, Villa-Lobos made a large number of re-compositions. The works that are mentioned below represent his musical heritage. Except for the lost works, his music is very widespread in the world through the existing recordings and the concerts that were realized. Even symphonies are now available in a full-length recording. Exceptions include the Noneto and operas. Among the most popular works of Villa-Lobos are the Brazilian Bachianas. The Bachiana No. 5 is one

of the best known opera written for voice and eight cellos. It is not uncommon to be interpreted in many other instrumental combinations. It is possible to cite the music for guitar like the Preludes, Studies and the Choros, among which Choro No. 1 is very popular. Choro No. 13 of 1920 influenced one of the most famous tangos, Malena (1942) in its main melodic line, becoming one of the first examples of academic music that influenced a popular music in the 20th century. It is also important to mention Heitor Villa-Lobos’ String Quartet series as an astonishing work.

Heitor Villa-Lobos working on his operas 79


Paulo coelho Paulo Coelho de Souza (b. 24 August 1947 in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) is a Brazilian lyricist and novelist and the recipient of numerous international awards. He is best known for his widely translated novel The Alchemist. He is the writer with the highest number of social media followers reaching over 29.5 million fans through his Facebook page and 12.2 million followers on Twitter. A keen user of electronic media, in 2014 he uploaded his personal papers online in order to create a virtual Paulo Coelho Foundation. Born in Rio de Janeiro in a bourgeois family of Portuguese origins, Paulo Coelho resided in the residential district of Botafogo. Coelho developed from a young age an artistic vocation and a sensibility beyond common. Being a member of the Jesuit School of Santo Inácio, he didn’t endorse the rules, especially the imposition of prayer. Here, he discovered his literary vocation after winning his first literary prize within a scholarly poetry competition. His rejection of any behaviour rules imposed on him led him to a life of enormous contrasts with his parents, especially with his mother. His parents were the ones that hospitalized him in a psychiatric hospital in 1965 and 1966, being convinced that the child’s rebellions were attributed to a mental illness. In 1967, the writer was subjected to electroshock treatment because of his intentions to approach the theater, then reputed by the Brazilian bourgeoisie as a form of perversions and immorality. After a brief period in which Paulo dedicated to law studies in order to indulge his father’s wishes, in 1970 he abandoned them and then left for the next two years in order to discover the world and satisfy his need for experiences. The Brazilian writer was very attracted by the hippie culture of the period, but above all he wanted to avoid the risk of being brought back in a hospital. In 1971, he met Raul Seixas, a rebellious poet and singer, together with whom he would collaborate between 1973 and 1976. As Coelho himself testified, in these years he began to devote himself to magic arts, driven by an existential anguish and unhappy prospect “that one day it would all be over”. Seduced by the possibility to fabricate a long life elixir that would allow him to prolong his life, he deepened himself in the study of alchemy, which turned out to be unsuccessful. 80

Paulo Coelho

While with Seixas he joined the Alternative Society, an anti-capitalist organization also dedicated to black magic practices. Coelho published a series of satirical comic cartoons which will lead to his arrest in 1974 by the Brazilian dictatorship, as his activities were considered subversive. After the official imprisonment, Coelho suffered an unofficial one: seized by the military, he was detained in a barracks and tortured there for several days, until he could convince them that he was crazy. He was therefore released. Deeply marked by this experience, he abandoned political activism and fled the country to London in 1977 together with his first wife. He stayed there for one year then returned to Brazil where he found temporary work at another record company. Shortly after, he divorced. For a brief period of time, he remained sentimentally linked to actress Renata Sorrah. In 1979 he met an old friend, Christina Oiticica, who would later become his second wife.


Subsequently, in 1981, while in Netherlands, he met a spiritual master called “J”, who changed his life and brought him back to the Christian religion. Thanks to him, in the book “The Pilgrimage”, he stated that he has become a member of a Catholic group called RAM (Regnus Agnus Mundi), with “J” being his Master. However, the existence of the group and the Latin name are uncertain as his books are the only source of information regarding this topic. Under the guidance of an exponent from the RAM group, he undertook in 1986 the Camino de Santiago, a pilgrimage whose route dates back to the Middle Ages. In 1982 he published Arquivos do Infierno (Hell Archives) at his own expense but enjoyed little successful on the market. In 1986, he published O Manual Prático do Vampirismo (Practical Manual of Vampirism) but he withdrew it from the market shortly after because he considered it poorly written and of low quality. In 1987, he published his first book about his pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela: O Diário de um Mago (The Pilgrimage). In this book there can be found the first traces of what will be the recurring theme of

his future books: “The extraordinary that resides in the journey of ordinary people”. The book’s success will prompt him to write O Alquimista (The Alchemist), his most successful work. The book was sold in just 900 copies in its first edition but then exploded in 1990. The Alchemist has so far been the most successful book ever written in Portuguese and has also been included in the Guinness World Records. In 1991, Paulo published O Dom Supremo (The Supreme Gift), inspired by a text of Henry Drummond. In 1994, Coelho published Na margem do rio Piedra eu sentei e chorei (By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept), while in 1996 he wrote O Monte Cinco (The Fifth Mountain). In 1997, the Brazilian writer published Manual do guerreiro da luz (Manual of the Warrior of Light), a collection of philosophical thoughts extrapolated from his previous works. With Veronika decide morrer (Veronika Decides to Die) in 1998 and O Demônio e a Srta. Prym (The Devil and Miss Prym) in 2000 he put an end to the trilogy that started with “By the River Piedra I Sat Down and Wept”. The three books, encompassed in the collection of

Coelho, Teixeira, Lula & Blatter before the announcement of Brazil as 2014 FIFA World Cup Host

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novels E no sétimo dia (And on the Seventh Day) tell the story of a week in the lives of three common people, forced to confront with love, death and power in this short period of time and deciding on the future of their lives. In 2003, Paulo Coelho published Onze Minutos (Eleven Minutes). 2005 was the year of O Zahir (The Zahir), a great editorial success. In the following year he wrote Ser Como o Rio que Flui (Like the Flowing River) and A Bruxa de Portobello (The Witch of Portobello) then published Thoughts and Reflections (1998-2006), a collection of anecdotes, ideas and self-reflections. In the same year, the Brazilian released an agenda encompassing Coelho’s most beautiful quotes of the day. His works, published in more than 150 countries and translated into sixty languages, sold over 130.000.000 copies. Paulo Coelho then published one book per year, exception being 2013, in the following order: 2008 -

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O vencedor está só (The Winner Stands Alone); 2009 – Amor (Love); 2010 – Aleph; 2011 – Fábulas; 2012 Manuscrito Encontrado em Accra (Manuscript found in Accra); 2014 – Adultério (Adultery) and 2016 - A Espiã (The Spy). In September 2007, the UN appointed Paulo Coelho as the new peace messenger alongside Jordanian princess Haya, the Argentine-Israeli pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim and the Japanese violinist Midori Gotó. The announcement was made during the International Peace Day commemoration ceremony at the UN headquarters in New York. Coelho said: “I accept this marvelous responsibility and I aim to do my utmost to improve this generation and the next one.” All peace messengers were personally presented by the United Nations Secretary-General. Paulo Coelho has appeared in a TV commercial of the HP notebook series.

Paulo Coelho during a press conference


gisele Bündchen Gisele Caroline Bündchen (b. 20 July 1980 in Horizontina or Três de Maio, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) is a Brazilian supermodel. Since 2004, Bündchen has been among the highest paid models in the world, and as of 2007 was the 16th richest woman in the entertainment industry. In 2012, she placed first on the Forbes top earning models list. In 2014, she was listed as the 89th Most Powerful Woman in the World by Forbes. Gisele Bündchen was born in a family of German origin that has emigrated to Brazil five generations ago. Her father, Valdir, was a university teacher, while her mother, Vânia Nonnenmacher, worked in a bank. The family is made up of five other daughters, one of which, Patricia, is Gisele’s twin. At the age of 14 years old, along with two of her five sisters and some friends, she attended a modelling course. At the end of the course, a trip for all the girls to São Paulo was organized. While walking in a shopping mall from the metropolis, a talent scout from a modeling agency who was expecting the girls found Gisele particularly beautiful and invited her to come forward to the agency as soon as possible. Back in Horizontina, her mother saw in the Elite Model Look contest the opportunity to see if Gisele was really into modeling and signed her up for the competition. Gisele came in second place and the organizers decided to bring her at the Elite Model Look world contest held in Ibiza, Spain. She ended up in the top ten but did not win the competition. Due to the fact that the contest confirmed the possibility of becoming part of the fashion business, Gisele moved to São Paulo alone in order to try to embark on a modelling career. After being refused many times because her nose was considered too big, she felt a strong desire to prove that she can do better and started going around the world for various fashion services dedicated mainly to the teenager audience. While travelling around the world, she spent about three months in Japan. In 1996, Gisele moved to New York and “the plane became her home”. Nowadays, Gisele is the world’s richest model according to Forbes magazine and The Guinness World Records, working for famous brands such as Vogue Eyewear, Yves Saint Laurent, Dolce & Gabbana, Dior, Cacharel, Louis Vuitton, Roberto Cavalli, Bulgari, Ralph Lauren, Versace, Ebel, Apple, Credicard, Live, Valentino, Jean Paul Gaultier, Balenciaga, Otto, DSquared, Pantene,

Gisele Bündchen

Nivea, Colcci, Joop, Tug, Aquascutum, Stiefelkonig, Stefanel, Vakko, Vera Moda, Vivara, Calzedonia and Ipanema Gisele Bündchen. In 2008, 2009, 2010 and 2011, Forbes magazine nominated Bündchen the most paid supermodel in the world with an estimated annual profit of over 33 million $ (45 million $ in 2011 and 2012) and 47 million $ in 2014, largely generated by the vast number of advertising contracts that bind her as a model to various fashion, cosmetics industry and other sectors. In December 2009, she and other colleagues collaborated on a particular editorial by Vogue Italia, also appearing on the cover dedicated to the Twitter microblogging platform. The photos, Steven Meisel’s operas, were taken in low quality in order to emulate user posts of the famous social network. In 2011, she launched her underwear line, Gisele Bündchen Intimates. In 2012, Gisele was the protagonist of the Versace, Versace Jeans, Esprit, Givenchy, David Yurman and Salvatore Ferragamo campaigns. In 2013, she was chosen by Chanel to be a model for the make-up line 83


Les Beiges. The Brazilian was also chosen by H&M and Louis Vuitton as a supermodel for the autumn / winter campaign 2013/2014. In November, she returned as a supermodel for Colcci at the São Paulo Fashion Week after two years of absence from catwalks. In 2014, she was Louis Vuitton’s supermodel for the spring / summer campaign alongside Catherine Deneuve, Sofia Coppola and Fan Bingbing. Bündchen also became the global face of Pantene, for which she already was a model in Brazil since 2007. In May, the Brazilian became the new supermodel of Chanel N ° 5 perfume. On 13 July, at the World Cup Finals in Brazil, Gisele was chosen to hand the world cup to the winning team. In March 2015, Gisele announced her decision to retire from catwalks after going on one last time the São Paolo Fashion Week for Colcci in April. In May, she appeared on the cover of the Brazilian edition of Vogue, celebrating her twenty years of career and forty years of the magazine. She also renewed her contract as a model for Stuart Weitzman. In October, Taschen published a photo book with over 300 shots, edited by John Bianco in collaboration with fashion photographer Steven Meisel. The profits were donated to charity. In 2015, Bündchen was again the Brazilian celebrity who appeared on the most TV commercials in Brazil, with 8.527 commercial spots for brands such as Carolina Herrera, Colcci, P & G and Sky. In the same year, after 20 years of career, Bündchen has appeared in more than 550 ad campaigns, 2.000 magazine covers, 3.500 magazine editorials and 800 fashion shows. According to Forbes Brazil, she is Brasil’s second most influential Brazilian personality after Pelé. On 5 August 2016, at the Maracanã Stadium, she attended the inauguration ceremony of the Rio de Janeiro Olympic Games. In the same month she was reincluded in the Forbes magazine, ranked first among the most paid models with 30.5 million $ per year. From 2000 to the end of 2006 she was a Victoria’s Secret Angel. She participated in her first Fashion Show in 1999 and continued to appear until 2006. In 2004, she was one of the five angels to participate in the Angels Across America tour alongside Tyra Banks, Heidi Klum, Adriana Lima, and Alessandra Ambrosio. In 2000, Gisele was chosen to wear the Red Hot Fantasy Bra created with 1.300 precious stones, including 300 carats of Thai rubies on red satin. It was the most expensive ever created bra and for its 15 million $ worth value has entered the Guinness World Records. In 2005, Bündchen repeated the experience by wearing the Sexy Splendor Fantasy Bra, worth 12.5 million $ and made 84

up of 2.900 diamonds, 22 rubies on 18-carat white gold and a 101-carat diamond pendant. Since the end of 2006, Gisele Bündchen has been linked to the New England Patriots quarterback, Tom Brady. The couple married on 26 February 2009 in a church in Santa Monica, California and has two children: Benjamin Rein, born on 8 December 2009 and Vivian Lake, born on 5 December 2012. Brady has another son, John (2007), born from a relationship with actress Bridget Moynahan. Gisele Bündchen is the Ambassador of the United Nations (Goodwill Ambassador) for her commitment to environmental issues and respect for nature. In January 2012, she was in Kenya as a goodwill ambassador for the United Nations Environmental Program. In the summer of 2014, she was H&M’s supermodel, where she sang Heart of Glass, alongside Bob Sinclar for charity. In fact, the profits of the single were donated to UNICEF.

Gisele in an underwear advert


Gisele Bündchen wearing the Sexy Splendor Fantasy Bra

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adriana lima Adriana Lima (b. 12 June 1981 in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil) is a Brazilian supermodel and actress, best known as a Victoria’s Secret Angel since 1999 (being their longest-running model and named “the most valuable Victoria’s Secret Angel” in 2017), as a spokesmodel for Maybelline cosmetics since 2003 and for her Super Bowl and Kia Motors commercials. At the age of 15, Lima won Ford’s “Supermodel of Brazil” competition, and took second place the following year in the Ford “Supermodel of the World” competition before signing with Elite Model Management in New York City. Adriana Lima da Silva has Afro-Brazilian and Portuguese origins. Her father left the family when she

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was only six months old. She never thought of becoming a model, even though she had won several beauty contests while in elementary school. However, one of her friends encouraged her to send pictures to various model agency. Her career began at the age of 15 years old when she won the first place at Ford’s “Supermodel of Brazil” national competition. Soon after, she managed to occupy the second place at the 1996 Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest organized by the same agency. After being noticed by the Elite Model Management agency in São Paulo, Brazil, she settled in New York. As a runway model, she has walked the catwalk for designers such as Rosa Cha, Blue man, Fashion’s Night Out, Caio Gobbi, Fause Haten, M. Officer, Luca Luca, Liverpool Fashion, Dosso Dossi, Carmen Steffens, Cía Maritima, Agua de Coco, Lino Villaventura, Forum, Vassarette, Zoomp, Joan Vass, Cori, Emilio Pucci, Fendi, Giles Deacon, Carmen Marc Valvo, Emanuel Ungaro,

Adriana Lima


Baby Phat, Giorgio Armani, Balmain, Bottega Veneta, Sportmax, Vera Wang, Valentino, Miu Miu, Givenchy, Versace, Cividini, Alexandre Herchcovitch, Jason Wu, Marc Jacobs, Christian Dior, Paco Rabanne, Victoria’s Secret, Sean John, Prada, Louis Vuitton, Desigual, Cynthia Rowley, Sully Bonnelly, Anna Sui, Guy Laroche, John Galliano, Alexander McQueen, Yigal Azrouël, Ralph Lauren, Christian Lacroix, Escada, Nanette Lepore, Richard Tyler, Triton and Betsey Johnson. During her career, Adriana Lima has posed for brands such as Armani Jeans, BCBG, Bebe, Emporio Armani, French Connection, Giorgio Armani, La Perla, Loewe, Mossimo, Swatch and XOXO. In 1999, she began working for Victoria’s Secret and became an “Angel” in 2000. In 2004, she appeared in one of their television commercials with Bob Dylan, “Angel in Venice”. Adriana has also featured in numerous videos of this brand, including one for the Super Bowl XLII, which has been seen by more than 103 million people. She is, along with Alessandra Ambrosio, the model that has paraded the most times for the brand. In 2000, Adriana Lima also became the new advertising face of Guess brand. In 2003, the Brazilian supermodel became an ambassador for the Maybelline cosmetics brand, until 2009, and then once again in 2014. In 2005, she appeared in the Pirelli calendar, having been photographed by Patrick Demarchelier. In 2006, Adriana Lima appeared on the cover of the GQ magazine. That was the most sold edition in the history of the magazine. In 2009, she made her return to haute couture by walking the catwalk for Givenchy and posing for the brand with models Mariacarla Boscono and Iris Strubegger. Adriana Lima appeared in an advertising campaign for the spring 2012 collection of Donna Karan. According to Forbes magazine, she was the 4th best paid model in the world with an annual income of 5.8 million € (7.3 million $) between May 2011 and May 2012. In 2012, she was on the list of the 100 most influential celebrities in the world. In 2013, she posed for the Miu Miu brand. She was also the 3rd best paid model in the world with an annual income estimated at 6 million $ by Forbes magazine. In 2014, she became the new brand ambassador of the Spanish ready to wear brand Desigual. She also wore the Fantasy Bra, accompanied by Alessandra Ambrosio. On 26 November 2007, she appeared as a guest star in an episode of How I Met Your Mother alongside Alessandra Ambrosio, Selita Ebanks, Marisa Miller, Miranda Kerr and Heidi Klum. She also appeared in

Adriana Lima was one of the most popular Victoria’s Secret Angel

episode 6 of season 3 of the series Ugly Betty in 2008, where she embodied her own role. In 2013, she played her own role in an episode of the series The Crazy Ones. She was wearing a replica of the Royal Fantasy Bra, originally worn by Candice Swanepoel at the Victoria’s Secret parade that same year. Lima is a devout Roman Catholic who attends Mass every Sunday. In April 2006, she told GQ magazine that she was a virgin. “Sex is for after marriage”, she said. “Men have to respect that this is my choice. If there’s no respect, that means they don’t want me.” She also denounced abortion as a crime, and stated that she agrees with any teaching of the church. Lima is known to bring a Bible with her backstage before she goes onstage. She has also stated that, before she became a Victoria’s Secret Angel, she had wanted to become a nun. Regarding her spirituality, Lima stated, “The church is in me, I always connect. If you’re connected with the divine and always have pure intentions with 87


everything you’re doing, you’re protected by the angels. I’m very spiritual. I believe in nature, I believe in energy, I believe in spirits.” Adriana supports humanitarian actions and has helped to build a Caminhos da Luz orphanage in Salvador, Brazil. She also donated to a children’s hospital fighting leukemia in Istanbul, Turkey, through her participation in the Turkish program Var Misin Yok Musunn. She is also the cousin of actress Elissa Sursara. Between 2001 and 2003, she was the companion of American singer and actor Lenny Kravitz, with whom she became engaged in May 2002. From January 2003 to 2006, she was the companion of Prince Wenzeslaus of Liechtenstein. From January to February 2006, she briefly rubbed shoulders with a singer named Denny. She married with Serbian basketball player Marko Jarić on 14 February 2009. Adrian thus acquired Serbian nationality. In May 2009, they announced that

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they were waiting for their first child. On 15 November 2009, she gave birth to their first child, a girl named Valentina Lima Jarić. In March 2012, they announced that they were waiting for their second child. On 12 September 2012, she gave birth to their second daughter, Sienna Lima Jarić. On 2 May 2014, People magazine confirmed their separation. From May to July 2016, she briefly was the companion of American boxer Joe Thomas. In July 2016, the American tabloids linked her to a relationship with American football player Julian Edelman. However, in July 2016, she has been photographed spending time with international German footballer Sami Khedira. In March 2017, she was caught by a paparazzi in the company of American baseball player Matt Harvey. Nevertheless, on 14 July 2017 she formalized her relationship with Turkish writer Metin Hara, whom she has been spending time with since June 2017.

Adriana Lima and Alessandra Ambrosio wearing the Dream Angels Fantasy Bra


ronaldinho Ronaldo de Assis Moreira (b. 21 March 1980 in Porto Alegre, Brazil) commonly known as Ronaldinho or Ronaldinho Gaúcho, is a Brazilian professional footballer and ambassador for Spanish club FC Barcelona. He played mostly as an attacking midfielder, but was also deployed as a forward or a winger. He played the bulk of his career at European clubs Paris Saint-Germain, Barcelona and Milan as well as playing for the Brazilian national team. Often considered one of the best players of his generation and regarded by many as one of the greatest of all time, Ronaldinho won two FIFA World Player of the Year awards and a Ballon d’Or. He was renowned for his technical skills and creativity; due to his agility, pace and dribbling ability, as well as his use of tricks, overhead kicks, no-look passes and accuracy from free-kicks.

Ronaldinho holding the FIFA Ballon D’or

Ronaldinho was born in Porto Alegre, the capital of the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul. His mother, Dona Miguelina, is a former sales woman who has prepared to become a nurse. His father, João, was a naval worker but also footballer at a local football team, Esporte Clube Cruzeiro (not to be confused with Cruzeiro). He suffered a fatal heart attack in the family pool when Ronaldinho was eight years old. After his older brother, Roberto, signed a contract with Grêmio, the family moved to a wealthier neighborhood of Porto Alegre, which was a gift from the club in order to persuade his brother to stay. Roberto’s career has ended very quickly due to an injury. Ronaldinho’s career began with Grêmio’s youth team, led by Liam Higgins. He made his debut as a professional footballer during a match in Copa Libertadores in 1998. In 2001, Arsenal expressed interest in him, but everything fell apart when he couldn’t get a work permit in England. He considered playing on loan in the First Scottish League at St. Mirren, but that didn’t happen because he was involved in a fake passport Ronaldinho Gaúcho

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scandal in Brazil. In 2001, Ronaldinho signed a five year contract with the French group Paris Saint-Germain for 5 million €. On his arrival in Paris, he was given the no. 21 shirt and was placed in a line that included his Brazilian colleague Aloisio and midfielders Mikel Arteta and Jay-Jay Okocha. Ronaldinho debuted for Paris Saint-Germain on 4 August 2001 after appearing as a substitute in a 1-1 draw with Auxerre. During the 2000-2001 season, Luis Fernández, manager of the Paris Saint-Germain team, complained that Ronaldinho was more concerned with the Parisian nocturnal life than football and that his vacations in Brazil were always extended over the program. In 2003, less than two years after signing for PSG, he clearly stated that he wanted to leave as the team had not qualified in any European competition. At first, Barcelona president Juan Laporta promised to bring David Beckham to the club, but after his transfer to Real Madrid, Barcelona went into the race to transfer Ronaldinho. The Catalan club won his

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signature even though Manchester United also expressed interest in the player. He made his debut for the club in a friendly match against AC Milan in Washington DC on RFK Stadium, managing to score a goal in the 2-0 victory. After suffering an injury in the second part of the championship, he returned and helped Barcelona finish on the second in the championship. Ronaldinho won his first Spanish championship title in the 2005-2006 season and was named Player of the Year on 20 December 2004. In 2005, Ronaldinho received for the second time the FIFA World Player of the Year trophy, defeating Chelsea’s Frank Lampard, but also his Barcelona colleague Samuel Eto’o. On 8 March 2005, Barcelona was eliminated from the UEFA Champions League by Chelsea in the first eliminatory round. Ronaldinho scored two goals in the match lost by his side with the score of 4-2. In September 2005, he extended his contract by 2 years with an annulment clause of 85 million £. With his contract expiring in 2008, an extension bid by 2014 was proposed to him, but he refused.

Ronaldinho celebrating a goal scored for FC Barcelona


Ronaldinho Gaúcho playing for AC Milan against Real Madrid

At the end of the 2004-2005 season, he began to accumulate a lot of personal trophies. He won the 2005 season Player of the Year trophy, besides being included in the team of the year year and being named European Player of the Year. On 19 November he scored twice for Barcelona in the El Clásico match against rivals Real Madrid. After closing the match with his second goal, he received applause from Real Madrid fans. Ronaldinho was elected for the third consecutive year in the UEFA team of the year in January 2006, and has contributed with a goal to the elimination of Portuguese team Benfica from the quarterfinals of the UEFA Champion League in a 2-0 home win. After defeating AC Milan in the semifinals, FC Barcelona went on to play the final of the UEFA Champions League. The blaugrana team won the competition on 17 May 2006 after defeating English team Arsenal with the score of 2-1. Two weeks earlier, Barcelona won its second consecutive title in La Liga after a 1-0 victory over Celta Vigo, offering Ronaldinho his first double of his career. He finished the season with 26 goals scored in all competitions, being declared the Champions League player of the year. On 25 November 2006, Ronaldinho scored

an impressive bicycle goal against Villareal in the championship. He told the press that the goal he scored that match was a goal he had dreamed of scoring in an official match since his childhood. He scored once again and assisted two more goals in the 4-0 victory over Mexican Club América on 14 December, but Barcelona was defeated in the final with the score of 1-0 by Brazilian team Internacional. Ronaldinho received the Bronze Trophy. The next day, Ronaldinho finished 3rd in the FIFA 2006 player of the year award after Fabio Cannavaro and Zinédine Zidane. Ronaldinho was included in the UEFA team of the year for the 3rd time in a row in January 2007, receiving the most votes: over 290.000. He was forced to miss a charity match on 13 March due to an injury that he suffered during the match against Real Madrid, which ended with a 3-3 draw. He played his 200th career match for Barcelona in a championship match against Osasuna on 3 February 2008. However, the 2007-2008 season was a complete disaster for the Brazilian because he was affected by injuries and later by a rupture of muscles that ended his premature season. On 19 May, Laporta stated that 91


Ronaldinho needed a “new challenge”, claiming that he needed a new club if he was to revive his career. Manchester City owner Thaksin Shinawatra confirmed on 6 June that he was interested in buying the player. Ronaldinho and his Barcelona colleague Lionel Messi have each gathered a team to play in a demonstration match against racism in Venezuela on 28 June, which ended 7-7. Ronaldinho ended the match with two goals scored and two assists in what would have been his last match in Barcelona’s shirt. Ronaldinho has refused the bid of 25.5 million £ from Manchester City in order to join AC Milan on a 3 years contract after being bought with 21 milion € from Barcelona. He chose the no. 80 shirt because that was the year of his birth and due to the fact that the no. 10 shirt was already occupied by Clarence Seedorf. He scored his first goal for AC Milan in a 1-0 victory against rivals Inter on 28 September 2008. At the end of the season, he scored 10 goals in 32 matches in all competition. After a good start of the season, Ronaldinho struggled with a precarious physical form, and he was often introduced on the field at the end of the matches. He had a rather disappointing first season with AC Milan. The second season didn’t start so well even though he was in the first eleven in almost all matches before he was relegated on the bench. After a while, Ronaldinho rediscovered his shape and was undoubtedly the best player in Milan that season. He changed his position in the field from offensive midfielder to leftwing midfielder, a much more familiar position. On 10 January 2010, Ronaldinho scored two goals in a match against Juventus, assuring a 3-0 win for the rossoneri. In the next match against Siena on 17 January 2010, Ronaldinho scored his first hat-trick for AC Milan. On 16 February, Ronaldinho played his first match against Manchester United in a Champions League match. He scored at the beginning of the match for Milan. AC Milan lost the match by 3-2, following a goal scored by Paul Scholes and two goals by Wayne Rooney. After a first part of the 2010-2011 season, where he rarely played by the new Rossoneri coach Massimiliano Allegri (16 games and a goal) in the first days of 2011, 6 months before his contract with AC Milan would expire, Ronaldinho left training and returned to Brazil in order to look for a new team. In total, with Milan he played 95 official matches in which he scored 26 goals and assisted 25 times. On 11 January 2011, Ronaldinho signed a three-year contract with Brazilian side Flamengo after being bought for 3 million €. 92

On 31 May 2012, after missing training, he sued Flamengo because he claimed he hadn’t been paid for four months, thus terminating his contract. Ronaldinho played 72 official games in a year and five months in which he scored 28 goals and won a Carioca Championship. On 4 June 2012, Ronaldinho signed a seven-month contract with Atlético Mineiro. Since the no. 10 shirt was already assigned to Guilherme, he chose to wear no. 49 as a tribute to his mother Dona Miguelina, born in 1949 and operated a few days earlier due to a tumor. On 31 December 2013, he was named South American footballer of the year by Uruguayan magazine El País, becoming the first player to win two El País titles, 3 European player of the year awards (2004, 2005 and 2006) and South American footballer of the year (2013). On 9 January 2014 he renewed his contract with Atlético Mineiro for a year. The contract expired on 31 December. On 24 July 2014, he won the South American Recopa thanks to the double success achieved by Atlético Mineiro against Lanús. The match against Lanús will be the last of Ronaldinho with Atletico Mineiro’s shirt as on 30 July the club announced that the player has terminated the contract consensually. After playing in 20 matches and scoring 7 goals for Querétaro, on 11 July 2015, Ronaldinho signed a one and a half year contract with Fluminense. He made his debut against Grêmio in August, playing all of the 90 minutes of the game, which ended with a 1-0 win. In the subsequent matches, Ronaldinho proved to be very out of his shape and couldn’t make the difference on the field. After 7 appearances in the league, without scoring any goals or providing consistent help, on 29 September 2015, Ronaldinho announced the termination of his contract with Fluminense. Ronaldinho made his national debut on 26 June 1999 against Latvia in a 3-0 win. In the same year, he won the Copa America, scoring an amazing goal against Venezuela, and was finalist of the 1999 Confederations Cup, becoming the top scorers and being elected the best player of the tournament. He later contributed to his national team qualification for the 2002 World Cup Final. He started in the Brazil-Turkey (2-1) match on 3 June in the first leg of the group stage. On 8 June, in the match Brazil-China (4-0), Ronaldinho made an assist and scored the 4th goal for the Brazilian team from a penalty kick. On 21 June, in the quarter-finals against England, Ronaldinho was the absolute star of the game. Firstly, he assisted Rivaldo for 1-1 and then he scored the victory goal following a free kick from 35


meters after a serious mistake made by David Seaman. Shortly after the goal, however, he was eliminated after a foul committed on English defender Rio Ferdinand. He returned to the field in the final against Germany. At the end of the tournament, Ronaldinho, with 6 appearances, 2 goals and 2 assists, was among the best players in Brazil’s 5th World Cup title and was included in the All Star Tournament team. Like the other stars of the National team, he was not used in the 2004 Copa América but was called up for the 2005 Confederations Cup. He started on 16 June against Greece and six days later he scored his first of the tournament in Japan-Brazil (2-2), the last group stage event. He scored again in the semifinals against Germany’s Lehmann from a penalty kick and then in the final against Argentina. Ronaldinho ended the tournament with 5 appearances and 3 goals. In

the summer of 2006 he was called up for the World Cup in Germany. On 22 June, in the 3rd match of the tournament, Japan-Brazil (1-4), he assisted Gilberto’s 3-1 goal. The World Cup ended for Brazil in the quarterfinals following a 1-0 defeat against finalists France. On 24 March 2007, Ronaldinho was included again in the first eleven team since September 2006 and scored 2 goals against Chile, after almost two years. In May 2007, he asked manager Carlos Dunga not to call him up for Copa América 2007, as he did for Kaka, claiming he needed a rest period so as not to adversely affect his performance with the club and the national team. In September 2011, Ronaldinho was called up for the Superclásico de las Américas 2011. The Brazilian has played both games as captain of Brazil and won the trophy after a 0-0 draw and a 2-0 home victory against Argentina.

Ronaldinho playing for the Brazilian National Team in a match against Switzerland

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eduardo Saverin Eduardo Luiz Saverin (b. 19 March 1982 in São Paulo, Brazil) is a Brazilian Internet entrepreneur and angel investor. Saverin is one of the co-founders of Facebook. As of 2015, he owns 53 million Facebook shares (approximately 0,4% of all outstanding shares) and has a net worth of 8.7 billion $, according to Forbes. He has also invested in early stage startups such as Qwiki and Jumio. Although Eduardo was born in Brazil, he grew up in Miami, Florida, with a father who was dedicated to exports as well as real estate. Eugenio Saverin, Eduardo’s grandfather, was a Romanian born Jewish refugee in Brazil. In 1952, he founded Tip Top, a children’s clothing brand, and brought to the market one of the first models of children rompers. Roberto Saverin came to work with his father in the children’s clothing factory. In 1987, Eugenio sold the company to the TDB group, which until today controls the brand. He attended the Gulliver Institute in Miami then entered Harvard University, where he participated

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in the Phoenix S.K. The club also chaired the Harvard Investment Association. As a college student, Saverin took advantage of loopholes in insider trading regulations in Brazil and made 300.000 $ through strategic investments in the oil sector. Eduardo studied economics and worked as a course assistant in the Department of Mathematics, a sort of assistant professor, who corrects grades and passes assignments. He would have gone through a ritual worthy of the roughest comedies in order to be accepted into a fraternity: he had the mission to take care of a chicken for a few days. He carried her to school, fed her, and even slept with her. In 2006, he graduated magna cum laude with a Bachelor of Arts degree in Economics. He is a member of the Alpha Epsilon Pi fraternity. He had created a software called Synapse, which allowed mp3 players to recognize user preferences and create custom playlists. In May 2012, it was found out that in the month of September of the previous year Saverin had submitted his resignation to his US citizenship and that his plan was to remain a resident of Singapore for an unlimited amount of time. “I do not feel any connection with the US that goes beyond the mere use of the resources that the country offers”, Eduardo told a University of Miami magazine when he was 19 years old, according to a

Eduardo Saverin


Saverin in a TV show

report. And he really took advantage of those resources: he used the scholarship he got to become a student at one of the country’s most prestigious universities, Harvard. Eduardo Luiz Saverin met Mark Zuckerberg during his first year of college. The friendship with Mark was very strong as they had their affinities. Both came from Jewish families and both were the stereotype of the term “nerd”. Together they founded the Facebook social network assuming the roles of director of finance, respectively business manager. While in New York and due to differences of opinion and internal conflicts with Zuckerberg, Saverin moved away from what at that moment was called “Thefacebook”, a growing company based in Silicon Valley. With “Thefacebook” project in mind, Mark would have invited Eduardo to support it with money. The site needed money for the servers and to be published. “Eduardo has agreed to put 1.000 $ out of his own pocket as the starting capital of the business”, said a February 2004 issue of Harvard Crimson. He and Mark evaluated that the money will pay for a couple of

months of operation. According to Ben Mezrich, Mark suggested that the company be divided like this: 30% of the shares for Eduardo and 70% for himself, since he was the inventor. Eduardo would then take care of the business, while Mark would occupy his schedule with programming and creating applications. The site started operating in February 2004 and it was an immediate success. From day to night, Facebook became a fever among college students. Facebook helped solve a problem that both Eduardo and Mark had: meeting girls. In one of the book’s passages, the duo met two girls during a lecture held by Bill Gates at Harvard. After the lecture, Eduardo and Mark would have spent the night with the girls in the men’s room in one of the dorms of the university (in separate booths, of course). The site grew and turned, once and for all, in a business. Two of Mark’s roommates entered the game: Dustin Moskovitz, as head of programming, and Chris Hughes as director of outreach. After external investors such as Peter Thiel, co-founder of PayPal, and Sean Parker, co-creator of Napster took the financial control of the business and 95


supported Zuckerberg as executive director, Saverin’s role was limited and his influence evaporated. Eduardo did not like the story. According to Mezrich, he sent a furious letter to Mark, complaining about Sean Parker’s part in his work. He would also have frozen a Facebook bank account in California. Mark’s response was immediate: Facebook’s lawyers called on Eduardo to sign some papers on the company’s shareholding structure. Eduardo accepted without even understanding what the papers said. Saverin sued Facebook and Zuckerberg in April 2005, after Saverin’s stake was reduced from 34% to 0.03%. Saverin won the litigation, receiving from the court a 7% ownership and the right to be mentioned as co-founder of Facebook. In 2016, the Saverin “B Capital Group” fund signed initial agreements of more than 140 million $ in Asia, including 30 million $ in the implementation of the regional logistics Ninja Van. In 2010, Eduardo Saverin and Mexican technology entrepreneur Aldo Álvarez founded Aporta, an Internet portal for Mexican charities. In the 2010 movie “The Social Network”,

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Eduardo Saverin was interpreted by Andrew Garfield. The film describes the relationship between the Brazilian entrepreneur with Mark Zuckerberg (played by Jesse Eisenberg) since they created Facebook until they faced each other in trial. In an interview with Conspiracy Worldwide Radio, Ben Mezrich, author of the book “Multimillionaires Accident”, on which the film was based, talked about his relationship with Eduardo Saverin as he wrote his book. Since 2009, Eduardo Saverin lives in a mansion in Singapore, where he lives a low profile. He accepted an interview with a Brazilian journalist in 2012 in which he broke the silence that had lasted for years. “I just have good things to say about Mark,” said Eduardo and countered the disputes around the social network. Apart from that, the Brazilian is investing in many businesses, but he does not have any projects that belong to him. He wants to be a promoter of small businesses and startups like Qwiki, a service that wants to renew the way searches on the internet are being made. He says he is thinking of investing in technology or business related to it in Brazil.

Facebook co-founder Eduardo Saverin discusses with company chiefs from Singapore


Brazil Cuisine

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Feijoada Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • • • •

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700g - 1 kg black beans 100g dried pork meat 70g pig ear 70g pork tail 70g pork leg 100g pork ribs 50g pork loin 150g smoked sausage (or Linguiça) 2 large onions (chopped) 1 bunch green onion (finely chopped) 3 bay leaves 6 cloves of garlic

• • • •

1 or 2 oranges 40 ml oil 1 chili (optional) Salt and Pepper

Steps:

1. Soak the black beans in water for 12 up to 36 hours. Change the water several times. 2. Cook the beans and bring them to a boil. 3. In a pot, fry the meat then cut it in small cubes and slice the sausage. 4. Heat the oil in a large skillet and fry the onions until they turn brown. Then add the garlic cloves. 5. Shortly after, add the beans and then the meat. 6. Season the stew and add the other ingredients: bay leaves, chili, green onion and orange zest. Add salt and pepper to taste 7. Simmer everything on low heat until the meat is tender and the beans are soft.

Feijoada


Pão de Queijo

Pão de Queijo Ingredients: • • • • • • •

100 ml milk 120 ml water 40ml oil A pinch of salt 200g tapioca or cassava flour 1 big egg 100g parmesan cheese

Steps:

1. Pour the milk, water, oil and salt in a pot. Do not

boil! Just warm the mixture up a bit. 2. Put the tapioca flour in a bowl then pour over the warm mixture and mix quickly and thoroughly until you obtain a dough. 3. Let it cool down for approximately 5 minutes. Add the beaten egg mixed with parmesan. Mix thoroughly until the two compositions have homogenized. Knead it for some 5 minutes. 4. You will obtain a very elastic and unsticky dough. Divide the dough in 16 pieces and shape them like small balls then place them in a tray with baking paper. 5. Bake the ball shaped doughs in the preheated oven at 180°C for 20 minutes. 6. Take them out of the oven and let them cool a bit. Serve either hot or cold. 99


Moqueca Capixaba

Moqueca Capixaba Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • •

700g white fish (cut into pieces) Juice from two limes 1 teaspoon salt 2 teaspoons of oil 2 onions (finely chopped) 2 peppers (finely chopped) 2 or 3 cloves of garlic (chopped) ½ bunch of coriander (chopped) 1 up to 3 chili peppers (minced) 700g peeled tomatoes (with no seeds and cut into pieces) • 500g coconut milk • 2 tablespoons palm oil (optional) 100

Steps:

1. Put the fish together with lime juice and salt in a large pot and leave for marinating for 30 minutes. 2. Meanwhile, heat some oil in a medium sized saucepan at medium heat. Add the chopped onions and peppers and soté until the onion becomes brown. 3. Add the garlic cloves and chili peppers and let them on fire for one minute. 4. Add the tomatoes and coriander and boil everything for another 5 minutes. 5. Put all the coconut milk and fish, along with the sauce in which it was left to marinade. 6. Boil everything then let it simmer on low heat. Mix for 5 minutes or until the fish is well made. 7. Add spices to taste, put the palm oil if you use it and serve in separate dishes or with Brazilian rice.


Acarajé Ingredients: • • • • •

500g dry black beans 2 red onions 1 fresh onion 9 cloves of garlic Peanut oil

Steps:

1. Soak the beans for 1 hour. Rinse the beans and mix with a little water, sliced onions and garlic. 2. Heat some peanut oil. Form balls with 3 teaspoons of dough. 3. Place the balls in the hot oil, then remove them after a few minutes and place them on paper towels. 4. Serve the Acarajé with Vatapá. You can put the latter in the inside of the balls.

Acaraje

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Vatapá Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

450g tomatoes 2 cloves of garlic 1 onion 50g peanuts 2 tablespoons grated coconut 2 tablespoons coconut cream 300g fish 500g shrimps (cooked and peeled) 20g grated ginger 1 small Jalapeño pepper 100 ml fish stock 2 tablespoons olive oil 2 tablespoons chopped coriander leaves 1 pinch of paprika Salt & Pepper

Steps:

1. Peel and slice the onion, garlic and ginger.

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2. Thinly slice the Jalapeño pepper. Cut the tomatoes into large pieces, but keep a quarter and make a juice out of them. 3. Crumble the peanuts. Keep a quarter of them for garnishing. 4. Sauté the onion with a spoonful of olive oil in a large saucepan until transparent. Add half of the tomatoes together with the tomato juice and the coconut cream. Cook for about 2 minutes. 5. Add ¾ of crushed peanuts, one tablespoon of grated coconut and one tablespoon of fresh coriander leaves. Cook everything for another 2 minutes. 6. Stir well. Add the remaining tomatoes and fish stock. 7. Bring to a boil and simmer until thickened. It should take about 15 minutes. Add some salt and pepper then cover the saucepan with a lid and place it somewhere warm. 8. Salt and pepper the fish then cook it for 5 minutes in a tablespoon of olive oil turning it once. 9. Add the shrimps and hot sauce. Simmer for 2 minutes. 10. Decorate with the remaining crushed peanuts, grated coconut and coriander leaves. Serve on a bed of rice.

Vatapá


Farofa Ingredients: • • • • • •

1 tablespoon butter 100g bacon (chopped) (optional) 2 eggs (whisked) 1 tablespoon water 225g cassava (manioc) flour 1 tablespoon parsley (chopped)

Steps:

Farofa

1. Melt the butter in a small saucepan on low heat. Add the bacon (optional) and sauté for 5 minutes until browned. 2. In a bowl, mix the eggs with a bit of water. 3. Pour the mixture into the saucepan and cook until it hardens. Eggs must have the consistency of pork greaves so do not cook too much. 4. Add the cassava flour and stir vigorously for 1 minute until the whole mixture is homogenized. 5. Take the saucepan off the fire and add the chopped parsley. Season to taste, transfer to a plate or bowl and serve. 103


Coxinhas Ingredients: • • • • • • • • • • •

1 chicken breast (without bones) 300 ml chicken soup 1 onion 1 garlic clove 1 tablespoon olive oil 125 ml milk 2 tablespoons butter 150g flour A few fresh parsley leaves 2 green onions Salt & Pepper

• • • •

Palm oil 1 egg 100g fine breadcrumbs 80 ml milk

For frying:

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Steps:

1. Cut the meat into pieces and boil it in chicken soup. In about 15 to 20 minutes it should be ready. Let it cool down so you can shape it in the form of a pear. 2. Put some palm oil in a pan, finely chop the onion and garlic clove a little and fry them for 5 minutes. 3. While the fire is still turned on, add the milk, butter, salt and pepper in the chicken soup and stir until the butter melts. The fire must be at low heat. 4. Add the flour little by little and stir until you obtain a dough. Transfer it as warm as it is on a surface covered with flour. 5. Meanwhile, chop the green onions. When the dough has cooled, start kneading it for 10 minutes until you get an elastic texture. 6. Now, the size of the coxinhas may vary, but try to form them so that, when fried, the oil can get to the top and fry them well. 7. Divide the dough into balls (a little smaller than tennis ones) and then flatten them, pulling the dough gently on the edges. Put a teaspoon (or

Coxinhas


two, depending on the size of the dough) of meat one the “pears”, pass them through the egg with milk and then form the pear sized dough by pulling it mixture then roll them into the fine breadcrumbs upwards. Seal well so that it won’t break. and carefully dip them in the hot oil. 8. Mix the milk with the egg in a bowl. Heat the oil in 9. Fry them for 5 to 6 minutes until they become which you will fry the coxinhas and then take one by golden. Enjoy the hot coxinhas.

Açaí

Açaí Ingredients: • • • • • •

400g strawberries 2 bananas (sliced) 4 tablespoons Açaí powder (or 200-300g Açaí fruits) 250-300g unsweetened almond milk 2 tablespoons peanut butter 1 tablespoon honey

For topping:

• • • • •

Raspberries, blackberries and blueberries Dried goji berries Chia seeds Grated chocolate Almonds

Steps:

1. Add the fruits, Açaí powder (if you use), almond milk, peanut butter and honey into a blender. 2. Blend until creamy and smooth. Add some extra almond milk if needed. Aim for a frozen-yogurt consistency.Spoon the Açaí mixture into bowls and top with sliced fruits and other suggested toppings. 105


Quindim 2.

Ingredients: • • • • • • •

8 yolks 230g sugar 100g coconut (freshly grated) 40 ml coconut milk Juice from a lime Yellow dye (but not necessarily) A few tablespoons of butter

Steps:

1. Brush some ramekins with butter. Fill them with

106

3. 4.

5.

sugar and pour it back into a bowl so that the sugarshaped walls would ease off easier once the cakes will be baked. Mix the yolks with sugar, grated coconut, coconut milk, yellow dye and lime juice and pour the mixture into the ramekins. The Quindim will be baked in an oven so put the ramekins in a tray and pour hot water over them. Bake at medium heat until browned above. By baking, the coconut will rise to the surface, leaving the cream on the bottom of the bowl. Once ready, allow them to cool and refrigerate them for 2 hours. To remove the Quindim from the ramekins, cut with a knife along the edges, turn the ramekin upside down and shake it a little. You can make a hole in the middle of it just like in the picture for a more aesthetic look.

Quindim


Brigadeiro

Brigadeiro Ingredients: • • • •

50g cocoa 2 tablespoons butter 1 can of condensed milk Chocolate ornaments

Steps:

1. Melt the butter in a saucepan then add the condensed milk. Stir well until the condensed milk gets warm. 2. Add the cocoa and mix thoroughly for about 15 to 20 minutes until it thickens. Stir continuously. 3. Once ready transfer the mixture into a clean bowl and let it in the refrigerator for 1 hour. 4. Form small balls and roll them through chocolate ornaments then put them on a plate. 107


Caipirinha

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Brazil Travel

109


Rio de Janeiro

Closer view of Christ the Redeemer statue

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Beautiful view of Pão de Açúcar from Corcovado Mountain

Christ The Redeemer Statue on Corcovado Mountain

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Rio de Janeiro, the city of lights

Pão de Açúcar (Sugarloaf Mountain)

Copacabana Fort

View of Rio de Janeiro from Pão de Açúcar

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Marquês de Sapucaí Sambodrom

Ipanema Beach

Guanabara Bay

Beautiful View of Rio de Janeiro

Carioca Aqueduct

Praia Copacabana at night

Copacabana Beach

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Santa Teresa neighbourhood of Rio de Janeiro (Santa Teresa on the top left and the aqueduct on the right)

114

Beautiful Escadaria Selarรณn

Escadaria Selarรณn

Rocinha Favela

Escadaria Selarรณn crowded with people


Enseada do Botafogo

Interior of Parque Lage

Parque Lage and Corcovado Mountain

Candelรกria Church

Rio de Janeiro Botanical Garden

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MaracanĂŁ Football Stadium

Fans attending a football match at the MaracanĂŁ

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Carnival of Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro Tram

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São Paulo

São Paulo Cathedral

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São Paulo Museum of Arts

Teatro Municipal de São Paulo

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Pinacoteca do Estado do São Paulo

São Paulo Skyline

Ibirapuera Park

120


Brasília

Praça dos Três Poderes

121


Palacio do Alvorada

Metropolitan Cathedral of Brasilia

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Santuario Dom Bosco

Downtown Brasilia

123


Recife

Boa Viagem Beach

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Recife Ground Zero

Ricardo Brennand Castle and Institute

125


Francisco Brennand’s Ceramic Workshops

Boa Vista neighbourhood of Recife

126


Salvador

SĂŁo Francisco Church and Convent in Salvador

127


Interior of São Francisco Igreja

Interior view of the São Francisco Church

128


Praia da Sereia o Praia Ondina

Mercado Modelo

Pelourinho

Parque Costa Azul

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Other Places

Canoa Quebrada

130


Kukenan Tepuy at sunset

Tijuca National Park

Tijuca Forest

Tingui Park in Curitiba

Teatro Amazonas in Manaus

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Rodrigo de Freitas Lagoon

Praia da Conceição in the Fernando de Noronha archipelago

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Ruinas do Lazareto on Ilha Grande

Rio da Prata

Serra do Rio do Rastro

São Miguel dos Milagres


Rio Negro at sunset

Pipa Beach

Praรงa Joao Pessoa in Paraiba

Parque das Aves (In the image - Ramphastos toco)

Porto de Galinhas

133


Vitória Régia Water Lily at Pantanal

Mato Grosso’s Pantanal

134


Ouro Preto Panorama

Parque Nacional do Itatiaia – Pedra do Altar

Mount Roraima

Lençóis Maranhenses National Park

Mole Beach

Igreja de São Francisco de Assisi in Ouro Preto

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Indigenous populations of the Amazonian forest

Parque Nacional do Itatiaia – Prateleiras

Inhotim Institute

Manaus City Center

136

Jericoacoara Beach


Ilha Grande

Iguaçu National Park

Iguaçu Falls

Ibiporã Church in Parana

Parque Farroupilha (Redenção) in Porto Alegre

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Foz do Iguaçu National Park

Chapada dos Guimarães

Fortaleza de Santa Cruz da Barra

Amazon Rainforest

Baia dos Porcos in the Fernando de Noronha archipelago

Chapada Diamantina National Park

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Igreja de São Francisco de Assisi in Belo Horizonte


Beto Carrero World

Aquรกrio Encantado

Beach Park in Fortaleza

Avenida Beira Mar in Florianopolis

Amazon River

139


Convento de SĂŁo Francisco (Olinda)

Learn Capoeira

140


Baia de Todos os Santos (Bay of All Saints) and Elevador Lacerda in Bahia

Chapada dos Veadeiros

141


Curitiba Botanical Garden

Dunas de Genipabu in Natal

Colourful Beto Carrero

142


Praia de Alter do Chão

Cachoeira Véu de Noiva

143

All About Countries - Brazil  

This is a Codex where you can find general information (history, nature, people, economy), top personalities, best recipes and at least 100...

All About Countries - Brazil  

This is a Codex where you can find general information (history, nature, people, economy), top personalities, best recipes and at least 100...

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