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‫^◊‪‚Ááèƒ◊^Á=≈f_ã◊^=ÇɃ‬‬

‫‪2016<KÍfi^n÷]<‡ËÜéi‬‬

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‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻌﺪد‬ ‫ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺎت ‪١١‬‬

‫وﻋﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻻﻳﻤﻠﻚ دور اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ‬ ‫أﻋﻄﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ‬

‫اﻟﻠﻌﺐ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫ا„ﻃﻔﺎل‬

‫ﺷﺨﺼﻴﺔ اﻟﻌﺪد‬

‫ﺑﺮوﻧﻲ وﻳﺮ‬


‫ﻓﺮﻳﻖ اﻟﺘﺤﺮﻳﺮ‬

‫د‪ .‬ﺟﻤﺎل ﻃﺤﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺘﺐ اﻟﻤﺮأة ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺔ‬ ‫م‪ .‬ﻳﺎﺳﻤﻴﻦ اﻟﺸﺎم‬ ‫@ اﻻﻓﺘﺘﺎﺣﻴﺔ وﻋﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر‬ ‫@ ﺟﺪﻟﻴﺎت ‪ : ١١‬دور اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫@ اﻻﺳﺘﺒﺪاد ﻓﻲ اﻟﻔﻜﺮ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻲ‬ ‫@ اﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ ا„ﻃﻔﺎل‬ ‫@ داﻓﻌﻮا ﻋﻦ وﻃﻦ ﻫﻴﻔﺎء وﻫﺒﻲ‬ ‫@ أﻗﻮى زﻟﺰال ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬ ‫@ ﺑﺮوﻧﻲ وﻳﺮ‬


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‫ﺻﺎدف ﻳﻮم اﻟﺜﻼﺛﺎء ‪ ٢‬أﻛﺘﻮﺑﺮ‪/‬ﺗﺸﺮﻳﻦ اﻟﺜﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﺬﻛﺮى ‪٩٩‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮﻋﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر اﻟﺬي أﺷﻌﻞ ﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺸﺮق اوﺳﻂ ﻟﻘﺮن‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺰﻣﺎن ﺑﺴﻠﺴﻠﺔ ﻣﻦ اﻟﺤﺮوب واﻟﺘﻘﻠﺒﺎت اﻟﻌﻨﻴﻔﺔ‬ ‫ورﺳﻢ ﺧﺮاﺋﻄﻬﺎ ﻣﻦ ﺟﺪﻳﺪ ﺣﻴﺚ وﺿﻌﺖ ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ ﺣﺠﺮ‬ ‫اﺳﺎس رﺳﻤﻴ‪ ¢‬ﻟﺒﻨﺎء دوﻟﺔ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮد اﻟﺼﻬﺎﻳﻨﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أرض‬ ‫ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻛﺎن اﻣﺮ ﻣﺠﺮد ﻗﺼﺎﺻﺔ ورﻗﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫وﺗﺤﻮل إﻟﻰ دوﻟﺔ ﻟﻐﺮﺑﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻘﺎض‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ﺷﺨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻜﺎن اﺻﻠﻴﻴﻦ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺪر ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﺬي ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺸﺆوم‪ ،‬واﺧﺘﺰل ﻫﺬا‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻮﻗﻒ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ اﻟﺸﻬﻴﺮة‪" :‬أﻋﻄﻰ ﻣﻦ ﻻ ﻳﻤﻠﻚ ﻣﻦ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻳﺴﺘﺤﻖ‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ آرﺛﺮ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر وزﻳﺮ اﻟﺨﺎرﺟﻴﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﺎم ‪."١٩١٧‬‬ ‫اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻤﻮﺟﻬﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻠﻮرد روﺗﺸﻴﻠﺪ ﻣﻬﺪت‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻮة ﻟﺘﺄﺳﻴﺲ وﻃﻦ ﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮد ﻓﻲ اﻟﺸﺮق اوﺳﻂ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﺘﺤﻞ أوروﺑﺎ ﺑﻤﺠﺮد ﻗﺼﺎﺻﺔ ورﻗﺔ ﻟﻨﺺ ﻻ ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻋﻦ ‪١١٧‬‬ ‫ﻛﻠﻤﺔ ﻣﺎ ﻛﺎن ﻳﻮﺻﻒ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﺴﺄﻟﺔ اﻟﻴﻬﻮدﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎب‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻌﺐ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻲ وﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺸﺮق اوﺳﻂ‪" ،‬إن‬ ‫ﺣﻜﻮﻣﺔ ﺻﺎﺣﺐ اﻟﺠﻼﻟﺔ ﺗﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ اﻟﻌﻄﻒ إﻟﻰ إﻗﺎﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎم ﻗﻮﻣﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻟﻠﺸﻌﺐ اﻟﻴﻬﻮدي‪ ،‬وﺳﺘﺒﺬل‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻳﺔ ﺟﻬﺪﻫﺎ ﻟﺘﺴﻬﻴﻞ ﺗﺤﻘﻴﻖ ﻫﺬه اﻟﻐﺎﻳﺔ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ أن‬ ‫ﻳﻔﻬﻢ ﺟﻠﻴﺎ أﻧﻪ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺆﺗﻰ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ ﻣﻦ ﺷﺄﻧﻪ أن ﻳﻨﺘﻘﺺ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﻘﻮق اﻟﻤﺪﻧﻴﺔ واﻟﺪﻳﻨﻴﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺗﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻬﺎ اﻟﻄﻮاﺋﻒ ﻏﻴﺮ‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻬﻮدﻳﺔ اﻟﻤﻘﻴﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ‪ ،‬وﻻ اﻟﺤﻘﻮق أو اﻟﻮﺿﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺎﺳﻲ اﻟﺬي ﻳﺘﻤﺘﻊ ﺑﻪ اﻟﻴﻬﻮد ﻓﻲ أي ﺑﻠﺪ آﺧﺮ"‪.‬‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ ﻫﻮ ﻣﻀﻤﻮن اﻟﺮﺳﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﺬي أﺻﺒﺢ ﺑﻤﺜﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺄﺳﺎة رﻫﻴﺒﺔ وﺿﻊ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻮق ﺑﺮﻛﺎن ﺛﺎﺋﺮ‪ ،‬ﻟﺘﺘﺼﺎدم‬ ‫اﺿﺪاد وﺗﻨﺪﻓﻊ اﻟﺤﻤﻢ‪ ،‬وﺗﻜﺒﺮ اﻟﻤﺄﺳﺎة ﻳﻮﻣﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ آﺧﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺤﻮﻟﺔ ﻣﻦ ﺣﻘﺒﺔ إﻟﻰ أﺧﺮى‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ دون أﻓﻖ ﻟﻠﺴﻼم‪.‬‬ ‫وﺑﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﺘﻮﻗﻴﺖ ‪ ،‬ﻳﺤﺘﻔﻞ اﻟﻄﺮف ا‪Ç‬ﺧﺮ ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﻮﻋﺪ‬ ‫وﻳﺤﺘﻔﻲ ﺑﻪ‪ ،‬وﻳﻌﺘﺒﺮه ﺣﻘﺎ ﺗﺎرﻳﺨﻴﺎ ﺑﻤﻮروث دﻳﻨﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺸﻔﻮع‬ ‫ﺑﻮﻋﺪ ﺗﻮراﺗﻲ‪ .‬ﻫﺆﻻء ﺟﻤﻴﻌﺎ ﻟﻦ ﻳﺘﺬﻛﺮوا أﺑﺪا أن ﺑﻠﻔﻮر ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ﺣﺮم ﻗﺴﻤﺎ ﻛﺒﻴﺮا ﻣﻦ اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ ﻣﻦ وﻃﻨﻬﻢ ودﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻢ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺸﺘﺎت‪ ،‬وﺟﻌﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ ﻣﻦ أﻣﻼﻛﻬﻢ‬ ‫وذﻛﺮﻳﺎﺗﻬﻢ وﺑﻴﻮﺗﻬﻢ واراﺿﻴﻬﻢ وﻃﻨﺎ ﻟﻐﺮﺑﺎء ﻗﺪﻣﻮا‬ ‫ﻣﻦ أﺻﻘﺎع ارض ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ ﻣﻦ ﺗﺸﻴﻠﻲ وإﺛﻴﻮﺑﻴﺎ‪.‬‬

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‫وﻳﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ اﻟﻘﻮل ﻫﻨﺎ إن أوروﺑﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻌﻞ ﺣﻠﺖ اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻴﻬﻮدﻳﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺴﺎب اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ‪ ،‬وﻛﻔﺮت ﻋﻤﺎ ﻟﺤﻖ‬ ‫ﺑﻬﻢ ﻣﻦ ﻣﻈﺎﻟﻢ ﻓﻲ أوروﺑﺎ ﺑﺈرﺳﺎﻟﻬﻢ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻔﻦ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫"أرض اﻟﻤﻴﻌﺎد"‪.‬‬ ‫وﻛﺎدت أن ﺗﻜﻮن أوﻏﻨﺪا وﻣﻨﻄﻘﺔ اﻟﺠﺒﻞ اﺧﻀﺮ ﺑﻠﻴﺒﻴﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻓﺘﺮة ﻣﺎ أرض ﻣﻴﻌﺎد ﻟﻠﻴﻬﻮد‪ ،‬إﻻ أن اﻟﺮاي أﺧﻴﺮا رﺳﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻠﺴﻄﻴﻦ ﻓﻜﺎﻧﺖ اﻟﻨﻜﺒﺔ اﻟﺘﻲ ﺟﺮت وﻻ ﺗﺰال اﻟﻮﻳﻼت‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺠﻤﻴﻊ‪.‬‬ ‫وادﻫﻰ أن ﻋﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر ﺗﺴﺒﺐ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺴﻤﻴﻢ اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺟﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻤﺠﺎﻻت ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺜﻘﺎﻓﻴﺔ واﻻﺟﺘﻤﺎﻋﻴﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻨﻔﺴﻴﺔ‪ ،‬ورﺳﺦ ﻗﻴﻢ اﻟﻌﺪاوة واﻟﺒﻐﻀﺎء واﻟﻌﻨﻒ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻧﻬﺎرت اﻟﻤﻮازﻳﻦ وﺗﻌﻄﻠﺖ اﻟﺮؤﻳﺔ‪ ،‬وﻣﻦ ﺛﻤﺔ ﺗﻔﺘﺖ‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﺗﺪرﻳﺠﻴﺎ ﺣﻮل ا‪Í‬ﺳﻔﻴﻦ‪ ،‬وذﻫﺐ اﺳﺘﻘﺮارﻫﺎ ﻫﺒﺎء‬ ‫اﻟﺮﻳﺢ‪ ،‬وﺧﺮﺟﺖ أو ﺗﻜﺎد ﻣﻦ اﻟﺘﺎرﻳﺦ‪.‬‬ ‫واﻟﺴﺆال ﻫﻨﺎ ‪ :‬ﻣﺎذا ﺳﻴﻘﻮل اﻟﺴﻴﺪ آرﺛﺮ ﺟﻴﻤﺲ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر إذا‬ ‫ﻗﺪر ﻟﻪ أن ﻳﺴﻤﻊ وﻳﺮى ﺳﻌﻴﺮ اﻟﻨﺎر وﻟﻬﻴﺒﻬﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ ‪٩٩‬ﺳﻨﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﻋﺪ اﻟﻤﺸﺆوم و اﻟﺬي ﻗﺪﻣﻪ ﺑﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫ا‪Í‬ﻣﺒﺮاﻃﻮرﻳﺔ اﻟﺒﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺔ وﻏﻴﺮ ﺑﻤﻮﺟﺒﻪ دﻳﻤﻮﻏﺮاﻓﻴﺔ رض‬ ‫ﻛﺎن ﻳﻌﻴﺶ ﺑﻬﺎ ‪ % ٥‬ﻣﻦ ﻫﺆﻻء ﻓﻲ ﺳﻼم وﺳﻂ ‪ %٩٥‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﻠﺴﻄﻴﻨﻴﻴﻦ؟‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛﻞ ﺣﺎل‪ ،‬إذا ﺗﺠﺎوزﻧﺎ اﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر‪ ،‬ﻓﺴﻨﺠﺪ أن ﻣﺌﺎت‬ ‫أو ﻳﺰﻳﺪ ﻣﻦ ﺳﺎﺳﺔ اﻟﻐﺮب ﻗﺪ ﻣﺮوا ﻓﻲ ﻧﻔﺲ اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻖ‬ ‫وﻓﻌﻠﻮا اﻟﻜﺜﻴﺮ ﻟﺘﺤﻘﻴﻖ وﺗﺮﺳﻴﺦ ﻣﺎ ﺑﺪأه‪ ،‬وﻟﺬﻟﻚ ﺳﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬ ‫ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﻋﺪ‪ ،‬اﻟﺠﺐ اﻟﻌﻤﻴﻖ اﻟﺬي وﺟﺪت ﺷﻌﻮب اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﻔﺴﻬﺎ دون أن ﺗﺪري ﺣﺒﻴﺴﺔ ﺑﻴﻦ ﺟﻨﺒﺎﺗﻪ‪ ،‬وﻗﺪ ﺗﻮﻗﻔﺖ‬ ‫ﻋﻘﺎرب اﻟﺴﺎﻋﺔ ﻋﻦ اﻟﺪوران‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﻜﻦ ﻫﺬا اﻟﻮﻋﺪ‪ ،‬إذ‪ ،Ó‬ﻣﻘﺘﺼﺮا ﻋﻠﻰ وﻋﺪ ﻣﻔﺎﺟﺊ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﺴﻴﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر‪ ،‬إﻧﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺳﻴﺎق ﻣﺨﻄﻂ دوﻟﻲ ﻳﺘﺠﺎوز‬ ‫ﺑﺮﻳﻄﺎﻧﻴﺎ اﻟﺘﻲ ﻛﺎﻧﺖ وﻓﺮﻧﺴﺎ ﺗﺠﺮﻳﺎن ﻣﻔﺎوﺿﺎت ﺑﺪون‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻢ ا‪Ç‬ﺧﺮﻳﻦ‪ ،‬ﻻﻗﺘﺴﺎم اﻟﻤﻨﻄﻘﺔ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺳﻤﻲ ﻻﺣﻘ‪¢‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﺗﻔﺎﻗﻴﺔ ﺳﺎﻳﻜﺲ ـ ﺑﻴﻜﻮ اﻟﺘﻲ وﻗﻌﺖ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺎم ‪ ،١٩١٦‬أي‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ وﻋﺪ ﺑﻠﻔﻮر ﺑﺄﺷﻬﺮ‪.‬‬


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‫‪11‬‬ ‫ﺑﻘﻠﻢ ﻋﻼء اﻟﺪﻳﻦ اﻟﺰﻳﺎت‬

‫دور اﻟﻤﻨﻈﻤﺎت‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺗﺠﻤﻴﻊ اﻟﻠﻮﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻊ اﺳﺗﻣرار اﻟﺻراع وﺗﻣدده اﻟﻰ اﻟﺟوار واﻛﺗﺳﺎح اﻟﺣدود اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺗﺗﺳﻊ‬ ‫رﻗﻌﺔ اﻟﻛﺎرﺛﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﺎﺣﺔ واﻹﯾذاء ‪ ،‬ﻟﻛن ﻧﻣط اﻟﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ وﺟود‬ ‫ﺟزر ﻣﺷﺎﻛل ﻣﺎﯾزال ﺑﺎرزا ً ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﻧﻌت اﻟﺟﻐراﻓﯾﺎ وطﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﻟﺗوزع اﻻﺛﻧﻲ واﻟطﺎﺋﻔﻲ ﻣواﻗف ﻣﺗﺑﺎﯾﻧﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫أﺣداث اﻟﺑﻼد اﻟﺗﻲ اﻧطﻠﻘت ﺑﺑراءة وﻋﻔوﯾﺔ ‪ ۲۰۱۱‬ﻣﺣددة اﻧﻘﺳﺎﻣﺎ ﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻔﺗﯾن رﺋﯾﺳﯾﯾن ھﻣﺎ اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر او اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻧﻘﻊ ‪ ،‬ﺛم ﻛﺎن اﻻﻧزﻻق ﻛﺑﯾرا‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺣﺗل اﻟواﺟﮭﺔ ﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺎت ظﻠت ﻣؤﺟﻠﺔ ﻟﺳﻧﯾن دون اﻟﮭوﯾﺔ اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫وﻟﺗﺻﺑﺢ ﻟﻠﻣﺣﻠﯾﺎت ﻣﺷﺎﻛﻠﮭﺎ اﻟﺧﺎﺻﺔ وﻗواھﺎ ورؤاھﺎ وﻓﻛرﺗﮭﺎ ﻋن اﻟﺣل‬ ‫ﺑﺣدوده اﻟﺻﻐرى ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟم ﺗﻛن ﻓﻛرة اﻟﻧظﺎم ﻋن ﺳورﯾﺎ اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ ﺗﻘﺎﺑﻠﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺿد ﻓﻛرة اﻟﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺔ ﻋن‬ ‫ﺳورﯾﺎ اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ ﺑل رﺑﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﺑﯾﮫ اﻟﻧﺳﺧﺔ اﻟﺑﺎﺋﺳﺔ ﻋن ﻣظﻠوﻣﯾﺔ ﺳﻧﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻻ ﺗﺧﺗﻠف ﻛﺛﯾرا ﻋن ﺳورﯾﺎ اﻟﻔﻌﺎﻟﺔ اﻻ ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻛل ‪.‬‬ ‫وﺣﯾن ﺗﻐﯾب ﻓﻛرة اﻟﻣواطﻧﺔ ﺗﺣﺗل اﻟﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺎت ﻛﺎﻣل اﻟﻣﺷﮭد وﻛﺎﻷوﻻد‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻘﯾﺎء ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﺋدة ھزﯾﻠﺔ ﺗﺑدأ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﺗﺧﺎطف اﻟﻣﻛﺎﺳب واﻟﮭروب ﻣن‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻣل اﻟﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺎت وﺗﺻﯾر ﺻورة اﻟﻌدو واﻟﺷرﯾك ﻣن اﻻﻟﺗﺑﺎس ﺑﺣﯾث‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾك اطﻼق ﺟدول ﺗﺳﻣﯾﺎت ﻛل اﺳﺑوع ﻣﺣددا ً ﻣوﻗﻔك ﻣﻊ ﻣن وﺿد ﻣن‬ ‫؟؟‬ ‫وﺳواء ﺗﺣدﺛﻧﺎ ﻋن ﺗﺷﻛﯾﻼت اﻟﻌﺳﻛرﯾﯾن أو ﺗﺷﻛﯾﻼت اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﯾن ﻓﻘد‬ ‫دﻓﻌﺗﮭم اﻟﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺔ ﻟﺗﺿﯾﯾﻖ اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﻌﺎم واﻟﻔﻛرة واﻟﻣﺧرج ‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻘﺎﺑل ﻟم‬ ‫ﺗﻧﺞ اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾرات اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ﻣن ھذا اﻟﻣطب وﻏرﻗت ﻏﺎﻟﺑﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻔﮭوم اﻟﺿﯾﻖ‬ ‫ﻟﻠﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬إن ﺷﻌﺎرات اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر واﻟﺗﺿﺎﻣن ﺑﯾن‬ ‫اﻟﻣدن ﺧﻔت ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﻣدﯾﻧﺔ ﻣﺎ ﺛم ﺧﻔت ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ أﺛﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﺎ وأﺧﯾرا ﺧﻔت ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫اﺳﺗﻛﻣﺎل ﻣﺳﺗﻠزﻣﺎت ﻣﺷروع ﻣﺎ ﯾﮭم ھذه اﻟﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أو ﺗﻠك ‪ ،‬وﯾﻠزم‬ ‫ﻻﻧﺟﺎﺣﮫ ﺗذﻟﯾل ﻋدد ﻛﺑﯾر ﻣن اﻟﺻﻌوﺑﺎت ﻟﯾﺳت ﻏﺎﻟﺑﯾﺗﮭﺎ أوﺳﻊ ﻣن ﺣﺟم‬ ‫اﻟﻣؤﺳﺳﺔ ذاﺗﮭﺎ ورواﺗب ﻛﺎدرھﺎ اﻟﺻﻐﯾر ‪ ،‬وﺿﻣﺎﻧﺎت ﻋدم اﻏﻼق ﻋﻣﻠﮭﺎ‬ ‫‪.‬‬ ‫أن ﯾﻛون اﻟﺣﺳﺎب اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي أوﻻ ﯾﻌﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺿرورة ﺳﯾﺎدة اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﺿﯾﻘﺔ ‪ ،‬واﻟﺧﺿوع ﻟﻠﺧﺻوﺻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺣﻠﯾﺔ اﻣﻧﯾﺎ ً وﻟوﺟﺳﺗﯾﺎ ً ﯾﻌﻧﻲ اﻟﻌودة‬ ‫ﻟﻧﻘطﺔ اﻟﺻﻔر وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ اﻧﮭﯾﺎر ﻣﺷروع ﺗﻐﯾﯾر اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺟﺗﻣﻌﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻧت‬ ‫طﻣوﺣﺎت ‪ ۲۰۱۱‬ﺗطرح أﻧﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳس طﺎزﺟﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺣرﯾﺔ واﻟﻌداﻟﺔ‬ ‫واﻟﻣﺳﺎواة ‪.‬‬

‫ﺣﯾن ﻧﺷﺎھد ﻣدى اﻻﺳﺗﻘطﺎﺑﯾن اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ واﻟﻌﺳﻛري وﺗﻌدد ﺟﺑﮭﺎت اﻟﻔﻌل‬ ‫اﻹﻣﻧﻲ واﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎﺗﻲ ﻧﻣﯾل ﻟﻼﻋﺗﻘﺎد أن أﻣﻼً ﻣﻣﻛﻧﺎ ً ﯾﻧزاح اﻟﯾوم ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺎت اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ إﻋﺎدة اﻹﻋﺗﺑﺎر ﻟﻣﻔﮭوم اﻟﺷﺄن اﻟﺳوري ﻛﻣﻧظوﻣﺔ‬ ‫وطﻧﯾﺔ ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ ﻣﺣﻘﻘﺔ ﻟﺷرطﮭﺎ اﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻣﯾﺎدﯾن اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر واﻻﻧﻌﺗﺎق‬ ‫وﻛﺳر ﺧطوط اﻟﺻراع اﻟﻣﺗوھﻣﺔ واﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﻧﯾت ﺑﺎﻷﺳﺎس ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓرﺿﯾﺔ ﻣن‬ ‫ﻟﯾس ﻣﻌﻲ ﻓﮭو ﺿدي ‪.‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺷروط اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑدور طﻠﯾﻌﻲ ﺟﺎﻣﻊ ﺗﺗﺻدى ﻟﺗﻧﻔﯾذه ﻣﻧظوﻣﺎت اﻟﻌﻣل‬ ‫اﻟﻣدﻧﻲ ﻓﮭو رھن ﺑﻧﻘﺎط ﺛﻼﺛﺔ ﻣﺑدأﯾﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻷوﻟﻰ ﺗﻘدﯾم اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدي ﻓﻲ رﺳم ﺧطط اﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺔ‬ ‫وﺗﺧطﯾطﮭﺎ وﺗﻧﻔﯾذھﺎ وﺗﻘﯾﯾﻣﮭﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﯾﻛﻔﻲ ﺗﺄﻣﯾن ﻣوازﻧﺔ دﻗﯾﻘﺔ ﺗﺣﻘﻖ ﻣﯾزان‬ ‫ﻣراﺟﻌﺔ ﺻﺣﯾﺢ ﺑل ﯾﺟب اﻻﻧطﻼق ﻓﻲ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﯾﯾم ﻣن دراﺳﺔ اﻻﺛر‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻘﺎرﻧﺔ ﺑﯾن ﻣﺎﻗﺑل وأﺛﻧﺎء وﻣﺎ ﺑﻌد‬ ‫اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﺧﻔض ﺧطﺎب اﻟﻛراھﯾﺔ وﺗﺣدﯾد ﺗوﺻﯾف دﻗﯾﻖ ﻟﻣﺎھﯾﺔ وﻣﻌﻧﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌدو ‪ ،‬ان ﺗوﺳﻊ ﺣﺎﻟﺔ اﻟﻧﻔﻲ اﻟﻣﺗﺑﺎدل ﺑﯾن ﻣﺟﺎﻣﯾﻊ اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ ﻋرﯾﺿﺔ ﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﺷﻲ اﻻ ﺑدﯾﻣوﻣﺔ ﺻراع طوﯾﻠﺔ وﻣﻔﻧﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن ﯾﻣﻛن ﻟﻠﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ أن ﺗﺑدأ ﺑﺑﻧﺎء ﺟﺳورھﺎ اﻟﺻﻐﯾرة اﻟﺿﯾﻘﺔ وﺗﻘوم ﺑﺗوﺳﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﺗدرﯾﺟﯾﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﺗﺷﻣل ﻣﺟﺎﻣﯾﻊ ﺳﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻣﺗﻧﺎﻣﯾﺔ ‪.‬‬ ‫وآﺧرا ً ﯾﺟب ﺗﻧﺷﯾط اﻟﺣرﻛﺔ اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﻧﺎطﻖ ورﻋﺎﯾﺗﮭﺎ ﺑﺈﺗﻘﺎن‬ ‫ﻷن ﺗﺣﻠﯾﻠﻧﺎ ﯾﺛﺑت أﻧﮭﺎ ﻛﺎﻧت وﻻزاﻟت ﻋﻘدة اﻟﺻراع اﻟﻛﺑرى ‪ ،‬وھﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗﮭدﻓﺔ ﻣن ﺟﻣﯾﻊ اﻟﻣﺗﺻﺎرﻋﯾن ﻟﻣﺎ ﺗﺷﻛﻠﮫ ﻣن ﺟﻧﯾن ﻛﺎن ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﻐﯾر‬ ‫ﺗﻔﺎﺻﯾل ﻛﺛﯾرة ﻟوﻻ ﺣداﺛﺔ اﻟﺗﺟرﺑﺔ وﻋﻧف اﻟﺻراع واﻟﻌﺑﺛﯾن اﻻﻗﻠﯾﻣﻲ‬ ‫واﻟدوﻟﻲ ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﯾس ﻣن ﻏرور ﻓﻲ وﺿﻊ ھذه اﻟﻣﮭﻣﺔ اﻟﺷﺎﻗﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﺎﺗﻖ اﻟﻣﻧظوﻣﺎت‬ ‫اﻟﻣدﻧﯾﺔ وﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ ﻓﻌﻼ ﯾﻘوم ﺑﮭذا اﻟدور ﺑﺈﺗﻘﺎن ‪ ،‬وﻟﻛن اﺗﺳﺎع وﻋﻣﻖ‬ ‫اﻟﻘﺿﯾﺔ واﻟﺳﻧوات اﻟطوﯾﻠﺔ اﻟﻘﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻣن اﻟﺻراع ﺗﺟﻌل ﺗﺣﻘﯾﻖ ذﻟك ﻛﺣﻠم‬ ‫ﯾطﺎل اﻟﻐﯾم ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟم ﻻ ﻟﻘد ﻋﺷﻧﺎ طوﯾﻼ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﻔر وآن ﻟﻧﺎ أن ﻧﻔﻌل ﻣﺎﯾﺟب ﻟﺻﻧﺎﻋﺔ ﺧﯾﺎرات‬ ‫أﺧرى‬


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‫‪  .‬א א‬ ‫أدرك ﺑﻌض اﻟﻣﻔﻛرﯾن طﺑﯾﻌﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد‪ ،‬ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ ﺗﻠﻘف آﺧرون طﻌم اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻐرﻗوا ﻓﻲ دواﻣﺗﮭﺎ‪ .‬وﻟم ﯾﺧ ُل اﻷﻣر ﻣن ﻣؤﻟﮭﻲ اﻟﻣﻣﺎﻟك وﻣﻧ ّ‬ ‫ظري‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻠوك‪ ،‬إﻻ أﻧﮫ ﻻﯾﻌﻧﯾﻧﺎ ‪-‬ھﻧﺎ‪ -‬أن ﻧﺑﺣث ﻣواﻗﻔﮭم‪ ،‬ﺑﻘدر ﻣﺎﯾﮭﻣﻧﺎ أن‬ ‫ﻧﻌرف ﻛﯾف ﻓﮭﻣوا اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد‪ .‬ﺑﺎﻟطﺑﻊ ﻟن ﯾﻣﻛﻧﻧﺎ أن ﻧﺳﺑر ﻏور ﻓﮭم‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ‪ ،‬وﺣﺳﺑﻧﺎ أن ﻧﻘف ﻋﻧد أھم اﻟﻣﺣطﺎت ﻣﺗﺄﻣﻠﯾن ﻓﺣوى اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻧذ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ اﻷول ﺣﺗﻰ ﻣطﻠﻊ اﻟﻌﺻر اﻟﺣدﯾث‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت ﻣﺳﺎھﻣﺔ اﻟﻌرب ﻓﻲ ﻓﮭم اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﻣﻧﺎھﺿﺗﮫ‪ ،‬ﻣﺳﺎھﻣﺔ‬ ‫ﺿﺋﯾﻠﺔ وﻣﺗﺄ ّﺧرة ﻧﺳﺑﯾﺎً‪ ،‬ﺑﺎﻟرﻏم ﻣن إرھﺎﺻﺎﺗﮭم اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟﻣﺟﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛﺎﻧت اﻟﻣﺳﺄﻟﺔ ﺗُﻌﺎﻟﺞ ﻣن وﺟﮭﺔ ﻧظر ﺗﺣﺎول دﻓﻊ اﻟظﻠم ﺑﺎﻟﻣﻧﺎداة ﻟﻠﻌودة‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ﺣظﯾرة اﻟﺷرع‪-‬اﻟﻘﺎﻧون‪ ،‬وﻟم ﯾﻛن اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد ﻟﯾُدَرك إﻻ ﺑﺗﻠ ّﻣس‬ ‫ﻏﺎﻣض ﻓﻲ ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن واﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﯾﯾن‪ ،‬إﻟﻰ أن اﺳﺗﺑ ّد اﻷﺗراك‬ ‫وﺗطور اﻟوﻋﻲ ﺑﺣﯾث أﺻﺑﺢ ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺛﻣﺎﻧﯾون ﺑﺎﻟﺳﻠطﺔ‪ ،‬اﺳﺗﺑدادا ً ﺳﺎﻓراً‪،‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻣﻛن اﻟﺗﻔرﯾﻖ ﺑﯾن ﻣﺎھو دﯾﻧﻲ وﺑﯾن ﻣﺎھو ﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‪ .‬وﻗد ﺗزاﻣن ذﻟك ﻣﻊ‬ ‫دﺧول ﻣﻔﺎھﯾم اﻟﺣرﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ وأﻓﻛﺎر ﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ اﻻﺳﺗﺑداد ﻣﻊ اﻻﺟﺗﯾﺎح‬ ‫اﻷورﺑﻲ واﻟﺑﻌﺛﺎت اﻟﻌرﺑﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وإن ﺟرى ذﻟك ‪-‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑداﯾﺔ‪-‬ﺑﺎﺳﺗﺣﯾﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘد ﻛﺎن اﻟﺧﻠﻔﺎء اﻟراﺷدون ﯾﻌدّون أﻧﻔﺳﮭم ﺧﻠﻔﺎء اﻟﻧﺑﻲ ﺻﻠﻰ ﷲ ﻋﻠﯾﮫ‬ ‫وﺳﻠم ﻓﻲ ﺗﺳﯾﯾر أﻣور اﻟرﻋﯾﺔ‪ ،‬و ُﺧ َطﺑﮭم ﻋﻼوة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎﺗﮭم‪ ،‬ﺗدل‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟك‪ .‬ﻓﮭذا )أﺑو ﺑﻛر( رﺿﻲ ﷲ ﻋﻧﮫ ﻓﻲ ﺧطﺑﺔ ﻟﮫ ﯾﻘول‪)) :‬أﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺎس‪ ،‬إﻧﻲ ﻗد وﻟّﯾت ﻋﻠﯾﻛم‪ ،‬وﻟﺳت ﺑﺧﯾرﻛم‪ ،‬ﻓﺈن رأﯾﺗﻣوﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﻖ‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻋﯾﻧوﻧﻲ وإن رأﯾﺗﻣوﻧﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﺎطل ﻓﺳدّدوﻧﻲ‪ .((..‬وﻟﻣﺎ اﻧﺗزع‬ ‫)ﻣﻌﺎوﯾﺔ( اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﻣن ﻋﻠﻲ رﺿﻲ ﷲ ﻋﻧﮫ ﺑدأ أﻧﺻﺎره ﯾطﺎﻟﺑون ﺑﺈﻋﺎدﺗﮭﺎ‬ ‫إﻟﯾﮫ زاﻋﻣﯾن أﻧﮭﺎ ﺣﻖ إﻟﮭﻲ وﺻﺎر ھذا اﻟﻘول‪ ،‬ﺑﻌد ذﻟك‪ ،‬أﺻﻼً ﻣن أﺻول‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﯾدة ﻋﻧد اﻟﺷﯾﻌﺔ‪ .‬ﻟﻛنّ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺳﻠﻣﯾن ﻣن ﻻﯾواﻓﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛون اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺻﺑﺎ ً ﯾُﻧﯾب ﻓﯾﮫ ﷲ أﺣدا ً ﻣن ﻋﺑﺎده ﻋﻧﮫ‪ ،‬ﺑل ﯾرون أن أﻣرھﺎ ﻣﻧوط‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺳﻠﻣﯾن ﻛﺎﻓﺔ‪ ،‬ﯾﺧﺗﺎرون ﻟﮭﺎ ﻣن ﯾﺟدوﻧﮫ أھﻼً ﻟﻠﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﺷؤوﻧﮭم اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻛن اﻟذي ﺣدث ﻣﻊ ﺗوﺳﻊ اﻟﻔﺗوﺣﺎت اﻹﺳﻼﻣﯾﺔ ھو دﺧول ﺟﻣﺎﻋﺎت‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ اﻷﺟﻧﺎس واﻟﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت‪ ،‬وﺑدأت ﺗﺗﺑﻠور ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ أﻓﻛﺎر ﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻛوﻧﺔ ﻣن‪:‬‬ ‫‪ -۱‬اﻟﺗﻘﺎﻟﯾد اﻟﻘَﺑَﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻘﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﺳﻼم‪.‬‬ ‫‪ -۲‬اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ اﻟﮭﯾﻠﻧﺳﺗﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺎرﺳﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺿﻼً ﻋن اﻷﻓﻛﺎر اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ اﻹﺳﻼﻣﯾﺔ اﻷوﻟﻰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺗﻧص ﺟﻣﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺗطﺑﯾﻖ اﻟﺷرﯾﻌﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺗﺷﻛّﻠت ﺛﻼث ﺻﯾﻎ أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫واﻟﻣﺣﺎﻓظﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹﺳﻼم واﻟدﻓﺎع ﻋن ﻣذھب اﻟﺳﻧّﺔ واﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﺔ ﺿد‬ ‫اﻟﻛﻔر‪:‬‬

‫ﺗﺗﻛون ﻣن آﯾﺎت اﻟﻘرآن اﻟﻛرﯾم اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ اﻷوﻟﻰ ھﻲ ﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﻔﻘﮭﺎء اﻟﺗﻲ‬‫ّ‬ ‫ﺗﺗﻌﻠّﻖ ﺑﺎﻟﻔﻛر اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﺛم ﺳﻧّﺔ اﻟرﺳول ﺻﻠﻰ ﷲ ﻋﻠﯾﮫ وﺳﻠم‪ ،‬ﺛم‬ ‫ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻟﺧﻠﻔﺎء اﻟراﺷدﯾن‪ ،‬وﻣن ﺗﻔﺳﯾر ﺗﻠك اﻷﺻول ﻓﻲ ﺿوء‬ ‫اﻟﺗطورات اﻟﻼﺣﻘﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻊ اﻹﯾﻣﺎن ﺑﺄن ﷲ ﺗﻌﺎﻟﻰ ھو اﻟذي ﯾوﺟد اﻷﻣﺔ وﺑﺄن‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺔ ﻻﺗﺟﺗﻣﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺿﻼل‪.‬‬ ‫ واﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ وﺿﻌﮭﺎ رﺟﺎل اﻹدارة وﻣوﺟﮭو اﻟﺣﻛّﺎم واﻟوﻻة‪ ،‬وھﻲ ﺗؤﻛد‬‫اﻟﺣﻖ اﻹﻟﮭﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﻛم‪ ،‬وﺗﮭﺗم ﺑﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎت اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻧظرﯾﺎﺗﮭﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫وﺗﻣزج ﻗواﻋد اﻟﺣﻛم اﻹﺳﻼﻣﻲ ﺑﺗﻘﺎﻟﯾد اﻟﻔرس ﻓﻲ اﻟ ُﻣﻠك‪.‬‬ ‫ أﻣﺎ اﻟﺛﺎﻟﺛﺔ ﻓﮭﻲ اﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ وﺿﻌﮭﺎ اﻟﻔﻼﺳﻔﺔ‪ ،‬وﺗدﯾن ﺑﺎﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻟﻠﻔﻠﺳﻔﺔ‬‫وﺗوﺣد ﺑﯾن اﻹﻣﺎم واﻟﻣﻠك واﻟﻔﯾﻠﺳوف‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﯾوﻧﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪ّ ،‬‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺻﯾﻐﺔ اﻟﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻋﺗﻣد اﻷﻣوﯾون ﻓﻲ ﺗوطﯾد ﺣﻛﻣﮭم‪ ،‬ﻣﺳﺗﻧدﯾن إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻧزﻋﺔ اﻟﺟﺑرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻘول‪)) :‬إن اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻟﯾس ﯾﻘدر ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛل ﺷﻲء‪ ،‬وﻻ‬ ‫ﯾوﺻف ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗطﺎﻋﺔ‪ ،‬وإﻧﻣﺎ ھو ﻣﺟﺑور ﻓﻲ أﻓﻌﺎﻟﮫ وﻻ ﻗدرة ﻟﮫ وﻻ‬ ‫اﺧﺗﯾﺎر‪ ،‬وإﻧﻣﺎ ﯾﺧﻠﻖ ﷲ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻓﯾﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺳب ﻣﺎﯾﺧﻠﻖ ﻓﻲ ﺳﺎﺋر‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﺎدات‪ ،‬وﺗُﻧﺳب إﻟﯾﮫ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻣﺟﺎزا ً ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗُﻧﺳب إﻟﻰ اﻟﺟﻣﺎدات((‪،‬‬ ‫ورأوا أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺳﺎﻋدھم ﻓﻲ ﺗﻧﻔﯾذ ﻣﺂرﺑﮭم اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟذﻟك ﺑﺛّوا روح‬ ‫اﻟﺟﺑرﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻟﺳﻧﺔ ﺷﻌراﺋﮭم‪ ،‬ﯾﻘول ﺛﺎﺑت ﻗطﻧﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫أﻣر ﻓﻠﯾس ﻟﮫُ‬ ‫وﻣﺎ ﻗﺿﻰ ﷲ ﻣن ٍ‬ ‫ﯾﻘض ﻣن ﺷﻲء ﯾﻛ ُْن رﺷَدا‬ ‫ر ﱞد وﻣﺎ‬ ‫ِ‬

‫ﺧط ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺎﻟﺗﮫ‬ ‫ﻛ ﱡل اﻟﺧوارجِ ُﻣ ٍ‬ ‫وﻟوﺗﻌﺑﱠ َد ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﻗﺎل واﺟﺗﮭدا‬

‫وھﻧﺎ إﺷﺎرة واﺿﺣﺔ إﻟﻰ اﻟﺟﺑرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻌﺗﻘد أن ﺣرﯾﺔ اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻣﻌ ّ‬ ‫طﻠﺔ‬ ‫اﻣﺎم اﻟﻘدر‪ .‬ﯾﻘول أﻧﺻﺎر اﻟﺟﺑر‪) :‬ﻟو اﻓﺗرﺿﻧﺎ أن اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻣوﺟد ﻷﻓﻌﺎﻟﮫ‪،‬‬ ‫وﺧﺎﻟﻖ ﻟﮭﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻘد ﺳﻠّﻣﻧﺎ ﺑﺄن ﺛﻣﺔ أﻓﻌﺎﻻً ﻻﺗﺟري ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺷﯾﺋﺔ ﷲ واﺧﺗﯾﺎره‪،‬‬ ‫وﺑﺎﻟﺗﺎﻟﻲ ﻓﻘد ﻗﻠﻧﺎ ﺑوﺟود ﺧﺎﻟﻖ آﺧر ﻏﯾر ﷲ(‪ .‬ﻓﻼﺑد إذا ً أن ﯾﻛون‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻣﺳﯾّرا ً ﻏﯾر ﻣﺧﯾّر‪ .‬وھذا ﻣﺎﯾرﯾده اﻟﺣﻛّﺎم‪ ،‬إذ ﺑﮫ ﯾﺻﺑﺢ اﻟﻧﺎس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻋﺗﻘﺎد ﺑﺄن ﺣﻛم ﺑﻧﻲ أﻣﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﮭﻣﺎ ظﻠﻣوا‪ ،‬ﻗدر ﻻﯾﻣﻛن ﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺗﮫ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺑﻎ ﺷﻌرھم ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫وﻋﻠﻰ ھذا اﻟﻧﺣو ُﺟ ﱠر اﻟﺷﻌراء ﻓﻲ ﻋﺻر ﺑﻧﻲ أﻣﯾﺔ ﻓ ُ‬ ‫ﯾروج ﻟﮫ ﻣن ﻓﻛر ﺟﺑري وﺟﮭﻣﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﮭذا )ﺟرﯾر( ﯾؤﻛد أن ﷲ ﻗد ﻛﺗب‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻻﻣﻔر ﻣﻧﮫ وﻻ ﺗﺑدﯾل ﻟﻛﻠﻣﺎﺗﮫ‪ ،‬ﯾﻘول‪:‬‬ ‫وأﻧﮫ‬ ‫اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﻼﻓﺔ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ﻧﺎ َل اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ إذ ﻛﺎﻧت ﻟﮫُ ﻗدرا ً‬

‫ﻛﻣﺎ أﺗﻰ رﺑﱠﮫُ ﻣوﺳﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗد َِر‬

‫ﻓﻔﻲ اﻟﻌﺻر اﻷﻣوي ﺳﺎد اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟﻣدﻧﻲ ﺑﺎﺳم اﻟدﯾن‪ ،‬ﺣﯾث أﺿﺣت‬ ‫اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻋﮭد اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن أﻗرب إﻟﻰ اﻟﺳﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ اﻟدﯾن‪،‬‬ ‫واﺳﺗﺣﺎﻟت ﻋﻠﻰ ﯾد ﻣﻌﺎوﯾﺔ‪ ،‬إﻟﻰ ُﻣﻠك ﻣوروث‪ ،‬ﻣﺗﺄﺛرة ﻓﻲ ذﻟك ﺑﺎﻟﻧظﺎم‬ ‫اﻟذي ﻛﺎن ﺳﺎﺋدا ً ﻓﻲ اﻟدوﻟﺗﯾن‪ :‬اﻟﺑﯾزﻧطﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺎرﺳﯾﺔ‪.‬‬


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‫ﻟﻘد اﺳﺗﻌﻣل اﻷﻣوﯾون ﻟﻔظ )اﻟواﻟﻲ( و)اﻷﻣﯾر( ﺑدﻻً ﻣن )اﻟﻌﺎﻣل( دﻻﻟﺔ وﻓﻲ ھذا ﻛﻠﮫ ﺗﺄﻛﯾد ﻟﻠﺣﻖ اﻹﻟﮭﻲ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﻛم‪ .‬وﻣﻊ ذﻟك ﻓﺈن اﻟﺷﻌر ﻟﯾس‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ أﺻﺑﺢ ﯾﺗﻣﺗﻊ ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟﻌﻣﺎل‪ ،‬ﻓﺑدأ اﺳﺗﺑداد اﻟوﻻة ﻣﻊ ﻓﻛرا ً ﯾُ ِ ّ‬ ‫ﺻدى ﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻧظر‪ ،‬وﻻﯾُﻌﺗﻣد ﻋﻠﯾﮫ‪ .‬وﻟﻛﻧﱠﮫ‪ ،‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻛل ﺣﺎل‪ ،‬ﻛﺎن‬ ‫ً‬ ‫)اﻟ َﺣ ّﺟﺎج( اﻟذي اﺳﺗﻌﻣﻠﮫ )ﻋﺑداﻟﻣﻠك ﺑن ﻣروان( ﻓﺎﺿطﮭد اﻟﻣواﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟﺳﺎﺋدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﺻر اﻷﻣوي‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋد ﻋﻠﻰ ﺳﻘوط اﻟﺣﻛم اﻷﻣوي اﻟذي وﺟد ﻧﻔﺳﮫ ﻣﻔﺗﻘرا ً إﻟﻰ ﺣﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﯾﺗذرع ﺑﮭﺎ ﻹﺛﺑﺎت ﺷرﻋﯾﺔ ﺧﻼﻓﺗﮫ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌد ﺗﺧﻠّﯾﮫ ﻋن اﻟﺷورى وﻗﯾﺎم وﻣن أھم ﺻﻔﺎت اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ اﻷﻣوﯾﺔ ھﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺎرﺿﺔ ﻋﻧﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ وﺟﮭﮫ‪ ،‬ﻓراح ﯾﺳﺗﻌﯾن ﺑﺎﻟﺷﻌراء‪ .‬وھﺎ ھو )اﻷﺧطل( ‪ -۱‬ﺣﻛم اﻟﻔرد واﻟﺑﻌد ﻋن اﻟﺷورى وﻋدم ﻣﺳؤوﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ أﻣﺎم اﻟﺷﻌب‪.‬‬ ‫"ﺧف اﻟﻘطﯾن" اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻘول ﻓﻲ ‪ -۲‬اﻟﺣﻛم اﻟوراﺛﻲ واﻧﺣﺻﺎر اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺑﯾت اﻷﻣوي‪.‬‬ ‫ﯾﻣدح )ﻋﺑداﻟﻣﻠك ﺑن ﻣروان( ﻓﻲ ﻗﺻﯾدﺗﮫ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺗﺻرف اﻟﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ ﺑﺄﻣوال اﻟدوﻟﺔ ﻟﺻﺎﻟﺢ ﺣﻛﻣﮫ‪.‬‬ ‫‪-۳‬‬ ‫ﻣطﻠﻌﮭﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﻧوى‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺻرﻓِﮭﺎ ِﻏﯾَ ُر ‪ -٤‬اﻟﺗﻣﯾﯾز ﺑﯾن اﻟﻣواطﻧﯾن‪.‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ﺧف اﻟﻘطﯾن‪ ،‬ﻓراﺣوا ﻣﻧك‪ ،‬أو ﺑﻛروا وأزﻋﺟﺗﮭم ً‬ ‫‪ -٥‬ﻗﻠب اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ ﻣﻠك دﻧﯾوي ﯾﻧﻐﻣس ﻓﯾﮫ اﻟﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣظﺎھر اﻟﺗرف‬ ‫إﻟﻰ أن ﯾﻘول ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻌرﯾﻧﺎ ﻧواﻓﻠﮫُ‬ ‫واﻟﻠﮭو‪.‬‬ ‫أظﻔرهُ ﷲ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﯾﮭﻧِ ْﺊ ﻟﮫ اﻟظﻔر‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻣرىءٍ ‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗ ُ ّ‬ ‫‪ -٦‬اﻻﻋﺗﻣﺎد ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻘوة واﻟﺑطش ﻓﻲ ﺗوطﯾد اﻟﻣﻠك وﻣﺣﺎرﺑﺔ اﻟﺧﺻوم‪.‬‬ ‫واﻟﻣﯾﻣون طﺎﺋرهُ ﺧﻠﯾﻔ ِﺔ ﷲِ‪ ،‬ﯾُﺳﺗﺳﻘﻰ ﺑ ِﮫ اﻟﻣطر‬ ‫اﻟﻐﻣر‪،‬‬ ‫اﻟﺧﺎﺋض‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫َ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔس‪ ،‬ﯾﺑﻌﺛﮫُ‬ ‫ﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺣزم‪ ،‬واﻷﺻﻣﻌﺎن‪ :‬اﻟﻘﻠب واﻟﺣذر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫واﻟﮭ ﱡم‪ ،‬ﺑﻌ َد ﻧﺟ ِّ‬ ‫ﯾﻐﺗرهُ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌ َد ﺗوﻛﯾ ٍد ﻟﮫُ‪َ ،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺎت اﻷﻣوﯾﺔ واﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﯾﺔ ھﻲ أﻧظﻣﺔ طﻐﯾﺎن‪ ،‬ﺣﯾث ﻟم ﯾﻛن ﻟﻠﺷﻌب‬ ‫ﻏرر‬ ‫اﻟﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﻓﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺳﺗﻣ ّر ﺑ ِﮫ أﻣر‬ ‫واﻟ ُﻣ ِ‬ ‫ﱠ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺣﻖ اﻟﺣد ﻣن ﺳﻠطﺔ اﻟﺣﺎﻛم ﻷﻧﮫ ﻏﯾر ﻣﺳؤول أﻣﺎم أﺣد ))وﻛﺎﻧت ﻧظرﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﮭو ﯾﻌﻠن ﺣﻘوق اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن ﻓﻲ وراﺛﺔ اﻟﺧﻼﻓﺔ‪ ،‬وأن ﺧﻼﻓﺗﮭم ﻣن ﷲ وأن اﻟﺣﻖ اﻹﻟﮭﻲ أو اﻟﺣﻖ اﻟﻣﻘدّس ﻟﻠﻣﻠوك ﻧظرﯾﺔ ﻣﻌﺗرﻓﺎ ً ﺑﮭﺎ ﻣﻧذ اﻟﻌﮭد‬ ‫رف ﺑﮭﺎ ﺑﻌد ذﻟك ﻓﻲ أﻣم أوروﺑﺎ اﻟﻣﺳﯾﺣﯾﺔ(( وﻗد‬ ‫أﻣﯾر اﻟﻣؤﻣﻧﯾن ھو ﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ ﷲ ﻓﻲ اﻷرض‪ ،‬ﯾﺣﻔّﮫ ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺻر اﻟﻣﺑﯾن‪ ،‬وﻣن ﺛ ﱠم اﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﻲ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ اﻋﺗ ُ َ‬ ‫ﺣﺎول اﻟﺣﻛﺎم اﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﯾون اﻻﺳﺗﻧﺎد إﻟﻰ ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺣﻖ اﻹﻟﮭﻲ ﻣﺛل أﺳﻼﻓﮭم‬ ‫ﻓﺈنﱠ ﺧﻼﻓﺗﮫ ﻣﻘدﺳﺔ ﻣﺑﺎرﻛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣن اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن‪ .‬ﻓﮭذا أﺑو ﺟﻌﻔر اﻟﻣﻧﺻور ﯾﻘول ﻓﻲ ﺧطﺑﺔ ﻟﮫ ﺑﻣﻛﺔ‪)) :‬أﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻛذﻟك ﯾﻔﻌل ﻋﺑﯾد ﷲ ﺑن ﻗﯾس ﻓﻲ ﻣدح ﻣﺻﻌب ﺑن اﻟزﺑﯾر‪ ،‬ﯾﻘول‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻧﺎس إﻧﻣﺎ أﻧﺎ ﺳﻠطﺎن ﷲ ﻓﻲ أرﺿﮫ أﺳوﺳﻛم ﺑﺗوﻓﯾﻘﮫ وﺗﺳدﯾده وﺗﺄﯾﯾده‬ ‫ـ ِﮫ ﺗﺟﻠّتْ ﻋن وﺟﮭ ِﮫ اﻟظ ْﻠﻣﺎ ُء‬ ‫ﮭﺎب ﻣن اﻟﻠﱠـ‬ ‫إﻧﱠﻣﺎ ُﻣ‬ ‫ﺻﻌب ِ‬ ‫ﺷ ٌ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫وﺣﺎرﺳﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎﻟﮫ أﻋﻣل ﺑﻣﺷﯾﺋﺗﮫ وإرادﺗﮫ(( واﻷﻣﺛﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ذﻟك أﻛﺛر‬ ‫ﺟﺑَروتٌ وﻻ ﺑ ِﮫ ِﻛﺑرﯾﺎ ُء‬ ‫ﻗو ٍة ﻟﯾس ﻓﯾ ِﮫ‬ ‫ُﻣﻠﻛﮫُ ُﻣﻠكُ ّ‬ ‫وﺑﻌد أن ﻗُﺗل ﻣﺻﻌب وأﺧوه‪ ،‬ﻣدح ﻋُﺑﯾ ُد ﷲ ﻋﺑداﻟﻣﻠك ﺑن ﻣروان ﻗﺎﺋﻼً‪ :‬ﻣن أن ﻧﺗﻣﻛّن ﻣن ﺣﺻرھﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺛل ھذه اﻟدراﺳﺔ‪ .‬واﻟﻣﮭم ‪-‬ھﻧﺎ‪ -‬اﻧﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻣﻧوال اﻷﻣوﯾﯾن ﻗد ﺳﺎر اﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﯾون )‪۱۲٥۸-۷٥۰‬م( اﻟذﯾن ﻛﺛر ﻓﻲ ﻓﺗرة‬ ‫ﺟﻔﱠتْ ﺑذاكَ اﻷﻗﻼ ُم واﻟﻛﺗب‬ ‫ﷲ ﻓوقَ ِﻣﻧﺑَر ِه‬ ‫ﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔُ ِ‬ ‫ﺟﺑﯾن ﻛﺄﻧﮫُ‬ ‫ﺣﻛﻣﮭم اﻻﻣﺗزاج ﺑﯾن اﻟﻌرب واﻟﻣواﻟﻲ‪ ،‬واﺧﺗﻠطت ﺛﻘﺎﻓﺎت اﻟﺷﻌوب ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻟذھب‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ج ﻓوقَ ﻣﻔرﻗِﮫ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﺗد ُل اﻟﺗﺎ ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ﺗﺳرب اﻟﻌﺎدات‬ ‫ﻓﻛر اﻟﻌرب وﻓﻲ ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺎﺗﮭم اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﻣﺎ زاد ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﯾﻘول اﻷﺣوص ﻓﻲ اﻟوﻟﯾد ﺑن ﻋﺑداﻟﻣﻠك‪:‬‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﯾزﻧطﯾﺔ واﻟﻔﺎرﺳﯾﺔ واﻟﺟﺎھﻠﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻧﺷب ﺻراع أدى إﻟﻰ ظﮭور‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺎس أﻋﻠَﻣﺎ‬ ‫رب اﻟﻌﺑﺎ ِد ﻟﺧﻠ ِﻘﮫ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﺗﺧﯾﱠ َرهُ ﱡ‬ ‫وﻟﯾّﺎ ً وﻛﺎن ﷲُ‬ ‫ﻓﮭو ﯾﺛﺑت أن ﷲ اﺻطﻔﺎه واﺧﺗﺎره ﻟﺧﻠﻘﮫ‪ ،‬وأﻧﮫ وﻛل إﻟﯾﮫ ﺷؤوﻧﮭم اﻟﺷﻌوﺑﯾﺔ وظﮭور ﻋﻠم اﻟﻛﻼم‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ اﻟﻌﺑﺎﺳﯾﯾن وﻧﺷر أﻓﻛﺎر اﻟﻣواﻟﻲ‪ ،‬دﺧل اﻟﻔرس واﻟﺗرك ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﻛم‪،‬‬ ‫ﯾدﺑّرھﺎ ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾﺷﺎء‪.‬‬ ‫وﻟ ّﻣﺎ ﻗوي ﻧﻔوذ اﻷﺗراك‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﻋﮭد اﻟﻣﺗوﻛل أﺿﺣﻰ اﻟﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ ﻛﺎﻷﺳﯾر ﻓﻲ‬ ‫أﻣﺎ ﺣﺎرﺛﺔ ﺑن ﺑدر اﻟﻐداﻧﻲ ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾﻘول ﻓﻲ زﯾﺎد ﺑن أﺑﯾﮫ‪:‬‬ ‫أﯾدﯾﮭم‪.‬‬ ‫اﻷﻣور‬ ‫ﺗﺣﺿرك‬ ‫وﺣزم ِﺣﯾن‬ ‫ﻓﺄﻧتَ إﻣﺎ ُم ﻣﻌدﻟ ٍﺔ وﻗﺻ ٍد‬ ‫ٍ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫اﻟوزﯾر‬ ‫وأﻧتَ وزﯾرهُ ﻧِ ْﻌ َم‬ ‫ب‬ ‫أﺧوكَ ﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔُ ﷲ اﺑن ﺣر ٍ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﺟﺎر اﻟرﻋﯾﱠﺔُ ﻻ ﺗﺟور‬ ‫ﻣﻧﺻور ُﻣﻌﺎن‬ ‫ﷲ‬ ‫ﺑﺄﻣر ِ‬ ‫إذا َ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ﻓﮭو ﯾدﻋو ﻣﻌﺎوﯾﺔ ﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔ ﷲ‪ ،‬وﯾﺳﺑﻎ ﻋﻠﻰ زﯾﺎد ﺻﻔﺎت دﯾﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﮭو إﻣﺎم‬ ‫ﻋﺎدل ﯾﻧﺻرهُ ﷲ وﯾﻌﯾﻧﮫ‪ .‬وﯾﻘول ﺟرﯾر ﻓﻲ أﯾوب ﺑن ﺳﻠﯾﻣﺎن ﻣﺎ ﯾﻔﯾد‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻌﻧﻰ ﻧﻔﺳﮫ‪:‬‬ ‫أﻧتَ اﻟﺧﻠﯾﻔﺔُ‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫أھ ُل ﱠ‬ ‫ﻟﻠرﺣﻣن ﯾﻌرﻓﮫُ‬ ‫ﻣﻛﺗوب‬ ‫ﺑور وﻓﻲ اﻟﺗوراة‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫اﻟز ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وﻻ ﻧﻧﺳﻰ ﺧطﺑﺔ زﯾﺎد ﺑﺎﻟﺑﺻرة اﻟﻣﺳﻣﺎة اﻟﺑﺗراء اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻘﺎل أﻧﮭﺎ ﺳﻣﯾت‬ ‫ﻛذﻟك ﻷﻧﮭﺎ ﻟم ﺗﺑدأ ﺑﺣﻣد ﷲ‪ ،‬ﯾﻘول ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‪)) :‬أﯾﮭﺎ اﻟﻧﺎس‪ ،‬إﻧﺎ أﺻﺑﺣﻧﺎ ﻟﻛم‬ ‫ﺳﺎدة‪ ،‬وﻋﻧﻛم ذادةً‪ ،‬ﻧﺳوﺳﻛم ﺑﺳﻠطﺎن ﷲ اﻟذي أﻋطﺎﻧﺎ‪ ،‬وﻧذو ُد ﻋﻧﻛم‬ ‫ﺧوﻟﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ﻓﻠﻧﺎ ﻋﻠﯾﻛم اﻟﺳﻣ ُﻊ واﻟطﺎﻋﺔُ ﻓﯾﻣﺎ أﺣﺑﺑﻧﺎ‪ ،‬وﻟﻛم‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻲء ﷲ اﻟذي ﱠ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﯾﻧﺎ اﻟﻌدل واﻹﻧﺻﺎف ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ُوﻟﯾِّﻧﺎ‪.((..‬‬ ‫وﻛذﻟك رﺳﺎﻟﺔ ﻋﺑداﻟﺣﻣﯾد اﺑن ﯾﺣﯾﻰ اﻟﻛﺎﺗب ﻋن ﻣروان ﺑن ﻣﺣﻣد إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﺑﻧﮫ ﻋﺑدﷲ ﺣﯾن و ّﺟﮭﮫ ﻟﻣﺣﺎرﺑﺔ اﻟﺿﺣﺎك اﺑن ﻗﯾس اﻟﺷﯾﺑﺎﻧﻲ اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺟﺎء ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‪)) :‬وإن ﻛﻧتَ ‪-‬واﻟﺣﻣد �‪ -‬ﻣن دﯾن ﷲ وﺧﻼﻓﺗﮫ ﺑﺣﯾث‬ ‫ﺻﺎ ً ﻟك دون ﻟﺣﻣﺗك وﺑﻧﻲ أﺑﯾك‪.((..‬‬ ‫اﺻطﻧﻌك ﷲ ﻟوﻻﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﮭد ﻣﺧﺗ ّ‬


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‫اﻟﻠﻌﺐ ﻋﻨﺪ‬ ‫اﻷﻃﻔﺎل ‪..‬‬

‫اﻟﻠﻌب ﻓﻲ ھذه اﻟﺳن ھو أﻛﺛر أﻧﺷطﺔ اﻟطﻔل ﻣﻣﺎرﺳﺔ‪ ،‬ﯾﺳﺗﻐرق ﻣﻌظم‬ ‫ﺳﺎﻋﺎت ﯾﻘظﺗﮫ‪ ،‬وﻗد ﯾﻔﺿﻠﮫ أﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ً ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻛل واﻟﻧوم‪ .‬إﻧﮫ وﺳﯾﻠﺔ ﻓذة‬ ‫ﯾﺗﻌﻠم ﺑﮭﺎ اﻟطﻔل ﻣﮭﺎرات ﺟدﯾدة‪ ،‬وﯾطور ﻣﮭﺎراﺗﮫ اﻟﻘدﯾﻣﺔ إﻧﮫ ورﺷﺔ‬ ‫اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ أو ﺣﯾﻠﺔ ﯾﺟري ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ اﻷدوار اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ وﺣﯾدا ً أو‬ ‫ﻣﻊ أطﻔﺎل آﺧرﯾن‪.‬‬ ‫وإن ﻏﯾﺎب ھذا اﻟﻧﺷﺎط ﻟدى طﻔل ﻣﺎ ﻣؤﺷر دال ﻋﻠﻰ أن ھذا اﻟطﻔل ﻏﯾر‬ ‫ﻋﺎدي‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ أن اﻟﻠﻌب ﯾﺻدر ﻋن داﻓﻊ ﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ذاﺗﻲ ﻻ ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ ﻟﺗﻌزﯾز‬ ‫اﻵﺧرﯾن ﻟﮫ ﻓﺎﻟﻠﻌب ﻓﻲ ذاﺗﮫ ﻣﻛﺎﻓﺄة ﻟﻠطﻔل‪ .‬وھذا ﻧﺷﺎط ﺗﻠﻘﺎﺋﻲ طﺑﯾﻌﻲ ﻻ‬ ‫ﯾﻌﻠﻣﮫ إﯾﺎه أﺣد‪.‬‬

‫وﻣن اﻟﺗﻌرﯾﻔﺎت اﻟﻣوﺟزة ﻟﻠﻌب ﺗﻌرﯾف اﻟﻣوﺳوﻋﺔ اﻟﺑرﯾطﺎﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ورد‬ ‫ﻓﯾﮭﺎ أن اﻟﻠﻌب أي ﻧﺷﺎط طوﻋﻲ ﯾﺗم ﻣن أﺟل اﻟﺳرور‪ ،‬وأن اﻟﻣﻘﺻود ﻛﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض ﻟﻌب اﻷطﻔﺎل وﻟﻛن ﯾﺻﻌب ﺗطﺑﯾﻖ ﻣﺛل ھذا اﻟﺗﻌرﯾف ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﻌب‬ ‫اﻷطﻔﺎل ﻛﻠﮫ‪ .‬وﯾﻠﻌب اﻟطﻔل ﺑطﺑﻌﮫ ﻹﺷﺑﺎع ﻣﯾل ﻓطري ﻟدﯾﮫ ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾرى‬ ‫"روﺟرز وﺳﺎوﯾرز"‪ ،Rogers & Sawyers‬واﻟﻠﻌب ﺣﯾﺎة اﻟطﻔل‬ ‫ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﻣﯾﮫ اﻟراﺷدون ﻟﻌب وھو ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﺻﻐﺎر اﻷطﻔﺎل ﻟﻌب وﻋﻣل‬ ‫وﺗﻌﻠم ﯾدﻓﻌﮭم إﻟﯾﮫ اﻟداﻓﻊ اﻟﻔطري ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ داﻓﻊ اﻻﺳﺗطﻼع‪ .‬ﻓﺎﻟطﻔل‬ ‫إن اﻟﻠﻌب ﯾﺧدم ﺟﻣﯾﻊ ﺟواﻧب اﻟﻧﻣو‪ ،‬ﻓﯾﮫ ﯾﻛﺗﺳب اﻟطﻔل ﻣﮭﺎراﺗﮫ اﻟﺣرﻛﯾﺔ ﻣﯾﺎل ﻟﻼﺳﺗطﻼع واﻻﻛﺗﺷﺎف ﺑطﺑﻌﮫ‪ ،‬ﯾﺣب أن ﯾﺑﺣث ﻓﻲ ﻛﻧﺔ اﻷﺷﯾﺎء‬ ‫وﯾﻘوي ﺟﺳﻣﮫ وﯾﻘوم ﺑﻌﻣﻠﯾﺎت ﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ ﻣن اﺳﺗطﻼع واﺳﺗﻛﺷﺎف اﻟﺟدﯾدة وﯾﺟذﺑﮫ اﻟﺗﻌﻘﯾد واﻟﻐﻣوض واﻟﻣﻔﺎﺟﺄة أو اﻟﻔﺟﺎﺋﯾﺔ ﺣﯾث ﺗوﻟد ھذه‬ ‫واﺳﺗدﻋﺎء اﻟﺻور اﻟذھﻧﯾﺔ واﻟرﻣوز واﻟﻣﻔﺎھﯾم اﻟﺗﻲ ﺳﺑﻖ وأن ﻛوﻧﮭﺎ اﻟﺻﻔﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺛﯾر ﻣن درﺟﺔ ﻣن اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة اﻟﻔﻌﻠﯾﺔ ﻟدى اﻟطﻔل‪.‬‬ ‫ﻛوﺣدات ﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﻓﯾﮫ ﯾﺗﺣﺳن أداﺋﮫ اﻟﻠﻐوي ﻓﯾﺛري ﻗﺎﻣوﺳﮫ اﻟﻠﻐوي‬ ‫وﯾﺗﻌﻠم ﻣﻌﺎﻧﻲ ﺟدﯾدة وﺗراﻛﯾب ﻟﻐوﯾﺔ ﻣﺗﻧوﻋﺔ وﯾﺷرب أﻟﻔﺎظﮫ اﻟطﻔﯾﻠﯾﺔ ﺧﺻﺎﺋص اﻟﻠﻌب‪:‬‬ ‫وﻓﯾﮫ ﯾﻘوم ﺑﻧﺷﺎط اﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻧﻔﻌﺎﻟﻲ ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻌب أدوار اﻷب واﻷم وﯾﻌﺑر • ﻟﻌب اﻟطﻔل ﻏﯾر واﻗﻌﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻋن اﻧﻔﻌﺎﻻﺗﮫ وﯾﺧﺗﺑر أﻧواع اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﻼﺋم اﻟﻣوﻗف ﻛل ﺗﺗﻣﯾز أﺣداث اﻟﻠﻌب ﺑﺣدود ﺗﻔﺻل ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث أﺛﻧﺎءھﺎ ﻋن اﻟﺧﺑرات اﻟﯾوﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﺗﻧطﺑﻖ ھذه اﻟﺧﺎﺻﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺧﺗﻠف أﻧواع اﻟﻠﻌب وﯾﺗﺟﺎھل‬ ‫ذﻟك ﺑﺣرﯾﺔ ﺗﺎﻣﺔ دون ﺧوف أو ﺗﻌرض ﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ ﻏﯾر ﺳﺎرة‪.‬‬ ‫وﯾﻌد اﻟﻠﻌب واﺣد ﻣن أھم ﺳﻠوﻛﯾﺎت اﻟطﻔوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬وﻻ ﯾﻌد اﻟﻠﻌب ﻧﺷﺎطﺎ ً اﻷطﻔﺎل اﻟﻣﻌﻧﻰ اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ﺑﺑﻌض اﻷﻓﻌﺎل واﻟﺧﺎﻣﺎت وﯾﺳﺗﺑدﻟوﻧﮫ ﺑﻣﻌﻧﻰ‬ ‫ﺗروﯾﺣﯾﺎ ً ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻸطﻔﺎل ﻓﺣﺳب وإﻧﻣﺎ ھو ﻧﺷﺎط ھﺎم ﻟﻠﻧﻣو اﻟﻧﻔﺳﻲ آﺧر ﺧﯾﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬وھذا ﯾﺳﻣﺢ ﻟﻸطﻔﺎل ﺑﺎﻟﮭروب ﻣن اﻟﺿﻐوط اﻟواﻗﻌﺔ ﻋﻠﯾﮭم‬ ‫واﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ واﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻓﮭو ﺧﺑرات أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﺗﻘود إﻟﻰ اﻟﺗﻌﻠم ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗطﻼع وﺗﺟرﯾب اﺣﺗﻣﺎﻻت ﺟدﯾدة‪.‬‬ ‫وﺣل اﻟﻣﺷﻛﻼت واﻻﺑﺗﻛﺎر واﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر اﻟﻔﻧﻲ‪ .‬ﻓﯾرى ﻓروﺑل وھو ﻣؤﺳس • داﻓﻌﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﻌب ﻟدى اﻟطﻔل داﺧﻠﯾﮫ‪:‬‬ ‫رﯾﺎض اﻷطﻔﺎل أن اﻟﻠﻌب ھو أﺳﻣﻰ ﺗﻌﺑﯾر ﻋن اﻟﻧﻣو اﻹﻧﺳﺎﻧﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﯾﻣﺎرس اﻟطﻔل ﺳﻠوك اﻟﻠﻌب ﻟذاﺗﮫ وﯾدﻓﻌﮫ ﻟﮫ داﻓﻌﯾﺔ ﺗﺄﺗﻲ ﻣن داﺧل‬ ‫اﻟطﻔوﻟﺔ‪ ،‬وھو اﻟﺗﻌﺑﯾر اﻟﺣر اﻟوﺣﯾد ﻋﻣﺎ ﯾدور داﺧل اﻟطﻔل اﻟﺻﻐﯾر‪ ،‬وھو اﻟطﻔل‪.‬‬ ‫• ﻟﻌب اﻟطﻔل ﺗرﻛﯾز ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ ﻻ اﻟﻧﺗﺎﺋﺞ اﻟﻧﮭﺎﺋﯾﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫أﺳﺎس اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﻛﻠﻲ اﻟﻣﺗﻛﺎﻣل ﻟﻠطﻔل‪.‬‬ ‫ﯾرﻛز اﻟطﻔل أﺛﻧﺎء اﻟﻠﻌب ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﺷﺎط ﻓﻲ ﺣد ذاﺗﮫ دون اﻻھﺗﻣﺎم ﺑﺗﺣﻘﯾﻖ‬ ‫وﯾرى ﺑﯾﺎﺟﯾﮫ أن اﻟﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻌﻣل ﻓﯾﮭﺎ ﻋﻘل اﻟطﻔل ﺗؤﺛر ﻓﻲ ﻧوع اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ أﯾﺔ أھداف أو ﻧواﺗﺞ ﻣﻌﯾﻧﺔ ﻓﻲ أﻏﻠب اﻷﺣوال‪ ،‬وھذا ﻓﻲ ﺣد ذاﺗﮫ ﯾﺣرر‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﻟدﯾﮫ وﺗﺗم ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻛﯾف ﻋن طرﯾﻖ ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺗﯾن ھﺎﻣﺗﯾن اﻟطﻔل ﻓﯾﺟرب وﺳﺎﺋل ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻧﺷﺎط اﻟواﺣد‪ ،‬وﻟﮭذا ﯾﻌد ﺳﻠوك اﻟﻠﻌب‬ ‫ھﻣﺎ اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾل ﺣﯾث ﯾﺳﺗوﻋب اﻟطﻔل اﻟﺧﺑرات اﻟﺗﻲ ﻣرت ﺑﮫ ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﻋن ﺳﻠوﻛﺎ ً ﻣرﻧﺎً‪.‬‬ ‫طرﯾﻖ ھذه اﻟﻌﻣﻠﯾﺔ أي أﻧﮭﺎ ﺗﺣدث ﻛﻠﻣﺎ اﺳﺗﺟﺎب اﻟطﻔل ﻓﻲ ﻣوﻗف ﺟدﯾد • اﻟﻠﻌب ﯾﺟﻠب اﻟﻣﺗﻌﺔ ﻟﻠطﻔل‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺛﻠﻣﺎ ﻓﻌل ﻓﻲ ﻣواﻗف ﻣﺗﺷﺎﺑﮭﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻟﻣﻼﺋﻣﺔ ﻓﺗﺣدث ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻣﯾز اﻟﻠﻌب ﺑﺎﻟﻣﺗﻌﺔ واﻟﺳﻌﺎدة وأﺣﯾﺎﻧﺎ ً ﯾﺻﺎﺣب اﻟﻠﻌب ﺑﻌض ﻣن‬ ‫ﯾﻣر اﻟطﻔل ﺑﺧﺑرات ﺟدﯾدة‪ ،‬وﻣن ﺛم ﻓﺈن اﻷﺑﻧﯾﺔ اﻟﻌﻘﻠﯾﺔ اﻟﻣوﺟودة ﻻ ﺑد اﻟﺧوف أو اﻟرھﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺑداﯾﺗﮫ ﻛﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﮭﯾﺊ اﻟطﻔل ﻧﻔﺳﮫ ﻟﻠﻧزول‬ ‫أن ﺗﻐﯾر ﻧﻔﺳﮭﺎ ﻟﻛﻲ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﻘﺑل ھذه اﻟﺧﺑرات اﻟﺟدﯾدة‪ ،‬وھذا اﻟﺗﻐﯾر ﻋﻠﻰ "اﻟزﺣﻠﯾﻘﺔ" أو اﻟﻧزول إﻟﻰ ﺣﻣﺎم ﺳﺑﺎﺣﺔ أو ﺑﺣر إﻻ أن ھذا اﻟﺧوف‬ ‫ﯾﺻﺑﺢ ﺿرورة ﺑﺳﺑب اﻟﻣﻌﻠوﻣﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗم ﺗﻣﺛﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﺣدﯾﺛﺎ ً وﻗد رﺑط ﺑﯾﺎﺟﯾﮫ ﯾﺣﻣل ﻧوﻋﺎ ً ﻣن اﻟﻣﺗﻌﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻧﺳﺑﺔ ﻟﻠطﻔل‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟطﻔل ﯾﻌﺎود اﻟﺗزﺣﻠﻖ واﻟﻧزول‬ ‫ﺑﯾن ھذﯾن اﻟﺳﻠوﻛﯾن وﺑﯾن اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾد واﻟﻠﻌب‪ ،‬ﻓﻌرف اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾد أﻧﮫ اﺳﺗﻣرارﯾﺔ ﻣرات أﺧرى رﻏم ھذا اﻟﺧوف‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻼﺋﻣﺔ‪ ،‬وﻋرف اﻟﻠﻌب أﻧﮫ اﺳﺗﻣرارﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾل‪.‬‬


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‫ﻧـظرﯾﺎت اﻟﻠﻌب‪:‬‬ ‫ھﻧﺎك ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن ﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﻠﻌب ﻧﻌرض ﺑﻌﺿﮭﺎ ﺗﺗﺿﻣﻧﮭﺎ اﻟﻣراﺟﻊ‬ ‫اﻟﻧﻔﺳﯾﺔ وﺗﺳﻌﻰ ﺟﻣﯾﻌﮭﺎ ﻟﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ ﺗﻔﺳﯾر ﻟﻣﺎذا ﯾﻠﻌب اﻷﻓراد ﻓﻲ ﻛل‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺋﺎت اﻟﻌﻣرﯾﺔ؟‬ ‫وﺻﻧﻔت ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺗﯾن‪ :‬ﻧظرﯾﺎت ﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﻧظرﯾﺎت‬ ‫ﺣدﯾﺛﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫أ(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟزاﺋدة‪ :‬وﺗﻧﺳب ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ ﻟﺷﻠرو‬ ‫ﺳﺑﻧﺳر ‪ ،Schiller & Spencer‬وﺗﻘوم ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻛرة أن وظﯾﻔﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﻠﻌب ھﻲ اﻟﺗﺧﻠص ﻣن اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟزاﺋدة ﻟدى اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‪ ،‬وﺗوﺟﯾﮭﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻣل‪ ،‬وﻣن ﺛم ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾﺳﺗﻌﻣل ھذه اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟزاﺋدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب‪ .‬وﻗد رﻓض‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻣﺎء آﺧرون ھذه اﻟﻔﻛرة ﺣﯾث ﻣن اﻟﻣﻣﻛن ﺗوﺟﯾﮫ طﺎﻗﺎت اﻟﻔرد‬ ‫وﺗﺣوﯾﻠﮭﺎ إﻟﻰ ﻣﺟﺎﻻت إﺑداﻋﯾﺔ أو اﺑﺗﻛﺎرﯾﺔ وﻧﺷﺎطﺎت ھﺎدﻓﺔ ﺳواء‬ ‫أﻛﺎﻧت اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ زاﺋدة أم ﻻ‪.‬‬ ‫ب(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ ﺗﺟدﯾد اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ‪ :‬وﯾﺗزﻋم ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ ﻻزاروس‬ ‫‪ Lazarus‬وھﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻧﻘﯾض ﻣن ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟزاﺋدة‪ .‬ﻓﻧﻠﺧﺻﮭﺎ أن‬ ‫وظﯾﻔﺔ اﻟﻠﻌب ھﻲ ﺗﺣدﯾد اﻟطﺎﻗﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗﺻرف ﻓﻲ اﻟﻌﻣل‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻧدﻣﺎ ﯾﺗﻌب‬ ‫اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻣن ﻋﻣﻠﮫ أو ﻣن ﻧﺷﺎط ﻣﻌﯾن ﯾﺗﺣول إﻟﻰ ﻋﻣل ﺷﻲء ﻣﺧﺗﻠف‬ ‫ﺗﻣﺎﻣﺎ ً وھو اﻟﻠﻌب وﻻ ﯾﻧﻛر اﻟﻌﻠﻣﺎء أھﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻠﻌب واﻻﺳﺗﻔﺎدة ﻣﻧﮫ‬ ‫وﻟﻛن ﻛﯾف ﻧﻔﺳر اﻷطﻔﺎل وھم ﯾﻘﺑﻠون ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻌب ﺣﺗﻰ وھم ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎﻻت‬ ‫ﺷدﯾدة ﻣن اﻹﺟﮭﺎد؟ ﻛﻣﺎ أن ﺑﻌض اﻷﻟﻌﺎب ﯾزداد اﻹﻗﺑﺎل ﻋﻠﯾﮭﺎ ﻟﻣﺎ ﻓﯾﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﻣن ﻣﺟﮭود وﺗﺣﻣل وﻣﺛﺎﺑرة‪.‬‬ ‫ج(‪.‬اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺧﻠﯾﺻﯾﺔ‪ :‬وﺻﺎﺣﺑﮭﺎ "ﺳﺗﺎﻧﻠﻲ ھل"‪ Hull‬اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫اﻷﻣﯾرﻛﻲ‪ ،‬وﺗﺧﻠص ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻘﻠﯾدﯾﺔ إﻟﻰ أن اﻹﻧﺳﺎن ﻣﻧذ ﻣﯾﻼده‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻛﺗﻣﺎل ﻧﺿﺟﮫ ﯾﻣﯾل إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣرور ﺑﺎﻷدوار اﻟﺗﻲ ﻣر ﺑﮭﺎ ﺗطور‬ ‫اﻟﺣﺿﺎرة اﻟﺑﺷرﯾﺔ ﻓﻛل طﻔل ﯾﻛرر ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﺟﻧس اﻟﺑﺷري ﻓﻲ ﻟﻌﺑﮫ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﻷطﻔﺎل ﯾﺗﺳﻠﻘون اﻷﺷﺟﺎر ﻗﺑل اﻻﻧدﻣﺎج ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب اﻟﺟﻣﺎﻋﻲ وﻟﻛن‬ ‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ ﻗد ﺗﻌرﺿت ﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻟﻧﻘد‪.‬‬ ‫د(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻹﻋداد ﻟﻠﻌﻣل‪ :‬ﺻﺎﺣﺑﮭﺎ ﻛﺎرل ﺟروس ‪ Kar Groos‬وﺗﻘوم‬ ‫ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﺳﺎس أن اﻟﻠﻌب وﻧﺷﺎطﮫ ﻣﺎ ھو إﻻ ﻣرﺣﻠﺔ إﻋداد‬ ‫ﻟوظﺎﺋف اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑﻠﯾﺔ أي إﻋداد اﻟﻧﺷﺎط اﻟﻛﺑﺎر‪.‬‬ ‫اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﺣدﯾﺛﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﺄﺧذ ﺧطوة أﺑﻌد ﻣن ﻣﺟرد ﺗﻔﺳﯾر ﻟﻣﺎذا ﯾﺣدث اﻟﻠﻌب؟ ﺑﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺗﮭﺎ ﺗﺣدﯾد‬ ‫دور اﻟﻠﻌب ﻓﻲ ﻧﻣو اﻹﻧﺳﺎن‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﺑﻌض اﻷﺣﯾﺎن ﺗﺣدﯾد ﺑﻌض اﻟظروف‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾظﮭر ﻣﻧﮭﺎ ﺳﻠوك اﻟﻠﻌب‪ .‬وأﺷﮭر ھذه اﻟﻧظرﯾﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﻌرﺿﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺟوﻧﺳون ورﻓﺎﻗﮫ‪:‬‬ ‫أ(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺣﻠﯾل اﻟﻧﻔﺳﻲ‪ :‬ﺻﺎﺣﺑﮭﺎ ﻓروﯾد ‪Freud‬اﻟذي اﻓﺗرض أن‬ ‫اﻟطﻔل ﯾﻣﯾز اﻟﻠﻌب ﻋن اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ إﻻ أﻧﮫ ﯾﺳﺗﺧدم أﺷﯾﺎء وﻣواﻗف ﻣن اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫اﻟﺣﻘﯾﻘﻲ ﻟﺧﻠﻖ ﻋﺎﻟم ﺧﺎص ﺑﮫ ﯾﺳﺗطﯾﻊ ﻓﯾﮫ ﺗﻛرار اﻟﺗﺟﺎرب اﻟﺳﺎرة‬ ‫وﺗرﺗﯾب اﻷﺣداث وﺗﻐﯾﯾرھﺎ ﺑﺎﻟطرق اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗروق ﻟﮫ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻏﯾرھﺎ وﺑدﻻً‬ ‫ﻣن أن ﯾﻛون اﻟطﻔل ﻣﺟرد ﻣﺳﺗﻘﺑل إﯾﺟﺎﺑﻲ ﻟﺣدث ﻣؤﻟم‪ ،‬ﯾﻣﻛن أن ﯾﺻﺑﺢ‬ ‫اﻟﺷﺧص اﻟذي ﯾﺳﺑب اﻷﻟم‬ ‫ب(‪ .‬اﻟﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﺳﻠوﻛﯾﺔ‪ :‬رﻛز اﻟﺳﻠوﻛﯾون اھﺗﻣﺎﻣﮭم ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدور اﻟذي‬ ‫ﺗﻠﻌﺑﮫ اﻟﺑﯾﺋﺔ ﻣﺗﻣﺛﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺟﻣوﻋﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺛﯾرات اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺷﻛﯾل‬ ‫اﻟﺳﻠوك‪ ،‬ﻓﯾﻣﻛن اﻟﻧظر إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺛﯾرات اﻟﺧﺎرﺟﯾﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﮭﺎ ﻣﺻدر ﻟﻠﻧﻣو‬

‫واﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻓﺎﻟطﻔل ﻣﺛل اﻟﻣرآة ﯾظﮭر ﺳﻠوﻛﮫ ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﮫ ﺳﻠﺳﻠﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﺛﯾرات‬ ‫واﻻﺳﺗﺟﺎﺑﺎت وﯾذﻛر "ﺳﻛو ﻟﺳﻛري"‪ Scholskery‬أن اﻟﻠﻌب‬ ‫ﯾﺧﺿﻊ ﻟﻧﻔس اﻟﻘواﻋد اﻷﺳﺎﺳﯾﺔ ﻟﻠﺗﻌﻠم واﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗم ﺗطﺑﯾﻘﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﺋﺎت‬ ‫اﻷﺧرى ﻣن اﻟﺳﻠوك وﻗد أﻛد "ﺑﺎﻧدورا ووﻟﺗر" ﻋﻠﻰ أھﻣﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﺣﺎﻛﺎة ﻓﻲ‬ ‫اﻛﺗﺳﺎب اﻟﺳﻠوك اﻟذي ﻻ ﯾﻣﻛن ﺗﺟﺎھل دورة ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب اﻟرﻣزي ﻋﻧد‬ ‫اﻷطﻔﺎل‪.‬‬ ‫ﺟـ(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﻣﻌرﻓﯾﺔ‪ :‬ﻗدم "ﺑﯾﺎﺟﯾﮫ "‪Piaget‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ ﻣﻔﺻﻠﺔ‬ ‫ﻋن اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ‪ ،‬وﺗرﺗﺑط ﻧظرﯾﺗﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب ﻋن ﻗرب ﺑﻧظرﯾﺗﮫ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻣو‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ اﻟﻘﺎﺋﻣﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻓﺗراض وﺟود ﻋﻣﻠﯾﺗﯾن أﺳﺎﺳﯾﺗﯾن ﻟﻛل ﻧﻣو‬ ‫ﻋﺿوي ھﻣﺎ‪ :‬اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾل واﻟﻣﻼﺋﻣﺔ‪ .‬أﻣﺎ "ﻓﯾﺟو ﺗﺳﻛﻲ "‪Vygo tsky‬‬ ‫ﻓﯾرى أن ﻟﻠﻌب دورا ً ﻣﺑﺎﺷرا ً ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻣو‪ ،‬ﻓﻌن طرﯾﻖ اﻟﻠﻌب اﻹﯾﮭﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟذات ﯾﺗﻌﻠم اﻷطﻔﺎل ﻓﺻل اﻟﺷﻲء ﻋن ﻣﻌﻧﺎه‪ ،‬وﯾﻧﻣو ﺗﻔﻛﯾرھم ﻧﺣو‬ ‫اﻟﺗﻔﻛﯾر اﻟﻣﺟرد‪ .‬وﯾرى "ﻓﯾﺟو ﺗﺳﻛﻲ" أن اﻟﻌب اﻹﯾﮭﺎﻣﻲ ﺑﺎﻟذات أھﻣﯾﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻧﻣو اﻟﻌﻘﻠﻲ ﻟﻠطﻔل‪.‬‬ ‫ھـ(‪ .‬ﻧظرﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﺗﺳون وﻧظرﯾﺔ ﺑرﻻﯾن‪ :‬ﯾرى ﺑﺎﺗﺳون أن اﻟﺣرﻛﺎت اﻟﺗﻲ‬ ‫ﺗﺻدر أﺛﻧﺎء اﻟﻠﻌب ﻻ ﺗﻌﻧﻲ ﻣﺎ ﺗﻌﻧﯾﮫ ﻋﺎدة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﻌﺎدﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﺎدة ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺷﻛل اﻷطﻔﺎل إطﺎرا ً ﻣﺛل اﻟﻠﻌب ﯾﻔﮭﻣون ﻣﻧﮫ ھم واﻵﺧرون أن ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث‬ ‫ھو ﻟﻌب وﻟﯾس ﺣﻘﯾﻘﺔ‪ ،‬وﻋﺎدة ﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث ھذا ﻋن طرﯾﻖ اﻻﺑﺗﺳﺎم‬ ‫واﻟﺿﺣك وﯾﻠﻌب اﻷطﻔﺎل اﻟﻠﻌب اﻟﺗﺧﯾﻠﻲ ﻋن طرﯾﻖ اﻟﺗﻣﺛﯾل وﻟﻌب‬ ‫اﻷدوار‪ ،‬أﻣﺎ اﻟﻌﺎﻟم اﻟﻛﻧدي ﺑرﻻﯾن ﻓﺈﻧﮫ ﯾرى أن اﻟﻠﻌب إﻧﻣﺎ ﯾﺣدث ﻧﺗﯾﺟﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻌﺻﺑﻲ اﻟﻣرﻛزي‬ ‫ﻟﻼﺣﺗﻔﺎظ ﺑﺎﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة ﻋﻧد ﺣد ﻣﺛﻼً‪ ،‬ﻓﻌﻧد اﻟﺗﻌرض ﻟﻣﺛﯾرات ﻛﺛﯾرة ﯾرﺗﻔﻊ‬ ‫ﻣﺳﺗوى اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز اﻟﻌﺻﺑﻲ إﻟﻰ ﺣد ﻏﯾر ﻣرﯾﺢ‪ .‬وﻣﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺗدﻋﻲ اﺷﺗراﻛﻧﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻧﺷﺎط ﻣﺎ ﻟﺧﻔض ھذه اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة‪ ،‬وﯾﻌد اﻟﻠﻌب‬ ‫ﻧﺷﺎطﺎ ً ﻣﻧﺎﺳﺑﺎ ً ﻹﺣداث اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة إذا ﻛﺎﻧت ﻋﻧد ﺣد ﻣﻧﺧﻔض‪ ،‬ﻓﺎﻟﻠﻌب‬ ‫ﺗزوﯾد اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة ﻋن طرﯾﻖ اﺳﺗﺧدام أدوات وأﻓﻌﺎل ﺟدﯾدة وﻏﯾر ﻣﻌﺗﺎدة‬ ‫وﯾﻧﺗﺞ ﻋﻧﮫ ﻧﺷﺎط ﯾؤدي إﻟﻰ اﻧﺧﻔﺎض ﻣﺳﺗوى اﻻﺳﺗﺛﺎرة ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﮭﺎز‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺻﺑﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻟﻌل أول ﻣﺣﺎوﻟﺔ ﺟدﯾدة ﻟدراﺳﺔ اﻟﺗطورات اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗطرأ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻠﻌب‬ ‫اﻻﺟﺗﻣﺎﻋﻲ ﻟﻸطﻔﺎل ﻛﺎﻧت ﻣن ﻗﺑل ﺑﺎرﺗن ‪ Parten‬اﻋﺗﻣدت ﻓﻲ‬ ‫دراﺳﺗﮭﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻼﺣظﺔ اﻷطﻔﺎل ﻓﻲ ﻟﻌﺑﮭم اﻟﺣر ﻓﻲ دور اﻟﺣﺿﺎﻧﺔ‬ ‫ورﯾﺎض اﻷطﻔﺎل‪ ،‬وﺻﻧﻔت اﻷطﻔﺎل ﺗﺑﻌﺎ ً ﻟﻣدى اﻧﺧراطﮭم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب إﻟﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﻔﺋﺎت اﻵﺗﯾﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫* اﻟطﻔل ﻏﯾر اﻟﻣﺷﺎرك ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب‪ :‬ﯾﻘف ﻓﻲ ﻣﻛﺎن ﻣﺎ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻐرﻓﺔ ﯾﺟول‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺑﺻره ﻋﺑر أرﺟﺎﺋﮭﺎ أو ﯾﻘوم ﺑﺣرﻛﺎت ﻏﯾر ھﺎدﻓﺔ‪ ،‬أﻣﺛﺎل ھذا اﻟطﻔل‬ ‫ھم ﻗﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ دور اﻟﺣﺿﺎﻧﺔ واﻟروﺿﺎت‪.‬‬ ‫* اﻟطﻔل اﻻﻧﻔرادي‪ :‬ﯾﻠﻌب وﺣده وﯾﺑدو ﻣﻧﺧرطﺎ ً ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﯾﻠﻌب ﻓﯾﮫ ﻻ ﯾﻠوي‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺷﻲء آﺧر ھذا اﻟﻧوع ﻣن اﻷطﻔﺎل ﻏﺎﻟﺑﺎ ً ﻣﺎ ﺗﺗراوح أﻋﻣﺎرھم ﻣﺎ ﺑﯾن‬ ‫‪ ۳-۲‬ﺳﻧوات‪.‬‬ ‫* اﻟطﻔل اﻟﻣﺷﺎھد أو اﻟﻣراﻗب ﻟﻠﻌب‪ :‬ﯾﻛﺗﻔﻲ ﺑﺎﻟﺗﺣدث ﻣﻊ اﻷطﻔﺎل‬ ‫اﻟﻣﻧﺧرطﯾن ﻓﻲ اﻟﻠﻌب أو ﺗوﺟﯾﮫ اﻷﺳﺋﻠﺔ ﻟﮭم ﻓﮭو ﯾﺑدي اھﺗﻣﺎﻣﺎ ً ﺑﻠﻌب‬ ‫اﻵﺧرﯾن وﻟﻛﻧﮫ ﻻ ﯾﺷﺎرﻛﮭم‪.‬‬

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‫داﻓﻌﻮ ﻋﻦ وﻃﻦ ﻫﻴﻔﺎء وﻫﺒﻲ ‪..‬‬ ‫ﻣﻘﺎل ﯾﺻف ﺣﺎل اﻷﻣﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﯾﮫ ﺑﻘﻠم أﺣﻼم ﻣﺳﺗﻐﺎﻧﻣﻲ اﻟﺟزاﺋرﯾﺔ‪....‬‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺗﺣﻖ اﻟﻘراءة ﺗﻘول ‪:‬‬ ‫وﺻﻠتُ إﻟﻰ ﺑﯾروت ﻓﻲ ﺑداﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﺳﻌﯾﻧﺎت‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺗوﻗﯾت وﺻول اﻟﺷﺎب ﺧﺎﻟد‬ ‫إﻟﻰ اﻟﻧﺟوﻣﯾّﺔ اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻣﯾّﺔ‪ .‬أُﻏﻧﯾﺔ واﺣدة ﻗذﻓت ﺑﮫ إﻟﻰ اﻟﻣﺟد• ﻛﺎﻧت أﻏﻧﯾﺔ "دي‬ ‫دي واه" ﺷﺎﻏﻠﺔ اﻟﻧﺎس ﻟﯾﻼً وﻧﮭﺎراً‪.‬‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣوﺳﯾﻘﺎھﺎ ﺗُﻘﺎم اﻷﻋراس‪ ،‬وﺗﻘدﱠم ﻋروض اﻷزﯾﺎء‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻰ إﯾﻘﺎﻋﮭﺎ‬ ‫ﺗرﻗص ﺑﯾروت ﻟﯾﻼً‪ ،‬وﺗذھب إﻟﻰ ﻣﺷﺎﻏﻠﮭﺎ ﺻﺑﺎﺣﺎً‪.‬ﻛﻧت ﻗﺎدﻣﺔ ﻟﺗ ّ ِوي ﻣن‬ ‫ﺑﺎرﯾس‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ ﺣوزﺗﻲ ﻣﺧطوط "اﻟﺟﺳد"‪ ،‬أرﺑﻌﻣﺎﺋﺔ ﺻﻔﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻗﺿﯾت أرﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺳﻧوات ﻓﻲ ﻧﺣﺗﮭﺎ ﺟﻣﻠﺔ ﺟﻣﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺣﺎ ِوﻟﺔ ﻣﺎ اﺳﺗطﻌت ﺗﺿﻣﯾﻧﮭﺎ ﻧﺻف ﻗرن‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟﻧﺿﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﻠﺟزاﺋر‪ ،‬إﻧﻘﺎذا ً ﻟﻣﺎﺿﯾﻧﺎ‪ ،‬ورﻏﺑﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﻌرﯾف اﻟﻌﺎﻟم‬ ‫اﻟﻌرﺑﻲ إﻟﻰ أﻣﺟﺎدﻧﺎ وأوﺟﺎﻋﻧﺎ‪.‬ﻟﻛﻧﻧﻲ ﻣﺎ ﻛﻧت أُﻋﻠن ﻋن ھوﯾﺗﻲ إﻻّ‬ ‫ت ﻣن ﺑﻼد اﻟﺷﺎب ﺧﺎﻟد!"‪،‬‬ ‫وﯾُﺟﺎﻣﻠﻧﻲ أﺣدھم ﻗﺎﺋﻼً‪" :‬آه‪ ..‬أﻧ ِ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫واﺟدا ً ﻓﻲ ھذا اﻟرﺟل اﻟذي ﯾﺿﻊ ﻗرطﺎ ﻓﻲ أذﻧﮫ‪ ،‬وﯾظﮭر ﻓﻲ اﻟﺗﻠﻔزﯾون‬ ‫ﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫اﻟﻔرﻧﺳﻲ ﺑرﻓﻘﺔ ﻛﻠﺑﮫ‪ ،‬وﻻ ﺟواب ﻟﮫ ﻋن أي ﺳؤال ﺳوى اﻟﺿﺣك اﻟﻐﺑ ّ‬ ‫ﻗراﺑﺔ ﺑﻣواﺟﻌﻲ‪.‬وﻓورا ً ﯾﺻﺑﺢ اﻟﺳؤال‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﻣﻌﻧﻰ ِﻋﺑَﺎرة "دي دي واه"؟‬ ‫وﻋﻧدﻣﺎ أﻋﺗرف ﺑﻌدم ﻓﮭﻣﻲ أﻧﺎ أﯾﺿﺎ ً ﻣﻌﻧﺎھﺎ‪ ،‬ﯾﺗﺣﺳﱠر ﺳﺎﺋﻠﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗَ َدر‬ ‫اﻟﺟزاﺋر‪ ،‬اﻟﺗﻲ ﺑﺳﺑب اﻻﺳﺗﻌﻣﺎر‪ ،‬ﻻ ﺗﻔﮭم اﻟﻠﻐﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﯾﺔ!‬ ‫"ﻓزورة" )دي دي واه(‪ ،‬وﻗﺿﯾت زﻣﻧﺎ ً‬ ‫وﺑﻌد أن أﺗﻌﺑﻧﻲ اﻟﺟواب ﻋن ّ‬ ‫طوﯾﻼً أﻋﺗذر ﻟﻸﺻدﻗﺎء واﻟﻐرﺑﺎء وﺳﺎﺋﻘﻲ اﻟﺗﺎﻛﺳﻲ‪ ،‬وﻋﺎﻣل ﻣﺣطﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺑﻧزﯾن اﻟﻣﺻري‪ ،‬وﻣﺻﻔﻔﺔ ﺷﻌري ﻋن ﺟﮭﻠﻲ وأُﻣﯾﺗﻲ‪ ،‬ﻗررت أﻻّ أﻓﺻﺢ‬ ‫ﻋن ھوﯾﺗﻲ اﻟﺟزاﺋرﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻛﻲ أرﺗﺎح‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟم ﯾﺣزﻧّﻲ أن ﻣطرﺑﺎ ً ﺑﻛﻠﻣﺗﯾن‪ ،‬أو ﺑﺎﻷﺣرى ﺑﺄﻏﻧﯾﺔ ﻣن ﺣرﻓﯾن‪ ،‬ﺣﻘﻖ ﻣﺟدا ً‬ ‫وﻣﻛﺎﺳب‪ ،‬ﻻ ﯾﺣﻘﻘﮭﺎ أي ﻛﺎﺗب ﻋرﺑﻲ ﻧذر ﻋﻣره ﻟﻠﻛﻠﻣﺎت‪ ،‬ﺑﻘدر ﻣﺎ أﺣزﻧﻧﻲ‬ ‫أﻧﻧﻲ ﺟﺋت اﻟﻣﺷرق ﻓﻲ اﻟزﻣن اﻟﺧطﺄ‪.‬‬ ‫ُﻧﺳب إﻟﻰ ﺑﻠد اﻷﻣﯾر ﻋﺑد اﻟﻘﺎدر‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﻔﻲ اﻟﺧﻣﺳﯾﻧﺎت‪ ،‬ﻛﺎن اﻟﺟزاﺋري ﯾ ُ‬ ‫اﻟﺳﺗﯾﻧﺎت إﻟﻰ ﺑﻠد أﺣﻣد ﺑن ﺑﻠّﺔ وﺟﻣﯾﻠﺔ ﺑو ﺣﯾرد‪ ،‬وﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﺑﻌﯾﻧﺎت إﻟﻰ ﺑﻠد‬ ‫ھواري ﺑوﻣدﯾن واﻟﻣﻠﯾون ﺷﮭﯾد ‪ ...‬اﻟﯾوم ﯾُﻧﺳب اﻟﻌرﺑﻲ إﻟﻰ ﻣطرﺑﯾﮫ‪ ،‬وإﻟﻰ‬ ‫ْاﻟ ُﻣﻐﻧِّﻲ اﻟذي ﯾﻣﺛﻠﮫ ﻓﻲ "ﺳﺗﺎر أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﻲ" ‪...‬وھﻛذا‪ ،‬ﺣﺗﻰ وﻗت ﻗرﯾب‪ ،‬ﻛﻧت‬ ‫أﺗﻠﻘّﻰ اﻟﻣدح ﻛﺟزاﺋرﯾﺔ ﻣن ِﻗﺑَل اﻟذﯾن أﺣﺑﱡوا اﻟﻔﺗﺎة اﻟﺗﻲ ﻣﺛﻠت اﻟﺟزاﺋر ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﺳﻰ ﻧﯾﺎﺑﺔ ﻋﻧﮭﺎ‪ ...‬ھذا ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﻻ ﯾﺧﺎﻟﻧﻲ اﻟﺑﻌض‬ ‫"ﺳﺗﺎر أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﻲ"‪ ،‬وأُوا َ‬ ‫ﻣﻐرﺑﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﯾُﺑدي ﻟﻲ ﺗﻌﺎطﻔﮫ ﻣﻊ ﺻوﻓﯾﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫وﻗﺑل ﺣرب إﺳراﺋﯾل اﻷﺧﯾرة ﻋﻠﻰ ﻟﺑﻧﺎن‪ ،‬ﻛﻧت أﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﺑﻘﮭر ذات ﻣﺳﺎء‪ ،‬ﺗﻠك‬ ‫اﻟرﺳﺎﺋل اﻟﮭﺎﺑطﺔ اﻟﻣﺣﺑطﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗُﺑث ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﻧوات اﻟﻐﻧﺎء‪ ،‬ﻋﻧدﻣﺎ ﺣﺿرﻧﻲ‬ ‫ﻗول "ﺳﺗﺎﻟﯾن" وھو ﯾﻧﺎدي‪ ،‬ﻣن ﺧﻼل اﻟﻣذﯾﺎع‪ ،‬اﻟﺷﻌب اﻟروﺳﻲ ﻟﻠﻣﻘﺎوﻣﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫واﻟﻧﺎزﯾون ﻋﻠﻰ أﺑواب ﻣوﺳﻛو‪ ،‬ﺻﺎﺋﺣﺎً‪" :‬داﻓﻌوا ﻋن وطن ﺑوﺷﻛﯾن‬ ‫وﺗوﻟﺳﺗوي"‪.‬‬ ‫وﻗﻠت ﻟﻧﻔﺳﻲ ﻣﺎزﺣﺔ‪ ،‬ﻟو ﻋﺎودت إﺳراﺋﯾل اﻟﯾوم اﺟﺗﯾﺎح ﻟﺑﻧﺎن أو ﻏزو‬ ‫ﻣﺻر‪ ،‬ﻟَ َﻣﺎ وﺟدﻧﺎ أﻣﺎﻣﻧﺎ ﻣن ﺳﺑﯾل ﻟﺗﻌﺑﺋﺔ اﻟﺷﺑﺎب واﺳﺗﻧﻔﺎر ﻣﺷﺎﻋرھم‬ ‫اﻟوطﻧﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﺳوى ﺑث ﻧداءات ورﺳﺎﺋل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻔﺿﺎﺋﯾﺎت اﻟﻐﻧﺎﺋﯾﺔ‪ ،‬أن داﻓﻌوا‬ ‫ﻋن وطن ھﯾﻔﺎء وھﺑﻲ وإﻟﯾﺳﺎ وﻧﺎﻧﺳﻲ ﻋﺟرم وﻣروى وروﺑﻲ وأﺧواﺗﮭن‬ ‫‪ ....‬ﻓﻼ أرى أﺳﻣﺎء ﻏﯾر ھذه ﻟﺷﺣذ اﻟﮭﻣم وﻟ ّم اﻟﺣﺷود‪.‬‬

‫و� ﻓﻲ اﻷﻣر ﻧﻛﺗﺔ‪ .‬ﻓﻣﻧذ أرﺑﻊ ﺳﻧوات ﺧرج اﻷﺳﯾر اﻟﻣﺻري‬ ‫وﻟﯾس ّ‬ ‫ﻣﺣﻣود اﻟﺳوارﻛﺔ ﻣن اﻟﻣﻌﺗﻘﻼت اﻹﺳراﺋﯾﻠﯾﺔ‪ ،‬اﻟﺗﻲ ﻗﺿﻰ ﻓﯾﮭﺎ اﺛﻧﺗﯾن‬ ‫وﻋﺷرﯾن ﺳﻧﺔ‪ ،‬ﺣﺗﻰ اﺳﺗﺣﻖ ﻟﻘب أﻗدم أﺳﯾر ﻣﺻري‪ ،‬وﻟم ﯾﺟد اﻟرﺟل أﺣدا ً‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻧﺗظﺎره ﻣن "اﻟﺟﻣﺎھﯾر" اﻟﺗﻲ ﻧﺎﺿل ﻣن أﺟﻠﮭﺎ‪ ،‬وﻻ اﺳﺗﺣﻖ ﺧﺑر‬ ‫إطﻼق ﺳراﺣﮫ أﻛﺛر ﻣن ﻣرﺑّﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺟرﯾدة‪ ،‬ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ اﺿطر ﻣﺳﺋوﻟو اﻷﻣن ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣطﺎر اﻟﻘﺎھرة إﻟﻰ ﺗﮭرﯾب ﻧﺟم "ﺳﺗﺎر أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﻲ" ﻣﺣﻣد ﻋطﯾّﺔ ﺑﻌد وﻗوع‬ ‫ﺟراء ﺗ َ َداﻓُﻊ ﻣﺋﺎت اﻟﺷﺑّﺎن واﻟﺷﺎﺑّﺎت‪ ،‬اﻟذﯾن ظﻠﱡوا ﯾﺗرددون ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺟرﺣﻰ ّ‬ ‫اﻟﻣطﺎر ﻣﻊ ﻛل ﻣوﻋد ﻟوﺻول طﺎﺋرة ﻣن ﺑﯾروت‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أوطﺎن ﻛﺎﻧت ﺗُﻧﺳب إﻟﻰ اﻷﺑطﺎل‪ ،‬و َ‬ ‫ﻏ َدت ﺗُﻧﺳب إﻟﻰ اﻟﺻﺑﯾﺎن‪ ،‬ﻗرأﻧﺎ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫أن ﻣﺣﻣد ﺧﻼوي‪ ،‬اﻟطﺎﻟب اﻟﺳﺎﺑﻖ ﻓﻲ "ﺳﺗﺎر أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﻲ"‪ ،‬ظ ﱠل ﻷﺳﺎﺑﯾﻊ ﻻ‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ً‬ ‫ﯾﻣﺷﻲ إﻻ ﻣﺣﺎطﺎ ﺑﺧﻣﺳﺔ ﺣراس ﻻ ﯾﻔﺎرﻗوﻧﮫ أﺑدا ‪ ..‬رﺑﻣﺎ أﺧذ اﻟوﻟد ﻣﺄﺧذ‬ ‫اﻟﺟد ﻟﻘب "اﻟزﻋﯾم" اﻟذي أطﻠﻘﮫ زﻣﻼؤه ﻋﻠﯾﮫ!‬ ‫ﺗﻌرﻓت إﻟﻰ اﻟﻐﺎﻟﯾﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﺎﺿﻠﺔ اﻟﻛﺑﯾرة ﺟﻣﯾﻠﺔ ﺑوﺣﯾرد ﻓﻲ رﺣﻠﺔ ﺑﯾن‬ ‫وﻟﻘد ّ‬ ‫اﻟﺟزاﺋر وﻓرﻧﺳﺎ‪ ،‬وﻛﺎﻧت ﺗﺳﺎﻓر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدرﺟﺔ اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ‪ُ ،‬ﻣﺣ ﱠﻣﻠﺔ ﺑﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﺣﻣﻠﮫ أ ُ ﱞم ﻣن ﻣؤوﻧﺔ ﻏذاﺋﯾﺔ ﻻﺑﻧﮭﺎ اﻟوﺣﯾد‪ ،‬وﺷﻌرت ﺑﺎﻟﺧﺟل‪ ،‬ﻷن ﻣﺛﻠﮭﺎ ﻻ‬ ‫ﻟﺗوه ﻋﻠﻰ ﺑﻼﺗوھﺎت‬ ‫ﯾﺳﺎﻓر ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟدرﺟﺔ اﻷُوﻟﻰ‪ ،‬ﺑﯾﻧﻣﺎ ﯾﻔﺎﺧر ﻓرخ ُوﻟد ّ‬ ‫ﺿﻌَت ﺗﺣت‬ ‫"ﺳﺗﺎر أﻛﺎدﯾﻣﻲ"‪ ،‬ﺑﺄﻧﮫ ﻻ ﯾﺗﻧﻘّل إﻻّ ﺑطﺎﺋرة ﺣﻛوﻣﯾّﺔ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‪ُ ،‬و ِ‬ ‫ﺗﺻرﻓﮫ‪ ،‬ﻷﻧﮫ رﻓﻊ اﺳم ﺑﻠده ﻋﺎﻟﯾﺎً!‬ ‫ّ‬ ‫ھﻧﯾﺋﺎ ﻟﻼﻣﺔ اﻟﻌرﺑﯾﺔ ھﻧﯾﺋﺎ ﻻﻣﺔ رﺳول ﷲ إﻧﺎ � وإﻧﺎ إﻟﯾﮫ راﺟﻌون‪."..‬‬ ‫))) اﻟﻘﺻﯾدة ﻟﻠﺷﺎﻋر اﻟﻌراﻗﻲ اﺣﻣد ﻣطر ((‬ ‫‪ :‬ﻓﮭﻣت اﻻن ﯾﺎوﻟدي ﻟﻣﺎذا‬ ‫ﻗﻠت ﻻﺗﻛﺑر؟!‬ ‫ﺻﻐﯾري اﻧﻧﻲ ارﺟوك ﻻﺗﻛﺑر‬ ‫ﻣزﻗﺔٌ‬ ‫ﻓﻣﺻر ﻟم ﺗﻌٌد ﻣﺻرا َ‬ ‫ﻓﺄُﻣﺗﻧﺎ ٌﻣ ّ‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫وﺗوﻧس ﻟم ﺗﻌد ﺧﺿرا‬ ‫وأٌﻣﺗﻧﺎ ﻣﻘﺳّﻣﺔٌ وﻛل دﻗﯾﻘﺔً ﺗﺧﺳر‬ ‫وﺣول اﻟﺟﯾد ﻣﺷﻧﻘﺔٌ‬ ‫وﺑﻐدا ٌد ھﻲ اﻷٌﺧرى‬ ‫ﺗذوق ﺧﯾﺎﻧﺔ اﻟﻌﺳﻛر‪.‬‬ ‫وﻓﻲ اﺣﺷﺎﺋﮭﺎ ﺧﻧﺟر‬ ‫وإن ﺗﺳﺄل ﻋن اﻻﻗﺻﻰ‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ ﺳﯾﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﻓﺈن ﺟراﺣﮭم اﻗﺳﻰ‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ ﺳﺑﺳﻲ‬ ‫ﺑﻧﻲ ﺻﮭﯾون ﺗﻘﺗﻠﮭم‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ ﺣوﺛﻲ‬ ‫وﻣﺻر ﺗﻐﻠﻖ اﻟﻣﻌﺑر‪..‬‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ ﺣﻔﺗر‬ ‫ٌ‬ ‫وﺣﺗﻰ اﻟﺷﺎم ﯾﺎوﻟدي‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ اﯾران واﻣرﯾﻛﺎ‬ ‫ﺗﻣوت ﺑﺣﺳرةٍ اﻛﺑر‬ ‫واﺳراﺋﯾل‬ ‫ھﻧﺎﻟك ﻟوﺗرى ﺣﻠب‬ ‫واﺑن ﻋﻣر‬ ‫ﺳ ِﻠﺑﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﺣﻖ اﻟطﻔل ﻗد ٌ‬ ‫ھﻧﺎ ﻋرﺑﻲ ﯾﺧذﻟﻧﺎ وﻣﺳﻠم ﺟﺎء ﯾﻧﺣرﻧﺎ‬ ‫وﻋرض ﻓﺗﺎة ُ ﯾٌﻐﺗﺻﺑﺎ‬ ‫وارھﺎﺑﻲ ﯾﻔﺟرﻧﺎ وﻻﻧدري ِﻟم ﻓ ّﺟر‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫وﻧﺻف اﻟﺷﻌب ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﮭﺟر‪.‬‬

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‫أﻗــﻮى‬ ‫زﻻزل‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬

‫ت اﻟﻣﺎﺿﯾﺔ‪ ،‬وﻋﻠﻰ اﻟرﻏم ﻣن اﻟﺗﻘدم اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﻲ‬ ‫آﻻف اﻷﺷﺧﺎص ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺳﺗوى‬ ‫ث اﻟطﺑﯾﻌﯾﺔ اﻟﺗﻲ أودت ﺑﺣﯾﺎ ِة‬ ‫ﺗُﻌد اﻟزﻻزل ﻣن اﻟﻛوار ِ‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟم ﻓﻲ اﻟﺳﻧوا ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫ِ‬ ‫اﻟﮭﺎﺋل ﻟم ﺗُﺳﮭم اﻟﺗطورات اﻟﺗﻛﻧوﻟوﺟﯾﺔ ﺳوى ﻓﻲ ﺗﺧﻔﯾض طﻔﯾف ﻓﻲ ﻋدد اﻟﺿﺣﺎﯾﺎ اﻟﻧﺎﺗﺟﺔ ﻋن ﻣﺛل ھذه اﻟﻛوارث‪.‬‬ ‫آﺧر ھذه اﻟزﻻزل ﻣﺎ ﺷﮭدﺗﮫ إﯾطﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﺻﺑﺎح َ اﻷرﺑﻌﺎء‪ ،‬واﻟذي ﺑﻠﻐت ﻗوﺗﮫ ‪ ٦٫۲‬درﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻘﯾﺎس رﯾﺧﺗر‪ ،‬وﻛﺎن ﻋﻣﻘﮫ ﻋﺷرة ﻛﯾﻠو ﻣﺗرات‪ ،‬واﺳﺗﻣر‬ ‫ﻟﻣدة ‪ ۲۰‬ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ أﺳﻔر ﻋن أﺿرار ﻣﺎدﯾﺔ ﺿﺧﻣﺔ ﺑﺑﻠدة أﻣﺎﺗرﯾﺳﻰ‪ ،‬ووﻗوع اﻟﻌﺷرات ﻣن اﻟﺿﺣﺎﯾﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺣﺻﯾﻠﺔ ﻗﺎﺑﻠﺔ ﻟﻼرﺗﻔﺎع ‪..‬‬ ‫زﻟزال ﺑﻘوة ‪ ٦٫٤‬درﺟﺔ ﯾﮭز وﺳط إﯾطﺎﻟﯾﺎ‬ ‫زﻟزال إﯾطﺎﻟﯾﺎ ‪۲۰۰۹‬‬ ‫"زﻟزال ﻻﻛوﯾﻼ" اﻟزﻟزال اﻟذي ﺑﻠﻐت ﻗوﺗﮫ ‪ ٥٫۸‬درﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﯾﺎس رﯾﺧﺗر و‪ ٦٫۳‬درﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﯾﺎس اﻟﻌزم‪ ،‬ودﻣر اﻟزﻟزال ﻣﻧﺎطﻖ ﺳﻛﻧﯾﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻛﺎﻣل‬ ‫ﻓﻲ إﻗﻠﯾم أﺑروﺗﺳو ﻓﻲ وﺳط إﯾطﺎﻟﯾﺎ‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ أﺻﺑﺢ ﻣن اﻟﺻﻌب اﻟوﺻول إﻟﻲ ﻧﺣو ‪ ۱٥‬أﻟف ﻣﺑﻧﻰ‪ ،‬وﺷُرد ﻣﺎ ﯾﺻل إﻟﻲ ‪ ٥۰‬أﻟف ﺷﺧص‪ ،‬وھذا ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟﻌﻠﮫ‬ ‫أﻋﻧف زﻟزال ﯾﺿرب إﯾطﺎﻟﯾﺎ ﻣﻧذ زﻟزال ﻋﺎم ‪.۱۹۸۰‬‬ ‫زﻟزال ﺗﺷﯾﻠﻲ" اﻷﻗوى ﺣﺗﻰ اﻵن ‪..‬‬ ‫ﺳﺟل ﻋﻠﻰ اﻹطﻼق‪ ،‬ﺑﺣﯾث ﺑﻠﻐت ﻗوﺗﮫ ‪ ۹٫٥‬درﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﻘﺎس رﯾﺧﺗر‪ ،‬واﻟذي ﺗﺳﺑب ﺑﺄﺿرار ﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ ﻓﺎدﺣﺔ‬ ‫زﻟزال‬ ‫"زﻟزال ﺗﺷﯾﻠﻲ" أﻛﺑر وأﺧطر‬ ‫ُ‬ ‫ﻟﻣدن ﺟﻧوب "ﺗﺷﯾﻠﻲ" ﺑﻠﻐت ﻗﯾﻣﺗﮭﺎ ‪ ٥٥۰‬ﻣﻠﯾون دوﻻر‪ ،‬ﻛﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺗل ﻣﺎ ﯾﻘرب ﻣن ‪ ۱٦٥٥‬ﺷﺧﺻﺎ‪ ،‬وﺗﺷرﯾد اﻟﻣﻼﯾﯾن ﺑﻼ ﻣﺄوى‪.‬‬ ‫زﻟزال ﺑﻘوة ‪ ٦‬درﺟﺎت ﺑﺎﻟﯾﺎﺑﺎن وﻻ إﻧذار ﺑﺗﺳوﻧﺎﻣﻲ‬ ‫"زﻟزال أﻻﺳﻛﺎ اﻟﻌظﯾم"‬ ‫ﺻﻧف أﻛﺑر ھزة أرﺿﯾﺔ ﺗم ﺗﺳﺟﯾﻠﮭﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟوﻻﯾﺎت اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة‪ ،‬وﺛﺎﻟث أﻗوى‬ ‫زﻟزال أﻻﺳﻛﺎ اﻟﻌظﯾم ‪..‬واﻟذي ﯾﻌد اﻷﻋﻧف ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ اﻟوﻻﯾﺔ ‪ ،‬ﺑﺣﯾث ُ‬ ‫زﻟزال ﺗم ﻗﯾﺎﺳﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺎرﯾﺦ أﻣرﯾﻛﺎ اﻟﺷﻣﺎﻟﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫وﺑﻠﻐت ﻗوة "زﻟزال أﻻﺳﻛﺎ اﻟﻌظﯾم" ‪ ۹٫۲‬درﺟﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ ﻣﻘﯾﺎس رﯾﺧﺗر واﺳﺗﻣر ﻟﻣدة ‪ ٤‬دﻗﺎﺋﻖ و ‪ ۳۸‬ﺛﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪،‬ﻣﻣﺎ أﺳﻔر ﻋن إﻧﮭﯾﺎر اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣن اﻟﻣﻧﺷﺂت‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻣﺔ‪ ،‬وارﺗﻔﺎع اﻷرض ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻧوب اﻟﻐرﺑﻲ ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ ‪ ۳۰‬ﻗدم وھو ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺎدل ‪ ۹٫۱‬ﻣﺗر‪ ،‬واﻧﺧﻔﺎض اﻷرض ﻓﻲ اﻟﺟﻧوب اﻟﺷرﻗﻲ ﺑﻧﺳﺑﺔ ‪ ۸‬ﻗدم وھو‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﯾﻌﺎدل ‪ ۲٫٤‬ﻣﺗر‪.‬‬ ‫"زﻟزال ﺷﺎطﺊ ﻣوﻟﻲ"‬ ‫"زﻟزال ﺷﺎطﺊ ﻣوﻟﻲ" اﻟذي ﺣدث ﺑﺗﺷﯾﻠﻲ‪ ،‬ﺑﻠﻐت ﻗوﺗﮫ ‪ ۸٫۸‬درﺟﺎت رﯾﺧﺗر‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﺗﺳﺑب ﻓﻲ ﻣﻘﺗل ‪ ٥۰۰‬ﺷﺧص ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗل‪،‬وﻗُدرت اﻟﺧﺳﺎﺋر‬ ‫اﻻﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﻟﻠزﻟزال ﺑﺣواﻟﻲ ‪ ۳۰‬ﻣﻠﯾﺎر دوﻻر أﻣرﯾﻛﻲ ‪۳۹۰٤ WA٥¤..‬‬


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‫ﺑﺮﻭﻧﻲ ﻭﻳﺮ‬

‫כ … א„אƒ‬

‫ﺑروﻧﻲ وﯾر ‪ :‬ﻣﻣرﺿﺔ اﺳﺗراﻟﯾﺔ ﻋﻣﻠت ﻋﻧد اﻟﻌدﯾد ﻣن ﻛﺑﺎر اﻟﺳن ﻗﺑل وﻓﺎﺗﮭم ‪ ،‬و ﻛﺎﻧت ﺗﺳﺄﻟﮭم ﻓﻲ آﺧر أﯾﺎﻣﮭم ﻋن أﺷﯾﺎء‬ ‫ﻣدوﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﻧدﻣوا ﻋﻠﻰ ﻋﻣﻠﮭﺎ أو أﺷﯾﺎء ﺗﻣﻧّوا أﻧﮭم ﻟو ﻛﺎﻧوا ﯾﻌﻣﻠوھﺎ ﺑطرﯾﻘﺔ ﻣﺧﺗﻠﻔﺔ ‪ ،‬ﻛﺎﻧت ھﻧﺎك ﺧﻣس إﺟﺎﺑﺎت ﻣﺗﻛررة و ھﻲ ّ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺗﻔﺻﯾل ﻓﻲ ﻛﺗﺎﺑﮭﺎ‬ ‫‪The top five regrets‬‬ ‫‪of the dying‬‬ ‫اﻟذي ﺗُرﺟم إﻟﻰ ‪ ۲۷‬ﻟﻐﺔ ﺣﺗﻰ اﻵن ‪ ،‬وھﻧﺎ أﻟ ّﺧص ھذه اﻹﺟﺎﺑﺎت اﻟﺧﻣس‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟدي اﻟﺷﺟﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻋﯾش ﻟﻧﻔﺳﻲ وﻻ أﻋﯾش اﻟﺣﯾﺎة اﻟﺗﻲ ﯾﺗوﻗﻌﮭﺎ أو ﯾرﯾدھﺎ ﻣﻧﻲ اﻵﺧرون ‪،‬‬ ‫أوﻻً ‪ :‬ﺗﻣﻧﯾت أن ﻟو ﻛﺎﻧت ّ‬ ‫وھذا ﻛﺎن ﻏﺎﻟب ﻣﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﮫ َﻣن ﻋﻣﻠت ﻣﻌﮭم اﻟﺳﯾدة وﯾر‪ ،‬ﺣﯾث ﻋﺑّر اﻟﻛﺛﯾرون ﻋن ﺧﺳﺎرﺗﮭم ﻓﻲ ﻋدم ﺗﺣﻘﯾﻖ أﺣﻼﻣﮭم أو ﺣﺗﻰ‬ ‫ﻧﺻﻔﮭﺎ ﻛل ذﻟك ﺑﺳﺑب أن ﺣﯾﺎﺗﮭم ﻛﺎﻧت ﺗﺗﻣرﻛز ﺑﺷﻛل أو ﺑﺂﺧر ﻹرﺿﺎء اﻟﻐﯾر ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺎ ﻣن اﻟرﺟﺎل اﻟذﯾن ﻋﻣﻠوا ﻓﻲ " طﺎﺣوﻧﺔ‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻧﯾًﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻣﻧﯾت أﻧﻧﻲ ﻟم أﻋﻣل ﺑﺟﮭد وﻣﺷﻘﺔ ﻛﻣﺎ ﻛﻧت أﻋﻣل ‪ ،‬وھذا اﻟﺟواب ﺟﺎء ﺧﺻو ً‬ ‫" اﻟﻌﻣل اﻟروﺗﯾﻧﻲ ﺣﯾث ﻋﺑّر اﻟﻛﺛﯾر ﻣﻧﮭم ﻋن ﺧﺳﺎرﺗﮫ ﻷﺷﯾﺎء ﻣﮭﻣﺔ ﻣﻧﮭﺎ اﻟرﻓﻘﺔ واﻷﺻدﻗﺎء اﻟذﯾن ﯾﺧﻔﻔون ﻋن اﻹﻧﺳﺎن اﻟﻛﺛﯾر‬ ‫ﺻﺎ َﻣن ﻓﻘدت اﻟﻌﺎﺋل وﻗت اﻟ ِﻛﺑَر‪.‬‬ ‫ﻣن اﻟﺗﻌب ‪ .‬وﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﻘﺎﺑل أﯾﺿًﺎ ﻋﺑّرت ﺑﻌض اﻟﻧﺳﺎء ﻋن ﻗرﯾب ﻣن ذﻟك ﺧﺻو ً‬ ‫ﻟدي اﻟﺷﺟﺎﻋﺔ ﻷﻋﺑّر ﻋن ﻣﺷﺎﻋري ﺑوﺿوح ‪ ،‬اﻟﻛﺛﯾرون ﻛﺗﻣوا ﻣﺷﺎﻋرھم ﻟﺳﺑب أو ﻵﺧر ﻛﺄن ﯾﻛﺗﻣوا‬ ‫ﺛﺎﻟﺛًﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻣﻧﯾت أن ﻟو ﻛﺎﻧت ّ‬ ‫ﻣﺷﺎﻋرھم رﻏﺑﺔً ﻓﻲ ﺗﺟﻧّب ﻣﺻﺎدﻣﺔ اﻵﺧرﯾن ‪ ،‬وھؤﻻء اﻷﺷﺧﺎص ﻋﺎﺷوا ﻣراوﺣﯾن ﺑﯾن اﻟذات و اﻵﺧر دون أن ﯾﻛوﻧوا ﻛﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﯾرﯾدون ‪ .‬اﻟﻛﺛﯾرون ﻛﺎن ﻟدﯾﮭم اﻻﺳﺗﯾﺎء واﻟﻣرارة اﻟﻣﺳﺗﻣرة اﻟﺗﻲ ﻛﺎﻧت ﺗراﻓﻘﮭم ﺑﺳﺑب ﻛﺑت اﻟﻣﺷﺎﻋر ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺻﺎ اﻟﻘداﻣﻰ اﻟذﯾن ﺗﻌذّر ﺗﺟدﯾد اﻟﺻداﻗﺔ ﻣﻌﮭم ﻛﺎن ھﻧﺎك ﻧدم ﻋﻣﯾﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫راﺑﻌًﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻣﻧﯾت ﻟو ﺑﻘﯾت ﻋﻠﻰ اﺗﺻﺎل ﻣﻊ أﺻدﻗﺎﺋﻲ ﺧﺻو ً‬ ‫ﻋدم إﻋطﺎء اﻷﺻدﻗﺎء ﻣﺎ ﯾﺳﺗﺣﻘوﻧﮫ ﻣن اﻟوﻗت ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺳﺎ ‪ :‬ﺗﻣﻧﯾت أن أﻛون أﻛﺛر ﺳﻌﺎدة ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﻣ ً‬ ‫اﺧﺗﯾﺎرا ﯾﻣﻛﻧﮭم اﻟﻘﯾﺎم ﺑﮫ ‪ ،‬وﻟﻛن ﻟﻸﺳف ﺑﻘوا ﻣﺗﻣﺳﻛﯾن ﺑﺎﻟﻌﺎدات واﻷﻧﻣﺎط‬ ‫اﻟﻛﺛﯾرون ﻟم ﯾدرﻛوا إﻻ ﻣﺗﺄﺧرﯾن أن اﻟﺳﻌﺎدة ﻛﺎﻧت‬ ‫ً‬ ‫اﻟﻘدﯾﻣﺔ ‪ ،‬وﺗﺷﺑﻌوا ﺑﺎﻟراﺣﺔ اﻟﻣﺄﻟوﻓﺔ واﻟﺧوف ﻣن اﻟﺗﻐﯾﯾر ﻣﺎ ﺟﻌﻠﮭم ﯾﺗظﺎھرون ﺑﺎﻟرﺿﺎ أﻣﺎم أﻧﻔﺳﮭم وأﻣﺎم اﻵﺧرﯾن و ﻟﻛﻧﮭم‬ ‫ﻓﻲ دواﺧل أﻧﻔﺳﮭم ﻛﺎﻧوا ﯾﺑﺣﺛون ﻋن ﻏﯾر ذﻟك‪.‬‬ ‫ﺧﻔﻔوا ﻋﻠﻰ أﻧﻔﺳﻛم وﻻ ﺗﺣﻣﻠوا اﻷﻣور أﻛﺛر ﻣﻣﺎ ﺗﺣﺗﻣل ‪ ،‬ﺟﻌﻠﻧﺎ ﷲ واﯾﺎﻛم ﺳﻌداء ﻓﻲ اﻟدﻧﯾﺎ واﻵﺧرة‬


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‫ﺑﺎت ﻣﺻﯾر أﻛﺛر ﻣن أﻟف ﻻﺟﺊ ﺳوري ﺟﻠﮭم ﻣن اﻷطﻔﺎل واﻟﻧﺳﺎء ﻣﮭددًا ﺑﻌد طﻠب اﻟﺳطﺎت اﻟﻠﺑﻧﺎﻧﯾﺔ وأﺟﮭزﺗﮭﺎ اﻷﻣﻧﯾﺔ إﺧﻼء إﺣدى ﻣﺧﯾﻣﺎت‬ ‫ﺷﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻟﺑﻧﺎن‪ ،‬ﺧﻼل ﻣدة أﻗﺻﺎھﺎ ﻋﺷرة أﯾﺎم‪.‬‬ ‫ﻓﻘد ﺗم إﺑﻼغ اﻟﻼﺟﺋﯾن اﻟﺳورﯾﯾن ﻓﻲ ﻣﺧﯾم اﻹﻧﻣﺎء اﻟﺗﺎﺑﻊ ﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻟﺟﻣﻌﯾﺎت اﻹﻏﺎﺛﯾﺔ واﻟﺗﻧﻣوﯾﺔ ﺑﻣﻧطﻘﺔ اﻟرﯾﺣﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻣﺣﺎﻓظﺔ ﻋﻛﺎر أﻣس اﻷول‬ ‫ﺑوﺟوب إﺧﻼﺋﮫ‪ ،‬ﺧﻼل ﻋﺷرة أﯾﺎم‪ ،‬ﺿﻣن ﺧطﺔ ﻣوﺿوﻋﺔ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻠﺑﻧﺎﻧﯾﺔ‪ ،‬ﻹﺧﻼء ﻋدة ﻣﻧﺎطﻖ ﻣن ﻻﺟﺋﯾﮭﺎ‪ ،‬ﻹﻋﺎدة ﺗوزﯾﻌﮭم ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﺧﺗﻠف اﻟﻣﻧﺎطﻖ ﻋﻠﻰ أراﺿﯾﮭﺎ‪.‬‬ ‫وﯾطﻐﻰ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﺗرﻛﯾﺑﺔ اﻟﺳﻛﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﻣﺧﯾم ”اﻹﻧﻣﺎء“ اﻷراﻣل واﻷﯾﺗﺎم اﻟذﯾن ﺗﺻل ﻧﺳﺑﺗﮭم إﻟﻰ ‪ ٪۸۰‬ﻣن إﺟﻣﺎﻟﻲ ﻗﺎطﻧﯾﮫ‪ ،‬ﻓﯾﻣﺎ ﻻ ﺗﺗﺟﺎوز ﻧﺳﺑﺔ‬ ‫اﻟرﺟﺎل اﻟذﯾن ﯾﻘﯾﻣون ﻣﻊ ﻋﺎﺋﻼﺗﮭم ﻧﺳﺑﺔ ‪ ٪۲۰‬ﺣﺳﺑﻣﺎ ذﻛر ﻣدﯾر ﻓرع اﻟﺷﻣﺎل ﻻﺗﺣﺎد اﻟﺟﻣﻌﯾﺎت اﻻﻏﺎﺛﯾﺔ‪” ،‬ﻣﺣﻣد ﻧور اﻟﻘرﺣﺎﻧﻲ“‪ ،‬اﻟذي‬ ‫أوﺿﺢ ﻓﻲ ﺗﺻرﯾﺢ ﺧﺎص ﻟـ ”ﺻدى اﻟﺷﺎم“‪ ،‬أن اﻟﻣﺧﯾم ﯾﺗﺄﻟف ﻣن‪ ۳۳۰‬اﻣرأة و ‪ ٥۰۰‬طﻔل ﺗﺣت ﺳن اﻟﺧﺎﻣﺳﺔ ﻋﺷر‪ ،‬ﻣن أﺻل ‪۱۰٥۸‬‬ ‫ﺷﺧص‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ ﯾﺟﻌل وﺿﻊ اﻟﻧﺳﺎء واﻷطﻔﺎل ﻓﻲ اﻟﻣﺧﯾم ”ﻛﺎرﺛﻲ“‪ ،‬ﺑﺣﺳب وﺻﻔﮫ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻏﯾر أن طﻠب إﺧﻼء ﻣﺧﯾم اﻟرﯾﺣﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻟﯾس اﻷول ﻣن ﻧوﻋﮫ ﻣن ﻗﺑل اﻟﺣﻛوﻣﺔ اﻟﻠﺑﻧﺎﻧﯾﺔ ﻓﻘد ﺗم إﺧﻼء ﻋدة ﻣﺧﯾﻣﺎت ﻓﻲ اﻷﺷﮭر اﻻﺧﯾرة ﻣن‬ ‫اﻟﻼﺟﺋﯾن اﻟﺳورﯾﯾن‪ ،‬وﻛﺎن آﺧرھﺎ ﻣﺧﯾﻣﺎت ﻓﻲ ﻣﻧطﻘﺔ اﻟﻣﻧﯾﺔ ﺟﺎﻧب ﻋﻛﺎر‪ ،‬اﻟﺷﮭر اﻟﻣﺎﺿﻲ‪.‬‬ ‫وﯾﺗزاﻣن ﻗرار إﺧﻼء ﻣﺧﯾم اﻹﻧﻣﺎء ﻣﻊ ﺑدء ﻓﺻل اﻟﺷﺗﺎء وﺳط ظروف ﺟوﯾﺔ و اﻗﺗﺻﺎدﯾﺔ ﺻﻌﺑﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻼﺟﺋﯾن‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ ﺣﯾن ﻟم ﯾﺻدر ﻋن اﻷﻣم‬ ‫اﻟﻣﺗﺣدة أو ﻣﻔوﺿﯾﺗﮭﺎ أي ﺗﻌﻠﯾﻖ ﺣول ھذه اﻟﻘﺿﯾﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫وﯾﺗﻣﯾز ھذا اﻟﻣﺧﯾم ‪-‬اﻟذي ﺑﺎت ﻗرﯾﺔ ﻣﺻﻐرة‪ -‬ﻋن ﻏﯾره ﺑوﺟود أﺳواق اﻟﺧﯾر اﻟﺗﻲ ﺗؤﻣن اﻟﻌﻣل ﻟﻌدد ﻣن اﻟﻼﺟﺋﯾﯾن‪ ،‬إﺿﺎﻓﺔ ﻟوﺟود ﻣدرﺳﺔ‬ ‫ﻟﻸطﻔﺎل‪.‬‬


VERSION 27

Balfour Declaration the one who does not have gave those who do not deserve ....


Version 27

An anthropologists offered a game to the children of a primitive African tribe, He put a basket of delicious fruits near a tree trunk and told them that the first child who reaches the tree, will take the basket with all things into it, When he gave them the go-ahead, he was surprised because they were walking together holding each other hands until they reached the tree and shared the delicious fruit, When he asked them why they did this, although every one of them could get the basketball for himself only, They answered him wonderingly: (Ubuntu) How can one of us be happy while the others are unhappy Ubuntu) in (Xhosa) civilization means: (I am because we are)) That primitive tribe knows the secret of happiness which is lost from souls that consider themselves above the other, It is lost in all arrogant communities that consider themselves civilized societies, Happiness is a secret known only by tolerant humble souls whose motto is ( we not I). Sit with scientists through your mind, and sit with princes through your knowledge, and sit with friends through your politeness, and sit with your family through your kindness, and sit with foolish through your patience, and be with your God through your worships, and sit with yourself through advising yourself. Everything is lacking if divided on two, but not (happiness) it increases if shared with others……


VERSION 27

Bruni Ware Bruni Ware: an Australian nurse worked for many old people before their deaths, and she ask them in their last days about things they regretted doing or things they wished they do in a different way, there were five frequent answers and written in detail in her book The top five regrets of the dying Which has been translated into 27 languages so far, and here I summarize these five answers: First: I hoped I had the courage to live for myself and not to live the life wanted or expected by others, That was mostly said by those with whom Ms Ware worked, where many people expressed their loss in not achieving their dreams or even half of them because their lives were more or less positioned to satisfy others. Second: I wished I did not work harder as I was working, and this answer came especially from the men who worked in the "mill" of routine work where a lot of them expressed their loss of important things such as companionship and friends who relieve a lot of fatigue in the person. In contrast, some women also expressed a case close to it, especially those who lost parents at old age. Third: I hoped that if I had the courage to express my feelings clearly, many concealed their feelings for one reason or another, they were hiding their feelings to avoid a clash with others, and these people have lived divided between the self and the other, without being as they want. Many people have had ongoing resentment and bitterness that had accompanied them due to the suppression of feelings Fourth: I wished I stayed in touch with my friends, especially old friends who are unable to renew the friendship.There is a deep regret for not giving friends what they deserve from time. Fifth: I wished to be happier. Many people did not realize that happiness was a choice they can do, but unfortunately they remained keeping old habits and patterns, and became satisfied with familiar comfort and fear of change which made them pretend satisfaction to themselves and to others, but they inside themselves they were looking for another thing. Lose yourselves and not endure things more than it can bear, may God made us and you happy in this world and the hereafter.


VERSION 27

The world's Strongest Earthquake Earthquakes are natural disasters which have killed thousands of people worldwide in the past years. Despite the considerable technological progress, the technological developments only contribute to a slight reduction in the number of victims resulting from such disasters. The last earthquake is the one occurred in Italy on Wednesday morning, which had a magnitude of 6.2 on the Richter scale, its depth was ten kilometers, and lasted for 20 seconds, resulting in a huge material damage in the town of Omatricy, and dozens of victims in an outcome that could rise. An earthquake measuring 6.4 hit central Italy Italy earthquake 2009 "L'Aquila earthquake", which had a magnitude of 5.8 on Richter scale and 6.3 on the momentum gauge, the earthquake destroyed residential areas completely in the Abrutso region in central Italy, it is also becoming difficult to reach about 15000 buildings, and up to 50000 persons were displaced, and this is what makes it the deadliest earthquake hits Italy since 1980. Chile Earthquake" the strongest yet…. Earthquake in Chile is the largest and most dangerous earthquake ever recorded, with a magnitude of 9.5 degrees on Richter scale, which caused severe financial damages to the cities of the South in "Chile" valued at $ 550 million, and caused the deaths of nearly 1655 people and leaving millions homeless. 6 degrees earthquake in Japan and no tsunami warning "The Great Earthquake in Alaska " Great earthquake in Alaska..which is the heaviest in the history of the state, so that it is the largest earthquake recorded in the history of the United States, and the third most powerful earthquake measured in the history of North America. And the power of "the Great earthquake in Alaska " was 9.2 degrees on Richter scale and lasted for 4 minutes and 38 seconds, resulting in the collapse of many public facilities, and the high of the ground in the south-west by 30 feet which is equivalent to 9.1 meters, and the low of the ground in the south-east by 8 feet which is equivalent to 2.4 meters. " "The earthquake of Molly Beach "Molly Beach earthquake" that occurred in Chile, with a magnitude of 8.8 on Richter scale, causing the deaths of at least 500 people, and the economic loss of the earthquake was about 30 billion $ .


VERSION 27

Playing characteristics: - Child's playing is unreal Playing events are characterized by limits to separate what happens during normal everyday experiences, and this feature applies at various kinds of toys, children ignores the true meaning of certain acts, ores and replace it with another meaning, imaginative, and this allows children to escape from the pressures on them and experiencing new possibilities. - Children's motivation to play is inner: The child takes up playing for himself, and his motivation comes from within the child. - The child's playing focuses on the process not the final results: The child concentrates while playing on the activity itself, without any attention to the achievement of certain targets or outputs in most cases, and that in itself frees the child so he tries different ways for each activity, that is why playing behavior is considered a flexible behavior. - Playing brings fun for the child: Playing is usually characterized by fun and happiness and sometimes playing is accompanied by some fear or dread in its start as happens when a child prepares himself to come down on the "slide" or going down to the pool or the sea but this fear holds a bit of fun for the child.

The second part: Theories of playing: There is a range of playing theories contained in some psychological references, all of which seek to try to explain why individuals in all age groups play? These theories are classified into two groups: conventional theories, modern theories.

Conventional theories: a). Extra energy theory: these traditional theories are attributed to Schiller & Spencer, and based on the idea that the function of playing is to get rid of extra energy in humans, and directing it to work, and then he uses the extra energy in playing. Other scientists have rejected this idea as it is possible to direct the energies of the individual and turn them into a creative and innovative areas or purposeful activities whether energy were extra or not. B). Energy renewal theory: The leader of this traditional theory is Lazarus, a contrast to the extra energy theory. We summarize it saying that playing function is to determine the energy you spend at work, when a person gets tired from work or from a particular activity, he turns to do something completely different, which is playing, and scientists do not deny the importance of playing and its benefit, but how we interpret children who go to play even if they are in severe cases of stress? Some of the games are loved because of the effort and bear and perseverance. C) . Redemptive theory: The owner of this theory is "Stanley Hull" an American scientist. This traditional theory says that human being, since his birth to maturity, tends to pass through the roles that experienced by the development of human civilization. Every child repeats the history of the human race in his playing, children climb trees before entering team playing, but this theory has been subjected to a lot of criticism. D). Work preparation theory: the owner of this theory is Carl Gross. This theory stands on the basis that playing and its activity is just a stage of preparation of the functions of future life, i.e. the preparation of adult activity.


VERSION 27

Children's Playing Playing at this age is the activity more exercised by the child, it takes most of his waking hours, and sometimes prefers it more than eating and sleeping . It is a brilliant way in which the child learns new skills, and develops his old skills, it is a social workshop or a trick on which he practices the different social roles lonely or with other children. The absence of this activity for a child indicates that this child is not normal, playing also comes from a real self-motivation, not a result of the promotion of others. Playing itself is a gift for the child. This is a spontaneous natural activity. Playing serves all aspects of growth, in which the child is gaining his action skills and strengthens his body and achieves knowledge processes of reconnaissance and exploration and summons mental images, symbols and concepts that are already made as units of knowledge, and improving his linguistic performance, enriching his linguistic dictionary and learns new meanings and different linguistic structures, and makes social emotional activity when playing the roles of father and mother and expresses emotions and tests the types of social behavior that are appropriate to each situation so freely without fear or exposure to unpleasant results. Playing is one of the most important behaviors of childhood, playing is no longer a relaxing activity for children only, but it is an important activity for psychological, mental and social growth, it is an essential experiences lead to learning through reconnaissance, problem solving, innovation and artistic expression. Vrobel, the founder of the kindergarten, saw that playing is the highest expression of human growth in childhood, the only free expression of what is going on inside a small child, which is the basis of the overall integrated development of the child.

Piaget believes that the structure of the child's mind works which affects the type of the mental structures existing, adapting has been through two important process which are acting as the child absorbs experiences that have passed through this process, that is, they occur whenever the child responded in a new position as he did in similar positions in the past, and the appropriate occurs when the child goes through new experience, and then the mental structures that are not bound to change itself so that it can accept these new experiences, and this change becomes a necessity because of the information that has been newly represented. Piaget has linked between these behaviors and between tradition and playing, he defines the tradition as appropriate continuity, and defines playing as the continuity of representation. From the summarized definitions for playing is the definition of the British Encyclopedia which states that playing is any voluntary activity done for pleasure, and that meant, as in some children toys, but difficult to apply such a definition on all children toys. Child naturally plays to satisfy a fungal tendency as seen by "Rogers & Sawyers", and playing is a child's life as called by adults, which is for small children: playing, work and learning drives them by impulse innate. The child has a tendency for exploration and discovery by nature, likes looking at the inside of new things and attracted by complexity, mystery, surprise and sudden where these qualities are born from the actual degree of arousal of the child.


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* The second item on useful lighting, it is not a process of polishing to persons or institutions, but to shed light on the successful positive experiences and pay to support the trends, our need for models to confront our desire to siege negatives is a double need, it is to prove that cruel conditions does not make us unable to find solutions, and referring to that is important on media platform, the second need is that it supplies the alternative system against those who are constantly trying to put a simplistic arguments for the downhill of performance.

* Do we have to run a sieve with large openings to get rid of sub-standard attempts? I do not think that it is taken by a desire or decision, but it is subject to an objective circumstance to a great extent, and also to experiment and something of adventure, but the creation of high value media organizations and supported by national mentality aware of positioning and role will not be possible without achieving and autonomous profitable institutions and financially independent from supporters. This is what seems impossible today, but at a minimum. The higher technical institutions and with mature cadres can negotiate in more * Can new Media systems be studied with- favorable terms to along these criteria. out accurate disciplines? Is it possible to imagine a community project to change * Finally, this vibration in our triplet should whose target is the wider slide of popula- not be put only on a media system which is tion, and working tools are civilian work still searching for its route in a dusty atmossystems without its major elevator which phere, but there are responsibilities on the are media organizations full of vitality and two elements, the first (community infrainteraction and future visions? I think that it structure under the continuous emergency can not be the truer answer for the last two environment,) and the second (civil questions. systems under the environment itself) and inevitably Media trying to play the role of * In reality: what is accomplished during sacrificing and follow-up, even though it is the five and a half years needs deep strongly targeted. systematical analysis, more than 450 * All reverence for the media tried their best media means through the past years, and and left while they are trying. thousands of workers in this sector, but the table of stability between the three legs is ambiguous and sometimes hostile, unfortunately, by dropping the means of effective analysis and lighting if the first often wears the matter of passive surveillance, and lighting wears the character clap with


VERSION 27

Dialecticals

11

Alaa Addin Zayat

The role of organizations in the collection of the painting With the conflict continuation and spread to neighboring areas and transcending the local border, the patch of disaster becomes wider in space and damage, but the style of privacy in the presence of problems islands is still prominent. The geography and the nature of ethnic sectarian distribution made different attitudes toward the events of the country that launched innocently in 2011 specifying community division on two main shores which are the change or the swamp, then the slide was great so that peculiarities that has been postponed for years become in the foreground without national identity, then the locals will have their own problems, their own forces, their own views and ideas of the solution with its minor limits. The idea of the regime for effective Syria was not encountered with the idea of the opposition about national Syria, but probably encountered with a similar miserable version for Sunni suffering that was not significantly different from effective Syria, only through the form. And with the absence of the idea of citizenship, privacies occupy the whole scene, and like naughty boys on a lean table, the processes of gains obtaining and escape from carrying responsibilities start and the picture of the enemy and friend become confused so that you need to set a labels table each week and determine your situation for whom and against whom?? Whether we talked about military formations or politicians formations, privacy has led them to narrow down the general analysis, idea and director, in contrast civil expressions did not ride out of this obstacle and most of them sank in the narrow concept of the social economic process. The logos of change and solidarity between the cities eased in favor of a city then eased in favor of an ethnic and finally eased for the completion of the requirements of a project that matters this group or that, its success required overcome a large number of difficulties, most of them are not larger than the size of the institution itself and the salaries of its small cadre and guarantees not to shut off their work.

For the economic account to be first necessarily means the rule of narrow locals, and submission to local specifics in terms of security and logistics means go back to zero point and thus the collapse of the project of changing the structure of community that the ambitions of 2011 were put on the basis of fresh freedom and Justice and equality. When we see the political and military polarization and the multi-fronts of security acts, we tend to believe that the possible hope becomes for the benefit of civil systems in re consideration the concept of Syrian matter as a national system achieving its historical condition in the fields of change, liberty and breaking the unreal lines of the conflict which is primarily built on the hypothesis of: not with me is against me. The terms of pioneer collector role executed by civil work systems is subject to three initial points: the first is to consider the social before the economic in drawing, planning, implementation and evaluation of response plans, it is not enough to secure a punctual budget that achieves true review balance, but we must start the process of valuation from studying the effect by comparison between, pre, during and after. The second is to reduce the speech of hatred and to put a punctual characterization of the nature and meaning of the enemy. The expansion of the case of mutual exile between a wide social communities refers to the continuation of a long deadly conflict, while civil groups can start building their small tight bridges and widen them gradually to include growing population communities . Finally, civil movement must be activated and looked after in all regions because our analysis proves that it was and still the major node of the conflict, it is targeted by all fighters because it can change many details but for recent experience, the violent conflict and regional and international interference. It is not an ego to put this hard task on the shoulder of civil systems, and some are actually doing this role, but the breadth and depth of the issue and long harsh years of the conflict make it a dream very high like the clouds. Why not? We have lived long in holes and we have to do what is necessary for making other options.


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Balfour Declaration the one who does not have gave those who do not deserve .... Dr. Jamal Tahhan Balfour Declaration: the one who does not have gave those who do not deserve .... Tuesday, November 2 is the 99 anniversary of Balfour Declaration, which ignited the Middle East for a century with a series of wars and violent changes and drew new maps, where Britain officially put the foundation stone for the construction of a state for the Jews, the Zionists in Palestine. It was just a piece of paper from a person to another, turning to a state of strangers on the ruins of the original population. This promise which is described as ominous was issued, and this position was reduced in the famous sentence: " the one who does not have gave those who do not deserve, from Arthur James Balfour, British foreign secretary in 1917". The letter of Balfour to Lord Rothschild paved the way strongly for the establishment of a Jewish homeland in the Middle East. Through this piece of paper of a text no more than 117 words Europe solved what was described as Jewish problem at the expense of the Palestinian people and the Middle East, "His Majesty's Government view with favor the establishment of a national home in Palestine for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavors to facilitate the achievement of this object, it should be clearly understood that nothing shall be done which may prejudice the civil and religious rights of existing non-Jewish communities in Palestine, or the rights and political status enjoyed by Jews in any another country". This is the content of the promise message that became a terrible tragedy putting the area above a volcano, the opposites are clashing and the lava are rushing, and the tragedy became bigger a day after another and moving from an era to another, without the prospect of peace. At the same time, the other party celebrates that promise, and considered it a historical religious heritage, accompanied by biblical promise. All of them will never remember that Balfour had been denied a significant portion of the Palestinians from their homeland and pushed them into the Diaspora, and in return made their properties, their memories, their homes and their land a home of strangers who came from all parts of the Earth, including Chile and Ethiopia.

We can say here that Europe has solved the Jewish problem at the expense of the Palestinians, and pardoned for damage to their grievances in Europe by sending them on the ships to the "Promised Land". And almost Uganda and the Green Mountain in Libya are supposed to be the promised land of the Jews, but the decision finally fell on Palestine causing the tragedy that affected and still affects everyone. The worse is that Balfour promise caused the poisoning of the region in all fields including cultural, social, psychological, and entrenched the values of hostility, hatred and violence , so scales collapsed and vision disrupted, and there is a gradual disintegration of the area around the wedge, and its stability went in vain wind, and went out or almost out of history. The question here is: What will Mr. Arthur Balfour tell if he could hear see the fire and flames after 99 years of this ominous promise and presented on behalf of the British Empire and changed hereby the demography of a land where 5% of those were living in peace amid 95% of the Palestinians ? Anyway, if we passed Mr. Balfour, we find that hundreds or more of the Western politicians have passed in the same way and they did a lot to achieve and consolidate what he started, so this promise will remain, the deep hole in which the peoples of the region found itself trapped, and has clockwise stopped from rotation. This promise, then, was not limited to a sudden promise of Mr. Balfour, but in the context of an international scheme beyond Britain, which was holding negotiations with France without the knowledge of others, to share the region in what was called later Seixbeko Convention that took place in 1916, months before Balfour Declaration.


human rights, civil and monthly magazine issued by human rights organization Al Kawakibi as print papers and electronically

The Editorial Team

Dr. Talal Al Abdullah Mr. Thaer Belal Eng. Yasmin Al Sham in this version * Editional: Balfour Declaration * Arguments: The role of organizations in the collection of the painting * Children's Playing * The world's Strongest Earthquake * Bruni Ware October / 2016

Version / 26 /

* a Gift to all friends

In this Version

Arguments: partnerships and bridges

The silence of the international community about

Aleppo

A major catastrophe and new misfortunes are waiting for Syrians

The nark Eli Cohen

old version


In this Version

Balfour Declaration

The role of organizations in the collection of the painting

Version / 27 /

Fateful Promise

November/ 2016

Children's Playing

The world's Strongest Earthquake

Version 27  

The issuance of the Twenty seventh number of Alkawakibi Magazine for human rights Alkawakibi Magazine is a monthly magazine published by A...

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