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Articulating a re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity

Curated by Shantrelle P. Lewis


“ I position the Black dandy explicitly among other racialized performers and performers of masculinity in order to read the dandy as a complicated figure that can at once, subvert and fulfill normative categories of identity at different times and places as a gesture of self-articulation.” – Monica Miller, Slaves to Fashion 1

Introduction One only has to stroll down the street in a metropolitan city where there is a large Black population to witness the manifestation of Black men who are choosing to articulate their own concept of manhood and masculinity via their elaborate self-fashioning. This trend, historically known as dandyism, is being reborn within a hip-hop context, and it is exciting to see how urban men are sampling bits and pieces from different eras and cultural contexts to establish an identity that comes as a breath of fresh air. We have been bombarded globally with clichéd images of Black men, which,

given the monstrosities of racism and the Prison Industrial Complex, are generally negative stereotypes. These images directly result from the miseducation of Black youth, the crack epidemic, and violence within the Black community. Also, hip-hop/culture inappropriately manipulated by the media and other capitalist institutions, has been very harmful in terms of reinforcing such negative imagery of young Black men. In turn, a particular visual concept of “masculinity” and what it means to be Black has been popularized in our communities and urban centers around the globe via the glorified images of “thug life” promoted in music, magazines, videos, and other media. Even in places as far as East Africa “particularly in regard to hip-hop culture in Tanzania, many rappers and rap fans are labeled wahuni (hooligans), and rap has been

perceived as a music corrupting the minds of the country’s young.”2 Dandy Lion: Articulating a Re(de) fined Black Masculine Identity is an investigation of the Black dandy whose aesthetic choices and lifestyle combat “stereotypical” notions of Black masculinity that have been popularized by the media. As Monica L. Miller has indicated, the Black dandy challenges the status quo and generalized understandings of identity as projected onto him. He uses personal style, to articulate and define who he is, on his terms. This exhibition contributes to the discourse of the phenomenon as it is expressed in the 21st century.

Dandy Lion: Articulating a Re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity

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What is Dandyism? Historically, the dandy figure has held prominence within a Black context. Fluctuating between a famed character and someone in the margins, this figure has existed since the earliest encounters of European fashions with African

attire and vice versa. Black dandyism is an appropriation of European attire and mannerisms combined with a culture and history rooted in an African aesthetic of performance and ritual of dress. In a continental African context, clothes are extremely important – for both royalty and the ordinary alike. Referencing West Africa, Phyllis M. Martin contends,“Throughout the region that became French Equatorial Africa, clothing and accessories were little associated with utilitarian needs, since

neither climate nor work conditions made them necessary. Rather, dress conveyed identity, status, values and a sense of occasion.” 3 In the New World during the period of the trans-Atlantic slave trade, fashioning became a matter not only of status, but signified whether or not one was free. Articles of clothing—especially after the prescribed humiliation of nakedness for enslaved Africans - often announced one’s station in life and could differentiate freedom from subjugation.

“From the perspective of both masters and slaves, clothing had significance beyond functionality – at stake was nothing less than a sense of freedom, a display of the difference between purported essence, self-worth and aspiration. Indeed, for whites and Blacks, clothing and fashion were a means by which the status of slave and master, whiteness and Blackness, masculinity and femininity, African-ness and American-ness was being determined. In the early American household, clothing was a weapon in the struggle for social control, individual agency, and personal integrity. As the covering of a metaphorically and actually naked Black body, slave clothing represented a battle for sheer survival. 4

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Dandy Lion: Articulating a Re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity


While Black dandyism was developing in Europe and America, a parallel movement was occurring in Central Africa – “Societe des Ambianceurs et Personnes Elegantes,” which literally translates as the Society of Ambiance and People of Elegance (La S.A.P.E.). Originating in French-speaking Congo, the sapeur (Congolese dandies) movement can be dated back to the early colonial era. Charles Didier Gondola attributes Sapeurism to a variety of factors including developments in popular culture, the imitation of Frenchmen, and “acculturation” of educated Black servants. “Social prestige in the colonial city did not consist so much in having several houseboys – something that was within reach of even the Petitsblancs – but in having several ‘civilized’

or ‘enlightened’ servants.” He continues, “Some masters did not hesitate to give their used clothing to their houseboys, who showed off their clothes as much as to enhance their master’s reputation as to increase their own social status in the eyes of other African city dwellers.”5 Since the early 20th century, the Sapeur movement has experienced different phases and has grown into a phenomenon of significance. It has begun to get attention on the world stage having evolved beyond a cult of clothing into an actual lifestyle. Sapeurism is a complicated, performed socio-cultural phenomenon of dandyism that intersects colonization, independence, class, identity and fashion.

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Recent Discourse There have been four mainstream investigations that established a contemporary discourse on Black dandyism: Slaves to Fashion, “Gentlemen of Bacongo,” “The Importance of Being Elegant” and the Black dandy blogs. Perhaps the most significant work on Black Dandyism today is Monica Miller’s Slaves to Fashion: Black Dandyism and the Styling of Black Diasporic Identity.

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Dandy Lion: Articulating a Re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity

Miller takes readers along the historical and socio-political trajectory of the Black dandy as she tells of Mungo, the popular 17th century theatrical character and a later arrival, Julius Soubise, the enslaved, but socially celebrated luxury property of the Duchess of Queensberry. Through extensive research, Slaves to Fashion broaches themes of the racialized minstrel dandy, the Harlem Renaissance queer dandy, the Du Boisian dandy, and later the pop culturist dandy. In addition to that groundbreaking text, Daniele Tamangi, in 2009, formally introduced the Sapeur to a wider audience with his photographic compilation,”Gentleman of Bacongo.” Although it may be the

subject matter and not the photography itself that makes this body of work remarkable, the series is critical because of the attention brought to the Congo’s Sapeur class. Film is also used to address this phenomenon. Ghanaian filmmaker George Ampensah, tackles the influence of the Francophone African Sapeurs and Papa Wemba in “The Importance of Being Elegant” (2008). And blogs such as “Street Etiquette” with its 20,000 page views per day have notoriously established a location for the young sophisticated Black dandy.6


Confronting Stereotypes: Bucking Against the System with a Bowtie

Throughout history, Black dandies have been very formal in both mannerisms and clothing. If one considers those individuals influenced by Du Bois’ elegance, and the formal dressingup during the era of the Harlem Renaissance, it is apparent that those

dandies were definitely attempting to defy expected racial and class norms. In Growing Up in the New Negro Renaissance: 1920-1935, Arthur P. Davis describes the cult of respectability that existed in early 20th century Harlem:

In spite of the bohemian interests, which the New Negro Renaissance cultivated, in spite of the embryonic proletarian stirrings found in the Garvey Movement, Harlem was basically a lower middle class community with strong middle class attitudes and prejudices. The average Harlemite possessed what James Weldon Johnson has called ‘second generation respectability.’ He took pride in himself and his home. He would not appear on the avenue improperly dressed or wearing a ‘head-rag.” He seldom went downtown to work, but to business, carrying not a lunch pail but his overalls and lunch in a brief case. Perhaps, he tended to overdo this respectability, but he was of a generation and class which felt that the whole race was judged by the individual conduct, and he was determined to hold up his end.” 7

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Today, we see young men, maybe not as concerned with racial uplift and the appearance of class mobility as much as they are with culture and status symbols. Today’s young dandies are literally dressed to impress. Infused with an African swagger, classic elements of clothing appropriated from traditional Victorian European dress may be combined with hip-hop accouterments. This means one may find a Dandy Lion dressed in both ascot and shell-toe Adidas, or wearing a blazer combined with G-Star Raw jeans and a variety of hats. Also popular among today’s Black dandies is vintage and pre-worn clothing. Here, earlier apparel is literally (re)defined. Contemporary dandies are literally borrowing their grandfathers’ style to express a more cultured self. Manipulating color, patterns and fabrics in a manner that derives from an African aesthetic, he formalizes his statement and exaggerates his point. Vintage and thrift stores are major resources for the dandy who is probably just as conscious about his economic well-being as he is about the symbolism of it.

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Monica Miller asserts, “As a form of cultural resistance, Black dandyism functions as a kind of fashionable weapon of the weak, an everyday form of resistance (to use James Scott’s terms) the enslaved and marginalized use to comment on their relationship to authority.” 9 Their baggy jeans-and-white t-shirtwearing contemporaries are rebelling against norms of success, respectability, and acceptance in mainstream society while actually being active participants because the style has indeed been co-opted by both media and the community-at-large around the globe. One may argue that today’s dandy is actually a protest figure, someone who consciously challenges preconceived notions of Black masculinity and the negative connotations that are often married to him (thug, gangster, rapper, athlete). He, offers a visual counternarrative. Society expects him to behave as the majority, but he does the opposite, defying these norms.

While some may argue that the presence of a Black President who definitely embodies swag (refer to any photo shoots of Obama), and a mature twopiece-suited Jay Z, are actually today’s examples and norm, one cannot help noticing in any urban area—from New Orleans, to Bed-Stuy, to Rotterdam— the persistence of the sagging jeans phenomenon, flaunted by young boys sometimes as young as seven, also by white teenagers, and even by young women who may identify as “dom.” What makes a Black dandy a Dandy Lion is his subtle and not so subtle resistance to the status quo, his desire to set himself apart —not to place himself at a level above his sagging-pants peers, but to defy the limiting expectations placed on him by images perpetuated by the media. He also participates as cultural producer, adding yet another level to hip-hop’s elements by using clothing from different eras as his sampling instrument. Miller writes: “In this book I examine a series of trans-historical and trans-Atlantic moments in literary


and visual culture in which Black male subjects can be seen understanding, manipulating and reimagining the construction of their images through the dandy’s signature method: a pointed redeployment of clothing, gesture, and wit.” 10 The Dandy Lion is hip-hop and not outside of it. He complicates fabricated gender roles and identity by presenting himself as a masculine being. Yet, there is something very effeminate about the meticulous nature of grooming involved in the self-fashioning of dandies. At the same time, this balance of masculine and feminine energy is something else that is totally rooted in an African aesthetic, as opposed to polarities with regard to gender. There is a balance.

Juxtaposing Masculinities: Origins of Dandy Lion Project With the advent of the Chronic album nearly two decades ago, the fashion that emerged at the time has been commemorated by iconographic images photographed by Jamel Shabazz. It has now been dumbed down a bit to a uniform of white tees, exposed boxers and sagging jeans. The problem with this economically reasonable attire is not its simplicity, but rather the negative connotations that the media has somehow attached to this quasi-proletariat uniform. It has now degenerated into a symbol of “thugism,” and it is everywhere. According to Kristie A. Ford, “In particular, at this generational moment, images in music videos, film, and other forms of media of urban Black male youth

culture (e.g., the valorization of the thug life, misogynistic attitudes, and gang activity) have become appropriated and adapted to appeal to and be consumed by upwardly mobile white and Black audiences (generally) and Black men (specifically).”11 How hip-hop culture is manipulated by capitalist institutions, to perpetuate harmful indictments of Black manhood, is reflected by their investment in the glorified images of performed hyper-masculinity promoted around the world through various media outlets. An investigation conducted by Ford among young Black college men about perceived masculinity, “Doing Fake Masculinity, Being Real Men: Present and Future Constructions of Self among Black College Men” (2011), found that the images associated with these stereotypes had been widely internalized by her interviewees. Black men are victimized because of how they dress; covertly, the pre-judgment they receive results in continuous denial of socio-economic opportunities. They are blatantly harassed and brutalized by the police simply because their white tees and sagging pants match the stereotype of America’s most wanted.

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Themes of Exhibit Quintessential dandies Russell Frederick and Hanif AbdurRahim photographed the quintessential dandy portraits. Working primarily with medium and large-format film, Russell Frederick, is himself a quintessential Dandy Lion. As such, his portraits are mere reflections of how he elects to dress himself. His Dandy Lion images are of men placed in poses and clothing within settings that make his photographs timeless. The most iconographic of the bunch, “Kinglsey” is an image of a striking dark-skin man, dressed in a suit, leaning on a Volkswagen beetle. Kingsley’s expression and stance would hold court on a similar street circa 1965 in Chicago, IL or 1935 in Harlem, NY. Hanif AbdurRahim, whose piece “A Revolution in Etiquette – Connoisseurs of SWAG” served as the original statement image, is another reference to the historical nature of the Black dandy phenomena.

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Grouping four Dandy Lions together in an almost military formation, this foursome looks prepared to battle over who is the prettiest, much like the tribal wars of New Orleans Black Mardi Gras Indians. Done up in plaids, stripes, bowties and suspenders, their armor of choice, they are prepared to battle both stereotypes and any individual who may try to out-style them. Considering the fact that Abdur-Rahim has Louisiana roots, he is familiar with a culture that breeds men who battle aesthetically. The stoic expression on each face, and their posture also reminds one of iconographic images from the Nation of Islam and the F.O.I. (Fruit of Islam).

Occupational Dandies One of the most notable professions of a true dandy, is that of the artist. These were the societal figures that Du Bois encouraged to participate in racial progress by using their gifts to uplift society. Jati Lindsay, who is becoming increasingly popular for photographing today’s burgeoning young jazz artists, created a collage featuring visual artist Billy Colbert standing on railroad tracks,

both arms weighed down with assorted vintage suitcases. He looks arrestingly at the viewer. One almost second guesses the date of this photograph. The subject appears to be preoccupied by both history and circumstance. In Ray Llanos’ set of images, late 20th century/ early 21st century dandy figure Raphael Saadiq, is pictured on stage, in two sets of suits. He is probably one of the first musical artists of post-R&B generation to express a dapper image and style.

Habitats Where would one find a dandy, is surprisingly enough, a question that is asked regularly. A dandy’s habitat and environment informs his identity in the same manner as his outfits and activities. Several artists photographed Dandy Lions in their “element” – those public spaces where they hold court. An important aspect of the style is that outfits are meant to be declarative, in a way—they are worn to be seen. These dandy “habitats” exist in a variety of environments. Guyanese photographer Kwesi Abbensetts, has been documenting the public lives


of two popular dandies on the same corner in Fort Green Brooklyn, over a period of three years. On any given day, Abbensett’s Dandy Lions, Rob and Adeleke, can be seen wearing anything from a pink seersucker jacket, or a red and green plaid kilt, in a very busy and heavily populated area of their funky bohemian Brooklyn neighborhood. Akintola Hanif’s dandy is photographed in a very different kind of urban environment. Hanif’s images are of a well-dressed man situated amidst the rubble of a mining yard. His rust-colored clothing actually coordinates and blends well with the rocky landscape that serves as his backdrop. Entitled “Shark” and “D-Block” respectively, Hanif’s work shows the industrial nature of Newark, NJ, otherwise known as the “Brick City.” Lastly, Brandi Pettijohn’s images, which were shot in Atlanta, Georgia, speak to the sensibilities present in communities down south, where dressing up is just as much a statement of being a man as it is about fashion. Her image “Tony Bespoke” pictures a sharply dressed Black man facing the camera. Both he and his gaze are bold, as he stands before a mansion. One is inclined to ask whether or not the home is his, which

is possible for the offspring of many economically mobile African Americans in Georgia. Lafotographeuse finds her dandies in public spaces, outside reading a book, on stage performing, or at home unwinding after a long day’s work.

Dandy Pastimes How a Dandy Lion chooses to spend his day is just as essential as the choices he makes about what he will put on when he wakes up in the morning. Since dandyism is a lifestyle and not just a fashion statement, one must certainly pay attention to his activities and the pastimes that makes him dandy. Laylah Amatullah Barryn spent some time with Brooklyn resident Dexter Wimberly, who in addition to his profession, curating art exhibits—which one can argue is a dandy profession indeed—also spends his leisure time engaging in other activities. Barrayn shoots Dexter inside and outside one of his favorite hangout spots, the OK Cigar Shop. Kia Chenelle’s “Getting Ready,” documents the act of getting dressed, honing in not just on the subject’s

face, but on the process a dandy goes through when preparing to go anywhere. The man in Chenelle’s image seems to take his time. The photographer focuses her attention on the deliberation and meticulousness with which her dandy gets dressed. Devin Mays photographs his dandy in a Chicago record shop, browsing old jazz albums, an activity that is most certainly a dandy pastime, that is, buying old record albums and listening to jazz versus downloading songs from iTunes.

Street Style Although street style snapshots have been widely associated with the popularity of Bill Cunningham’s weekly pieces in the New York Times, within the African Diaspora, we can look towards two other examples of street style photographed during the 20th Century. The first notable person to capture the look of dandies and their quaintrelles was probably James van Der Zee, who documented the vibrant and stylish energy of early 20th Century

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Harlem. A couple of decades later, Malik Sidibe and Seydou Keita, both in Mali, captured the beauty of their West African countrymen and women. The street portraiture style shown in the work of Jamala Johns, Phillis Kwentoh, Cassi Amanda Gibson and Delphine Fawundu-Buford, have followed along the same lines as these historical antecedents. Three of these women are African, from Nigeria, Mozambique and Sierra Leone. They capture what may seem to be the mundane in a very larger-than-life fashion. Phillis shoots a Dandy Lion from the Diaspora, who actually came prepared with several changes of clothing for his on-thestreet shoot. Gibson photographed a West African dandy in London, who wears a suit tailored by another West African designer. What stands out is the assertiveness of her dandy, who, posed in front of vibrant colors looks out at the viewer as if to say, I am the new representation of the African aesthetic. This same stance is taken in Fawundu-Buford’s work, which features a Haitian Dandy Lion, musician Tiga. His

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look is atypical, but still dandy indeed. Delphine decides to capture him in a variety of looks that speak to his desire to wear clothes that affirm his culture and ethnicity. Her body of work includes three large photographs, an installation of pin-up photos, and a look book that captures the small details of his fashion landscape. Jamala Johns, known for her natural hair site le coil, switches things up with her microscopic attention to her dandies’ details and accessories.

La S.A.P.E Interestingly, it is a group of continental Africans who have captured the splendor and reality of the Congolese, Sapeur movement. It is critical that this is the case. For many beautiful phenomena in the African landscape, documentation of the Sapeur has been done mostly by people outside their culture and “othered” in a particular way. In the series by Caroline Kaminju, who is a Kenyan photographer living in South Africa,

both the public and private spaces of the Sapeur have been documented. It is important to note that both subject and photographer are, “outsiders” to South African culture, migrants who have moved there in search of economic opportunities. Instead of focusing on just the superficiality of the clothing, Caroline Kaminju shoots as a photojournalist and is fixated on the juxtaposition of the elegance of South African’s Sapeur community with their humble living circumstances. The Wall Street Journal addresses this contrast in, “The Beau Brummels of Brazzaville (2011).”12 Seen pictured washing dishes at home and huddled around a modest television set, these migrant Sapeur are a long way from home in search of a lifestyle more fitting of a dandy. Several layers of complexity and humanity are added to the subject of “La Sape” in Caroline’s photographs. Perhaps, there is an identification that exists between photographer and subject. Instead of objectifying the other, Kaminju empathizes, documenting from a quiet place within the framework instead of


shooting from the outside in. Bouba Dola, a Congolese, captures the celebratory side of a Sapeur, a family member living in Rotterdam. He shows a montage of footage from a Dutch installment of the exhibition entitled “Gentleman of Bacongo” and shots taken at Bob Lampole’s 50th birthday party. Dola presents an authentic look at a culture he grew up observing but never took true notice of until outsiders identified it as a phenomenon of spectacle. Recently, Radcliffe Roye embarked on a month-long journey to Central Africa, to participate in a self-motivated photojournalistic journey amongst his Congolese brethren. He originally traveled to Brazzaville, interested in discovering the links between dance culture there and that which exists in his birthplace, Jamaica. However, his inquiries into the socio-cultural, political climate of Brazzaville, inevitably led to his encounters with some of the Congo’s most celebrated Sapeur.

Upon photographing a few of these spectacular men, Roye self-committed to photographing as many Sapeur as possible, in efforts to not only display their range of aesthetics but also to inform the viewer about the varied philosophies and styles that exist among them. As one who oftentimes photographs via a philosophical lens, Radcliffe Roye also consciously allowed his lens to facilitate a viewing of the friction that exists in post-colonial states, between his subjects and the world in which they live, where these Sapeur regularly confront contrasting realities between assimilation and resistance

Existential dandy Lastly, artists/dandies—filmmaker Terence Nance and installation and performance artist, Nyugen Smith, broach the existentialism of being a dandy. With roots in the Deep South, Nance moves within a space that

extends beyond limited notions of what dandies may or may not be capable. While exploring the nature of the Dandy Lion in a very matter of fact (or tongue in cheek) manner, he both asks and answers questions about what a Dandy Lion is and is not. Smith’s installation, which is built around a self-portrait, addresses what happens when the oppressed become the oppressor and misuse power in former colonial states. What is very interesting about Smith’s work is how it corresponds to Paul Robeson’s character in “The Emperor Jones.” As in that play, you find a despotic leader who because of greed and self-importance, fashions himself as “high-falutin” royalty. In Smith’s piece, amidst a pile of found objects, which may represent over-consumption and greed, the subject’s self-articulated, selfimportance holds court. What is ironic about the work is the fact that both Nance and Smith are seen and identify themselves as dandies.

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Further Implications One struggles with this aesthetic of conformity. In a response to a New York Times feature on Black dandyism, a reader asked whether or not the Black dandy is the “civilized man” (August 2011).13 The notion that this is a “civilized” alternative to the hip-hop aesthetic would support age-old Eurocentric ideologies of race. However, perceived differently, perhaps this trend is a return to the ethics of respectability. The new Black dandyism is in essence sankofic— a recognition and embrace of an older era of Black masculine presentation, but with a different attitude towards socio-economic uplift. Many of the men mix new things with pieces that are dated. Much of the apparel is vintage and inexpensive. The fact that clothing comes from thrift or vintage stores

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speaks to this confrontation of class and status within urban Black society. These are mostly self-made men: the artist, the creative capitalist, the social intellectual and socio-political bohemian… in fact, Dandy Lions are often non-conformists, their existence and lifestyle generally defy corporate and accepted notions of what makes one successful. In this sense, the Dandy Lions are more concerned with being men than doing masculinity. Dandy Lion, the exhibition, is a conversation about the re-fashioning and articulation of Black masculinity through a very narrow lens. This project is not intended as a broader conversation about sexuality and gender performance. But several other ideas have sprung with regard to both queer dandies and female dandies. Additionally, there have been supplemental conversations about the elasticity of masculinity; the way in which homophobia plays out via hypermasculinity and whether or not women

can be dandies, or when comparably attired, if they become something else completely different. There is much more work to be done. Dandy Lion is by no means a definitive statement. It is our hope that the conversation concerning global Black dandyism will continue to challenge, evolve and inform ideas of masculinity, class, gender and sexuality. As a visual presentation, Dandy Lion serves as the beginning of a visual dialogue about culture, which ultimately is about power. Hopefully, such a discussion leads to changes in thoughts and behaviors toward Black men that will in time shift paradigms and positively affect our circumstances as a people, across the Diaspora. Shantrelle P. Lewis, 2011


1

Miller, Monica. Slaves to Fashion: Black Dandyism and the Styling of Black Diasporic Identity. (Durham & London: Duke University Press, 2009).

2

Perullo, Alex. Hooligans and Heroes: Youth Identity and Hip-Hop in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, pp. 76.

3

Martin, Phyllis M. Martin. “Contesting Clothes in Colonial Brazzaville” Journal of African History, 35 (1994), pp. 401-426. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

4

Ibid, 92.

5

Gondola, Charles Didier. “Dream and Drama: The Search for Elegance among Congolese Youth”. African Studies Review, Volume 42, Number 1 (April 1999), pp. 23 – 48.

6

Carmonica, John. “ Pushing the Boundaries of Black Style”. The New York Times. August 17, 2011.

7

Davis, Arthur P. Growing Up in the New Negro Renaissance: 1920-1935.

8

Phanor-Faury, Alexandra. “Dawn of the Dandy: The New Black Gentlemen” Blackbook Magazine, September 13, 2011.

9

Ibid.

10

Ibid, 5.

11

Ford, Kristie A. “Doing Fake Masculinity, Being Real Men: Present and Future Constructions of Self among Black College Men,” Symbolic Interaction, Vol. 34, No. 1 (Winter 2011), pp. 3862. Berkeley: University of California Press on behalf of the Society for the Study of Symbolic Interaction.

12

Downey Tom. “The Beau Brummels of Brazzaville.” The Wall Street Journal, September 29, 2011.

13

Jung, Alex. (2011, August 22). Is the Black Dandy the “Civilized” Black Man? Retrieved from http://fashionmole.wordpress.com/2011/08/22/are-black-dandies-the-civilized-black-man/

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Featuring Photography and Film by:

p.15 Kwesi p.16

Abbensetts

Hanif Abdur-Rahim

p.17 Laylah p.18 Kia

Amatullah Barrayn

Chenelle

p.19 Delphine

p.21 Cassi

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p.23 Jamala

Johns

p.24 Caroline p.25 Phillis

Hanif

Kaminju

Kwentoh

p.29 Devin

Mays

p.30 Brandi

Pettijohn

p.31 Nyugen

Smith

p.32 Radcliffe

p.26 Lafotographeuse

p.33 Bouba

K. Frederick

p.27 Ray

Llanos

p.34 Terence

Amanda Gibson

p.28 Jati

Lindsay

p.20 Russell

Fawundu-Buford

p.22 Akintola

Roye

Dola Nance


Photography:

Kwesi Abbensetts Stalwart Digital Print, 16 x 20 in. Summer 2011

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Photography:

Hanif Abdur-Rahim A Revolution in Etiquette – Connoisseurs of SWAG 35 mm Digital C-print, 36 x 36 in. 2010 16


Photography:

Laylah Amatullah Barrayn

Dexter Wimberly Number 1 Digital C-Print, 8 x 12 in., 2010

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Photography:

Kia Chenelle Millinery Digital photography on canvas 17 x 27 3/4 in., 2011

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Photography:

Delphine Fawundu-Buford From the Tiga Jean Baptiste Series Black and White Silver Gelatin Print 24 x 27 in., 2010

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Photography:

Russell K. Frederick Alanzo Digital Print, 20 x 30 in., 2011

20


Photography:

Cassi Amanda Gibson o estilo de Epalanga Digital Print, 15 x 20 in., 2011

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Photography:

Akintola Hanif

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Shark Mounted digital print, 20 x 30 in., 2010


Photography:

Jamala Johns Jamiyl, Dandy Wellington, Alexander Digital Photography and Mixed Media. Individual prints 11 3/4 x 15 3/4 2010

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Photography:

Caroline Kaminju 24

Mangafu Digital Archival Print, 16 x 20 in., 2010


Photography:

Phillis Kwentoh ‘Stylistic I’ Digital C-print, 20 x 30 in., 2010

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Firelock

Photography:

Lafotographeuse

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Archival Pigment Print 16 x 20 in., 2008


Photography:

Ray Llanos Dandies Sing‌. Archival Pigment Print 16 x 20 in., 2008

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Photography:

Jati Lindsay Billy Colbert Digital Archival Print 40 x 30 in., 2011

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Photography:

Devin MAys All Smiles Digital Print, 8 x 10 in., 2011

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Photography:

Brandi Pettijohn 30

Jack Dandy (Sunshine Horizons) Digital Photograph. Digital Color Matte Print 10 x 15 in., 2010


Photography:

Nguyen Smith

Pomp + In This Circumstance Mixed Media and Digital Print 31 1/2 X 31 X 11 1/4 in. 2011 Dandy Lion: Articulating a Re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity

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Photography:

Radcliffe Roye From the Sapologie in the Congo Series Digital Print, 2011 32


FILM:

Bouba Dola La S.A.P..E Short Film. RT: 9:36 mins., 2011

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FILM:

Terence Nance A Dandy Is... 8mm Film, 2011

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Articulating a re(de)fined Black Masculine Identity

Curated by Shantrelle P. Lewis On view October 20 To December 22 2011

Aljira’s operations and programs are made possible, in part, by the new Jersey State Council on the Arts/Department of State, a Partner Agency of the national Endowment for the Arts; The Kenneth Aidekman Family Foundation; Bank of America; The Geraldine r. Dodge Foundation; Joan Mitchell Foundation; Lambent Foundation; national Endowment for the Arts; new Jersey Cultural Trust; PnC Bank; The Prudential Foundation; PSEG Foundation; Tides Foundation; The Andy Warhol Foundation for the visual Arts; and individual contributors to our Annual Fund.

Dandy Lion  

Dandy Lion, an exhibition catalog—Aljira, a Center for Contemporary Art

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