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Re-Greening the Planet

◊jttrµxf ytih vgtoJhK mth-çr;mth ytih yÏmh vqAu stlu Jtjtu mJtjt mkfjtl _ çftNtl

Ekrzgl muLxh Vtph ◊jttrµxÏm El r' ElJtEhlbuLx (Yf µJ;Lºt htMx[eg mkµ:tt _ mtumtgxe yr"trlgb ƒu\ yL;do; vkse¢\;) Mumbai: Kushesh Mansion, 2nd Floor, 48/54, Janmabhoomi Marg, Fort, Mumbai - 400 001. Tel.: 022-2282 0491 / 0496 • Fax: 022-2282 0451 • E-mail: icpe@vsnl.net New Delhi: 1009, Vijaya Building, 10th Floor, 17, Barakhamba Road, New Delhi - 110 001. Tel.: 011-2332 6377 • Fax: 91-11-2332 6379 • E-mail: icpedelhi@bol.net.in Website: www.icpenviro.org • www.envis-icpe.com • www.icpeenvis.nic.in


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Xtum yvrNtMx mbµgt ft çbwFt µºttu; nI - ◊jttrµxf

ldhvtrjtft Xtum yvrNtMx fe mkhatlt v…:th / htFt (41.81%)

yLg (11.73%)

"tt;w (0.64%) ftkat / rmhtrbf (0.44%) ◊jttrµxf (0.62%) ftds| (0.81%) Dttm-vÚte  (3.80%)

NttfCttse vrÚtgtk (40.15%)

µºttu;& bilusbUx ytpV| Bgwrlmvjt mtprjtz Juµx, mUx[jt vtpjgqNtl fkx[tujt cttuzo, vgtoJhK YJk Jl bkºttjtg

90 ƒu\ yk; bU yrFtjt Ctth;eg ytkfz|u ƒw\A mkµ:ttytU ∏tht ntjt ne bU rfY dY y"ggltU mu v;t atjtt ni rf Ctth; ƒu\ çbwFt bntldhtU bU ◊jttrµxf, Yb.Ym.zcjgq ft jtdCtd 3-4% rnµmt Nttrbjt ntu;t ni > ctnhntjt, gn ylwbtl ni rf yrFtjt Ctth;eg ytim; mkFgt Emmu fb ntude >

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◊jttrµxf ytih vgtoJhK yÏmh vqAu stlu Jtjtu mJtjt & ç.1

Ïgt ◊jttrµxf vgtoJhK ƒu\ rjtY mwhr÷t; ni ?

W.

ytb ;tih vh Ekmtl ∏tht ctltY stlu Jtjtu mCte W…vt'l, W…vt'l çr§\gt ;:tt Emƒu\ rlvxtuh ƒu\ 'tihtl, rfme l rfme Áv bU vgtoJhK ftu yJNg çCttrJ; fh;u nI > EmrjtY yct mJtjt gn WX;t ni rf ElbU mu rfl W…vt'ltU ƒu\ Eµ;ubtjt mu vgtoJhK ftu fb mu fb lwfmtl vnwkatudt ytih gn ††'e"toftjtel rJftm¥¥ çr§\gt bU rf;lt gtud'tl 'udt > simu-simu ytv ytdu vZ|Udu, çatth bt"gbtU ƒu\ s|rhY ytvƒu\ r'btd vh sbe djt; rJatthtU fe "twk"t Dtkx;e stYde ytih ytv stlUdu rf vgtooJhK vh ◊jttrµxf Jtµ;J bU ƒi\me Ctqrbft rlCtt;t ni, ytih gn ctt; rlBlrjtrFt; W'tnhK mu µvMx Áv mu mtrct; ntu;e ni & ††ytv rmV«o s|ht me at;whtEo mu ne maattEo ftu stl mf;u nI, Em rJatth btºt bU ne Yf ctnw; ctz|t F|t;ht ni, mat ;tu gn ni rf ytvftu maattEo stllu ƒu\ rjtY rlhk;h çgtm fhlt vz|;t ni >¥¥ (ztp. htultjz ct{tpzctuLx, Lgq mtEkrxµx - swjttEo ¥73)

ç.2

gn ƒi\mu v;t jtdtgt stY rf yLg mtbd{e fe ;wjtlt bU ◊jttrµxf vgtoJhK ƒu\ rjtY ßgt't mwhr÷t; ni ?

W.

◊jttµxEkrzgt V«tWkzuNtl fe YlJtghtu◊jttµx fbuxe lu Yf Yumt btpzujt gt btl'kz ;igth rfgt ni, rsmƒu\ s|rhY gn v;t jtdtgt st mf;t ni rf ftuEo Cte mtbd{e vgtoJhK ƒu\ rjtY mwhr÷t; ni gt ln‰ > gn mtbd{e gt W…vt'l rlBlrjtrFt; btl'kz ƒu\ ylwÁv ntult attrnY, simu&

f)

Em mtbd{e gt W…vt'l mu seJl fe dwKJÚtt, rJNtuMt Áv mu mbts ƒu\ fbs|tuh Jdo fe, bU mw"tth ntult attrnY >

Ft)

Emƒu\ ∏tht Emƒu\ ct'jtu Eµ;ubtjt rfY stlu Jtjtu W…vt'l fe ;wjtlt bU vgtoJhK vh vz|lu Jtjtt ç'wMtK ft cttuSt fb ntult attrnY simu - sbel, vtle ytih nJt >

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d)

rVh mu Wvgtud l rfY st mflu Jtjtu Qsto mkmt"tltU ft Wvgtud yr"tf ƒw\Ntjt;t ƒu\ mt:t rfgt stlt attrnY >

Dt)

Ctqbe, vtle simu mkmt"tltU ;:tt JltU ƒu\ mkh÷tK bU mntgf ntult attrnY >

at)

yk;rlorn; Qsto ƒu\ Yf bn…JvqKo rnµmu fe vwloçr§\gt ytih/gt vwl& çtr◊; bU mntgf ntult attrnY > mtbtLg;gt nb rfme Cte W…vt'l gt Jµ;w ftu Emfe yvrNtMx rlftm mbµgt ƒu\ yt"tth vh stkatlu fe fturNtNt fh;u nI, gn ;tu ƒw\A Ymt ne fnlu simt nwyt rf Yf rnbNtijt ytfth bU W;lt ne ctz|t ntu;t ni, rs;lt gn m;n ƒu\ Qvh r'FttEo 'u;t ni > Yf W…vt'l ftu ;igth Áv 'ulu fe çr§\gt ƒu\ 'tihtl gtle "th;e mu faate mtbd{e rlftjtlu mu jtufh, Emu ;igth fhlu, jttlu-jtu stlu, Eµ;ubtjt fhlu ytih Emft rlvxtht fhlu ;f, vgtoJhK vh ƒw\A l ƒw\A ymh ;tu rlrNat; Áv mu ntu;t ni. Qsto ƒu\ Wvgtud ytih "th;e, vtle ;:tt nJt fe ltv ƒu\ yt"tth vh, nh yJµ:tt bU W…vt'ltU gt Elƒu Wvgtud ƒu\ mkctk"t bU rfY Yf ;wjtlt…bf y"ggl ftu jttEV« mtEfjt Yltrjtrmm (Yjt.me.Y.) - gt mt"tthK Ntc'tU bU Emu ††vtjtlu mu rat;t ;f¥¥ ft ærMxftuK fn;u nI >

ç.3

Ïgt 'wrlgt bU Wvjtc"t ;ujt gt ntEz[tuftctol mkmt"tltU ƒu\ Yf ctz|u rnµmu fe Ftv; ƒu\ rjtY ◊jttrµxf rs|Bbu'th ni ?

W.

ln‰ > ytvƒu\ rjtY gn stllt s|Áhe ni rf 'wrlgt ƒu\ ntEz[tuftctol mkmt"tl ft 4% mu Cte fb rnµmt ◊jttrµxf ∏tht Eµ;ubtjt rfgt st;t ni > jtdCtd 90% rnµmt vrhJnl, rJπw; W…vt'l ytih ;tv ƒu\ rjtY Eµ;ubtjt rfgt st;t ni > ytb;tih vh, gr' ;wjtlt…bf Wvgtud ytih ftgoƒw\Ntjt;t µ;h mu 'uFtt stY ;tu ◊jttrµxf W…vt'ltU ftu, çatrjt; mtbd{e mu ctllu Jtjtu W…vt'ltU fe ;wjtlt bU fb Qsto fe s|Áh; vz|;e ni >

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ç.4

Ïgt ldhrldb ƒu\ Xtum yvrNtMx bU ◊jttrµxf ft rnµmt mctmu yr"tf ntu;t  ni ?

W.

ln‰ > 2001 bU cte.Yb.me. ∏tht rfY Yf y"ggl mu gn ytkfz|t 0.75% çt◊; nwyt > gntk ;f rf gqhtuv ytih gq.Ym.Y. bU çr; ÔgrÏ; 50 rf.d{t. JtrMtof mu Cte yr"tf ◊jttrµxf fe Ftv; (Ctth; bU gn Ftv; 4.5 rf.d{t. JtrMtof ni) ƒu\ yt"tth vh ◊jttrµxf yvrNtMx, ƒw\A ldhvtrjtft Xtum yvrNtMx ft 8% rnµmt ni > NtuMt rnµmu bU sirJf Ftrls (33%), ftds| ytih cttuzo (30%), ftkat ytih "tt;w (16%) ;:tt yLg (13%) mtbd{e Nttrbjt ni > 'hymjt, ◊jttrµxf √U\fe stlu Jtjte mtbd{e ƒu\ Js|l ytih btºtt ftu Ctthe btºtt bU fb fh;t ni > 'wCtto∂g mu Ctth; bU El yvrNtMxtU ft rlvxtht fhlu fe sdn, ELnU ƒq\z|t-fatht mbStt st;t ni, Emu Yfºt fhƒu\, E;fe vwl& çr§\gt ln‰ fe st;e >

ç.5

Ïgt ◊jttrµxf fe ctle rfhtlu fe :tirjtgtU mu cthmt; bU ltrjtgtk ctk' ntu st;e ni ?

W.

Yumt ln‰ ntu;t > ◊jttrµxf fe ctl‰ rfhtlu fe :tirjtgtk vtle mu njfe (fb Dtle) ntu;e nI, EmrjtY gu vtle bU ;ih;e hn;e nI, ytih EmerjtY gu mbw“ ;x vh ;ct EfxTXe ntulu jtd;e nI, sct Elft rlvxtht mne ;heƒu\ mu ln‰ rfgt st;t > gr' rlftm-çKtjte bU Ftz|e stjte ft Wvgtud rfgt dgt ntu ;tu, vtle stjte ƒu\ s|rhY ctn;u mbg ◊jttrµxf fe :tirjtgtk m;n vh ;ih;e hn;e ni > sctrf ytz|e stjte jtde ntulu vh, simu rf yÏmh mz|ftU vh jtdtEo st;e nI, ◊jttrµxf fe :tirjtgtk ctn;u vtle mu yjtd ntu st;e nI > ydh nb Em ;fo ƒu\ yt"tth vh mtuatlu fe fturNtNt fhU ;tu gn mbSt vtlt frXl ntudt rf ytrFth ◊jttrµxf fe :tirjtgtU ƒu\ fthK vtle fe ltrjtgtk rfm ;hn ctk' ntu st;e nI ? Nttg' Emƒu\ rjtY nbU ctnw; ne mtJ"ttle ƒu mt:t v;t jtdtfh gn rlrNat; fhlt ntudt rf Jtµ;J bU ymjte mbµgt Ïgt ni >

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ç.6

Ïgt Fttπ v't:ttuO ytih 'JtytU mu ◊jttrµxf ft mBvƒo\ ELnU rJMttJ; ctlt 'u;t ni ?

W.

ln‰ > 'wrlgt Cth bU yts ◊jttrµxf ft Wvgtud Fttπ v't:ttuO, 'JtytU ytih ctaattU fe 'uFtCttjt ƒu\ W…vt'ltU fe virfkd ƒu\ rjtY EmrjtY rfgt st;t ni, ÏgtUrf gn Elƒu\ rjtY vqhe ;hn mwhr÷t; nI > simu 'q"t fe :tirjtgtk, Fttπ ;ujt, ytEm§\eb ƒu vif, dturjtgtU ytih ƒi\◊µgqjm ƒu\ rcjtµxh vif > gne ln‰, ytEo.Je. ÇjtwEz ;:tt hÏ; Cte ◊jttrµxf fe ctid bU Yfºt rfgt st;t ni > Fttπ v't:ttuO ;:tt 'JtytU fe viRfd ƒu\ rjtY ◊jttrµxf ctid mwhr÷t; ntulu ƒu cttJsq', ç…guf 'uNt bU ƒw\A Yumu btl'kz rlrNat; rfY dY nI, stu gn rl"ttorh; fh;u nI rf Yumu ftil mu YzerxÔs| ytih rvdbUxTm nI, stu Fttπ v't:ttuO ƒu\ mBvƒo\ ƒu\ rjtY vqhe ;hn mwhr÷t; Áv bU Eµ;ubtjt rfY st mf;u nI >

ç.7

Ïgt rbxTxe ƒu\ Cte;h dtz|lu vh ◊jttrµxf ntrlfthf mtrct; ntu;u nI ?

W.

ln‰ > ◊jttrµxf ƒu\ yvrNtMx bwFg Áv mu vgtoJhK ƒu\ rjtY rlMçCttJe gt rlrM§\g ntu;u nI > Elƒu\ ∏tht Yumu rJMtijtu jteƒu\xTm ;igth ln‰ ntu;u rslmu rbxTxe gt Ctqd; sjt mkmt"tltU ƒu\ 'qrMt; ntulu ft sturFtb ntu > sctrf Emƒu\ rJvhe; Yumu W…vt'l, stu Wv-W…vt'ltU ƒu\ Áv bU rJDtrx; ntu st;u nI, Elmu Ctqd; sjt mkmt"tltU ƒu\ 'qrMt; ntulu ft Ft|;ht yJNg ntu mf;t ni > ◊jttrµxf ƒu\ yvrNtMx ftu ytmtle mu EfxTXt rfgt st mf;t ni ytih s|bel bU gu ctnw; fb sdn Dtuh;u nI > gne ln‰, ◊jttrµxf ƒu\ yvrNtMx vqhe ;hn rlrM§\g ntu;u nI ytih gu rJDtrx; ln‰ ntu;u nI EmrjtY Ntnhe ÷tuºttU bU yvrNtMx çctk"tl çr§\gt ƒu\ 'tihtl Elft v]:tÏfhK fhlt ytih vwl& çr§\gt fhlt yr"tf ytmtl ntu;t ni > Yhes|tult gwrlJrmoxe, gq.Ym.Y., ∏tht Lgqgtpƒo\ ƒu\ CtqFtll vh rfY dY Yf çrmÆ y"ggl mu v;t atjtt ni rf Fttπ v't:to simu cteV« 41


µxuÏm, fptb-ytpl-fptct, Lgqs| vuvh, rslƒu\ ctthu bU ytvftu jtd;t ni rf gu ƒw\A mtjttU bU rJDtrx; ntu st;u nI, 'hymjt 30 JMto ctt' Cte gu Em Áv bU ctlu hn;u nI rf ELnU vnattlt st mf;t ni. Jtu EmrjtY ÏgtUrf Yluhturctf cttgtud{uzuNtl (nJt YJk mqgo çftNt fe ylwvrµ:tr; bU) çr§\gt Yf ctnw; ne "tebe çr§\gt ntu;e ni. Em çr§\gt mu rbxTxe ƒu\ CthtJ mu bu:tul dim vi't ntu;e ni, rsmƒu\ ††d{elntWm¥¥ çCttJ ƒu\ fthK gn ftctol ztgytpÏmtEz mu Cte yr"tf ntrlfthf ntu;e ni > ç.8

Ïgt ◊jttrµxf ftu sjttlu mu rJMtijtt "twkyt vi't ntu;t ni ?

W.

ln‰ > 'hymjt, WvCttud-vNatt; ;igth ntulu Jtjtt ß|gt't mu ß|gt't yvrNtMx rfhtlu fe mtbd{e gt vtpjteE:ttgujtel ctid mu ;igth ntu;t ni > vtpjttE:ttgjtel fe htmtgrlf mkhatlt ƒu\Jjt ftctol ytih ntgz[ts u l yKwytU mu ;igth ntu;e ni > ytih rsm rfme ftu Cte ydh :ttuz|e me Cte ƒi\rbµx[e yt;e ntude, Jn gn ctt; yaAe ;hn stl;t ntudt rf ftctol ntgz[ts u l btpjtuÏgqjth atul ftu sjttlu vh ftctol ztgytpÏmtEx ytih vtle fe Cttv ;igth ntu;e ni > ve.Je.me. mu ctlu W…vt'l ftu sjt;e ytd bU ztjtlu mu ntgz[tusl ÏjttuhtEz gwÏ; "twkyt rlfjt;t ni, stu ;eFtt ntu;t ni > 'hymjt, Em mtbd{e ft Yf bn…JvqKo jttCt gn ntu;t ni rf vtJh ƒu\ctjm vh ytJhK ƒu Áv bU Emft Wvgtud fhlu vh ytd ft √i\jttJ fb ntu;t ni. mtbtLg;gt ldhrldb ∏tht Yfrºt; Xtum yvrNtMx bU ve.Je.me. W…vt'ltU gt WvCttud rfY dY vif fe btºtt ctnw; fb ntu;e ni > rJMttÏ; "twy k t, stu ytbsl;t fe djt; "tthKt ƒu\ ylwmth ◊jttrµxf mu rlfjt;t ni, Jn ◊jttrµxf ctid bU btIsq' mtbd{e ƒu\ fthK vi't ntu;t ni, rsLnU ytiπturdf yvrNtMx mu Awxftht vtlu ƒu\ rjtY sjttgt st;t ni >

ç.9

Ïgt s|bel bU dtz|lu ƒu\ ctt' ◊jttrµxf, vti"ttU ƒu\ rJftm ƒu\ rjtY ntrlfthf ntu;t ni ?

W.

ln‰ >

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cttdtle VmjttU gt Jleg VmjttU ƒu\ rjtY htuvtU ftu Wdtlu ƒu\ rjtY yts 'wrlgt Cth bU vtpjteE:ttgjtel ctid ft Eµ;ubtjt rfgt st;t ni > Em v;jte vtpjteE:ttgjtel ctid bU rbxTxe Cthfh, htuvtU ftu EmbU ztjtt st;t ni ytih cjtuz mu Yf ateht jtdtfh Emu rbxTxe mu Zkf r'gt st;t ni > Emmu htuvtU fe sz|tU ƒu\ rJftm bU ftuEo ÁftJx ln‰ yt;e > vwhtlu ;heƒu\ ƒu fthK cttkm fe xtufhe bU jtdtY stlu Jtjtu htuvtU ft ç…gthtuvK fhlu ƒu\ rjtY, ELnU sct Elmu WFttz|t st;t :tt ;tu lLnu htuvu Ctthe mkFgt bU bh st;u :tu > ◊jttrµxf vqhe ;hn rlrM§\g mtbd{e ni ytih rbxTxe ƒu\ leatu Emfe btisq'de ft rbxTxe fe htmtgrlf mkhatlt gt vti"ttU ƒu\ rJftm vh ftuEo çCttJ ln‰ vz|;t > ç.10 Ïgt nbU ◊jttrµxf fe :tirjtgtU ƒu\ ct'jtu ftds| fe :tirjtgtU ft Wvgtud fhlt attrnY ? W.

Em ctt; ft √i\mjtt fhlu mu vnjtu nbU rlBlrjtrFt; ctt;tU vh rJatth fhlt s|Áhe ni > yts ytb "tthKt gne s|tuh vfz| hne ni rf ◊jttrµxf ƒu\ ct'jtu, ftds| ft Eµ;ubtjt vgtoJhK ƒu\ rjtY ß|gt't mwhr÷t; ni. jturfl ƒw\A ;:gtU ytih Yjt.me.Y. ∏tht Emft mb:tol ln‰ rfgt st mf;t ni > ftds| fe :tirjtgtk ;igth fhlu ƒu\ rjtY, Eme ytfth fe ytih Eme ƒu\ cthtcth ftgoƒw\Ntjt;t Jtjte ◊jttrµxf fe :tirjtgtU fe ;wjtlt bU ZtEo dwlt yr"tf Qsto fe s|Áh; vz|;e ni > ftds| ƒu\ W…vt'l mu nJt bU ç'qMtK Cte ß|gt't √i\jt;t ni. mt:t ne, ftds| ft W…vt'l gt vwl& çr§\gt ƒu\ 'tihtl ntulu Jtjte yvrNtMx sjt rlftme bU Cte Ctthe rJmkdr; vi't ntu;e ni > sntk ;f rJDtxl ft mkctk"t ni, gwrlJrmoxe ytpV Yhes|tult ƒu\ y"ggltU mu v;t atjtt nI rf 1952 bU 'cttY dY ftds| ƒu\ yJNtuMttU ft sct 1989 bU Ftll rfgt dgt ;tu ELnU µvMx Áv mu vnattlt st mf;t :tt > xujteV«tul ztghuÏxhe ƒu\ mt:t Cte gne vrhKtb r'FttEo r'gt >

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ƒw\A jttud ;ƒo\ ƒu\ Áv bU Yumt Cte fnUdu rf ftds| ftu J]÷ttU mu ;igth rfgt st;t ni, stu rf lJele¢\; ntulu Jtjtt mkmt"tl ni > sctrf ◊jttrµxf ;ujt mu ;igth rfgt stt;t ni, rsmftu vwl& µ:ttrv; ln‰ rfgt st mf;t > Emƒu\ rJvhe; gn ;ƒo\ r'gt st mf;t ni rf skdjt nbthe rbxTxe ƒu\ Ctkzth ftu mwhr÷t; hFtlu ytih Jt;tJhK bI dimeg mk;wjtl ctltY hFtlu bU bn…JvqKo Ctqrbft rlCtt;u nI > ftctol ztgytpÏmtEz ftu Ft‰atfh, ytpÏmesl ftu Jt;tJhK bU √i\jtt;u nI > nbthe jtdt;th ctZ|;e jtfz|e fe CtqFt ƒu\ fthK, nbthe yts|t'e ƒu\ ctt' mu ;fhectl 44 rbrjtgl nuÏxugh skdjt ftxfh, mtV« rfY st atwƒu\ ni > Em ;hn yts nbtht 'uNt 'wrlgt bU mctmu fb Jl÷tuºt gwÏ; 'uNttU bU mu Yf ni (ƒw\jt Ctq÷tuºt bU ytlu Jtjtt Jleg ÷tuºt) > Em ;hn, sntk ;f Ctth; ft mJtjt ni, gntk Ctq÷tuºt rfme Cte Áv bU Yf lJele¢\; rfgt stlu Jtjtt mkmt"tl ln‰ ni > ç.11 Ïgt ◊jttrµxf mkmt"tl mkJ"tol ƒu\ btl'kztU ƒu\ ylwÁv ni? Ïgt ◊jttrµxf viƒu\Rsd ft Wvgtud fh;u mbg nbU ††ßgt't ƒu\ ct'jtu fb¥¥ rbjt;t ni ? W.

ntk > Emƒu\ rjtY nb ◊jttrµxf mu ctle rfhtlu fe :tirjtgtU ft Yf mt"tthK W'thnK jtu mf;u nI, rsmftu çatth bt"gbtU ∏tht ctnw; ne Ôgtvf Áv mu ct'ltb rfgt st hnt ni > ◊jttrµxf mu ctle rfhtlu fe 2000 :tirjtgtU fe QattEo mtZ|u mt; Ekat ntu;e ni< ftds| mu ctle rfhtlu fe :tirjtgtU fe QkattEo mtZ|u mt; √w\x ntu;e ni > yct ytv ne mturatY rf vrhJnl ƒu\ 'tihtl ELnU jtu stlu bU rf;le sdn attrnY ytih vrhJnl ƒu\ 'tihtl ELnU jtu stlu bU rf;le sdn attrnY ytih vrhJnl ƒu\ 'tihtl rf;lt ç'qMtK ntudt? ††sbol mtumtExe V«tph rhmoat El ' viƒu\Rsd btƒuo\x¥¥ ∏tht rfY dY Yf y"ggl mu v;t atjtt ni rf gr' ◊jttrµxf viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ ct'jtu rfme yLg mtbd{e ft Wvgtud rfgt stY ;tu Elƒu\ Js|l YkJ btºtt ƒu\ yt"tth vh rlvxthu ft Ftato §\bNt& 4 ytih 2.5 ;f ctZ| stYdt, mt:t ne, Qsto fe Ftv; ytih viƒu\Rsd ft Ftato Bte 'wdwlt ntu stYdt >

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Emft Yf ytih W'thnK ni, njtƒu\ Js|l fe PET cttu;jttU bU rblhjt Jtpxh ft vrhJnl > ftkat fe cttu;jttU fe ;wjtlt bU Yf x[f bU 80% fb viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ mt:t, 60% ß|gt't vtle ft vrhJnl rfgt st mf;t ni > vrhKtb µJÁv jtdBtd 40% ;f EO"tl fe ctat; fe st mf;e ni > ◊jttrµxf viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ rjtY vif rfY dY W…vt'l ytih viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ Js|l ft ylwvt; mctmu yr"tf ni< W'thnK ƒu\ rjtY 500 d{t. ftpVe ftu 500 d{t. Js|l ƒu\ ftkat ƒu\ sth bU< gt rVh 130 d{t. ƒu\ rxl ◊jtux rzcctu bU< gt rm√o|\ 12 d{t. Js|l ƒu\ Yf ◊jttrµxf jtirbluxuz vtWat bU vif rfgt st mf;t ni > Emmu Cte yaAt W'thnK ni rf Yf rfjttu lbf ftu 5 d{t. ƒu\ vtWat bU vif rfgt st mf;t ni rsmbU W…vt'l ƒu\ Js|l ytih viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ Js|l ft ylwvt; ni 200&1 ytih El ƒw\A W'thnKtU mu µvMx strnh ntu;t ni rf ◊jttrµxf viƒu\Rsd ƒu\ Wvgtud mu nbU ††fb bU rbjt;t ni fn‰ ß|gt't V«tg't¥¥ > ç.12 seJl fe dwKJÚtt ftu ctun;h ctltlu bU ◊jttrµxf Ïgt Btqrbft rlBtt;t ni ? W.

gqrlmuV« fe Yf rhvtuxo ƒu\ ylwmth, nbthu 'uNt bU 2,500 ctaattU fe nh r'l 'µ; sime ctebthe ƒu\ fthK b]…gw ntu st;e ni, Emft fthK 'qrMt; vtle ytih Nttiat mkctk"te WÚtb mwrJ"ttytU ft yCttJ ni, stu serJ; hn;u nI, Ju ß|gt't;h vtle ƒu\ fthK ntulu Jtjte ctebtrhgtU mu d{µ; hn;u nI ytih 'uNt ftu çr; JMto 1,800 rbrjtgl ftb ƒu\ DtkxtU ft lwfmtl WXtlt vz|;t ni > 'uNt ƒu\ ∏tht gn jt÷g rl"ttorh; rfgt dgt ni rf çr; dtkJ Yf mwhr÷t; velu ƒu\ vtle ft mkmt"tl yJNg Wvjtc"t fhtgt stY ytih Em ;hn ft 'wdob jt÷g ;ct ;f vqht fh vtlt jtdCtd ymkCtJ ni, sct ;f ve.Je.me. vtEv ft Wvgtud l rfgt stY, stu rf rfV«tg;e, Js|l bU njƒu\, jttlu-jtu-stlu bU ytmtl ntulu ƒu\ mt:t, ELnU µ:ttrv; fhlt Cte ctnw; ytmtl ntu;t ni. ytih mctmu bn…JvqKo ctt; rf se.ytEo. vtEv ƒu\ mt:t ;wjtlt…bf ftgoƒw\Ntjt;t ƒu\ Áv bU ††;ujt mbf÷t¥¥ ƒu\ W…vt'l YJk Wvgtud ƒu\ bwftctjtu Elmu 88% fb Qsto fe Ftv; ntu;e ni > 45


yts d{tbeK ÷tuºttU bU ÔgrÏ;d; W…vt'ltU ft Wvgtud ;us|e mu ctZ|;t st hnt ni. cttu;jt ctk' NtiBvq ft Wvgtud çr;JMto 2% fe 'h mu ctZ| hnt ni, sctrf 5 mu 8 rb.rjt. ƒu\ jtatejtu vif bU NtiBvq ƒu\ Wvgtud bU JMto-'h-JMto 30% fe 'h mu J]rÆ ntu hne ni > fb feb; fe jtatejte viƒu\Rsd ytih Atuxe mtEs| ƒu\ vif ft gn yltuFtt bujt, mbts ƒu\ Yf ctnw; ctz|u rnµmu ƒu\ rjtY W…vt'l ftu ctnw; ne rfV«tg;e ctlt;t ni > Em ;hn gn ythtu∂g YJk ÔgrÏ;d; 'uFtCttjt ftu Cte ctun;h ctltlu bU mngtud 'u;t ni > ç.13 bnÚJvqKo vgtoJhK mkctk"te bwætU mu rlvxlu bU ◊jttrµxf Wπtud lu Ïgt Ctqrbft rlCttEo ni ? W.

Ekrzgl mUxh V«tph ◊jttrµxÏm El YlJtglobUx (ytEoo.me.ve.Eo.) rsmfe ntjt ne bU µ:ttvlt fe dEo ni, ft yvlt Yf jtkctt Er;ntm ni, rsmfe leatu ƒu\ ylwaAu'tU bU mk÷tuv bU atatto fe dEo ni > ytEo.me.ve.Eo. ft rbNtl µxuxbUx ytivattrhf Áv mu sj' ne DtturMt; rfgt stYdt, Emft WæuNg, vgtoJhK ƒu\ çr; msd rJNJ bU ◊jttrµxf ftu Yf jttufrçg mtbd{e ctltlt ni > fEo Yumu Wvgtud nI, rsmbU ◊jttrµxf yr"tf ftgo÷tb, mwrJ"ttslf ytih rfV«tg;e vmk' mtrct; ntu;t ni - simu WvCttuÏ;t viRfd. EmerjtY ytEo.me.ve.Eo. ƒu\ rjtY Yumu vgtoJhK mkctk"te mbµgtytU vh "gtl 'ult ctnw; s|Áhe ni stu ◊jttrµxf ƒu\ Wvgtud, Emfe feb; - ftgoƒw\Ntjt;t mkctk"te jttCttU fe sz|u ftx mf;u nI > ;trf nbtht mbts Em y'TCtw; ytih ctnwvgtude mtbd{e ft vqht-vqht jttCt WXt mƒu\ > 1995 bU, ◊jttµxEkrzgt VtWkzNu tl fe bilRu sd fbuxe ytih çumezuLx lu yvle 'qh“rMx mu vnjtu ne gn stl rjtgt :tt rf ytlu Jtjtu fjt bU vgtoJhK mkctk"te mbµgtYk, Wπtud ƒu\ rjtY Yf dkCteh mbµgt ctl stYde > EmerjtY, ;wh;k ◊jtµxEkrzgt VtWkzNu tl fe YlJtghtu◊jttµx fbuxe fe µ:ttvlt fe dEo ;trf mhfth ytih çatth bt"gbtU ƒu\ mt:t rbjtfh vgtoJthK mkctk"te bwætU ftu mwjtSttgt st mƒu\ > YlJtghtu◊jttµx fbuxe ∏tht vgtoJhK ƒu\ mkctk"t bU ◊jttrµxf vh ;:g EfxTXu fhlu, ylwm"k ttl stlfthe Yfºt ytih bnÚJvqKo ytkfz|u çt◊; fhlu ƒu\ rjtY fz|u çgtm rfY st;u nI > Emƒu\ ctt' fbuxe ∏tht El mthe stlfthe ftu mhfth YJk çatth bt"gbtU ƒu\ mb÷t

46


çµ;w; rfgt st;t ni > ELnU ◊jttrµxf ytih vgtoJhK mu mkctkr"t; mbµgtytU YJk ;:gtU, djt; "tthKtytU YJk maattEo ƒu\ rJMtg bU stlfthe Wvjtc"t fhtEo st;e ni > Elƒu\ ∏tht fEo çum ftpLVhUm ƒu\ yjttJt, vqhu Ctth; bU fEo murblth (Yf YV«.ytEo.me.me.ytEo. ƒu\ mt:t) Cte ytgturs; rfY dY > YlJtghtu◊jttµx fbuxe ∏tht mUxj[ t vtpjgqNtl fkxt[ ju t cttuzo ƒu\ atughbul ƒu\ lu;]…J bU luNtljt ◊jttrµxf Juµx bilusbUx xtµf Vtumo fe rhvtuox bU Cte ctnw; ne bnÚJvqKo gtud'tl r'gt dgt. Em xtµf Vtumo rhvtuxo ∏tht Ctth; ƒu\ mk'Cto bU ◊jttrµxf viƒu\Rsd Juµx bilusbUx fe hKler;gtU< ◊jttrµxf fe vwl& çr§\gt ƒu\ mkctk"t bU r'Nttrl'uoNt ;:tt ◊jttrµxf El YlJtghbUx ƒu\ rjtY Yf Ekrzgl mUxh µ:ttrv; fhlu ft çµ;tJ Cte çµ;w; rfgt dgt > Emƒu\ yjttJt YnJtghtu◊jttµx fbuxe ∏tht mUxj[ t vtpjgqNtl fkxt[ ju t cttuzo (vgtoJhK YJk Jl bkºttjtg) ƒu\ mt:t rbjtfh, Juµx xtEv cti∂m (Stctjtt :tirjtgtU) ƒu rjtY btuxtEo mebt vh yr"tmqatlt ;igth fhlu ft ftb Cte rfgt st;t ni > ytEoo.me.ve.Eo. Yf Yume µJattrjt; htMx[eg mkµ:tt ni, rsmu Ctth;eg ◊jttrµxf W“tud ƒu\ Ntugh "tthftU ∏tht µ:ttrv; rfgt dgt ni > Emƒu\ çJ;oftU bU Nttrbjt ni, ƒi\rbfjm Ykz vuxt[ ƒu \i rbfjm biLgw√\i| Ïathmo YmturmYNtl ;:tt ◊jttµxEkrzgt V«tWkzuNtl > Emfe yvle Yf ErLzvLzuLx dJoRld ftWkrmjt ytih bilusbUx fbuxe ni, rsmbU Wπtud, mhfth, ylwmk"ttl mkµ:ttytU ;:tt Yƒu\zuberNtgLm ÷tuºt ƒu\ stlu-btlu ÔgrÏ; Nttrbjt ni > ytEo.me.ve.Eo. ∏tht ◊jttrµxf, ◊jttrµxf yvrNtMx fe vwl& çr§\gt ytih vgtoJhK mu mkctkr"t; 'eDtoftjtel gtusltytU ytih bwætU ƒu\ mCte vnjtwytU vh ftgo rfgt stYdt > mt:t ne, Emƒu\ ∏tht ◊jttrµxf yvrNtMx fe vwl& çr§\gt mkctk"te mqatlt, rNt÷tt, xuÏltujttpse ƒu\ yπ;l mkctk"te bwætU vh Cte "gtl r'gt stYdt ;:tt Ctth; bU ◊jttrµxf yvrNtMx bils u bUx (çctk"tl) ftu ctun;h ctltlu bU mntg;t 'e stYde. Emƒu\ yjttJt, Elƒu\ ∏tht çatth bt"gbtU, bkºttjtgtU YJk mhfthe bnfbtU, ltdrhf yr"tftrhgtU, Yl.se.ytu., Nti÷trKf mkµ:ttytI, mrbr;gtU ;:tt ◊jttrµxf Wπtud mu mkctkr"t; rJrJ"t ytiπturdf mkdXltU ƒu\ mt:t mr§\g Áv mu rbjtfh ftgo rfgt stYdt > 47


ç.14 vgtJhK mkctk"te bwætU ƒu\ rjtY ftil rs|Bbu'the jtudt ? W. 'hymjt, ◊jttrµxf mkctk"te bwætU fe rs|Bbu'the nb mctfe ni. ftuEo Cte mbts mu mkctkr"t; bwæt nb mCte ftu yvlu mngtud mu mwjtSttlt ntudt > gn nb mctfe Yf †mtkStt-rs|Bbu'the¥ ni ... rVh attnu Jtu mhfthe ÔgrÏ; ntU, ldhvtrjtft ntu, faatu btjt ƒu\ rlbto;t ntU, fLJxmo ntU, Fttπ gt rlse W…vt'l rlbtoo;t ntU hexujtmo ntU gt rVh WvCttuÏ;t > Jtµ;J bU Dthujtq ƒq\z|t-fatht fEo mtbrd{gtU ft rbjtt-swjtt Áv ntu;t ni, rsmbU ◊jttrµxf ft rnµmt ctnw; fb gtle 2% mu Cte fb Js|l ft ntu;t ni, EmrjtY Em yvrNtMx ƒu\ çctk"tl ytih Emƒu\ rlvxthu fe mctmu yr"tf rs|Bbu'the mhfth fe ni > yts gn ◊jttrµxf faate mtbd{e ytih viƒu\Rsd rlbtoo;tytU fe rs|Bbu'the ni rf Ju ytdu ytfh Yumu rfVtg;e Wvtg Wvjtc"t fhtYk, stu v't:ttuO ft mkh÷tK ytih mkJ"tool fh mƒU\, Qsto fe ctat; fhU ytih yvrNtµx ft Js|l ytih btºtt fb fh mƒU\ > mt:t ne Fttπ v't:to ytih rlse Wvgtud ƒu\ v't:ttuO ƒu\ rlbto;t, hexujtmo YJk WvCttuÏ;tytU ftu Cte ◊jttrµxf vuƒu\Rsd ƒu\ jttCttU fe stlfthe ntult s|Áhe ni > ELnU ◊jttrµxf ft rlvxtht Em ;hn fhlt attrnY rf Wmƒu\ fthK vwl& çr§\gt vh rJNtuMt "gtl 'ulu fe mtJ"ttle ftu ctjt rbjtu > nbbU mu nh Yf ƒu\ rjtY gn mbStlt ctnw; s|Áhe ni rf nb yvle ytlu Jtjte verZ|gtU ƒu\ rjtY Yf mwk'h YJk mwhr÷t; vgtoJhK ƒu\ Áv, Yf ylbtujt rJhtm; Atuz| stYk ytih Emƒu\ rjtY s|Áhe ni rf nb El vh ybjt fhU& DtxtYk - Wvgtud fhU - vwl& çr§\gt fhU ytih yk; bU, nb mct rbjtfh µJefth fhU rf& ◊jttrµxf ƒq\z|t-fhfx ln‰ ... jttud Emu ctlt;u nI.

slJhe 2006 48


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