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The Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

Southern & East Africa Volume 3 The Essential Guide

www.sustainabletourism.co.za ISBN1-00000-000-1 978-0-620-55987-4 ISBN

99 778810060200 050509080794

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For more info see pages 58-59


See product review on pages 58-59


11TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON

RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IN DESTINATIONS 14 & 15 APRIL 2015 | CTICC, CAPE TOWN #rtdcapetown @respCPT The 11th International Conference on Responsible Tourism in Destinations (RTD11) will be cost-hosted by the City of Cape Town, Professor Harold Goodwin (Manchester Metropolitan University and the International Centre for Responsible Tourism) and Heidi van der Watt (Responsible Tourism South Africa). It takes place on 14 and 15 April 2015 at the Cape Town International Convention Centre as part of the Africa Travel Week 2015, incorporating WTM Africa.

RTD11 presents an opportunity to reflect on what has been achieved in Cape Town, South Africa and elsewhere around the world, to document good practices applied by different producer groups, and set the agenda for change for the next 10 years. The conference will result in a responsible tourism practitioner’s guide to realizing responsible tourism in destinations. This conference aspires to review practice and set the agenda for the next decade and to identify the best answers to the question: How can tourism be used to make better places for people to live in, and better places for people to visit?

To register for RTD11 go to: www.wtmafrica.com/rtd11/ To find out more about RTD11 go to www.responsiblecapetown.co.za/event/rtd11/

Title sponsors

Conference sponsors

Media partners


Responsible and Sustainable

Tourism Handbook

Southern Africa 2015/2016 EDITOR Niki Glen

DIVISIONAL HEAD OF SALES Annie Pieters

CONTRIBUTORS Caroline Ungersbock, Guy Chester, Heidi van der Watt, Monde Nyangintsimbi, llwellan vance, james Hillburn, Lee-Hendor Ruiters, Franz Rental, Dr Merida Roets, Annelie Barkema, Amor Malan, Braam Hecher, John Goossen, Patrick Marsh, Herman Roos

PROJECT LEADER Vania Reyneke CHIEF EXECUTIVE Gordon Brown

LAYOUT & DESIGN Nicole Kenny

DIRECTORS Gordon Brown Andrew Fehrsen Lloyd Macfarlane

EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION Nicole Kenny

PRINCIPAL FOR AFRICA & MAURITIUS Gordon Brown

MARKETING MANAGER Nabilah Hassen-Bardien

PRINCIPAL FOR UNITED STATES James Smith

COVER PHOTO Maropeng by Laetitia Kenny

PUBLISHER

PEER REVIEWER Prof Kevin Mearns PROOF READER Dylan Oosthuizen

www.alive2green.com www.sustainable tourism.co.za

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch Cape Town 7700

ISBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 3 First Published February 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions.

IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: TEL: 021 447 4733 Space limitations and source format have affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: images please contact the Publisher. 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

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THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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FEDHASA IS PROUD TO BE ONE OF THE OLDEST

INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS AROUND FEDHASA CAPE CELEBRATING

10 YEARS

– 65 YEARS AND STILL COUNTING! 10 REASONS WHY YOU NEED TO BELONG 1

2

3

4

5

FEDHASA has been recognised and respected by government and all industry role players as the representative body and voice for the South African hospitality industry, since 1949. The association represents the interest for the hospitality industry, including hotels, guest houses, B&B’s, restaurants, caterers and industry suppliers and service providers.

FEDHASA uniquely holds two registrations that sets us apart from other industry associations – i.e. • Industry Trade Association operating as a Section 21 Company (not for gain) and • Employers’ Body, giving you as the employer (FEDHASA member) access to representation at CCMA-level, should the need arise

Industry-related, Specialised Advice & Assistance is just a phone call away, e.g. legislative updates & advice, labour relations advice, industry-specific Pension Fund, and other helplines are available.

Direct representation and/or lobbying on your behalf – private sector negotiations and representation on e.g.: TBCSA, TGCSA SAT, NdT, CATHSSETA, Wesgro, Northern Cape Tourism, other Association partners such as our Joint Association Member (JAMMS) partners - Cape Town Tourism, SAACI, SATSA, etc. This also includes various networking opportunities with other industry segments and players via workshops, forums and events, etc.

Regular weekly Communications and Updates, keeping you ahead of the rest!

COST-SAVING BENEFITS 6

Credit Card Discounts – very special, exclusive rates of 2%, for members only & also Workplace Banking from Absa.

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SABC TV License discounts – 25% discount on commercial licenses

8

Discounts and special rates from • Checkers – Corporate benefit card & discounts • Ultra-Liquors – preferential rates & free delivery • Dining-Out – free set-up costs • Sleeping-Out – free member listings, etc.

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Corporate loyalty programme where members can save up to 15% on all SAA-operated routes (domestically, regionally & internationally)

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Selected ‘member-to-member discounts’ from our industry supplier members – some of which are extended exclusively for FEDHASA members; business-to-business’ opportunities.

For more information, please do not hesitate to contact your relevant FEDHASA Regional Office: FEDHASA Cape (Western & Northern Cape Provinces) Tel: 021 552 9870 | E-mail: fedhasacape@fedhasa.co.za FEDHASA East Coast (KZN & Eastern Cape) Tel: 031 312 3609 | E-mail: fedhasakzn@fedhasa.co.za FEDHASA Inland (Gauteng, Mpumalanga, Limpopo, North West, Free State) Tel: 0861 333 427 | E-mail: info@fedhasa.co.za

www.fedhasa.co.za


The

Sustainability and Integrated REPORTING HANDBOOK South Africa 2014


Caroline Ungersbock Chair and Co-founder Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme

I

t is really difficult to believe that it is time to sit and write the foreword of Volume 3. It feels like yesterday that we were putting Volume 1 together. This past year has been a busy one for Responsible and Sustainable Tourism in South Africa, in particular for the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. Last year the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme achieved a number major milestones: At Indaba 2014, the STPP signed an agreement with the N12 Treasure Route

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Association to become the implementation Partners of Responsible Tourism in all the towns along the route and all the towns 50kms on either side of the N12. The route of 1 300 km stretches from Mpumalanga to George, and passes through 5 provinces. There are 38 towns on the route with an additional 50 towns within the 100 km corridor. In October, the STPP team went to the Eastern Cape to assist our partners, Scientific Roets in developing the Beach to Berg Route Development Plan for Alfred


FOREWORD Nzo District Municipality. Once again, it was wonderful going into the deep rural areas. It was at one of these workshops that we met up with Thebethini and Phindile, who have been featured in the volumes 1 and 2 of the handbooks. If you remember in the previous handbook, we met Thebethini and Phindile and were invited to see a magnificent site 25kms from the village that they live in. We are pleased to report that they have a letter from the Chief which will allow a development for the community. We also attended the Karoo Parliament (in Cradock), which we have been involved with for a number of years. The Karoo Parliament is an occasion where the Karoo towns congregate and discuss and plan economic development, including: aviation, infrastructure, farming, fracking, tourism, health related issues, community wellbeing, energy, water and waste. There were many outcomes from the conference, one of which is that the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme will be the implementation partners of sustainable tourism in the Karoo and we will be the partners in the Karoo Parliament. The ultimate highlight for us was when the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme was accepted as a UNWTO Affiliate Member in October 2014. Of this we are very proud. As the STPP is now an affiliate member, we found it necessary attend a conference in Cambodia. It was the UNWTO/UNESCO World Conference on Tourism and Culture. Over the years UNSECO, together with member countries,

has identified World Cultural and Heritage Sites. The point of the conference was to strengthen links between culture and tourism and “to create positive dynamics between the two, a dynamic that is mutually reinforcing, that works for sustainability and the benefit of local communities�. The STPP also attended a UNWTO/UNEP conference in Nambia. In October, the STPP launched its Resource Efficiency Programme (with partners Evolve and NCPC-SA) as well as a GreenDreamsTM, a Carbon Offset Project (with partners Climate Neutral Group) for accommodation establishments. We will be working in clusters and are pleased to announce that 30 sites have been chosen for our pilot project. We will be rolling the programmes out town by town, suburb by suburb. We have also signed up an entire association in Gauteng, and they will be leading the way in showcasing how collaboration is the only way to go. In addition, we launched our membership, which came about as so many people asked us if they could become STPP members. We invite you to join the journey in order to strengthen small businesses in the tourism industry and to making South Africa one of the most revered Sustainable Tourism Destinations in South Africa.

Sincerely Caroline Ungersbock

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T

ourism in South Africa is a catalyst for economic growth and social development. Thus it needs to be encouraged and stimulated by all stakeholders within the industry. In the past, encouraging tourism through picturesque images of white sand beaches and ‘indigenous’ cultural experiences, ensured the mass exodus of wealthy travellers to the next tourism ‘hot-spot’. Today’s tourist however, is a savvy, hyper-informed, internetreliant individual who demands to know everything from where his is food produced, to how his waste is disposed of and how energy efficient his hotel room is. For the tourism industry to grow in South Africa stakeholders need to use sustainable and responsible methods of operation which are transparent, encourage local ownership and not only take from the environment but give back to it, so that future generations might also benefit from responsible tourism. A reliance on international tourism can make the industry a volatile one. The international media often uses umbrella terms when referring to Africa and issues such as last year’s Ebola crisis can have devastating effects on the tourism industry even for unaffected countries thousands of kilometres away. This in conjunction with sometimes difficult immigration laws can create fluctuations in international tourists entering the country, placing unnecessary pressure on stakeholders. With this in mind FEDHASA promotes local tourism as a means to grow tourism sustainably. By hosting the Lilizela-Imvelo Awards, we believe it is important to take cognisance of the fact that as an industry, we have not capitalised on domestic tourism enough in recent years. Pricing, whether real or perceived, is one of the biggest challenges for promoting

FOREWORD

Eddy Khosa President - FEDHASA

local tourism within our borders. The industry needs to look at how to package domestic travel differently and how to make it easier for the average person to travel and to believe they can take a short holiday in South Africa. The benefits of tourism on the average South African are far beyond those employed within the industry, the multiplier effect of money spent on retail, car hire and accommodation reach the hands of many. Encouraging stakeholders to promote responsible and sustainable tourism is paramount to FEDHASA and in partnership with the Department of Tourism, forms the mandate of the Lilizela-Imvelo Awards.

Sincerely

Eddy Khosa - President FEDHASA

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TM

Contact:  

Niki Glen    |  niki@stpp.co.za     079  872  3160    

www.stpp.co.za

Tourism Sustainability    through    

simplification  |    facilitation    |    collaboration    |    partnership   Programmes  Include:    

»  Sustainable Tourism  Implementation   »  Resource  Efficiency  Programme   »  Staff  Green  Training   »  Carbon  Offset   »  Tourism  Incident  Management   »  Project  Mobilisation   »  Data  Collection  &  Research   »  Fit-­‐for  Purpose  Solutions  

Audience: ü  Smaller  Accommodation     ü  Smaller    Tourism  Businesses   ü  Tourism  &  Hospitality  Businesses   ü  Communities   ü  Public  Sector   ü  Private  Sector  

ACT RESPONSIBLY, GROW SUSTAINABLY


EDITOR’S NOTE

Niki Glen Editor

T

his is our third volume of the Sustainable and Responsible Tourism Handbook. I thought it would be a good opportunity to reflect on all the information and tools that we have provided in volumes one and two, and to see how this volume complements and builds on the previous volumes. The aim is to test our ability, as a Sustainable Tourism Community, to practice what we preach i.e. to bring about meaningful and impactful sustainable tourism initiatives that will help us achieve our collective goals. Alive2green, through this publication, has created a platform for the industry to communicate our collective efforts and to share insights and tools. Now it is up to the reader to take this and make it work – whether you are a business owner, an employee, a member of civil society, a tourist or a public servant. For a map of the three volumes, please read chapter one.

Sincerely

Niki Glen

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PROFILE

GUARDING TABLE MOUNTAIN Protecting the heritage and environment of Cape Town’s most iconic landmark

Michael Meiring

Working within a World Heritage Site and Table Mountain National Park, Table Mountain Aerial Cableway (the Cableway) is fully committed to balancing high volumes of visitors (more than 850 000 per year) with the need to protect the unique floristic environment within which it operates. The Cableway takes its role as a custodian of Table Mountain, one of South Africa’s most monumental tourist attractions, very seriously, says Collette Van Aswegen, Marketing Manager. “We aim to make positive contributions to conserve natural and cultural heritage, and minimise environmental and social impacts. The Cableway focuses on the three pillars of responsible tourism – environmental, social and economic responsibility – to maximise benefits and minimise costs. We have been recognised for our responsible tourism practices through the Imvelo Awards and our Platinum classification with the Heritage Environmental Rating Programme, among other accolades.” According to Van Aswegen, the Cableway strictly adheres to an environmental policy in order to protect the unique environment in which the company operates. Resource management is thus also very important to them, and includes:

Water management • Recycling toilets (which use less water) and waterless urinals have been introduced. • All toilets are fitted with a dual-flush mechanism. • There are sensor-operated and push-button taps throughout all ablution facilities. • The amount of grey water generated has been reduced by a massive 1-million litres, by moving the production kitchen to the lower cable station and using compostable

cups, lids, cutlery and straws in the food and beverage facilities. • Waste water and sewage are being transported to the lower cable station by cable cars. • Meters have been installed to monitor water usage.

Energy management The Cableway has implemented the following electricity-saving measures: • Fitting timers and blankets on all essential geysers; • Switching off all non-essential geysers; • Using energy-saving bulbs in all light fittings; • Fitting timers to all outside lighting circuits; • Regulating air conditioners in its offices to between 18°C and 21°C, to save energy, while still providing comfortable working conditions; and The energy generated by the descent of the cable cars sees 1 500kWh per month being fed back into the electricity grid.

Waste management Over the past four years the waste sent to landfill has been reduced by 70% and the amount of recycling done has increased by a whopping 200%. Measures to improve waste management include: • The appointment of a full-time in-house recycler ensures that the maximum possible amount of recyclable waste is removed from the general waste stream. • The number of recycling bins has been increased so that sorting of waste can take place at source. • Soda fountains and beer on tap have been installed in the Table Mountain Café. This has resulted in a drastic reduction in the


PROFILE

use of glass, soft drink cans and plastic bottles. All soft drinks from the soda fountain and the beer on tap are sold in recyclable PLA cups. • All hazardous waste (such as printer cartridges, fluorescent lights, medical waste and batteries) is removed by specialist waste-removal companies.

Social responsibility The Cableway further upholds its social responsibility through a number of focused and sustainable programmes. To find out more about the concession tickets on offer to organisations and communities in need, as well as the ever-popular Class in the Clouds programme for schools, visit the CSI page at www.tablemountain.net In addition, the Cableway proudly hosts Siyafundisa, its Academy of Learning. Part of the Cableway’s people brand is to assist employees reach their full potential by providing opportunities to develop skills. “The Cableway currently runs an NQF Level 4 learnership programme called ‘Wholesale and Retail Operations’, which aims to equip learners with a general understanding of the business environment, stock counts and sales performance, supervision and leadership at various levels, customer service standards, team motivation, management functions and primary labour legislation.

Food served on a compostable plate

Class in the Clouds (CiC) programme

Beer on tap

Economic responsibility “The Cableway supports local communities and suppliers, wherever possible, and aims to grow and develop the relationship with suppliers to produce successful, long-term and mutually beneficial relationships. Some of the suppliers with which the Cableway has worked include Rootz Creations, Recycled in Africa and Yvettie Munava. The Cableway is also recognised as a Level Four B-BBEE contributor, with a procurement recognition level of 100%,” Van Aswegen concludes.

Paper_Beads by Yvettie Munava

T: (021) 424 0015 E: info@tablemountain.net


CONTRIBUTORS

NIKI GLEN (EDITOR)

Niki Glen (MBA Civil and Structural Engineer, cum laude) is a co-founder of STPP. After working for Transnet and Gibb Africa, she became a programme Manager for Absa, Barclays, Standard Bank and Liberty Life, running mass-scale programmes over 11 African Countries. However her interest lies in sustainability and environmental and social preservation. Niki is the editor of the Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbook Volume 1 and Volume 2, and is currently studying to attain her Doctorate in Environmental Management and Responsible Tourism.

AMOR MALAN AND LISA VENTER Amor Malan and Lisa Venter recently started the African Centre for Universal Access. They have both received training through the Centre for Accessible Environments in the UK and the Institute for Access Training Australia in Australia to ensure they not only meet local legislation and standards but international benchmarks too. This initiative supports alternative way of thinking about accessibility and recognises that Inclusive Design results in Universal Access. Universal access has traditionally been considered as a “disability issue” and addressed as an afterthought or special project while there is nothing special about it at all. The reality is our population is as diverse in ability and function as we are in our personal preference. We encourage decision makers to think about how different we are as users of the environment, products and services and to take this into consideration when planning, upgrading, redesigning and renovating. Understand what the consumer needs as a functional requirement the same way thought is given to developing a specific brand.

ANNELIE BARKEMA Annelie has been actively involved in tourism safety and support since 2007. She has a B.Comm degree in Financial Accounting and Economics. Annelie has travelled extensively internationally, and has lived in Europe and the Middle East. Annelie found her purpose, which is “to strengthen and restore the resilience of people and systems”. Her efforts on tourism safety adds enormous value to the stakeholders in the tourism industry and is a critical building block of a sustainable tourism industry.

BRAAM HECHTER Braam is actively involved in recreational as well as commercial aviation and holds maintenance and pilots / instructors ratings for various disciplines. He was active in the Air Force; this included being part of the project team based in Linkoping, Sweden to commission the Gripen Weapon System. He then worked at the South African Civil Aviation Authority and has assisted various companies to get established and grow in this sector.

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CAROLINE UNGERSBOCK

CONTRIBUTORS

Caroline Ungersbock is a co-founder of STPP, the focus of which is to drive change across the tourism industry making it more sustainable. Caroline runs a number of businesses, including a construction company (focused on green building developments). She is a member of the Tourism Grading Council of South Africa (TGCSA) Board. A member of the Universal Access Forum, Tourism Technical Committee for SABS, the Karoo Development Forum, and serves as a member on various ministerial advisory committees for tourism. Passionate about sustainable tourism she is seen as an industry leader in driving awareness and implementation amongst small business.

FRANZ RENTAL Franz is the Country Director for South Africa for Climate Neutral Group, a leading Dutch carbon management company. He holds a Masters in Environmental & Resource Management. He has been active in the carbon markets for almost 10 years with diverse roles ranging from developing and sourcing carbon offset projects to working with businesses on their carbon and offsetting strategies. He believes that only by bringing together all aspects of sustainability, innovating and then selling the positive business case can we hope to revolutionise the way we do business.

GUY CHESTER Founding Vice President of Australia’s Ecotourism Association and a co-author of the Ecotourism accreditation program., Guy has worked extensively with sustainable tourism certification programs and has developed highly regarded tourism strategies for Australian icon tourism regions. He has undertaken sustainable tourism and ecotourism projects for the World Tourism Organization and the Peoples Republic of China and was Team Leader for the development of the Fiji Tourism Development Plan 2007-2016. He recently completed nine regional tourism development and tourism product development strategies for the Papua New Guinea government.

HERMAN ROOS Herman Roos is a survival instructor and owner of Boswa Survival, a school of wilderness bushcraft and survival, where he teaches people how to survive in the wild. Herman has survived in the Arctic, Highlands of Scotland, Jungles of Thailand and the Bushveld and Deserts of Africa. He has extensive experience and knowledge on all the environments where people will have to survive including Mountain, Desert, Ocean, Coastal, Jungle, Snow and Bushveld

JANET LANDEY Janet Landey, is a Certified Special Events Professional. Her focus is on contributing towards a global standard in event management and believes that events can be used as a platform to increase the socio-economic, environmental health and wealth of local communities. She is a Pine & Gilmore Certified Experience Economy Expert and the founding President of IFEA Africa – International Festivals and Events Association Africa; founding member of Skills Village 2030 Secondary Cooperative and a Board Member of the Hospitality Industry Leaders Advisory Board (HILAB).

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CONTRIBUTORS JOHN GOOSEN John is the Founder and CEO of OppiBlog. This blog was created for young entrepreneurs. He is a qualified teacher and held the position of Radio News Editor at the SABC. He has a keen interest in skills training, marketing and communication. He has a passion for entrepreneurial development, focusing on kids and teens between the ages 3-18 years.

KEVIN MEARNS Kevin Mearns is a Full Professor in the Department of Environmental Sciences at the University of South Africa and a Y2 NRF Rated Researcher. Kevin’s specialist area of research involves the application of sustainable tourism indicators to tourism ventures across Southern Africa. Kevin received his academic training both locally and abroad in the United Sates and the United Kingdom in Environmental Design and Management as well as Geography and Environmental Management. Kevin is an active scholar and has published more than 23 peer reviewed scholarly papers and chapters.

LEE-HENDOR RUITERS Lee-Hendor Ruiters joined the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) in October 2011. In December 2014 he was appointed as the Senior Project Manager (Team Leader) in the Cape Town regional office. Prior to joining NCPC-SA, Lee-Hendor worked as an Enterprise Development Specialist at the CSIR Enterprise Creation for Development (ECD). Lee-Hendor has a Bachelor of Arts in Development and Environmental Studies, and also completed his BPhil degree in Sustainable Development Planning with the Sustainability Institute, at the University of Stellenbosch. He is currently completing a post graduate degree in Development Finance

LLEWELLAN VANCE As a Director of Evolve Technologies Pty Ltd Llewellan is responsible for handling new business development and stakeholder engagement to drive the mass adoption of low carbon technologies into the South African market. Llewellan’s experience for the past 7 years has been in Business Development and he has successfully secured and architected several mass rollout projects for low carbon technologies for government, corporate and banking institutions while heading up the Alternate Energy Division for Innovation Group South Africa.

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CONTRIBUTORS MELISSA BAKER Melissa Baker studied at University of Johannesburg (UJ), where she completed her undergraduate degree in tourism development in 2010. As an undergraduate student she was a triple major; taking geography as her third major. While studying geography she was introduced to the field of environmental management during her Honours degree; which she completed in 2011. This led to a new field of interest and in 2013 she graduated with a Master’s degree in Environmental Management at UJ. Her areas of interest are environmental management and sustainable tourism.

DR MERIDA ROETS Merida founded and manages Scientific Roets (PTY) Ltd, a BBBEE Level 2 company that provides accredited, high quality, agricultural and entrepreneurial training to rural beneficiaries and assists rural entrepreneurs with their enterprise development – from assisting with Business Planning, through product development, creating market linkages, infrastructure and institutional development and implementation.

MONDE NYANGINTSIMBI Monde is currently working as the National Programme Officer for the Sustaining Competitive and Responsible Enterprises (SCORE) project. He previously worked as a Programme Officer (for the ILO- Enterprise Development Unit) Monde has also worked for the United Nations Population Fund, the Canadian International Development Agency- Programme Support Unit in South Africa, the National Youth Development Agency and the University of Pretoria. He has qualifications Education, Information Systems Management, Project Management and Monitoring and Evaluation.

RICHARD WYLLIE Richard Wyllie is a Researcher at Tourism KwaZulu-Natal. He holds a MHCS in Heritage and Cultural Tourism from the University of Pretoria. His Masters Dissertation was entitled Benefits beyond boundaries: Cross-border tourism collaboration in southern African transfrontier conservation areas. This research focussed on how collaboration can be used across all stakeholder levels to achieve a successful development process of transfrontier conservation areas in Southern Africa.

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RESPONSIBLE TOURISM IN YOUTH TRAVEL Volunteer Africa 32°S

Bulungula Lodge

33 South Backpackers

Via Volunteers

The South African Youth Travel Confederation (SAYTC) is a non-profit, members-based network of tourism businesses from the youth travel sector. Members include backpacker hostels, transport providers, tour and adventure operators, language schools, volunteer organizations and tourism service providers. SAYTC’s primary aims are to market South Africa as a preferred backpacking and youth travel destination, as well as to establish a professional youth tourism industry based on accreditation and guidelines. You know you are in good hands when you use a SAYTC member as we place value on quality products and services.

SAYTC is proud of its members that are involved in responsible tourism. Many members already made the start towards operating sustainably, but SAYTC also has a few shining stars among its members who are doing good work in the communities and environment in which they operate. Several members are Fair Trade in Tourism certified and some have been nominated for responsible tourism awards. Our consumer brand is called Travel Now Now. To find out more about SAYTC and our members, please visit our website www.travelnownow.co.za.


CONTENTS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8

Introduction Niki Glen

28

STPP Journey – the only mass scale implementation programme for Sustainable Tourism Niki Glen

34

GSTC – Role in Sustainable Tourism Development in South Africa and Africa Guy Chester

42

Sustainable Tourism Indicators to manage scarce water resources Melissa Baker and Kevin Mearns

52

The International Labour Organisation SCORE Programme Monde Nyangintsimbi

60

Collaboration in Transfrontier Conservation Areas in Southern Africa Richard Wyllie

66

Lessons learned from mass roll-out programmes Llewellan Vance/ James Hillburn

72

The Value of Tourism Business Resource Efficiency Assessments Lee-Hendor Ruiters / NCPC- SA

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The hallmark of Quality Tourism in Southern Africa

Displaying the SATSA logo tells your customers that your business adheres to a Code of Conduct and is a

Credible and Trustworthy Business Partner The Association offers its members:

• Bonding • Lobbying at all government levels • Networking with a wide variety of tourism stakeholders • Trade show representation and international marketing • Business and staff benefits in banking, insurance and communications www.satsa.com membership@satsa.co.za Tel: 011 886 9996 3rd Floor Petrob House, 343 Surrey Ave, Ferndale, Randburg


CONTENTS 9

10 11

12 13

14 15

16 17 18

Carbon Offset in Tourism – Why accommodation establishments need to get on-board Franz Rental

92

Institutional Arrangements – Relevance to Tourism Development and Local Economic Growth Dr Merida Roets

98

Tourism Safety and Security – What is the real deal? Annelie Barkema

106

The Sustainability of Universal Access in Tourism Amor Malan

114

Aviation and Sustainable Tourism Braam Hechter

124

Entrepreneurship in Tourism John Goosen

132

Mega Events for Sustainable Tourism Janet Landey

138

Case study of Working for Water Programme Patrick Marsh

146

Case study BOSWA survival Herman Roos

152

A Perspective on Quality Assurance Niki Glen and Caroline Ungersbock

158

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THE SIGNATURE COLLECTION YOUR GAUTENG EXPERIENCE STARTS HERE

Gauteng’s foundations are rooted in wealth. Veins of gold running beneath our soil feed industry where year in and year out thousands of hardworking entrepreneuring spirits rush in seeking their share of the fortune, smeltering in the heat of competition, and flowing out when the deals are forged. But, where industry pumps, life thrives and so does travel into this place of gold. The combination of our people, cosmopolitan environments, platter of experiences, business and entrepreneurial spirit, history and heritage spaces, and events. Out of this unique plathora of experinces the Gauteng Signature Collection born. ORIGINS

Your golden Gauteng experience starts here, right here where humankind started, in the Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site (COH WHS), Gauteng’s only site of outstanding universal value.

HISTORY AND HERITAGE

With an array of spiritually, mentally and even physically captivating spaces such as the globally-renowned Apartheid Museum, “Nobel Prize Winning” Vilakazi Street, the infamous raid on Mandela and other struggle heroes still alive at Liliesleaf farm, the emotionally riveting living exhibition spaces at the former Number 4 Jail now Constitution Hill, and more. COSMOPOLITAN ENVIRONMENTS AND CREATIVE COMMUNITIES

Gauteng is a melting pot that unites the world’s people and cultures to create our rich and vibrant cosmopolitan communities. In our province you feel the heartbeat of South Africa...intriguing contradictions – all alive with possibility. From places like Soweto, the Newtown Cultural Precinct, the Mai Mai downtown Johannesburg market and many other urban spaces exude the diversity of our cosmopolitan environments and creative spaces.


URBAN LIFESTYLE

THE SIGNATURE COLLECTION

Once infamous for it’s crime and safety challenges, now you can experience walking tours in the city centre, shopping, food and fun outing at the Braamfontein Neighbourgoods market, a global city culture experience at Maboneng (place of lights) with an African twist, lunch and an afternoon of fun at 44 On Stanley, or for an eastern taste of Indian cuisine in Fordsburg are amongst the few urban lifestyle experiences.

Apartheid Museum Liliesleaf Constitution Hill Vilakazi Street, Soweto Maboneng Precinct The Red Bus (City Sightseeing) Play Braamfontein 44 On Stanley Wits Art Museum The Market Theatre The Cradle of Humankind World Heritage Site The Origins Centre Freedom Park Voortrekker Monument Soweto Outdoor Adventures Lebo’s Soweto Backpackers Dinokeng Big 5 Game Reserve

SPORT

Wherever you find yourself in Gauteng you are not far from roaring fans, passionate performers or a stadium filled to the brim. We are passionate people and sport is one of the ways this comes to life, whether it’s on the field or cheering from the bleachers, Gauteng is the home of competitive sport.

The Vaal Military Museum Dinokeng Gold Reef City Airport Museum

GATEWAY TO SOUTH AFRICA

OUR PEOPLE

As much as a country South African people are unique, so are Gautengers. From the street-wise bounce and lingo, to our dress and way of doing things, GeePees are downright unique to a point that our counterparts aspire to. Come visit us and feel the soul of South Africa.

TOURISM


SUSTAINABLE TOURISM PARTNERSHIP PROGRAMME

www.stpp.co.za


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

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he Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme would like to thank Alive2green and their team for providing us with the opportunity to make a truely significant contribution to raising awareness of Sustainable and Responsible Tourism and its core principles. We would also like to thank all the contributors for agreeing to provide their input to create a collection of perspectives which will have a significant impact on the main-streaming of Sustainable Tourism Practices. Thank you to all the sponsors for their much need contribution in spreading awareness and providing access to products and services to assist tourism businesses to move forward on the Sustainable Tourimsm Journey.

Sincerely

The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme

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INTRODUCTION

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he STPP was fortunate enough to run into Alive2green in 2012. While Alive2green are advocates of Sustainable Development, they were at the time not yet fully aware of the concepts of Responsible and Sustainable Tourism. We on the other hand, already lived and breathed sustainable tourism and we were inspired by the early adopters of sustainable tourism practices. This afforded us the opportunity to work together and bring to life the Responsible and Sustainable Tourism Handbooks, of which this one is Volume 3. Since this is Volume 3, I thought that it would be a good opportunity to reflect on the all the tools, case studies and information on Responsible and Sustainable Tourism that are now available to you as the reader, through these handbooks. I have therefore summarised the content of the three handbooks in the table below. However, before you continue reading, I would firstly like to invite you to download Volumes 1 and 2 of the handbook from the website of Alive2green, at www.alive2green.com and download (there is a small fee) the SANS 1162:2011 from the SABS website at www. sabs.co.za. Secondly, I would like to invite readers to send suggested topics to cover in future editions to niki@stpp.co.za. Thirdly, I would like to re-affirm the definitions of Responsible and Sustainable Tourism.

environment and host communities”. On the other hand, the definition of Responsible provided by the South African standard SANS 1162:2011 is: “tourism management strategy in which the tourism sector and tourists take responsibility to protect and conserve the natural environment, respect and conserve local cultures and ways of life, and contribute to stronger local economies and a better quality of life for local people.” The Responsible Tourism Standard then provides a guideline for businesses, and touches on aspects such as customer satisfaction, quality and universal accessibility, within the four pillars. In line with the UNWTO & UNEP definition, however, we believe that these should be more explicit and should stand next to the four pillars of Responsible Tourism and should be applied to businesses, communities, the industry and other role players in the tourism value chain. We need to ensure that we expand on the “needs of visitors, the industry, and the environment and host communities” and that strong coordination and collaboration amongst stakeholders is required to achieve this – refer to figure 1. When this view is agreed, we are able to provide solutions to achieve all aspects of Responsible and Sustainable Tourism.

Sustainable Tourism and Responsible Tourism

Tools and themes of Volumes 1, 2 and 3

The way we see it, Sustainable and Responsible Tourism works hand-in-hand. UNWTO and UNEP define Sustainable Tourism as: “tourism that takes full account of its current and future economic, social and environmental impacts, addressing the needs of visitors, the industry, the

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The following section takes the themes presented above, and provides commentary on tools and information that Volumes 1,2 and 3 provides for each. By the time you as the reader have read through all of these, you should possess a toolbox that will assist you along the journey of sustainable tourism implementation, however it applies to you.


1

Theme

Volume 1 Download from www.alive2green.com

Case Studies

Chapter 17 The Vineyard Hotel & Spa

Volume 2 Download from www.alive2green.com

INTRODUCTION

Volume 3 This issue Chapter 16 sketches the journey of a woman entrepreneur and how she became a force to be reckoned with through the EPWP/SANParks working for water programme. Chapter 17 talks about the importance for tourists to have survival skills. This may be critical in the case of an unplanned incident while on holiday.

Environmental Best Practice

Chapter 10 provides context on Biodiversity in Tourism and some practical guidelines for all tourism businesses.

Chapter 10 is an illustration of how jobs can be created through restoration of eroded land. Innovation is the key here. Chapter 11 illustrates how community ownership of conservation efforts creates a win-win for all.

Chapter 7 illustrates how mass roll-out programmes for Resource Efficiency could assist your business with a more sustainable approach to reducing resource use and provides information on the STPP Resouce Efficiency Programme. Chapter 8 Provides a case study for Resource Efficiency. This should provide additional motivation for taking the steps to implementing resource efficiency in your business. Chapter 9 Provides reasons for why accommodation establishments need to get on-board with carbon offset programmes and then provides the tools to do so.

Management and Operations Best Practice

Chapter 12 will assist you with making greener choices on your daily, weekly, monthly and annual shopping lists. Chapter 13 provides a step by step approach to managing various aspects of your business in a more responsible way.

Chapter 6 gives you what you need to know about the protection of information act. Chapters 15 & 16 provides practical guidelines for making your events and functions more sustainable.

Chapter 5 explains the International Labour Organisation’s SCORE Programme. SCORE is short for Sustainable, Competitive and Responsible Enterprises, which is not only aimed at providing tools for operational excellence, but also for achieving quality in delivery (see also “Quality Assurance” theme.

Chapter 16 helps you to identify and manage business risks

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1

INTRODUCTION

Market Access

Chapter 14 provides guidelines for your marketing strategy and social media interventions. Chapter 15 provides information for internet and mobile marketing

Measuring Success

Chapter 5 provides guidelines on the types of things you can measure, not only within your business, but also in your community to show progress.

Quality Assurance

Chapter 3 showcases how collective marketing strategies can work better for your business, your town and your route.

Chapter 13 shows how Aviation has the potential to create new markets and open up a whole new revenue stream for many South African communities.

Chapter 4 provides you with tools to communicate to your market all the good things you are already doing. Chapter 2 explains the need for data and collective information and your role in building good sources.

Chapter 10 gives insights into why appropriate institutional arrangements are so critical for Tourism Development and Local Economic Growth. Chapter 14 provides a compelling case for introducing tourism entrepreneurship to youth, from pre-school age. Chapter 5 explains the International Labour Organisation’s SCORE Programme. SCORE is short for Sustainable, Competitive and Responsible Enterprises, which is not only aimed at providing tools for operational excellence, but also for achieving quality in delivery (see also “Management and Operations Best Practice” theme Chapter 18 provides a brief overview of tourism grading as a method of quality assurance and why it is such a crucial component of sustainable tourism.

Responsible / Sustainable Tourism Explained

Chapter 1 will help you understand Responsible Tourism better

Chapter 1 is focused on providing even more information for why and how you should partake in the journey. Chapter 3 provides an overview of the Global Sustainable Tourism Council’s (GSTC) role in Sustainable Tourism Development in South Africa and Africa.

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1

Service Excellence

INTRODUCTION

Chapter 8 explains why service excellence is so critical and how to go about it Chapter 9 provides context for Authentic Tourism Experiences and why this is key for your success.

Social and Cultural Best Practice

Stakeholder Collaboration

Chapter 11 provides ideas on how to start engaging with local community programmes and what the linkages are with your business.

Chapters 7 & 8 demonstrate the value of storytelling and how this can enhance the tourism experience.

Chapter 3 will assist you with getting other stakeholders involved, as it brings home the value that a tourist can bring to a community. You will be able to provide a convincing case for why everybody needs to collaborate.

Chapter 12 showcases how strong collaborative relationships at a local level can drive positive change and improve local economies.

Chapter 11 empowers you to catalyse growth through social investment.

Chapter 15 explains how Mega Events could contribute to community capacity building and job creation. Chapter 16 sketches the journey of a woman entrepreneur and how she became a force to be reckoned with through the EPWP/SANParks working for water programme. Chapter 2 puts into perspective the need for mass scale sustainable tourism implementation and how this can only be achieved through collaboration.

Chapter 4 will give you guidance on the role of your local government stakeholders so that you can guide them on how to participate pro-actively. Tourism Safety

Chapter 11 provides an overview of how community safety nets can help your business and community and provides a tool to manage tourism incidents. Chapter 17 talks about the importance for tourists to have survival skills. This may be critical in the case of an unplanned incident while on holiday.

Universal Access

Chapter 12 sketches a compelling case for the tourism industry as a whole to drive the implementation of Universal Accessibility principles.

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PROFILE

AICC EXPANDS TO TANZANIA’S COMMERCIAL CAPITAL The Arusha International Conference Centre (AICC), a leading conference centre in East and Central Africa, has opened a new International Convention Centre in the popular commercial city of Dar es Salaam. The Convention Centre which is named after the founding father of the nation; Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre (JNCC), is located in the heart of he city. JNICC provides a state-of the-art flexible meeting facilities including the plenary hall that accommodates 1003 delegates and other 13 breakout rooms with accommodation capacity ranging from 10 to 300 delegates. Being the only purpose built convention and exhibitions Centre in the business City of Dar es Salaam, JNICC is a perfect ideal for Conferences, Events, Exhibitions, Music festivals, Banquets, Beauty pageant and weddings. The convention Centre is surrounded by nearby hotels which are located just between five to fifteen minutes’ walk to the convention centre and that once you are at JNICC you can have a spectacular view of the Indian Ocean and the golf course. The innovative technology include Wi-Fi connectivity, advanced audio visual equipment, digital signage, recording equipment to meet the most demanding conference requirements. Dar es Salaam is accessible from popular destinations around the world such as he United States of America, Europe, Asia, Middle East, Australia and this makes the convention Centre a strategic location for meetings, leisure and tourism activities. Within 30 minutes one will be at the centre. One can easily visit the spicy Islands of Zanzibar in les than 15 minutes flight or 30 minutes by speed boats. Moreover, one can quickly visit national parks and game reserves in the neighbourhood such as Mikumi, Saadani, Ruaha National Parks and Selous Game Reserve.

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Mr. Elishilia Kaaya In less than a year of its operation the Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre has already gained approval and membership from AIPC. This is because of the expertise and the quality of services offered So far the Centre has already hosted reputable conferences such as Smart Partnership Dialogues, East African Petroliam and Exhibitions Conference, Indaba Conference and Exhibitions and many other local and regional conferences. Commenting on the performance of both two Centre’s (AICC and JNICC), The Managing Director Mr. Elishilia Kaaya said: “This expansion is a clear testimony of the capability of the Arusha International Convention Centre and the Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre to host major events, the experienced team of staff who are dedicated and talented


PROFILE will always transform the ordinary into extraordinary and memorable events.”. The Managing Director appeals to local and international conference organisers to continue using conference facilities of both the Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre and the Arusha International Conference Centre as clients would experience transformations every time they use the facilities. On real estates, AICC which is the home of international institutions offers a total of 5,000 sq meters office space for rent with a ready

infrastructure for internet connection and 24 hours standby generator. Having offices at AICC complex a tenant will have access to banking services, duty free shop, travel agencies, tour operators, restaurants and conference facilities all under one roof. The Centre is currently offering housing accommodation in its newly constructed apartments located along Range road which is in any case the most prime area and just a walking distance to the Central Business District.

Welcome To Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre (JNICC).

This is a state-of-the-art convention Centre that lies in the heart of Dar es Salaam city, a major gateway to the world renowned “southern tourist circuit”, the “coastal tourist circuit”, and Zanzibar in Tanzania. JNICC has 12 conference rooms that can seat 5 - 300 flexible styles including theatre, classroom, conference, half-moons, hollow-squares, horse shoe, etc. The largest hall can accommodate 1003 delegates’ theatre style. Facilities include SIS of up to 4 languages, sophisticated audio video, LCD projectors and internet facilities. JNICC can host meetings, conferences, exhibitions, weddings, cocktail parties, banquets, fashion shows, and the like. For More Information please contact the Manager Julius Nyerere International Convention Centre (JNICC) Shaaban Robert & Garden Avenue | P.O BOX 6951,Dar es salaam, Tanzania Tel. +255 (0) 22 292 2101-3 | Fax. +255 (0) 22 292 2100 | E-mail: md@aicc.co.tz | Website: www.aicc.co.tz THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK Annual Report 2013

We Bring the World to Tanzania

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WHY MASS SCALE PROGRAMMES ARE THE BEST TO DRIVE SUSTAINABILITY IN TOURISM

Niki Glen

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here are two underlying principles of sustainable and responsible tourism implementation, which the STPP advocates and have built into our programmes. Firstly, all stakeholders need to collaborate. Secondly, all stakeholders need to take ownership – don’t wait for someone else to do it. That is the philosophy of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme. Let me explain. In 2011, the National Department of Tourism (NDT), launched the National Minimum Standard for Responsible Tourism. South Africa was deemed a leader in Responsible Tourism, as we had only been the second country in the world to have adopted a standard at national level. The standard has been formally adopted by the South African Bureau of Standards (SABS), and is called the SANS 1162:2011. And that really, is the time where the sustainable tourism journey began for me and Caroline Ungersbock, the two co-founders of the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme.


MASS SCALE PROGRAMMES

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We were invited to go on the roadshows across South Africa due to our various positions at the time in other organisations, which focused on Responsible Tourism certification and on creating bulk discount benefits for smaller accommodation establishments. The SANS 1162:2011 has since become our ‘bible’, as it is such an excellent guideline for any business that wants to become more sustainable and that wants to do the right things to balance their triple bottom line impacts, i.e. economic impacts, environmental impacts and social impacts. The main aim of developing the SANS 1162:2011 was to create a minimum standard against which a business can be measured in order to be deemed a ‘Responsible Tourism Business’. What we found during the roadshows however, was that most businesses were still blissfully unaware of the concepts of Sustainable and Responsible business. At the time we realised that most businesses feel overburdened with just running their businesses on a day-to-day basis, never mind having to now start working on policies, procedures, re-thinking the way they are doing things, getting their staff more involved and learning new terms such as ‘climate change’, ‘adaptation’ and ‘greenhouse gas emissions reduction’. It then occurred to us that we really needed to strengthen all our efforts to create solutions and not just advocate change. In other words, we needed to create a programme that would make it easy for businesses to adopt sustainable tourism practices – it should become a ‘no-brainer’. And that is what we did.

Individual Efforts, Community Efforts, Multistakeholder Efforts

Let us put into perspective the need to take ownership and the need to collaborate.

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Business cannot become sustainable on its own – if the community around it is economically constrained, service delivery fails and safety becomes a concern, the tourists will not come, regardless of how well the business is managed internally. As such, we have crafted our programmes such that tourism businesses and stakeholders are compelled to work together. I have included Figure one as an example which is based on the Magaliesburg Development Initiative (MDI), where some projects are catalytic, in other words, once they get underway, they will provide impetus for other projects and programmes. This model can be used for sustainable tourism implementation in all towns. As you can see, there are some things that can be done by the business owner, some things needs to be done by a community of business owners and residents, while other things are really dependant on third party interventions. Programmes such as our Staff Green Training and Sustainable Tourism Implementation requires businesses to collaborate in order to reduce the cost of workshops. The more businesses participate, the lower the cost per person becomes. In addition, our Resource Efficiency Programmes make it almost impossible to have an on-site assessment and resource efficiency support if there are fewer than eight businesses in a cluster participating. Some of the reasons for this include: • Benefiting from economies of scale if experts need to visit remote areas; • Reducing the travel requirements (i.e. 1 visit = 8 businesses attending, instead of 1 visit = 1 business attending); • Creating enough capacity to start training local people to provide on-site and post-implementation support. When it comes to the implementation of local sourcing practices, one business will


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MASS SCALE PROGRAMMES

Figure 1: Collaboration for Sustainability not provide enough demand to create one full-time and sustainable job. For example, a five bedroom guest-house will not require enough hand soap in a month to support one soap manufacturer full time. However, a cluster of accommodation establishments will. The same for waste management. Bigger changes that require for example the revision of bylaws on brown tourism signs or the upgrade of infrastructure to allow better access to tourism businesses or better service delivery, requires not only the involvement of the business community, but also that of the public sector and local residents.

Tourism Handbooks, which I suggested in chapter one you acquire, you will be able to gauge the extent to which you are already implementing sustainable tourism practices in your own business and within your community. You can start making a short checklist of some of the things you think you are already doing, what you might be able to do for ‘quick wins’ and then what you will need assistance with. Then, you can page through the handbooks, which contain some practical ideas of what you can do. These can be added to your checklist. Below is a snapshot of some of the more practical steps you can follow.

How to go forward?

Quick Wins

In reading through the SANS 1162:2011 and the Responsible and Sustainable

• Start recording your energy consumption (kWh), water consumption (kilolitres) and

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MASS SCALE PROGRAMMES

• •

2

bednights occupied monthly. If you have historical data, so much better, because then you will be able to track the impacts of any future changes you implement; Then continue by switching off lights, electronics and appliances that are not in use (be sure to follow manufacturers guidelines). Turn off taps and ensure there are no leaking taps and pipes. Join a local association (if you are not part of one already) and encourage other members to work with you to help implement Sustainable Tourism in your area, e.g. become the local STPP Champion. Arrange for an STPP Sustainable Tourism Implementation workshop and Staff Green Training to be done in your area. Sign up for the STPP Resource Efficiency Programme. This programme will not only assist you in better understanding and reducing your own consumption, but it will also provide us with a superuser view, which will allow us to give you a picture of how much your cluster has contributed to energy and water savings (the data will have been ‘depersonalised’ when we share the super-user views).

Medium Term

• Once you have a better understanding of your own consumption, you will be able to make informed decisions on what kinds of changes to make, what technology is available to support you and how much it will cost. This can all be achieved through the Evolve online portal, as part of the STPP Resource Efficiency Programme. • Once the resource efficiency programme has enough uptake in your cluster, opportunities could be created to establish local service providers to do

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installations and provide after sales support. This will be the start of local economic development through tourism. • Then you can start looking at opportunities for local sourcing and for waste management. At this point you really will be entering the space where close collaboration with multiple stakeholders is required. You will need to form a ‘demand’ club, which will be a number of tourism and hospitality businesses working together to catalyse the establishment of local producers and for generating enough waste to start helping small business start-ups. You could investigate what small businesses are already in your area, for example soap makers, catering companies, vegetable producers, or product distributor. It will be up to the buyers to specify what, how much and to what standard goods need to be produced. • Should you wish to help train the local suppliers, there are a multitude of programmes out there that could assist you. You could for example, enter into discussions with your local municipality’s LED members. You may need to develop some business plans, which once again will require a concerted collaborative effort and ownership from local stakeholders and businesses.

Long Term

In the long term, you will be on the journey of Responsible and Sustainable Tourism. “Act Responsibly, Grow Sustainably” is the STPPs motto, and many will agree that there are only two things required to catalyse sustainable growth in communities: ownership and mass scale collaboration—both of which are dimensions of responsibility.


PROFILE

As the guardians of the Western Cape’s precious natural resources, CapeNature’s is committed to environmental best practice in all its new tourism developments and upgrades. CapeNature focuses on developing naturebased recreational and tourism products by leveraging the province’s natural assets in such a way that protected areas become sought after tourist destinations, and more accessible and attractive to a greater portion of our population. Projects are carefully planned to avoid and mitigate any local environmental harm while also optimising the use of green building technology. Internationally recognised for its sustainable innovations in development, Kogelberg Nature Reserve is home to the most complex biodiversity on the planet and part of a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Considered the heart of the Cape Floral Kingdom, the biological diversity and its conservation thereof is a priority. Only activities which do not adversely affect natural processes and wildlife are allowed. As a contextualised feature, the Oudebosch mountain camp is a commendable example for good practice of balancing tourist needs

and conservation aspects. Oudebosch offers a thoughtful approach to building design and displays durable, recyclable, and renewable materials, and through energy-efficient design extrapolates the visitors’experience of the reserve to the structural level. It has received the International Holcim Regional Award for sustainable construction with architectural excellence. The five Oudebosch cabins perfectly balance the tourism needs with environmental needs and has a reputation of being the most beautiful of CapeNature’s protected areas, largely due to the fact that it occupies an area with minimal human interference. The glass fronted eco-cabins afford occupants unique breath-taking views of the reserve. Each eco-cabin at Kogelberg sleeps four people and consists of two bedrooms, one bathroom, one en-suite, and a spacious kitchen, lounge and dining area. The five Oudebosch eco-cabins are named after indigenous flora found in the area: Erica, Marsh Rose, Fire Lily, Iris and Everlasting Daisy. One of the most sustainable features in CapeNature’s new tourism developments is

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PROFILE

Kogelberg Nature Reserve - Oudebosch cabins the use of composting toilets. Used in both the Kogelberg and Rocherpan Nature Reserves, these toilets have been heralded internally as a modern alternative that can greatly reduce water use. Composting toilets are completely hygienic and odour free. By not requiring a connection to municipal sewerage lines, the composting elements not only save water, but also help to protect precious wetlands from degradation. The waterless toilets are designed to reduce waste to a small quantity of harmless, dry compost-like material that is inoffensive thanks to a continuous air flow which is aided by an external chimney. It is also our responsibility as custodians of biodiversity in the Western Cape to ensure the next generation has the same experience of our natural heritage, and with just eight percent of South Africa’s land area providing 50 percent of its surface water, conservation of this precious resource has also been built into Rocherpan Nature Reserve’s guest cabins. By incorporating rainwater harvesting at our nature reserves, the captured rain water minimises the losses from piped systems, and as this is water is untreated, it carries a lower carbon footprint. Rain that falls onto the roof of the cabins is filtered through the rainrunners and sent to the

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Rocherpan Nature Reserve rainwater storage tank. From the tank the water is pumped into the cabins at approximately 4 bar of pressure, and a self-regulated pump then delivers a steady supply of water on demand. As Rocherpan Nature Reserve is home to over 183 species of birds, careful planning was needed in the design to ensure minimal impact on the habitat of these winged visitors. The pan is essentially the heart of the reserve and since


PROFILE

Gamkaberg Nature Reserve it is never more than two metres deep at the maximum, it means the sun can penetrate right through the water and provide the perfect warm environment for insects to thrive. This provides an abundant food source for the small birds of the coastal area. Rocherpan has four guest cabins, Kingfisher, Oystercatcher, Sandpiper and Flamingo, each named after bird species found on the reserve. Each cabin has a braai area, with a deck overlooking the reserve, perfect for bird watching. The cottages have direct access to Rocherpan’s two bird hides, both on the western edge of the pan. In the Cape Karoo area, The Gamkaberg Nature Reserve is one of the most species rich environments on earth which is why the Sweet Thorn eco-lodges in this protected area were constructed with the specific aim of demonstrating environmentally friendly lifestyle methods. Acclaimed as one of top 50 most sustainable and responsible tourist destinations on the continent by Africa’s Finest, Gamkaberg’s eco-tourism offerings were designed to provide a first class nature experience, but at the same time create awareness about treading lightly on the environment. To this effect solar power is being used for water heating, lighting, toilet fans and pool pumps.

Being in an arid environment, waterless toilets have also been installed and only environmentally friendly cleaning materials are used on site. The two lodges were carefully contrasted along a network of pathways in order to minimise the impact on the surrounding environment. In addition to this, more than 70 indigenous trees were planted in the area. Sweet Thorn, which has 6 beds, is a perfect complement to Gamkaberg’s Fossil Ridge accommodation which has 4. Both are comfortable yet rustic lodges which consist of Safari Style tents on decks (sleeping 2 persons each), ablution building, splash pool and open air kitchen/lounge with lapa. Sweet Thorn is situated adjacent to a Sweet thorn thicket in an area where the open expanse of the Karoo and vistas of the distant Swartberg can be experienced. Fossil Ridge, named after a nearby ridge containing ancient marine fossils is more secluded and enhances close up views of the cliffs and surrounding bush. With all these modern sustainability practices in place, CapeNature aims to be at the forefront of eco-tourism in the Western Cape. For booking information visit our website www. capenature.co.za Call: 0861 227 362 8873 or 021 483 0190 Email: reservation.alert@capenature.co.za Free access for Wild Card members.

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THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL Role in Sustainble Tourism Development in South Africa and Africa

Guy Chester


THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL

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ustainable tourism is on the rise, consumer demand is growing, travel industry suppliers are developing new green programs and governments are creating new policies to encourage sustainable tourism. But what does ‘sustainable tourism’ really mean? How can it be measured and credibly demonstrated, in order to build consumer confidence, promote efficiency, and fight false claims? In Africa, there is an increasing consumer, industry and stakeholder awareness of, and demand for, sustainable tourism, responsible tourism and eco-tourism.

The Global Sustainable Tourism Council

The Global Sustainable Tourism Council is a membership based Council established with support from the United Nations Environment Program, United Nations World Tourism Organisation, the United Nations Foundation and key tourism industry groups and businesses. The Council has a governing Board from across the globe and all tourism sectors. This chapter sets out some key programs of the GSTC and how they can be applied in the African context.

The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria

The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria are an effort to come to a common understanding of sustainable tourism. They are organized around four themes: sustainability management, maximizing social and economic benefits, enhancing cultural heritage and reducing negative impacts to the environment. The GSTC has developed two sets of criteria and supporting indicators:

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• Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Hotels and Tour Operators (which also have general applicability to other tourism sectors), and • Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations. The criteria are part of the response of the tourism community to the global challenges of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals to address poverty alleviation, environmental sustainability and climate change. In 2007, a coalition of 27 organizations – the Partnership for Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria – came together to develop the criteria. They reached out to almost 80,000 tourism stakeholders, analyzed more than 4,500 criteria from more than 60 existing certification and other voluntary sets of criteria, and received comments from over 1500 individuals. The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) reviewed all comments received, responded to each, and revised the criteria accordingly. Similar processes were adopted for the recent revision of the Hotel and Tour Operators criteria and the development of the Destinations criteria. The GSTC Criteria serve as guidelines for businesses of all sizes to become more sustainable, and help choose sustainable tourism programs that fulfill these global criteria. They help certification programs ensure that their standards meet a broadlyaccepted baseline and offer governmental, community, and private sector programmes a starting point for developing sustainable tourism requirements. They serve as basic guidelines for education and training bodies. The criteria indicate what should be done, not how to do it or whether the goal has been achieved. The criteria as supported with performance indicators and in some cases specific guidance. The Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria Council (GSTC


3

Criteria) are administered by the Global Sustainable Tourism Council. 

The GSTC Sustainable Tourism Integrity Program Recognition, Approval, and Accreditation of Sustainable Tourism Certification The GSTC Integrity Program is a step-wise process to ensure that sustainable tourism standards and certification programmes meet the global baseline standards of sustainability, the GSTC Criteria, and further, that they are applied with integrity. The completion of these steps helps certification programs build consumer confidence, promote efficiency, and fight false claims. The steps are: • GSTC Recognition • GSTC Approval • GSTC Accredited These steps are for certification programs, individual businesses such as hotels or tour operators can then be certified as sustainable tourism by a GSTC Recognised, Approved or Accredited programme. GSTC Recognized GSTC Recognized means that a sustainable tourism standard has been verified by the GSTC as equivalent to the GSTC Criteria. Once a standard is recognized by the GSTC, it can be marketed as GSTC Recognized and

THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL

made available for certification, verification, or use as an internal company standard. Any certification program that has its own sustainable tourism standard can apply for GSTC Recognition. The standard must take into account the socio-economic, cultural, and environmental impacts of tourism, both positive and negative, as well as sustainable management. GSTC Approved Program GSTC Approved means that a certification program (with a GSTC Recognized standard) is following processes and procedures that are considered by the GSTC as meeting international standards for transparency, impartiality, and competence. Importantly, businesses certified by a GSTC Approved certification program can also use the GSTC Approved logos and can expect favourable positioning in the market place, among other benefits. Any certification program that uses an already GSTC Recognized standard may apply for GSTC-Approval. The program must have rules for the application of the standard, transparent and impartial verification procedures, and auditors who are technically competent in sustainable tourism and conformity assessment. GSTC assessment is based on ISO trends in verification and conformity assessment procedures. The purpose of the GSTC process is to recognize and reward genuine practitioners

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THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL

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of sustainable tourism, which in turn builds confidence and credibility with consumers. Based on this, many travel and tourism organizations and major distributors have publically committed to offering sustainable products and service that have been through the GSTC process exclusively. The GSTC Approved products will be eligible for distribution through these channels. GSTC Accredited Program GSTC Accredited means that a certification body is using a GSTC Recognized standard and has been rigorously assessed by an independent Accreditation Body and found in compliance with international standards and good practices. GSTC Accredited status is the most reliable way to ensure confidence and credibility of sustainable tourism certification, and worldwide acceptance. The GSTC has partnered with Accreditation Services International (ASI) to provide accreditation. Businesses certified by an accredited certification body can also use the GSTC Logo and can expect favourable positioning in the market place, among other benefits.

GSTC Destinations Program

The GSTC Destinations Program helps destinations on the journey toward achieving sustainability guided by application of the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations. These criteria cover the four main themes of destination sustainability: sustainability management; economic benefits to the host community; community, visitor, and cultural well-being; and environmental protection. The GSTC Destinations Snapshot or Comprehensive evaluation is designed to build destinations’ capacity in applying the GSTC Criteria. The GSTC does not provide certification, destinations can

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pursue sustainability certification by a GSTC Approved or Accredited Program. The evaluation processes (Comprehensive and Snapshot) are led by GSTC experts with global experience in the practical evaluation of sustainability and best practices globally. Destination Sustainability Snapshot Evaluation The GSTC offers an overview of the destination’s major areas of best practices, current sustainability achievements and risks. The process involves a GSTC expert reviewing the destination’s plans and policies, three days of onsite engagement with community, tourism and government stakeholders. Throughout the process, the expert works with the nominated destination team, building stakeholder capacity and inspiring improved performance. The GSTC expert will present preliminary results to key destination stakeholders and managers. The expert will provide a Snapshot Report, with a focus on destination sustainability practices addressing governance, institutional arrangements, and industry/ stakeholder engagement, as well as maximizing benefits from tourism for the local economy, community and culture, and environment. GSTC also provides a summary of the Snapshot Report, which can be easily communicated to stakeholders, decisions makers, community members and target markets. Destination Sustainability Comprehensive Evaluation Destination Sustainability Comprehensive Evaluation is a an opportunity for destination managers to learn their current status according to the leading international standard, the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria for Destinations. This a more complete analysis of destination


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sustainability status, including best practices, current sustainability achievements and risks. The process involves a GSTC expert, detailed analysis of documented plans and policies, up to 10 days of onsite engagement, liaison with a broader group of stakeholders, interactive workshops and site inspections. A presentation by the GSTC expert and a comprehensive report with recommendations for the compliance with the GSTC Criteria is provided. GSTC provides summaries of the report, for ease of communication with stakeholders, decisions makers, community members and target markets marketing benefits include media by the GSTC, designation as an official “GSTC Destination” and use of the “GSTC Destination” logo.

THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL

Integrating Destination Sustainability Evaluation with Training The GSTC’s destination experts are approved GSTC trainers, and can integrate a customized GSTC sustainability training program for destination managers, tourism industry and/or community with either the Sustainability Snapshot or Comprehensive evaluations.

The GSTC Sustainable Tourism Training Program

The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) – the global expert in standards for sustainable tourism – offers Sustainability Training Courses for professionals engaged in the travel and tourism industry.

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The GSTC Sustainability Training Program offers courses for one, three, and five days. Courses are designed for anyone in the travel and tourism industry, including: hotel and tour operators, destination managers, government officials, resource managers, educational consultants, and academic institutions. Three-Day Course Our most popular course, the Three-Day Course provides an overview of the GSTC and sustainable tourism; introduces hotels, destinations, and tour operators who have met the GSTC Criteria; and explains the process for achieving a sustainable tourism certification. The course is an interactive program with workshop sessions and group work. Participants who successfully complete the three-day training course will receive a certificate of “Sustainable Tourism Awareness” upon passing an open-book exam.

THE GLOBAL SUSTAINABLE TOURISM COUNCIL

Five-Day Course This course is a comprehensive training on sustainable tourism; it includes all components of the three-day course plus a field trip and detailed case study. The training content includes trends in sustainable development, the GSTC Criteria, the GSTC Accreditation system, and a detailed case study. Participants who successfully complete the five-day training course will receive a certificate of “Sustainable Tourism Awareness” upon passing an open-book exam. One-Day Course This course is an intensive one-day introduction to sustainable tourism, the GSTC, certification criteria, and indicators of sustainability. It outlines global trends in sustainable tourism, explores the GSTC Criteria (Hotels and Tour Operators, and Destinations). Participants learn about GSTC’s activities of recognition, approval, and accreditation of sustainable tourism certification.

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PROFILE

HISTORY OF THE IMVELO AWARDS The Imvelo Awards for Responsible Tourism were initiated to coincide with the World Summit on Sustainable Development (WSSD) that was held in Johannesburg in 2002. Having been in the custodianship of FEDHASA since inception, this year saw the incorporation of the Imvelo Awards for Responsible Tourism into the new National Department of Tourism’s Lilizela Awards’sustainable tourism category, the Lilizela-Imvelo Awards. This year saw a record number of 273 category entries from 109 establishments – which is an indication that industry is embracing the LilizelaImvelo Awards as the premier benchmark of best practices in sustainable tourism,” said Caleb Mabaso, FEDHASA’s Head of Strategic Projects. Mabaso explained the creation of large and small sub-categories, which he says has enhanced the credibility of the awards. “There will always be a perceived bias towards big business because there is a greater likelihood of bigger budgets being allocated towards sustainable tourism. This should take no credit away from large establishments as there are many of the same size and budget who choose not to embrace sustainable tourism. However, an institution without access to big budgets but whose heart is in the right place with regard to sustainable tourism should be competing against establishments of a similar circumstance. The creation of categories that allow entrants to compete against like-sized businesses sends the message that, large or small, there will be no discrimination.”

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The panel of judges was selected for its utmost credibility and independence. Says Eddy Khosa, chairman of FEDHASA: “FEDHASA made a conscious decision that the judges for the LilizelaImvelo Awards should be an independent body. We appointed an independent ‘chief justice’ in the form of Lorraine Jenks and gave her the power to look at the judging process and to give input. The experts that were brought onto the panel had no vested interest in the outcome, and the judging process proved to be very robust”. In 2014, 11 judges were appointed (four independent, five from Imvelo Awards for Responsible Tourism partnerships, and two in small-business development). Tourism and hospitality establishments were invited to enter in one or more of the following categories, either in the ‘large’ or ‘small’ categories. Each of the above categories is judged twice by two different judges. • Best social-involvement programme • Best practice – economic impact • Best overall environmental management system • Best single-resource programme »» Energy »» Water »» Waste • Most empowered tourism business • Investment in people The main Imvelo partners for 2014 are Absa, the Department of Tourism, the Department of Water Affairs, Eskom and the Industrial Development Corporation.


Banking from Absa. Nationally, FEDHASA is proud to be one of the oldest industry Associations around – 65 years and still counting! PROFILE

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FEDHASA CAPE INITIATIVES: 2

SABC TV License discou discount on commercial lic

FEDHASA uniquely holds two registrations that sets us apart from other industry associations – i.e. Discounts and special ra • Bursary Industry Trade Associationenvironmental operating as a Section • Checkers – Corporate FEDHASA Cape Youth benefi21 ts as well as minimising Company (not for gain) and • Ultra-Liquors – prefere FEDHASA Cape, the official voice and representative costs to destinations through• Responsible • Employers’ Body, giving you as the employer (FEDHASA Dining-Out – free set-u of the hospitality industry understands the sector’ s Tourism. Great milestones by– free m member) access to representation at CCMA-level, should have been • achieved Sleeping-Out the and needemployment arise role as a key driver of economic FEDHASA Cape members in this regard. FEDHASA

8

growth. However the success of the industry is Cape is working together with our partners, the reliant on professional standards which need City of Cape Town, Cape Town Tourism, loyalty programm 9 Corporate SATSA all SAA-operated to be developed and ingrained at the learning Western Cape, SAACI Western Cape15% andon other role 3 Industry-related, Specialised is just and training level of future industry members. As Advice players& inAssistance the tourism industry tointernationally) lead the way a phone call away, e.g. legislative updates & advice, labour such FEDHASA Cape hasrelations invested in education in Pension Responsible advice, industry-specific Fund, Tourism and otheras outlined by the Cape through the FEDHASA Capehelplines Youth Bursary initiative Town Responsible Tourism Charter. are available. ‘member-to-mem 10 Selected supplier members – some aimed at offering financial assistance to the future There are many FEDHASA Cape members for FEDHASA members; bu ambassadors of the hospitality industry. who have embraced Responsible Tourism as a result on ofyour thebehalf Responsible Representing the WesternNorthern Cape Direct & representation and/or lobbying – private Tourism Pilot Project 4 sector negotiations and representation on e.g.: TBCSA, more information, Provinces, FEDHASA Cape is calling on passionate that resulted fromTGCSA this partnershipFor with the City plea SAT, NdT, CATHSSETA, Wesgro, Northern Cape Tourism, other to contact your relevant F students and trainees currently in the employ or of Cape Town and are taking great strides in this Association partners such as our Joint Association Member FEDHASA Cape studying at FEDHASA Cape member institutions regard. It is FEDHASA Cape’ s leadership that led to Cape (JAMMS) partners - Cape Town Tourism, SAACI, SATSA, etc. (Western & Northern This also various networking opportunities withpart otherof the City of Tel: 021 552 9870 and establishments to apply for includes the FEDHASA its members being Cape Town’ s | E-ma and players via workshops, forums and Cape Youth Bursary by 31industry Augustsegments 2015. Entrants, Responsible Tourism Charter and Pilot Project and events, etc. FEDHASA East Coast who are currently in their second year of studies the benefits thereof. (KZN & Eastern Cape) Tel: 031 312 3609 | E-ma or going into their final year in 2016, can apply for this bursary. Funds for this bursary is raised from FEDHASA Cape FEDHASA Inland the FEDHASA Cape/Nederburg Annual Golf Day. tel.: +27 21 552 9870 / fax: + 27 21 552 3466 / (Gauteng, Mpumalanga, L 5 Regular weekly Communications and Updates, keeping you fedhasacape@fedhasa.co.za / www.fedhasa.co.za State) ahead of the rest! Cape Responsible Tourism Charter Follow us on FaceBook & Twitter Tel: 0861 333 427 | E-ma FEDHASA Cape is a proud partner and signatory of the Cape Town Responsible Tourism Charter, pioneered by the City of Cape Town following a host of conferences and discussions to www. simultaneously maximise economic, social and

The two very worthy Bursary recipients of the 2014 FEDHASA Youth Bursary:

Janice Paulsen, 2nd Year Hospitality Management (2014) at Cape Town Hotel School, Granger Bay

Casey Roskilly, 2nd Year Hospitality Management (2014) at Private Hotel School, Stellenbosch THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATORS TO MANAGE SCARCE WATER RESOURCES

Melissa Baker and Kevin Mearns


SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATORS

O

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ver the last five decades global water usage has tripled (Gleick, 2003; Carbon Disclosure Project, 2010). Approximately half a billion people currently live in water-stressed or water scarce countries, and it is predicted that by 2025 the number will increase to three billion due to an increase in population growth (Hanjra & Qureshi, 2010). The challenge to conserve, manage and utilize the earth’s scarce water resources in a more efficient and sustainable manner has emerged as one of the greatest global environmental challenges. The growth in water scarcities world-wide has become a reality within every sector of society (Bagatin et al., 2014). This concern also needs to be addressed within Southern Africa’s growing tourism industry. The tourism industry is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide. However, this growth has led to an increase in negative environmental impacts (Baker, 2013). Due to the nature of the tourism industry and the products it offers, it is often situated close to or within delicate ecosystems. Should the natural environment and its resources be damaged or destroyed, the very resource that attracted tourists is destroyed, and the tourism industry will eventually collapse. Water forms one of the most basic and vital natural resources which the tourism industry is heavily dependent on. Any change in the availability of water or the quality of a destination’s water resource can pose a threat to the tourism venture (Gossling et al., 2012). This is especially true within semi-arid regions such as Namibia and South Africa. The high water consumption at the hands of tourism results in numerous negative environmental impacts, such as, waterstress, depletion of ground water resources and water pollution. Despite these impacts there is a lack of statistical data on tourism water use (Gossling et al., 2012). There is currently a lack of knowledge about the

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degree of these impacts and this suggests that there is a need to determine the extent of such impacts in order to mitigate them effectively. This paper focuses on the sustainability performance of the Little Kulala Camp in relation to their water consumption. Little Kulala Camp (LKC) is situated within the Kulala Wilderness Reserve; on the border of the Namib-Naukluft National Park in Namibia. The Greater Namib-Naukluft Park is the largest conservation area in Africa. Desert areas are highly sensitive and demand effective management in order to prevent environmental degradation. Namibia is the driest country in Southern Africa with an average annual rainfall below 100mm. The camp is an exclusive luxury lodge that can accommodate up to 24 guests per night. LKC has a private entrance to the Namib-Naukluft National Park, making it the closest camp to the world-renowned Sossusvlei. Sossusvlei is home to the world’s highest sand dunes. The development of sustainable tourism is seen as a necessity in the area in order to facilitate and ensure the continued protection of the sensitive desert areas while simultaneously developing sustainable livelihoods for locals. Sustainable tourism indicators have been identified as desirable instruments to assess and monitor the progress towards sustainable development (Tsaur, Lin & Lin, 2006, Mearns 2011, Park and Yoon, 2011). According to the UNWTO (2004), a good indicator must address key issues within a destination and be able to be used as a benchmark for future comparisons, both within the destination and with other destinations. Since the 1990’s it has been argued that without indicators and other forms of monitoring tools the concept of sustainable tourism is meaningless. Sustainable tourism indicators were applied to LKC in order to measure the camps water


4

use. The main source of water for LKC is borehole water which is stored in three ten thousand litre water tanks. Management advised that the camp’s ground water has a high level of calcium, which was responsible for the corrosion of the camp’s water pumps. The management provided an estimation of LKC monthly water use from groundwater sources. Accurately recorded data was also provided for the amount of bottled spring water purchased. To determine the total volume of water consumed, the estimated amount of borehole water used was added to the number of litres of imported bottled drinking spring water for the 28 month period January 2010 to April 2012. Over the 28 month period, LKC

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATORS

consumed 11 226094 litres of water. Tourism benchmarks have been developed to help provide tourism ventures with guidelines to measure their sustainable performance against international standards. Currently no accepted baseline standards exist for Southern Africa. A European international standard was used; namely the International Tourism Partnership (2008:75) these are listed in the table below, to compare the per capita water use. The volume of water consumed per tourist per day was calculated and is illustrated in figure one indicating that the consumption is extremely high. As the LKC has no water meters, it was impossible to determine the exact volume of water consumed per tourist

International Tourism Partnership (ITP) (2008) Daily per capita water consumption in (litres) benchmark for hotels Excellent

Satisfactory

High

Less than 200

200-250

More than 250

Table 1. International tourism benchmark for hotels: daily per capita water consumption per guest per day (in litres) (adapted from ITP, 2008:75).

Figure 1. Total volume of water consumed per tourist per day.

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SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATORS

per day. Although these figures for tourist consumption per day are very high when compared to the international standard. The international standard is not appropriate for tourism ventures in the developing world, specifically Southern Africa. This is based on the fact that the nature of tourism ventures within developing countries like Namibia and South Africa, differs from those within developed countries. Tourism ventures in Southern Africa, employ staff members from surrounding local communities, who live and work at the tourism venture. In developed countries staff are excluded when calculating resource use as staff work on a shift basis, working a set number of hours and then going home. At LKC the staff work according to a work cycle of six weeks, followed by two weeks leave, at which time they return to their homes. At any one time, three quarters of the staff are working at the camp, while a quarter are on leave. As such, staff contribute to resource consumption, such as water. This indicator was then recalculated to give a clearer representation of water use at each camp by adding the average number of staff per day to the average number of tourists per day for each year. The following results were recorded in Table 2. The water figures in Figure 1 account for guest consumption, staff consumption and water used for running the venture.

The water consumption figures also include water used in reverse osmosis to provide drinking water for guests. The reverse osmosis process produces a vast amount of waste water. During this process, for every litre of water that enters the reverse osmosis process, an average of 0.6 litres is produced as waste water. Only 0.4 litres is used as drinking water for guests. This to some extent accounts for the high daily water consumption. Water quality analysis, results were compared to the South African National Standard for drinking water quality in terms of the physical and macro-chemical characteristics. It was revealed that LKC’s ground water had high levels of the following physical and macro determinants namely Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) Chloride and Sodium. Contrary to the manager’s comment that the level of calcium in the water was high, the calcium levels at LKC were within Class I limits. Therefore, calcium is not responsible for the mineral deposits on the borehole pumps, piping and water reservoirs. It was found that LKC’s chloride, fluoride and sodium fell within Class II and had a maximum consumption period of seven years. Chloride increases the corrosive nature of water by increasing the electrical conductivity of water, and in metal pipes chloride forms soluble salts as it reacts with

Average water use per person per day (in Litres)

Little Kulala Camp

2010

362

High

2011

350

High

2012 (Jan-Apr)

360

High

(2008) benchmark

Table 2: Recalculated average water use per person per day.

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International Tourism Partnership (ITP)


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the metal ions (World Health Organisation, 2003). It is evident that in this case, the Electrical Conductivity, Total Dissolved Solids and Chloride may be responsible for the mineral deposits and corrosion that broke the camp’s water meters and led to the corrosion of other plumbing infrastructure. The water consumption at LKC is an estimation provided by the camp manager, in order to get accurate measurements of water consumption it is imperative that LKC installs and maintains water meters on the

SUSTAINABLE TOURISM INDICATORS

borehole pump, guest room geysers, staff geysers, geysers used for the kitchen and laundry, as well as on the reverse osmosis process. This will allow for an accurate measurement of water consumption for guests and staff. It is crucial that LKC accurately measures and records its daily, monthly and annual water consumption. This is particularly important because the camp is located in a desert area within Namibia, where water is a precious and extremely scarce commodity.

References • • • • • • • • • • • •

Bagatin, R., Klemes, J.J., Reverberi, A.P. & Huisingh, D. (2014). Conservation and improvments in water resource management: a global challenge. Journal of cleaner production, 77:1-9. Baker, M.,S.,P. (2013). Assessment of the sustainability of Little Kulala Camp and Kulala Wilderness Camp in Namibia. Unpublished Masters Dissertation. Johannesburg, South Africa: University of Johannesburg, 5. Carbon Disclosure Project. (2010). Carbon Disclosure Project reveals water contraints now a boardroom issue for global corporations. London: Carbon Disclosure Project. Media release, 12 November, 2010. Gleick, P.H., 2003 Global freshwater resources: soft-path solutions for th 21st Century. Science 302 (28): 1524-1528. Gossling, S., Peeters, P., Hall. M., Ceron, J.P., Dubois, G., Lehmann, L. & Scott, D. (2012). Tourism and watrer use: Supply, demand and security. An international review. Tourism Management. 33:1-15. Hanjra, M.A. & Qureshi, M.E. (2010). Global water crisis and food security in an era of climate change. Food policy, 35: 365-377. ITP (International Tourism Partnership). (2008). Environmental management for hotels: The industry guide to sustainable operation. (Third edition). London: ITP. Mearns, K. (2011). Using sustainable tourism indicators to measure the sustainability of a community-based ecotourism venture: Malealea Lodge and Pony trek centre, Lesotho. Tourism Review International, 14: 1-14. Park, D.B. & Yoon, Y.S. (2011). Developing sustainable rural tourism evaluation indicators. International journal of tourism research, 13: 401-415. Tsaur, S.H., Lin, Y. & Lin, J. (2006). Evaluating ecotourism sustainability from the integrated perspective of resource, community and tourism. Tourism Management, 27: 640-653. United Nations World Tourism Organisation (WTO). (2004a). Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook. Madrid Spain. World Health Organisation (WHO). (2003). Chloride in drinking water: Background document for development WHO guidelines for drinking-water quality. Geneva: Switzerland.

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PROFILE

INTRODUCING THE WORLD’S MOST ADVANCED CLEANING TECHNOLOGY

PROBAC BIOLOGICALS An innovative “game-changer” that uses good bacteria to clean naturally, no different to Mother Nature – eliminating chemicals – cleaning the way nature intended. Since the emergence of modern man, practical hygiene brought immense health benefits to mankind, reducing disease and increasing longevity. The advance of technology saw the development of cleaning chemicals, which were designed to “shift & lift” dirt off surfaces and move it out of sight. Later developments evolved also to killing bacteria indiscriminately with disinfectants, as modern medicine came to realise the causes of many diseases from pathogens. Convenient cleaning chemicals have become a universal industry, which leads to the deteriorating pervasive pollution of our natural resources. Pristine ecosystems have become toxic backwaters and ground zero for the poisoning, endocrine disruption, and extinction of species on a daily basis. We have acidic dead zones where nothing lives in areas of our oceans, contributing to global warming and an otherwise unhealthy planet – a looming catastrophe. Good news is that people are finally taking action, and there is growing concern for our Earth’s wellbeing among individuals, communities and businesses. Environmental awareness is being prioritised, in legislation and school curriculums, banishing the ‘out of sight, out of mind’ mentality. Active steps are being taken to save energy, reduce our carbon footprint and reliance on fossil fuels, recycle solid waste, choosing sustainable resources over unsustainable ones, water conservation… but chemical pollution continues to be a major challenge.

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Its consequences are basically invisible, unlike street litter and landfills. We need the damn stuff (chemical cleaners), and we hate to use it, but there has been no effective alternative. Many are trying, but get it wrong because of one infallible truth….. There is no such thing as a ‘green’ cleaning chemical. Buzzwords such as ‘green’, ‘natural and organic’, ‘eco-friendly’ and ‘biodegradable’ abound – loosely defined terms that create business opportunities, with the “greenwashing” bandwagon sowing confusion and misinformation as they roll through town. ‘Biodegradable’ claims are also questionable. Biodegradability can only be tested under laboratory conditions, where sufficient microorganisms, nutrients and a neutral pH are artificially provided. All good and well, - but are these same laboratory conditions found in the noxious chemical slurry flushed from millions of homes and businesses? Most definitely not. Chemicals made with sustainable botanical resources are ‘preferable’ to those made from fossil fuels, and may be more readily biodegradable - yet still hazardous! After all, cyanide is a natural and organic chemical derived from plant matter…therefore quite ‘green’ – or not? So are the non-toxic biodegradable natural and organic chemical cleaners ‘green’ enough? They still work the same as traditional chemicals – lifting and shifting and mixing with all other concoctions in the wastewater stream. We strive for ‘eco-friendly’ but ‘eco-good’ should be the target.

There is a solution…. It has been staring us right in the face since before mankind existed – and it is so easy folks.


PROFILE It’s time to discover TRU-ECO - in the form of PROBAC Biologicals – a technology as old as this planet and one that Mother Nature herself has perfected, despite our conflicting processes of cleaning. Nature uses good bacteria to clean and the process is known as biodegradation. Microorganisms produce enzymes that catalyse and microscopically break down complex molecules of waste and dirt into base micro elements – to be re-used as the building blocks of nourishment and life. PROBAC uses these same bacteria to clean - selected from nature for their functional properties and hardiness, and propagated in production laboratories around the world into a massive work-force of little cleaners – ready to work for us in harmony with Mother Nature. PROBAC places massive concentrations of these beneficial bacteria (Probiotics) exactly where they are needed to clean our floors, carpets, bathrooms, toilets, drains - even our dishes and laundry. They enable hyperaccelerated biodegradation on the surfaces and systems in our homes, or businesses, exactly where we want it – cleaning the way nature intended – just a million or so times faster. PLUS - ELIMINATING CHEMICALS ENTIRELY FROM THE PROCESS OF CLEANING. Geddit. No more chemicals. No more trying to make chemicals safe and ‘friendly’ – an impossible undertaking in any event.

PROBAC Biologicals Mode of Action Applying concentrated Probiotics as the primary cleaning agent, brings extraordinary results and benefits, over and above the exclusion of traditional chemicals, which alone is a major remedy for chemical pollution. • SAFETY – PROBAC cleaners cannot harm any living organism and are nontoxic, non-allergenic, non-pathogenic, non-carcinogenic, and produce no Volatile Organic Compounds - delivering optimised air quality in the home and business.

• EFFICACY – PROBAC cleaners effectively and microscopically deep cleans surfaces and biodegrade every trace element of organic dirt that they come into contact with. • RESIDUAL CLEANING – PROBAC cleaners continue working for days after the actual cleaning application, keeping surfaces cleaner for up to three days. • ODOUR CONTROL – PROBAC cleaners control odours without masking agents or perfumes. Uniquely, the Probiotics used are purposefully selected for their by-product, which is odourless CO2, which overwhelm and out-compete those that produce an odorous by-product. • SUSTAINABLE MICROBIAL STABILITY – PROBAC cleaners are not disinfectants, however they proactively eradicate unwanted bacteria and prevent repopulating of bad bacteria for up to three days, proven to be far more effective than harsh disinfectants. See Hospital study – Journal of Microbiology at http://medcraveonline.com/JMEN/JMEN-0100027.pdf– reducing hospital borne diseases from super-bugs by +80% • ENVIRONMENTAL BEST PRACTICE – PROBAC cleaners are “GOOD” for the environment and human health. • GOOD FOR SEPTIC SYSTEMS – PROBAC cleaners leverage the biological process underway in Septic Tanks, thereby optimising biodegradation efficiency. In conclusion, PROBAC offers us the opportunity to start undoing the serious human health and environmental damage caused by chemical cleaning agents. It represents genuine best practice in sustainable and environmental stewardship for individuals and businesses alike. PROBAC makes sense, cleans brilliantly, and ‘Doesn’t Cost the Earth™’, creating a world in which our children can live. For additional information, contact us on +27(0)31 5793219 or share-call 0860 776222 or email info@probac.co.za www.probac.co.za THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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THE INTERNATIONAL LABOUR ORGANISATION SCORE PROGRAMME

Monde Nyangintsimbi


ILO SCORE PROGRAMME

5

What is SCORE? Sustaining Competitive and Responsible Enterprises (SCORE) is a practical training and consulting programme that improves efficiency, service quality and working conditions in small and medium enterprises (SMEs). SCORE Training demonstrates best international practice in the service sector and can help SMEs to participate in global tourism supply chains. SCORE Training focuses on developing cooperative working relationships resulting in shared benefits. The five SCORE Training modules cover Workplace Cooperation, Community Engagement and Responsible Tourism, Quality Management, Human Resource Management, and Occupational Safety and Health. Each module includes a two-day classroom training for managers and workers, followed by on-site consultations with industry experts that help to put the training into action in the workplace. The SCORE project has been active in South Africa since 2009 and is supported by the Governments of Switzerland, Norway and the International Labour Organisation (ILO). Its overall objective in the tourism

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sector is to contribute to sustainable enterprise development, by promoting the Responsible Tourism standard and supporting the application of decent and productive workplace practices that can drive competitiveness and employment creation in small and medium enterprises (SME). The SCORE methodology has been adapted for implementation in the tourism sector and more specifically to promote business sustainability through community engagement and South Africa’s Responsible Tourism Standard. The training has already been rolled out in Madikwe Game Reserve, Amakhala Game Reserve, in the Kruger National Park and Ezemvelo KZN Wildlife resorts in the Drakensberg, clusters of privately owned enterprises in collaboration with the Federated Hospitality Association of Southern Africa (FEDHASA) and is continuing to expand its outreach. SCORE Training is designed to be used in all kinds of tourism-related businesses ambitious to attract new clients, from start-up guest houses to established lodges, laundries and tourist shops. Whatever the size or type of business, SCORE can


5

uncover solutions to workplace challenges and unlock the potential for growth within competitive tourism markets. SCORE is a global enterprise training programme that can help to increase service quality and efficiency, and reduce costs and waste. SCORE has been developed with global experts to create a cycle of continuous improvement in small and medium enterprises. Within the tourism sector, it has been used with success in enterprises employing from 15 to 250 workers.

Rationale for ILO supporting Tourism

The tourism industry has been identified by the ILO and its constituents and donors as a priority sector for development interventions. The industry has grown fast in recent years and offers further growth prospects in the coming future. The industry is employment intensive and offers job opportunities for semi-skilled and unskilled job seekers, a major criterion, if traditionally disadvantage population groups particularly in rural areas are to be reached. The industry also suffers from significant industry specific decent work deficits as a result of the often precarious and seasonal employment relationships. The World Economic Forum (WEF) recently produced a competitiveness study on tourism and travel (T&T). According to the report, the tourism industry creates the most new jobs in developing countries, is the major service export and has the potential to provide competitive advantage. Tourism in developing countries is also growing rapidly. For one third of developing countries, tourism is already the main income source. Tourism is also the main source of foreign exchange in 46 of the 49 Least Developed Countries (LDCs). Further, in more than 50 of the world’s poorest

ILO SCORE PROGRAMME

countries tourism ranks either first, second or third largest of their economic sectors & is the only service industry. According to the Pro-Poor Tourism Partnership, Pro-Poor Tourism (PPT ) is “tourism that results in increased net benefits for poor people”. PPT is not a specific product or niche sector but an approach to tourism development and management. It enhances the linkages between tourism businesses and poor people so that tourism’s contribution to poverty reduction is increased and poor people are able to participate more effectively in product development. Links with many different types of “the poor” need to be considered: staff, neighbouring communities, land-holders, producers of food, fuel and other suppliers, operators of micro tourism businesses, craftmakers, other users of tourism infrastructure (roads) and resources (water), etc.

Fulfilling the development potential from tourism

In South Africa, SCORE supports the development of sustainable enterprises in the tourism sector. Tourism is an employment-intensive service industry with a stated decent work deficit. The programme focuses on wildlife parks as, next to commercial agriculture and mining, tourism and hospitality services provide the only source of formal employment in rural areas in South Africa and the wider sub-region. The project has made good progress from implementation in 2012 to 2015, and has aligned its activities with key actors in the South African tourism sector. The ILO supports South African institutions such as Southern African National Parks (SANPARKS) and service providers such as Productivity SA, a government agency with a tripartite governance structure, the Southern African

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ILO SCORE PROGRAMME

5

Wildlife College (SAWC) and the Southern Cross Foundation to offer SCORE Training to enterprises within their networks. The project has also supported the South African National Department of Tourism in training enterprises on responsible tourism principles. A key lesson learned by the SCORE South Africa project, is that while it is essential to boost productivity and competitiveness of tourist operations, it is equally important to address the needs of the communities living adjacent to or affected by these operations. This strategy aligns the training programme firmly with the South African Responsible Tourism strategy. Business Sustainability and Community Engagement is used as part of Module 1 to train a cluster of Small and Medium Enterprises in the Wildlife Tourism Sector in South Africa. The objective is to work towards sustaining the natural environment, by incorporating communities into the Wildlife Tourism value chain, while maintaining profitability, and upholding the principles of corporate social responsibility. This collection of Stories from Tourism enterprises in South Africa illustrate the impact SCORE Training can have through a series of case studies from a few of the hotels and lodges that have participated in the training in the Kruger National Park (Limpopo) and Maloti Drakensberg area of KwaZulu Natal. Key SCORE Training features: • Practical implementation process, combining classroom training with

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• •

on-site consulting, tailored to meet specific company / tourism industry needs. Based upon Lean management methods adapted to the service sector. Involves workers in improvement efforts and turns the workforce into a competitive advantage Supports the enterprise to grow and meet both domestic and international client expectations. Provides value for money – cost of the training is recovered within the first few months of implementation.

SCORE services

There are five SCORE Modules and each Module includes: • half-day baseline assessment: enterprise visit by a trainer to discuss and assess service processes and quality, HR and OSH challenges. • two-day classroom workshop: interactive training workshop for two managers and two workers per enterprise to develop action plans. Up to five enterprises participate in the workshop together to provide a dynamic training environment of knowledge sharing and experience exchange. • three enterprise visits: post-classroom training consultancy visits by a trainer to help the enterprises implement their action plans. The classroom training and all enterprise visits are conducted by SCORE Certified


5

FEDHASA is very supportive of SCORE Training because we have seen the positive impact it has on our member enterprises. The SCORE approach ensures that the learning is put into practice for long-term benefits.

Caleb Mabaso, FEDHASA The SCORE Training course has an...

extremely good structure. It is easy for participants to understand and is practice oriented; there is always positive feedback from all of the enterprises.

We definitely feel more motivated and the team spirit is stronger as a result of SCORE. Nikiwe Sithole, Cooperative Member, Langalibalele Laundry

I really was not convinced that SCORE would have any value for my business. It took one day of training to change that view completely. My business has definitely benefitted. We’re now doing things more efficiently, there’s greater staff involvement and better customer service.

Word from partners and participants

Trainers. These trainers are experts who have several years of tourism business experience, including specialised knowledge of Lean and green management practices. Enhancing tourism business performance through: • Improved, more consistent customer service. • Cost savings from reduced waste and energy usage. • The adoption of new environmental and socially responsible practices.

ILO SCORE PROGRAMME

Andrew Attwood, Owner. Antbear Guest House

SCORE in South Africa

• 50 SMEs Trained • 224 SME Staff Trained • 1473 SME Employees Benefited Training fees will vary according to location, please use contact details below for more information. SCORE is supported by the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) and the Norwegian Agency for Development Cooperation (NORAD).

Doris Worfel, CEO, Southern Cross Foundation The establishment of the EIT has....

created a winning spirit and ensured that information flows through all departments and that they all work together as a team.

Mr Ezrom Mathumbu, Hospitality Services Manager, Satara Rest Camp- Kruger National Park.

Monde Nyangintsimbi National Project Coordinator Tel: +27 (0) 12 818-8000 Fax: + 27 (0) 12 818-8087 e-mail: nyangintsimbi@ilo.org www.ilo.org/empent/Projects/score/ lang--en/index

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COLLABORATION IN TRANSFRONTIER CONSERVATION AREAS IN SOUTHERN AFRICA

Richard Wyllie


TRANSFRONTIER CONSERVATION COLLABORATION

T

6

he tourism industry and in particular the planning and management of tourism destinations, is very complex as there are often multiple stakeholders involved. Scholars, such as M. Doppelfeld (2006), have pointed out that the presence of multiple stakeholders in the tourism industry is the cause of its complex nature. Furthermore, it has been revealed that this complexity is often increased within the cross-border context whereby multiple stakeholders from multiple nations are involved. Unfortunately there is a lack of coordination and cohesion within this complex tourism industry and the majority of tourism planners and developers have thus turned towards the method of stakeholder collaboration. The importance of collaboration was further emphasised by Bramwell and Lane (2000), and they have claimed that the interaction of stakeholders has the potential of leading to dialogue, negotiations and mutually accepted proposals which can lead to improved sustainable tourism development. It was also noted that collaboration can assist stakeholders to gain a competitive advantage as they can combine a number of key aspects such as knowledge, expertise and capital investment. The concept of collaboration in tourism is particularly relevant in the context of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) in the Southern African region. TFCAs are simply, “areas which straddle two or more international borders where natural and cultural resources are collaboratively managed by the governments and authorities involved”. It is thus clear from this definition that these areas can only be successful if they are managed collaboratively by stakeholders from government to members of the local community. There are a total of 17 TFCAs in Southern Africa and these are further

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divided into three groups based on their status: “Treaty signed”; “MoU signed” and “Conceptual phase”. It must be noted that the Southern African region includes all countries between South Africa and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). There are only four TFCAs that have officially been established through the signing of a treaty between member states. These include: AisAis/Richtersveld Transfrontier Park (Namibia/ South Africa); Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park (Botswana/South Africa); and the Great Limpopo TFCA (South Africa/Mozambique/ Zimbabwe). Six TFCAs that have been established through the signing of a MoU between the member states. Examples of these include: the Maloti-Drakensberg TFCA (Lesotho/South Africa); and the Lubombo TFCA (Swaziland/Mozambique/ South Africa). Finally, there is a total of eight TFCAs and they are still in their “conceptual phase”. This means that they are not officially recognised as TFCAs and are still in the planning phase. As evident from the information above, it is worrying to see that only four of all TFCAs in Southern Africa are officially recognised and that eight TFCAs are still a long way off from being officially recognised. It must be noted that this paper has been written with reference to the author’s Masters Dissertation, entitled, “Benefits beyond boundaries: Cross-border tourism collaboration in transfrontier conservation areas in Southern Africa”. In light of this a number of key collaboration tools have been identified in the research and these can be applied to the development of transfrontier conservation areas not only in Southern Africa, but also on a global scale. Firstly Doppelfeld’s Tourism Stakeholder Map (2006) is a vital method of identifying the key stakeholders in a transfrontier conservation area. These stakeholders include: tourism planners; local businesses; employees;


6

national business chains; residents; government; activist groups; competitors; and tourists. The second collaboration tool that was identified was a Three-Phase Collaboration Process which was developed by Gray (1989). The phases include ‘problemsetting’ and ‘direction-setting’. Thirdly, the stage which involves the implementation and information sharing. The third tool has been identified by Timothy (2006) in his work on partnerships in tourism. This tool is important as partnerships are a key factor for the proper utilisation of collaboration in tourism. Four levels of partnerships include: private and public sector partnerships; partnerships between government agencies; par tnerships between administrative levels and partnerships between same-level polities. The fourth and final tool, which is a combination of two models, is possibly the most vital in terms of understanding the process of collaboration in the GLTFCA (Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area) and in TFCAs generally. Martinez (1994) developed the “Four-Type Typology of CrossBorder Interaction” which identified a process of interactions between stakeholders which include: Alienated Borderlands; Coexistent Borderlands; Interdependent Borderlands; and Integrated Borderlands. Since then, this typology has been appropriated and extended by Doppelfeld and Timothy in their individual works. The new typology now includes five steps: Alienation; Coexistence; Co-operation; Collaboration and Integration. This tool has proven both applicable and vital in understanding the background to and establishment of the GLTFCA. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Conservation Area (GLTFCA) was used as an example in the aforementioned dissertation and it has acted as an example of how the tools of the collaboration

TRANSFRONTIER CONSERVATION COLLABORATION

theory have been applied in practice. The Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park (GLTP) was officially proclaimed as a Transfrontier Park (TFP) on the 9th December 2002 with the signing of an international treaty at Xai-Xai in Mozambique. However, the development of the GLTFCA as a major conservation area was never a new idea and this phenomenon has deep historical roots. The establishment of the GLTFCA began in the early 1990s when heads of state of South Africa, Zimbabwe and Mozambique met to establish a TFCA which included the Kruger National Park; Gonarezhou National Park and Limpopo National Park. A number of other land use zones, such as protected areas and communal lands, were also included in the area. The area encompasses approximately 35,000 square kilometres which is only a third of the original plan and the area could potentially expand to over 100,000 square kilometres. The issue of collaboration at the local community level was one of the key findings of this case study and has revealed important aspects that are critical for achieving collaboration in tourism within TFCAs. It was found that in areas where there are both cultural and natural resources, the situation can often become quite complex. Many cultural groups will inhabit biophysical environments yet their relationships with the wildlife species can often differ. This was especially the case in the GLTFCA as each country had different cultural groups which utilised the natural resources in different ways. Therefore it was concluded that the theory of collaboration in protected areas should take cognisance of integrating the relationship between the private and public sectors, the biophysical dimensions and the cultural aspects. The process of collaboration at a community level is indeed an important area for the scope of collaborative efforts. The key results above have shown that the

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At Nkambeni Tented Safari Camp wilderness preservation meets absolute luxury. Our 150 beautifully appointed timber and canvas suites come equipped with extra length beds, foldout bunks for kids, indoor and outdoor showers, air-conditioning and self-help coffee station. An ideal getaway from over-crowded commercial holiday spots, Nkambeni offers activities such as game drives and bush braais, bush walks and personalised Kruger experiences. Our facilities include a large dining area overlooking the Kruger National Park, fully licensed bar, lounge area, swimming pool, lapa, African curio shop and overlander facilities with ablutions.

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6

use of collaboration as a tool can make an important contribution to the development of tourism within the delineated region of Southern Africa. The findings from the practical example of the GLTFCA show that collaboration is not something that can be achieved overnight and to get the buy-in from all necessary stakeholders is never an easy task. Furthermore, the GLTFCA has shown the potential that Southern African has in terms of its biodiversity and how

TRANSFRONTIER CONSERVATION COLLABORATION

wildlife tourism and cultural tourism can bring numerous benefits across all borders of the region. The final formalisation of the GLTFCA has to be confirmed and this opens opportunities for further research. Through collaboration and cooperation the potential of cross-border tourism development in TFCAs has the potential of bringing numerous benefits to all the countries and stakeholders who are involved, thus bringing ‘benefits beyond boundaries’.

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LESSONS LEARNED FROM MASS ROLL-OUT PROGRAMMES AND PREDICTED IMPACT ON SMALLER TOURISM BUSINESSES

Llewellan Vance and James Hillburn


MASS ROLL-OUT PROGRAMMES

7

An Industry is Born In 2008, South Africa was rocked by an energy crisis, the result of the country’s energy demands exceeding the energy utility’s supply capacity. This resulted in the implementation of sporadic load shedding, during which sections of the national electricity grid were switched off intermittently in an attempt to reduce overall consumption while preventing total grid collapse. This affected not only the quality of life of citizens but more importantly the business continuity of enterprises throughout the country on an unprecedented level. The impact to the country’s economy was severe and a new era of innovation in energy efficiency and power security was born.

Mass Rollout of Low Carbon Technologies

During this time, the Evolve team designed and implemented several mass rollout initiatives aimed at delivering energy efficient products into the private and public sector. Products such as energy efficient lights, solar water heaters and heat pump technologies were the main focus. Mass roll-out initiatives were designed as single streamlined programmes which removed all barriers for product uptake. The programmes included finance offerings, return on investment calculators and wholesale pricing which were delivered through a centralised project office driving a seamless process into large corporates, banks, insurers, government entities and private homes. As an example, a well-designed offering for a Solar Water Heater Solution would be marketed to employees, customers and municipal databases. E-mailers would include low carbon technology products as well as a detailed breakdown of the benefits and finance options available. This was all supported by a dedicated call

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centre that provided educational insight on the technology and end-to-end fulfilment processes i.e. scheduling and management of site inspection visits, installation and post installation customer support. Significant learnings and valuable insights on the market needs were taken out of each these programmes. This resulted in the development of a revolutionary product, Evolvetoday, which is discussed in more detail below.

Mass Rollout Learnings

Learning one: Consumers do not just adopt technology without thorough insight and financial benefit motivation to do so. This requires long sales cycles which include diligent education of the consumer on the relevant technology and its benefits. Most suppliers could only offer a view on potential savings of up to 40%. However, customers are more interested in actual recorded savings especially once they have converted to a new efficient technology. Learning two: Consumers want realtime insight into their actual consumption patterns. Most consumers do not truly understand their utility bills, which provide no insight on potential problem areas within a home / business or predicted cost at the end of each month. This requires a solution that systematically breaks down current consumption versus projected consumption for the month, translated into Rands and Cents. Learning three: Consumers do not easily understand or trust new technologies and lack the capability to compare ‘Apples with Apples’ due to the complexity of the technologies and range of different options. This problem is exacerbated by bad-news-stories of fly by night product suppliers that push sub-standard products and installations into the market and do not fulfil on product warranties. This negativley


7

impacts the industry and erodes consumer trust in leading edge technologies and the adoption thereof. A trusted source for product supply, backed by expert advice is therefore crucial.

The Status Quo

Now, in 2015, we are faced with an even more severe energy crisis as the energy utility is in dire straights with load shedding having been re-implemented and the national grid being under more pressure than in 2008. The main causes for this is inadequate capacity due to the delayed onboarding of power stations and increasing demand due the general low uptake of

MASS ROLL-OUT PROGRAMMES

low carbon technologies. Risk to business continuity is at an all-time high with unpredictable power interruptions and increasing cost of electricity being the order of the day. This places operational strain on many businesses, and impacts their financial sustainability. To exacerbate an already dire situation it is clear that South Africa’s water security is also under threat due to failing infrastructure, contamination of fresh water resources and the country’s demand beginning to outstrip the various utility providers’ capacity. The time for homes and businesses to Evolve to a more secure and sustainable use of their resources has never been greater.

Figure 1 – Residential Electricity Price Increases 2009 – 2014

Figure 2 – Future cost of electricity

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MASS ROLL-OUT PROGRAMMES

7

A Revolutionary Programme is Born The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme was established to facilitate with the implementation of sustainable tourism practices in tourism and hospitality businesses across South Africa. In order to assist these businesses in becoming both financially and environmentally sustainable within the current pressurized climate outlined above, a global first Resource Efficiency Programme has been developed, aimed at enabling mass resource efficiency implementation and technology adoption. This is done in partnership with the National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) and Evolve Technologies (PTY) Ltd and comprises a single programme that has been architected to introduce businesses to a revolutionary piece of technology and platform called Evolvetoday. This solution was born out of all of the learnings depicted in the above mass rollout experiences and has been designed to be a low cost high impact, feature rich technology and platform application that crafts out a sustainability road map for its users. The objectives of this Resource Efficiency Programme is to provide a single programme that will assist accommodation establishments and parallel entities to convert to sustainable solutions for energy, water, waste as well as recommend best sourcing practices. The NCPC will fully subsidise and provide both an installed Evolvetoday solution coupled with a detailed resource assessment for each participating business. This will empower these businesses with the following benefits: • A custom designed telematics device that records total energy consumption for the business and unpacks this in realtime on easy to understand dashboards that show current consumption versus predicted consumption for the month.

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This information is communicated in Rand values with the user being able to change their view into kWh’s and determine trendlines over time i.e. day, week, month or year; Through intelligent data analytics performed on the total consumption of the premises coupled with a detailed resource assesment completed during the installation by an approved professional, provide a granular real-time view on what consumables within the business are costing the most money and unpacking these on a simplified dashboard view. This makes it easy for the business owner to see what appliances within their business are costing the most money and how the business stacks up on an efficiency index against other businesses both at a holistic level and on an appliance level; Immediate energy savings of up to 25% through the intelligent geyser management capabilities of the telematics device which sets the geyser into Eco mode thereby reducing the temperature of the thermostat and ensures that the geyser operates during the correct time periods; Burst geyser prevention and risk profile reduction of the premises through the geyser management capabilities of the telematics device which directly measures temperature, pressure and leak sensors that trigger pro-active alerts before an event occurs and switches off the geyser before the burst can take place; Through the analytics component of the Evolvetoday solution, provide personalised recommendations for the business owner on where additional savings can be achieved within the premises at no cost, low cost and high cost recommendations;


7

• Evolvetoday links these recommendations to a dedicated e-commerce platform where the recommended products (which have been vetted according to stringent criteria) can be purchased at pre-negotiated prices that drive the benefits on economies of scale through to the purchase price made available to the customer; • A fully dedicated call centre that provides the customer with support, educational insight and fulfiment on all product installations and post installation incident management; • A dedicated resource centre that provides customers with access to real life case studies with actual savings and an information database that allows the user to educate themselves on technologies and best practices in their own time; • The ability to set consumption targets which will push out personalised recommendations that will help the business reach these; • Remote access and control of selected devices within the home through any

MASS ROLL-OUT PROGRAMMES

internet connected web interface. This currently allows for remote control of the geyser connected to the device however this can expand into an additional 200 devices thereby creating the smart business concept This programme will set a global benchmark in relation to the level of real time assistance and hand holding provided through a single programme that drives real time updates on consumption patterns, personalised recommendations coupled with the ability for savings information to be represented to business owners as they adopt efficient behaviours and technologies. The STPP will achieve its goal of ensuring it helps businesses within the tourism sector to become not only more financially sustainable but also reduce their overall carbon impact. Over and above this the programme will deliver a holistic benefit to the country by driving a reduction in resource consumption on a mass scale all of which will go along way in reducing the pressure of the tourism sector on the grid.

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THE VALUE OF TOURISM BUSINESS RESOURCE EFFICIENCY ASSESSMENTS

Lee-Hendor Ruiters


RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

T

8

ackling resource efficiency challenges and resource scarcity in the tourism sector creates new risks, opportunities and constraints to doing business. As one of South Africa’s priority economic sectors, the tourism sector is not only a multifaceted industry that contributes to a variety of economic segments, but also a labourintensive industry with the capacity to create jobs. The 2010 Tourism Satellite Account (TSA), which measures the tourism sector’s direct contribution to the country’s economy, estimates this contribution at about R67 billion, or 3% of South Africa’s gross domestic product (GDP). It further estimates that in 2008, a total of 599 412 people (or approximately 4, 4% of total employment) were directly employed by the tourism industry, and that domestic tourism contributes 52% of total tourism consumption. Over the years, the number of hotels in key locations, such as Cape Town, Johannesburg, Pretoria and Durban, has increased to accommodate a growing number of travellers, and, in recent years, the growth in occupancy rates and average room rates has been robust. However, after the 2010 World Cup’s increased infrastructure supply, the accommodation sector is facing challenges in terms of reduced occupancy rates (National Tourism Sector Strategy, 2014). Similarly, other country developments, such as the property boom after South Africa’s selection as host of the 2010 World Cup, imposed a significant burden on electricity supply, resulting in power shortages and increased prices. Within the tourism sector, the demand for resources is being driven not only by growing visitor numbers, but also by increasing wealth and infrastructure growth. This trend is in line with the trends in other developing countries: as the wealth grows,

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resource consumption is far more than before.

The National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa

The National Cleaner Production Centre of South Africa (NCPC-SA) is a national programme of government that promotes the implementation of Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production (RECP) methodologies. RECP aids industries in lowering costs through reduced energy, water and materials usage, and waste management. It is hosted by the CSIR on behalf of the Department of Trade and Industry (the DTI). Resource Efficiency and Cleaner Production (RECP) is a preventative, company-specific environmental protection initiative intended to minimise waste and carbon emissions and thereby optimise output. The analysis of material flows, water and energy usage in companies creates opportunities to identify cost saving options in industrial processes through source reduction methodologies and strategies. The resultant productivity and technology improvements assist companies with better choices in resource utilisation in the reduction of waste generation, waste heat and gaseous emissions harmful to the quality of life.

Resource Efficiency in a Tourism Cluster in George (Western Cape) – Case Study

In May 2012 the NCPC-SA initiated an RECP project and recruited 7 tourist facilities in the George area. The facilities were recruited through the Outeniqua Tourism Association (OTA). The project included resource efficiency assessments of each facility, analysing water, energy and resource usage patterns. The facilities provided their


8

bills over a 12 month period and on-site visits were used to gather more data. Meter readings were taken to get accurate figures for consumption. The interest and request from the area came following a long period of water restrictions as well as the increase in electricity cost. These impacts started to negatively affect the tourism sector, which is one of the key economic drivers along the Garden Route. The awareness raising and behavioural change within the tourism operations were the initial focus areas of the assessments. This was achieved through the cluster approach, i.e. implementing resource efficiency within the multiple tourism businesses in George.

RECP Assessment Process

Once data was provided, detailed assessment reports were documented and individual feedback sessions were held with each company. In addition, a workshop was held to create awareness of sustainable business practices among staff of the participating companies. The representatives responded well to this workshop, which included valuable network and information exchanges. Facilities discussed their experiences with the implementation of different options, for example water heating using gas and heat pumps. They also showed a keen interest in implementing the options provided by the consultants, which emphasized the increased level of awareness created by the project and its overall positive impact. The participating facilities included guest houses, bed and breakfasts and self-catering lodges. Tables 1 and 2 provide the details of each participating tourism facility and the assessment findings.

RECP Assessment Analysis

Overall observations indicated that each facility had a small footprint except for

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

Company 7, which had the highest electricity consumption. Most of the facilities had water heating as a concern. Most of the facilities had some energy efficient lighting. However it was clear that most of the facilities also had not been monitoring their resource consumption per guest. The analysis and outcomes of each of the assessments that were conducted are set out below for each company, taking into account the qualitative results from the assessments and the feedback received from the owners.

Cluster Awareness Raising Workshop

An awareness and training workshop was held on 19 June 2012 with all the owners and relevant staff members of the participating companies. During the workshop, participants were taken through a presentation on the importance of applying the RECP methodology and also of monitoring and evaluation on a continuous basis. The session provided the platform for everyone to share their experiences and also to share best practices with each other. This sharing of information, ideas, experiences and best practices gave participants the opportunity go back to their facilities and to apply to these learning. Overall it was a very positive experience for all the participants and for the NCPC-SA. Below are pictures of the awareness and training session.

Summarised Findings of the Assessments Environmental Policy

Each facility was assessed based on whether they had a green (environmental) policy in place. At the time of the assessment, only one facility had formulated a green policy. However, clear communication about the policy to guests was not done. Following

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Type

Number of Rooms

Tourism Grading

B&B

4

3 star

A

Company 1

B & B + supper

3

4 star

B

Company 2

B&B

3

4 star

C

Company 3

Self-catering

5

4 star

D

Company 4

B&B

9

4 star

E

Company 5

Self-catering

11 double

4 star

F

Company 6

Self-catering

45

3 star

G

Company 7

Consumables and Laundry

Gas

Water and Sewerage

Electricity

R 34 800.00

R 0.00

R 2 400.00

R 1 900.00

R 9 815.33

R 9 815.33

A

Company 1

R 60 000.00

R 48 000.00

R 4 200.00

R 0.00

R 4 200.00

R 40 274.48

B

Company 2

R 38 240.00

R 0.00

R 1 440.00

R 0.00

R 0.00

R 22 337.58

C

Company 3

R 8 150.00

R 0.00

R 1 800.00

R 6 000.00

R 6 951.04

R 38 240.00

D

Company 4

R 64 800.00

R 0.00

R 43 200.00

R 17 500.00

R 17 500.00

R 50 000.00

E

Company 5

R 0.00

R 21 600.00

R 12 000.00

R 12 000.00

42 000.00

F

Company 6

R 36 000.00

R 246 015.54

R 5 056.80

R 51 732.76

R 350 342.01

G

Company 7

Table 1: Profile of Participating Establishments

Liquor

R 700 800.00

Food

Table 2: Monthly Consumption Patterns prior to Assessments

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8 RESOURCE EFFICIENCY


8

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

Green Policy Goals and Targets Communication and Marketing

Figure 1: Green Policy implementation

the NCPC-SA intervention, 70% of the companies have now formulated a green policy and is communicating this to their guests. The communication is in the form of notices, welcome letters as well as on their websites.

Energy Consumption Assessment Findings

Most facilities had a combination of electricity and gas usage. Company 4 was the only facility that had implemented solar water geysers. The biggest concern for energy use was water heating, which in most cases used up to 60% of the total energy use. Other concerns included lighting and cooking applications. Company 7 has a

ELECTRICITY USE

• • • •

Types of lighting Heating, HVAC Water heating Refrigeration and cooking

restaurant and there were high energy users such as dishwashers, pot cleaners and walk in fridges. For each facility, the following process was implemented for energy use applications. The improvement options recommended to the facilities for energy use included: • Lighting optimisation (retrofitting with energy efficient lights); • Hot water usage (replace with heat pumps or gas geysers); • Remove or reduce underfloor heating and towel rails; • HVAC optimisation; • Improved cooking and refrigeration use; • Monitoring of energy use per guest night and improved housekeeping by staff.

POWER USE APPLIANCES

• No of appliances • Running hours • Power ratings

OTHER ENERGY SOURCES • • • •

Wood Gas Diesel Other

Figure 2: Energy Assessment Findings

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Tourism, agriculture and the service sector are major economic drivers. Agriculture includes eucalyptus trees (cultivated for use in the production of paper), sugar, cotton and pineapple farming. This incredible area is a perfect destination for all ages and has something for everyone. There are dozens of game reserves, beautiful beaches, deep sea fishing and diving on a number of reefs, mountain trails, cultural activities and a number of historical sites. This is www.visitelephantcoast.co.za

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UMKHANYAKUDE Zulu Kingdom. Exceptional


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Most facilities have retrofitted lights with energy savers as the old fittings stopped working. LED energy savers and CFLs have replaced the older type down-lights and incandescent bulbs. • Company 7 has implemented a full retrofit of all their chalets with ESKOM standard offering assistance. This has saved the facility around R 20 000 per annum. • Company 2 has replaced their lights in the chalets to Energy Efficient lights and each cabin has been fitted with a flat screen TV in place which uses half the energy as the older TV sets. In addition, one of the geysers had also been removed. These efforts resulted in an overall cost saving of 11% in electricity (achieved savings R 4 700 per month within 6 months after the assessment was done). Water heating was the main topic for most facilities. Four of the facilities already had gas geysers in place but some had experienced problems with water delivery pressure and temperature consistency. • Company 4 decided to remove the gas geysers as well as their solar water geysers. They have invested in Heat Pumps with ESKOM rebate assistance and has now reduced their electricity bill by 25% (achieved savings of up to R 12 000 per annum). • Company 1 has installed a second gas geyser and is now seeing a reduced electricity bill (achieved cost savings of R 3 700 per month within 6 months after the assessment was done). Total electricity savings of R 40 400 A few implemented options by some facilities, which has not yet been verified include: • Reduced geysers temperatures; • Reduced washing cycle temperatures;

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

• Switching off of HVACs ; • Reduced swimming pool pump running hours.

Water Consumption Assessment Findings

All points of water consumption were identified and estimates made of how much is being used. Water is not the biggest cost to the facility but remains a concern as they operate in a water constrained area. Due to the water restrictions placed on the area, most of the facilities (6 out of 7 facilities) have rainwater tanks in place to top up the municipal supply. Almost all of them had low flow shower heads in place as well. The following options were identified to the facilities: • Low flow taps (aerators); • Improved housekeeping (washing up facilities, encouraging showers and not baths); • Guest involvement resulting in reduced laundry usage. Most of the facilities are using less water due to the impact of more efficient heating systems. They are also exploring the installation of tap aerators. Improved water usage in the dishwasher and laundry equipment is providing savings for the companies. Facilities have been recording their water usage to ensure that they can track how much water is used per guest night.

Materials and Waste Assessment findings

All the facility representatives were interviewed regarding the use of materials in the areas shown in Figure 5. A high consideration was given to guests to ensure they have as little hassle as possible. Most materials and consumables were bought for aesthetic purposes and less consideration

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8

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

GARDEN AND POOL

KITCHEN

• water supply (irrigation) • boreholde • rain water harvesting • grey water use • pool usage (back wash system)

LAUNDRY

• taps and nozzles • dishwasher and pot cleaner capacity • food preparation

• appliance rating capacity • usage

BATHROOM

• toilets • flushing system • showers and taps • aerators • nozzles

Figure 3: Water consumption findings

Materials and waste assessment profile

Administration

Kitchen

Laundry

Garden

BASELINE AND COMPOSITION Recyclables Compostable/organic waste Chemical and detergent use profile Kitchen waste

Figure 4: Materials use analysis

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Housekeeping


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given to the environmental aspects of the materials used. Price was also one of the main criteria when selecting a certain product or material. All facilities have a recycling system in place with the assistance of the local municipality. However during our discussions with the tourist facilities and the workshop, greater awareness was created about greener products which could be locally sourced. Furthermore, cleaning materials, containing harmful chemicals such as ammonia can be replaced with biodegradable ones. Other suggestions included: • Bulk buying for restaurant and breakfast food preparation; • Sourcing from local suppliers within the George area such as farms for dairy and meat supply; • Improved separation and recycling; • Biodegradable chemicals and improved dosing for cleaning chemicals. In addition: • Company 1 has been able to save on cleaning chemicals by buying liquid soap in bulk instead of bar soaps. They are saving up to 20% of the soap costs by using bulk buying. Cleaning chemicals are also bought in bulk from a local suppler who sells biodegradable cleansers. • Company 1 also provides breakfast for guests and has decided to buy from a local supplier. They provide the yoghurts in bulk which saves the company on transport costs and is 75% cheaper than buying individual yoghurts. They are buying chicken and eggs from a free range farm, which also delivers and is about 20% cheaper than the retailers. The facility now use transport less often, as they used to go to the supermarket on a daily basis. This reduced their overall carbon footprint.

RESOURCE EFFICIENCY

Savings for this facility are around R 4800 per month within 6 months after the assessment was done. .

Overall Qualitative Benefits

• Company 2 indicated that they were very happy with the report and the project has definitely increased his awareness. He has started monitoring the electricity consumption at his site and has now identified what contributes the biggest portion of his bill. He has also identified what this total cost of overheads is per guest. He has already invested in marketing his facility as a green / eco facility. • Company 6 has ambitions to install renewable energy to reduce their reliability on the municipal electrical supply. They have identified solar as one of the sources of energy that could provide potential benefits. They will continue to review the capital investment for solar power. The owners are now marketing their efforts on the website and to their guests and are continuing to monitor their monthly water and energy consumption. • Company 7 representatives who attended the awareness-raising session said it was an eye opener for them. The facility is on a drive to switch off any unused electrical equipment in offices as well as the lodgings. They have continually monitored water taking readings on a regular basis. • Company 3 was very happy with the outcomes of the report and had a positive experience. They are keen to install heat pumps – this will be reviewed over the next 6 months. They are also keen to investigate renewable technologies for their electricity supply.

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PROFILE

NGWENYA GLASS This unique story unfolded in 1979. A glassblowing factory called Swazi Glass Craft (trading as Ngwenya Glass) was set up as a Swedish Aid Project. The Swedes imported all the machinery and equipment, built the original factory and employed and trained Swazi’s in the age-old art of glassblowing. But unfortunately, four years later the factory ceased production. Suddenly, no more glass animals! This was a mystery to Swazi Glass elephant collectors, the Prettejohn family in the Eastern Cape. Their curiosity, literally, drove them to neighbouring Swaziland to “investigate”. The result; the Prettejohn’s found themselves the proud new owners of the only glassblowing factory in Africa at the time … and a defunct one at that! The Prettejohn’s took over in June 1987, spending a couple of months getting the machinery working and tracking down some of the original staff. They started production in August with four employees, including Sibusiso Mhlanga, the master glassblower. Today, Ngwenya Glass, under the guidance of husband and wife team, Chas & Cathy Prettejohn, employs over 60 people. Sibusiso, who has visited Sweden several times in recent years to work again with some of the worlds leading glassblowers, tutors the new apprentices. Since its rebirth, Ngwenya Glass has been more than an inspiring success story. It is an environmentalist’s dream! The products, which include a wide range of tableware, drinking glasses, vases, jugs and ornamental African animals are all handmade from 100 % recycled glass.

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Ngwenya Glass truly cares … Ngwenya Glass has been proudly recycling 100% recycled glass since 1987. This is not a new “green bandwagon” that they have jumped on recently; it has simply been a way of life. Ngwenya Glass use waste newspaper as a very effective packaging material. Ngwenya Glass does not use extra packaging such as boxes and bags, in an effort to decrease its carbon footprint. In some cases the use of bubble wrap is necessary for long distance transport, but this is used sparingly. They encourage clients to supply their own special display packaging at point of destination if deemed necessary. Ngwenya Glass re-uses grey water and has rainwater catchments for factory use. Ngwenya Glass has also started using purified old engine oil & old KFC oil to fuel their furnaces. Did you know that it is possible to contaminate one million litres of water with one litre of used oil? Ngwenya Glass has embarked on an indigenous tree-planting programme - 100 trees are currently being planted, with an ongoing programme to continue regular planting in the factory area. Ngwenya Glass

organise environmental clean-up days in their area and encourage schools to pick up litter in exchange for donations of building materials or sports kit etc. They believe that by educating our children about environmental issues, we will have a chance of saving our planet. Ngwenya Glass has for the past 26 years paid a percentage of our worldwide sales to the Mkhaya Game Reserve (refuge for endangered species in the Lowveld of Swaziland). They started the Ngwenya Rhino and Elephant Wildlife Fund in 1989 and since the establishment of this fund, many generous donations have been received from the likes of: The British Government, The EU, W.W.F. (World Wildlife Fund of South Africa and the Netherlands), Doctor Felix Schnier, Aide Environmen, Engen and his Royal Highness, Prince Bernhard of the Netherlands (who was an avid fan or Mkhaya and a regular visitor to the Kingdom of Swaziland). Ngwenya Glass also support numerous orphanages and charities in Swaziland and South Africa and have an active HIV/AIDS policy and program. They also pay a monthly salary to a counselor who councils abused children, women and HIV/Aids patients. THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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WHY ACCOMMODATION ESTABLISHMENTS SHOULD HAVE A CARBON OFFSET PROGRAMME

Franz Rental


CARBON OFFSET PROGRAMMES

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iven the many things tourism accommodation establishments are doing to go green in order to remain competitive, it’s not uncommon to overlook some of the easier ways to do so. As far as sustainability measures go, a carbon offset programme can be one of the easiest and most cost-effective to implement, if you know how to go about it. As leisure and business travellers are becoming more conscious about the environmental impacts of their travel choices, they are looking at accommodation options with more sustainable operations as well as ways to reduce their own carbon footprint. While getting to a destination (be it by air or road) will be the biggest share of a tourist’s carbon footprint, staying a couple of nights in a hotel, B&B or guesthouse can quickly add up in carbon emissions, too. In fact, according to the World Tourism Organisation (UNWTO) the global travel and tourism sector accounts for 5% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Within this, mobility (which includes aviation and ground transportation) accounts for the largest percentage of carbon emissions at 72%, and accommodation is the next biggest contributor, at 24%. Local tourism activities account for the remaining 4% (Peeters, 2010) .

Cutting carbon in accommodation

With the need for lighting, regular cleaning, laundering, catering, as well as heating and cooling, tourism accommodation establishments contribute significantly to the tourism sector’s global carbon emissions. With this in mind, accommodation establishment owners and managers should be acutely aware of the desire for sustainable travel of their guests. Travellers are increasingly choosing greener accommodation and greener travel, and the establishments need to work hard to make

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their activities more sustainable and carbon efficient. Many international hotels are now measuring and reporting their carbon emissions and setting goals for carbon reduction. Their initiative not only helps the environment, but also the hotels themselves, by reducing costs, improving reputation, and ensuring a higher quality product and service. Investors, too, have started to demand information from hotels on their greenhouse gas emissions and corporate strategies for addressing climate risks. An increasing number of establishments around the world are going a step further by bringing their carbon impact right down to zero. This is possible by making use of carbon offsets. As a result these hotels can offer their guests and conference delegates a carbon neutral stay or meeting, often at no extra cost. In this way a hotel can brand itself and proudly proclaim to be carbon neutral.

What is carbon offsetting and how does it work?

Carbon offsetting is a mechanism that allows individuals and businesses to take responsibility for those emissions that they cannot (yet) reduce, by purchasing carbon offsets (or carbon credits) from projects that reduce or absorb carbon elsewhere. Offsetting is a small but necessary part of the solution to climate change and has become an established mechanism under the strict monitoring criteria of international carbon standards and protocols. Even under the future SA carbon tax, to be implemented in 2016, the SA government will allow companies to use offsets (up to a certain cap) to lower their carbon tax liabilities. If an accommodation establishment wishes to implement a carbon offset programme, it is necessary to first decide whether to only offset their guests’ bednights or the entire carbon footprint. In the latter case the establishment is 100% carbon neutral as all the emissions have been offset,


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not only the emissions generated by the guest staying there. Next, the amount of carbon generated by either the guest’s stay or the entire hotel is calculated by means of a carbon footprint. Finally, the equivalent amount of carbon offsets are then purchased from certified carbon projects. Offset projects typically include renewable energy,energy efficiency, forestry, waste and so on. Most carbon offset projects have other sustainable development impacts besides the carbon reductions they generate. These ‘co-benefits’ range from: • Social e.g. health, education, poverty alleviation, access to affordable clean energy, skills development; • Economic e.g. job creation, technology transfer and • Environmental e.g. air and water quality, biodiversity.

Raising the standard

There are more than 20 carbon standards on the market today but only a few have emerged as widely respected, most notably the Gold Standard (GS), Verified Carbon Standard (VCS) and Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). Any project that is registered under these undergoes strict monitoring, reporting and verification in a uniquely robust way to ensure that projects deliver what they say they will from the beginning. The standard used determines what type of carbon credit is generated by the emission reduction project.

Assurance

Further assurance is provided by the carbon standard’s associated registry- a type of electronic bank for carbon credits. The two largest carbon registries in the world are Markit in New York and the CDM Registry in Bonn. Registries allocate unique serial numbers to each project and each tonne of CO2 reduction achieved and keep records of

CARBON OFFSET PROGRAMMES

all the purchases. Offsets are tracked for life, traded securely and ‘retired’ permanently. So in this way they cannot be sold twice. Registries are vital for a transparent carbon market and provide the buyer of credits the necessary assurances.

How much does it cost?

The cost to offset the carbon emissions of a guest’s stay is typically in the range of a few Rands. This is a small amount with which a lot can be achieved, considering the impact that offset projects can have on sustainable development. Hotels can choose whether or not to pass these additional offset costs on to guests. Often the additional offset cost per bed night is minimal, so that the hotel absorbs it into the room rate.

The benefits

It allows guests to practice sustainable travel: As guests are becoming more responsible about their travel choices, they are looking for convenient ways to ‘green up’ their travelling as much as possible. Those establishments that offset the carbon emissions of their guests will allow their guests to feel good about their travelling. It’s what businesses are demanding: A growing number of companies are adopting aggressive environmental sustainability initiatives of their own; several already include a requirement for sustainable accommodation establishments and 100% carbon-neutral business meetings. It’s a good investment: Offsetting can help establishments gain competitive advantage, build brand value, support their Corporate Social Investment (CSI) policy, improve their BBBEE scorecard and encourage other emission reduction activities. It raises guest and staff awareness: By receiving information on the impact they made possible by supporting clean energy or forestry offset projects guests will gain a THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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PROFILE

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new appreciation of their climate impact. In some cases it may even be possible for guests to visit the offset project which provides for an even richer travel experience. Also staff will be rightfully proud working for a green establishment. It’s a powerful tool for sustainable development. By investing in clean energy projects, South African communities can be provided with affordable, reliable and lowcarbon energy solutions.

Forward-thinking hotels with carbon offset programmes

Perceptions of carbon offsetting vary widely across the globe with the greatest level of awareness in Europe, the US and Australasia. In South Africa there is less awareness about the offsetting mechanism and its associated benefits, but interest in the concept is rapidly increasing. This is because companies are realising that offsetting is an effective tool to cut their emissions cost effectively, while at the same time increasing brand value and benefiting communities. The Best Western Plus Chateau Granville Hotel & Suites & Conference Center in Vancouver allows guests to contribute an extra two dollars per night to support sustainable initiatives through their EcoStay program. 75% of what is collected is used to purchase carbon offsets to make the guests’ stay carbon neutral by funding projects such as renewable energy, energy efficiency, agriculture and recycling. As part of its broader vision of sustainability, Hilton Worldwide has a pilot carbon offset program in Southeast Asia for meetings and events. Guests, who choose to hold their meetings and events at specific Hilton properties in Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, or Vietnam, will automatically be supporting various carbon reduction projects throughout Southeast Asia. This trend has also caught on in South Africa

CARBON OFFSET PROGRAMMES

with Hotel Verde, located at Cape Town International Airport, being labelled Africa’s first carbon neutral hotel by offsetting the hotel’s remaining emissions with a forestry project in Mozambique.

Carbon offsets

Carbon offsets are only meant to complement, not replace, other efforts to reduce carbon emissions. Establishments should therefore also find other ways to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions. Purchasing carbon offsets should be seen as a means to help make-up for the carbon emission that can’t be reduced internally.

Offer your guests a carbon neutral stay today – it’s easy with GreenDreamsTM

While implementing a carbon offset programme at your hotel can be quite straight-forward it might take some time to understand the process, especially where to buy credible carbon offsets so you can claim with confidence to be carbon neutral. A few of the larger hotels might be able and willing to invest in the necessary resources and man-power to start their own offset programme but often this is not the case. Accommodation owners and managers are often discouraged to implement an offset programme as they are unsure where to start or how best to go about it. It is for this reason that Climate Neutral Group SA developed GreenDreams – South Africa’s first carbon offset programme for tourism accommodation establishments. This programme is currently being rolled out by the Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme in partnership with the Climate Neutral Group SA. By participating under the GreendreamsTM offset programme everything is taken care of, allowing hotels to add value to their guest’s experience without compromising on their comfort.

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INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS Relevance to Tourism Development and Local Economic Growth

Dr Merida Roets


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s one drives through the deep rural countryside of South Africa, one may encounter various structures, abandoned and decaying, and wonder about their origin and demise. In every failed rural enterprise (it is almost without exception, that) the importance of the appropriate institutional arrangements has been overlooked. Funding agencies place emphasis on the infrastructural and skills development components of a business plan (product scenarios and market linkages being defined), and fail to give adequate attention to the institutional arrangements that will allow the enterprise to achieve market success and sustainability in a rural environment.

Institutions defined

Institutions can be described as both the formal (contracts, organisations, markets) and informal (traditions, customs) arrangements, both at macro (legal) and micro (organisational form) level, that direct transactions. At the core of sustainable enterprises is economic viability. But, economics describes scenarios within a perfect market system. A ‘perfect market’ is seen as one where there is infinite demand, infinite supply, everyone has access to the same information and there are zero transaction costs. Unfortunately, the rural space does not function according to these theoretical constructs (almost diametrically opposed to the urban landscape). In rural areas transaction costs are high, information is lacking, property rights are poorly defined, and there are poor institutional frameworks. The question that needs to be asked is what new institutional arrangements can be created or which existing institutional arrangements can be adapted to assist the increased involvement of, and be of benefit to, small-scale rural tourism product owners? What are the features of these institutional

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arrangements? What institutional arrangements would best suite this section of the tourism industry in South Africa? What institutional arrangements could best serve all the role-players? What institutional arrangements would take into account the demands of the global market place? As a starting point these new institutional arrangements must be designed keeping local customs, conventions and use of common property resources in mind. For that is the landscape of rural South Africa. Thus, arrangements that speak to collective action become important.

Theoretical basis

To be able to provide authentic, rural tourism products and experiences to discerning international consumers bent on quality and safety, requires specialisation at various steps along a pathway (as suggested for vertical integration by Coase, 2000) and is influenced by the property rights associated with the inputs required by that pathway (as suggested for vertical integration by Furubotn and Richter,2003). This concerns the flow of goods and services over time and the exchanges of those goods and services between the different parties owning them. The success of such a system will depend on the costs of the exchanges along that pathway, and these are influenced by the institutions (the laws, the politics, the social constructs and the cultural norms) of the country (as suggested by Adam Smith: as quoted by Coase, 2000), the institutional arrangements between the various resource-owners along the pathway and the willingness of all parties to transact. These relationships are governed by contracts (whether formal or informal) which aim to reduce the transaction costs associated with obtaining the inputs to the flow of goods or services on a consistent and reliable basis to the extent that profit (residual) is maximised


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for all or some of the parties involved. What organisation of the firm and what institutional arrangements between those firms will provide the most benefits to the parties associated with the provision of rural tourism products and services?

Governmental Strategic Alignment

Before proposing over-arching institutional arrangements, one should keep in mind that in situations of imperfect information, with risk averse tourism product owners and incomplete markets for risk sharing, free trade is not necessarily the best policy. Although pockets of individual product owner successes exist, one should not discount the substantial role of government to provide the most needed infrastructure, services, institutional arrangements and policy framework for an enabling environment. In fact, the National Tourism Sector Strategy (2011) and the Responsible Tourism Strategy (2012 – 2016) both mention the importance of institutional arrangements for the development of rural tourism. Unfortunately, when one moves to local level the importance of institutional arrangements is often translated only into the development of ‘in-house’ capacity within district and local government structures, or ‘awareness creation exercises’to service the needs of the product owners who daily face the onslaught of limited clientele. Although individual, standalone enterprises can be successful (often where they are situated along major routes and have access to technology), those enterprises that are, in fact, most soughtafter, that are characterised by warm and friendly people, living peaceful and gentle lives, engaged in their cultural traditions, steeped in interesting history and centred in uniquely beautiful, remote natural environments, struggle to make ends meet.

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

Institutional arrangements that are suggested in current strategy documents to assist these entrepreneurs include: • Membership of a local community tourism organisation (for marketing and information exchange purposes). • Inclusion into regional or provincial marketing campaigns (to increase exposure to the market place and increase possibilities of co-ordination). • Representation on Local Government Local Economic Development forums (to voice concerns related to tourism infrastructure such as ablutions, fuel, road and telecommunications infrastructure as well as safety issues of a region. This is also the venue where awareness can be raised regarding compliance and legislative issues). • Access to small-business services such as accounting, marketing, branding and training (such as provided by SEDA). • Exposure to quality enhancement services such as the Tourism Grading Council of South Africa. These arrangements are mentioned in several of the strategy documents and are emphasised in the action plans at local municipality level. However, on closer reading a further suggestion is made. That of route development (unfortunately only mentioned once in the NTSS and once in the National Responsible Tourism Strategy). Route development is gaining acceptance as a LED institutional arrangement worth pursuing.” Route identification and development are practical growth strategies for raising the profile of an area. That, coupled with good signage, has potential to increase tourist volumes into an area, thus increasing the benefits for the stakeholder communities”. (ANDM Tourism Sector Plan, 2012).

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Routes as an appropriate Rural Tourism Development institution Route development as an institutional arrangement has several benefits which find synergy with the customs and norms of many rural communities where property rights to communal resources are less welldefined. Routes are initiated: • To diffuse visitors and income from tourism (to a wider range of beneficiaries) • To bring lesser known attractions and features to the attention of tourists (such as those of remote areas) • To increase the overall appeal of a destination (wider variety of attractions to cater to different interests) • To increase length of stay and spending by tourists (increased benefit to up-and downstream linkages such as fuel, food, accommodation, input suppliers etc.) • To attract new tourists and to attract repeat tourists, and • To increase the sustainability of the tourism product (increased occupancy rates and use of human resources) Routes provide a good opportunity for less mature areas with high cultural resources that appeal to special interest tourists. Rural tourists seek individualistic experiences with greater flexibility, ecological uniqueness, special adventure opportunities, cultural attractions (and immersion), or the peace and quiet of the countryside (Meyer, 2004). An important element of route development is that it can have a pro-poor emphasis in its design, “tourism which provides net benefits for poor people” (NRTS, 2011), thus benefits to small tourism product owners can include (Meyer, 2004): • Enterprise development—increasing demand for products and services of the poor • Employment and income opportunities

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• Collective income • Conservation and rejuvenation (cultural and natural) • Capacity building • Infrastructure development These benefits can be enhanced through route “services” such as: • Negotiated price reductions with a select group of input provision suppliers which encourage local content—such as vegetable, linen and soap suppliers, or tour guide services, that product owners are encouraged to deal with. • A fixed base-price for a group of activities, tours, services along the route, a centralised payment facility (client convenience) and fast re-imbursement for services (to product owners)— possibly including bonuses and penalties based on adherence to pre-set quality standards and customer feedback. • Group access to finance for expansion requirements or working capital, through collective grant applications or through a formalised programme with a financial institution, guaranteeing repayment and negotiating reduced interest rates for the product owners – increased bargaining power and the benefit of a shared “brand”. • Group technical and marketing support and training programmes to establish a consistent level of quality and exposure throughout the route. Meyer (2004) suggested that for such an institutional arrangement to work the following key ingredients are needed: • Cooperation networks, regional thinking and leadership (Collaboration among a multitude of often very diverse tourism suppliers who are mutually dependent on resources controlled by others who can only achieve gains by pooling the


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resources together. How these resources are shared can be established through formal or informal arrangements). Product development, infrastructure and access (Keeping a theme and the target market in mind). Community participation, microenterprise development and innovation (Participatory product and event identification, the identification of enterprise opportunities, and fresh perspectives on what is marketable about the region can add immense value to route development and ensure an authentic tourism experience that is supported by all involved). Information and promotion (Creating awareness of something new and niche to a cluttered market). An explicit pro-poor focus (Direct employment opportunities, identified enterprise opportunities, communal

INSTITUTIONAL ARRANGEMENTS

income, targeted skills development, preferential procurement).

Conclusion

Thoughtful engagement in the design of appropriate institutional arrangements are an important element of ensuring effective, sustainable and successful Local Economic Development initiatives in Rural Tourism. Institutional arrangements must aim to be inclusive and participatory, must empower as many role-players as possible, must take cognisance of local customs, values and norms (such as permissions from Tribal Authorities) and must aim to reduce the transaction costs and increase the financial benefits to all parties. The participatory development of themed tourism routes as an institutional arrangement offers a useful alternative to the encouragement of stand-alone tourism products in rural circumstances.

References • • • • • •

Alfred Nzo Tourism Sector Plan. (2012). Final Consolidated Report. October 2012. Alfred Nzo District Municipality. Coase, R. H. 2000. The new institutional economics. Ch. 1 In: C. Menard (Ed.) Institutions, Contracts and Organisations. Edward Elgar: Cheltenham. pp 3-6. Draft National Responsible Tourism Strategy, Version 5. Five Year Plan 2012 – 2016. National Department of Tourism, March 2012. Department of Tourism. (NDT). (2011). National Tourism Sector Strategy. Pretoria: Department of Tourism. Furubotn, E.G. and R. Richter. 2003. Institutions and Economic Theory: The Contribution of the New Institutional Economics. The University of Michigan Press: Ann Arbor. Meyer, Dorothea. 2004. Tourism Routes and Gateways: Key issues for the development of tourism routes and gateways and their potential for Pro-Poor Tourism. Overseas Development Institute. April 2004.

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OUR COMMUNITY SAFETY NETS

Annelie Barkema


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COMMUNITY SAFETY NETS

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ow do we strengthen and restore the resilience of community safety nets to ensure greater visitor safety? In my experience, the tourism industry’s most valuable asset – it’s people - generally lack awareness and know-how when it comes to matters of safety, security and wellness in a world characterised by risk and high service demands. The biggest challenge to safety and security is to overcome poor situational awareness where matters that pose a risk or concern in a tourist’s general vicinity are not recognised for what they are. Poor situational awareness is the biggest challenge for safety and security. Factors that pose a risk in someone’s general vicinity are often not recognised for what they are.

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The impact of community safety nets on Sustainable Tourism

Safety and security are vital to providing quality in tourism. More than any other economic activity, the success or failure of a tourism destination depends on being able to provide a safe and secure environment for visitors.

– UNWTO We, as the tourism community, are acutely aware that undesirable perceptions of general safety and security in our country impact directly on visitor numbers, thus effectively impacting the sustainability of tourism. However, awareness amongst other stakeholders, e.g. business, residents and foreign migrant workers of the impact of tourism on the country’s economy and therefore on their own bottom line, is not well understood. Very few good news stories of issue resolved are emanating from this destination or make it into the public domain. Bad news stories are aggravated by the lack of a coordinated and shared approach by relevant stakeholders within the destination up and down the tourism value chain as well as the lack of a coordinated support to visitors in distress. The outcome, inevitably, is ineffective community safety nets and negative perceptions about tourism safety.

Partnerships – Together We Can

Our strength in addressing these challenges will lie in how tightly knit our Tourism Safety and Support team becomes. Tourism can be likened to life in an extended family where not all family members are related by blood. Tourism is weaved into the fabric of each and every community. It is part of the everyday life of each and every community in South Africa, in some form

COMMUNITY SAFETY NETS

or other. For this reason, it becomes difficult to grasp the extent or scope of tourism safety and support and even more difficult to harmonise efforts towards effective detection, prevention, or resolution. There is a great need for coordinated and formalised strategies that involve each stakeholder and clarify roles and responsibilities across disciplines, sectors and industries. A tourism enterprise cannot stand alone and work on its own in isolation. Unlike other industries, in tourism we are very much dependent on our neighbour and the wider community to ensure that the visitor is looked after: when visitors visit a destination, they spend limited times in the hands of actual tourism businesses, whether it be accommodation establishments, tour operators or activity providers. Incidents often happen when visitors step out of these ‘secure’ settings: a bag might be snatched while the visitor is walking in the street, an accident on the road when the visitor is driving from point A to point B. The importance of fostering established, acknowledged and trusted relationships cannot be encouraged enough. We as the tourism industry need to work together seamlessly, in the way we manage tourism related incidents.

Programme – Tourism Incident Management System

An Incident Management System (IMS) is a coordination effort that provides a systematic, pro-active approach to guide departments and agencies at all levels of government, non-governmental organisations, and the private sector to work seamlessly to prevent, protect against, respond to, recover from, and mitigate the effects of incidents, regardless of cause, size, location, or complexity, in order to reduce the loss of life and property and harm to the environment. Tight feedback

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loops in incident management underlie any resilience-building initiative across disciplines, sectors and industries. A onestop 24/7 Helpline built on such feedback loops will ensure that assistance is rendered as soon as possible to parties in distress. By ensuring that each person in a tourism community as well as the visitor, is aware of such 24/7 Helplines, and knows how to use it, action can be taken to manage the incident towards the best possible positive outcome. In building and strengthening our community’s capacity to be aware of and deal with tourism safety and support initiatives, we contribute to a safer and more caring destination. This allows for: • Better visitor empowerment as coordination of support and mobilisation of resources are done more seamlessly; • More effective perception management, especially at the time of the incident as better communication mechanism are put in place; and • Building scientific-based business intelligence in centralised databases, enabling more informed decisions on which resolutions have a foundation. The Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme is launching an incident management system, specifically targeted at smaller tourism businesses, to empower them, their communities and their visitors to deal with incidents and tourism safety. The STPPs Tourism Incident Management System (TIMTM) phase one will be live by mid 2015 and will be offered through a partnership with, Help 123, a specialised incident management and resolution service provider.

Your role – How to use what you have in your hand

Here are key steps towards ensuring you empower yourself, your staff, your

COMMUNITY SAFETY NETS

community and the tourist to deal with an incident: • Ensure that all basic emergency numbers are displayed clearly and visibly close to telephones, on notice boards and in other strategic places where people commune or pass frequently. • Define the smallest manageable unit that you are part of in your community and where you have some level of influence, and get to know each one’s role in the team – this can be your home and the people in your household, your neighbourhood, your workplace, a chamber of commerce or any other kind of local, regional or national organisation. • In that smallest manageable unit, understand the possible contribution, needs, mandate or level of influence of each person. Understand the systems and platforms that they are already engaging with, and what their terms of engagement would be if their skills and efforts are required at the time of an incident. In doing so, the roles and responsibilities of each stakeholder at the time of an incident in that particular community gets clarified and therefore incident management can be effected more harmoniously. • When in distress or at the time of an incident, we act from memory. To be able to act without thinking and quickly, we need to build our brain’s library – strengthen our memory – with the core actions that need to be executed. By creating a format with information through which messaging is repeatedly embedded in memory, recall will become automatic in a stressful situation. Forming healthy habits by repetition will ensure the desired behaviour at the critical time and mean more whole, functional, responsive community safety nets.

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Take a Trip

To a cleaner and greener Gauteng

Using your Gautrain Gold card to travel to and from places of work, study and leisure on a passenger kilometer basis is significantly less carbon intensive than traveling by car.


Just five years ago, the idea that you could travel from the centre of town in Johannesburg to the heart of Pretoria in just 36 minutes, or from Sandton to OR Tambo in 15 minutes, was absurd. In 2014, hundreds of thousands of people make those journeys every day – at any time of day. The Gautrain has made fast, clean and efficient transport a reality in Gauteng. Just thinking of travelling on the N1 during rush hour is enough to make even the most hardened Gautenger break into a cold sweat, so there’s a lot to be said for whizzing past the gridlock at 160km/h in a comfortable seat, while catching up on social media on your mobile device. With 10 stations on a route that runs to each of the four compass points, and supported by nearly 30 bus routes, taking the Gautrain has become a way of life for commuters in an incredibly short space of time. Clockwork schedules and consistent trip durations make it easy for travellers to plan their schedules and the cashless, card-based payment system makes travel safe and efficient. Buses are plentiful and run five days a week. The Gautrain is a slick, speedy, efficient blue and gold-liveried advertisement for the progress and promise of Gauteng – and South Africa as a whole.

Gautrain, for Environmentally Friendly People on the Move.

www.gautrain.co.za Call Centre: 0800 Gautrain www.gma.gautrain.co.za

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Trevor Crighton takes the Gautrain, exploring the endless opportunities of Gauteng


THE SUSTAINABILITY OF UNIVERSAL ACCESS IN TOURISM

Amor Malan and Lisa Venter


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Introduction to Universal Access in Tourism: where we are and where we need to be When we talk about tourism, it’s usually in the context of increasing the number of travellers or tourists to South Africa, and how the travel and tourism industry contributes to job creation. Put simply, it is about economics. Let us then consider tourism similarly, while seeing it through the lens of universal access. This means determining who the universal access tourist is, what his travel chain needs are, where he is based and whether he has the disposable income to travel to South Africa. Tourists from the US are on the increase and they are known to spend generously when travelling. South Africa also has historical ties with the UK and Europe, and the Dollar Rand, Pound and Euro conversion value is certainly in favour of travellers from these countries. The obvious UA tourist has a disability or is older. Let us look at some of the facts and figures about this consumer base in these countries and regions. US travellers with disabilities spend $13.5 billion per year. Nearly 16.5% of UA tourism spend comes from people with some disability. When you add the retiring baby boomers to the UA tourist market, it becomes clear that we need to sit up and pay attention – this generation is retiring with more disposable income than ever before. In Europe there are 46 million people with disabilities, and this figure reaches 130 million people when pregnant women and people over the age of 65 are taken into account. According to a study by the University of Surrey, 70% of this population is travelling. The tourism expenditure of this potential traveller population (130 million) is estimated at more than €80 billion, taking into account that people with disabilities

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generally travel with one or more other people. Both Forbes and McKinsey have reported similar staggering findings. The obvious next question is, what does the UA tourist want? This consumer wants what every tourist wants – namely to travel, play and document unique experiences with minimum effort and maximum ease, within the constraints of a particular special need. Accessible tourism enables people with a range of access requirements to function independently, with equity and dignity through the delivery of universally designed tourism products, services and environments. It is about making it easy for everyone to enjoy travelling. By expanding the scope of the tourist consumer, and taking into account the full range of human diversity, deliberately focusing on inclusive design for accessibility in the tourism industry, the economic contribution thereof will be enhanced. By designing for a range of human function (and everyone is different after all), we can create things that are more functional and more user-friendly for everyone. Paying attention to accessibility in tourism brings a much-needed shift to the strategies applied in the industry, because accessible and sustainable tourism products involve the whole tourism value chain.

What is South Africa doing to drive and support universal access in tourism?

The newly promulgated Tourism Act and Sector Strategies refer to accessible tourism and clearly confirm the objective of making tourism more accessible for people with disabilities. The Tourism Act and Tourism Sector Strategy both cite the transformation of tourism to address access for all tourists – in particular people with disabilities – as a strategic objective and core component


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of responsible tourism. The National Department of Tourism and tourism stakeholders jointly identified Universal Access in Tourism (UAT) as an important initiative to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness as a tourist destination. Universal access in tourism responds to Article 2.2 of the UNWTO’s Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, which states that: “Tourism activities should respect the equality of men and women in that they should promote equal rights and, more particularly, the individual rights of the most vulnerable groups, notably children, the elderly, the handicapped, ethnic minorities and indigenous people”. The 2011 tourism market assessment study by the Department of Trade and Industry acknowledged Accessible Tourism as an industry market segment with hugely underestimated potential yet to be fully developed and capitalised on in South Africa. It also revealed a lack of essential understanding about this consumer base and reasons that limit and hinder their participation in tourism and leisure activities. Stakeholders need to get know their consumers. The Tourism Grading Council of South Africa, in support of the Tourism Act and Sector Strategy successfully initiated a Universal Access grading criteria after extensive engagement with travellers requiring universally accessible accommodation. This system is promoted and driven alongside the voluntary star grading system and promotes best practice in accommodation offerings in the tourism industry. These criteria are however limited to accommodation establishments and do not consider the value chain of products, services and activities. The application of the seven principles of universal design throughout the UA tourism value chain will address access as intended

SUSTAINABILITY OF UNIVERSAL ACCESS

to tap into the lucrative UA tourism market segment. These user-centred design principles consider: • Equitable use: The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities; • Flexibility in use: The design accommodates a wide range of individual preferences and abilities; • Simple and intuitive use: Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user’s experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level; • Perceptible information: The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user’s sensory abilities; • Tolerance for error: The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions; • Low physical effort: The design can be used efficiently and comfortably with minimum fatigue; and • Size and space for approach and use: Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user’s body size, posture, or mobility. The Department of Tourism identified universal access in tourism as an important initiative to enhance South Africa’s competitiveness. This is in line with the United Nations World Tourism Organisation’s Global Code of Ethics for Tourism which states that: “tourism activities should …promote human rights and, more particularly…most vulnerable groups, notably children, the elderly, the disabled, ethnic minorities and indigenous people”. If one considers the value chain above and looks at how each of the components can not only meet the needs of those

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persons who are agile and physically fit, but can work for the entire range of human function including those people with special needs, it makes tremendous economic sense to adapt existing products, services, activities and the built environment to accommodate as many people as possible. The best way to design a universal access tourism value chain is to ensure it can meet the needs of a UA traveller – because then it can essentially meet the needs of everyone. Design with the person or end user in mind. A fellow UA traveller suggested we

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should weigh up the millions of dollars invested in developing resorts, with beautiful swimming pools and beach equipment, paddle boats and jet ski’s yet these choose to not spend a little extra for a slope into the pool or a beach wheelchair. What if, instead of having steps in an airport, rather have travellators that take people up or down a level. Consider how this simple, widely-used design could improve access at shopping centres. This would be accommodating a much larger group of people, including people that can’t walk


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long distances, people with children, the elderly and the disabled. I’m sure mothers trying to get toddlers out of a car seat into a stroller would appreciate wider parking. We should utilise technology more so travellers can access information, this would serve travellers with sight limitations as well as foreign language and deaf travellers. I’m surprised that hotels in a small geographical area don’t share an accessible vehicle. We so easily embrace restaurants with play areas or casinos with child care facilities – and in fact, these products and services all originate from universal design thinking, conceived with the end user in mind. Why is it so difficult to embrace designing for limited function? Considering the staggering purchasing power available in this sector, it simply does not make sense. If each component of the value chain was made accessible in the same way, the value chain would become robust, sustainably and highly competitive. In essence, it would make South Africa a highly desirable tourist destination. But before we finally convince you, let us take a look at what is happening around the world.

How countries are changing the tourism value chain.

A number of countries and regions are collaborating to reconceptualise, redesign and market tourism products and services in a more inclusive manner. They have the conviction that the UA travel market is important, they have studied and know the market and have embraced it. Let me introduce two particular initiatives. Project STRING sees six countries and 12 partners collaborating to create and market nine accessible itineraries in Italy, Spain and Bulgaria. Each of the three areas offers three different thematic itineraries which bear in

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mind the local characteristics and accessible attractions in each location. There are, for example, tours of historic monuments, itineraries focused on religious interest, itineraries of gastronomy and wine-tasting, the arts, shopping and entertainment, and more. The whole value chain is designed with the UA tourist in mind. The Access for All project, led by VisitEngland, is developing and will promote seven high quality accessible tourism itineraries. It will increase opportunities for people with access needs to take short breaks during their activities, giving them confidence in the accessibility of tourism products and services. The awareness of accessible destinations will be increased as a result, thereby improving perceptions of a more accessible England and Europe. What should we be doing in our country and region?

Conclusion

As South Africans, we have much to be proud of. Our history has shown the world that we could take a country ruled by the harshest socio-political divisions and reinvent it to be inclusive and diverse – a country for everyone. That ability to shift our thinking and to embrace our differences is already in our national genes and is reflected in our socio-political and economic systems. Designing for universal access is simply a part of that. With the knowledge of the tremendous potential that tourism holds to boost South Africa’s economy, and an appropriate awareness of what needs to be done to accommodate the UA tourist, we have the opportunity to offer international travellers world-class experiences. All it takes is the same level of commitment that we have already applied to making South Africa a better country for all. Why not include all who visit her, too?

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MOZAMBIQUE HAS NEVER BEEN CLOSER WITH 69 WEEKLY FLIGHTS Pemba

Nampula Tete Beira Vilankulos Inhambane JOANESBURGO

/voelamm Go to www.lam.co.mz or consult your travel agent LAM Johannesburg Tel.: +27 11 622 4889/ 616 2649/ 622 7357 E-mail: reservations@airmozambique.co.za

Maputo


AVIATION IN SUPPORT OF SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Braam Hechter


AVIATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY

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hundering Jets� is not something that one will expect when visiting smaller airfields around South Africa. In fact you would be lucky to find any aerial activity in the rural areas. The airfields are mostly there in name, but are used for driver training or are in the process of becoming a storage area. South Africa has, however, a very active aviation community. There are approximately 12 000 aircraft registered and these are active in both the commercial and recreational arenas. Their usage ranges from just flying out for a breakfast, to fully chartered airlines flying specific routes. This can be supplemented with privately chartered aircraft flying to lesser visited towns where break-away weekends are catered for. Aircraft normally used for these types of excursions can range from the 6-seater Cessna 206, used for transporting a family, the Cessna Caravan, carrying up to nine passengers or larger aircraft carrying larger groups of people. In order to target these varying group sizes that are willing or able to cover flight costs to visit a town or tourist area, the basic required infrastructure for safe operations needs to be in place. Having an airstrip close to your area could significantly expand marketing opportunities to attract additional highend tourists that have not been included before. These same tourists will need a place to stay, a place to eat and would likely be interested in various other activities while travelling to your town. It is therefore in the interest of local tourism economies to have well maintained airfields. While I was visiting many of the smaller towns over the past few

A Harvard aircraft at the Alldays Fly-Inn

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years, it became apparent that the majority of airfields are not maintained or supported and that tourism budgets are allocated and applied elsewhere. In many cases, there is also uncertainty regarding ownership of the airfield. Ownership of airfields typically range from being a local municipal, regional or provincial government asset to being privately owned. The lack of long-term lease agreements or clear contracts also play havoc in the system, as it becomes difficult to pin down the lessee. This in turn makes it difficult to understand the roles and responsibilities of various parties e.g. who are responsible for mowing the grass and maintaining the runway?

Requirements

Airfields are costly to maintain, which is the main reason for their natural decline. In order to make airfields commercially viable, entities need to be identified or established to take ownership of local airfields. One way of doing this is to set up satellite flight schools and maintenance facilities linked to larger schools in greater metropolitan areas. With the increased traffic to the airfield, other services are also enhanced, for example higher usage of accommodation, higher thoroughfare of people and additional buying power. The cost of maintaining an averaged sized airfield such as, for example Kroonstad is costing in the region of half a million Rand per year. A smaller airfield such as Parys in the Free State costs approximately R 350 000 per year to maintain. This is mostly the cost of maintain the basic infrastructure, the upkeep of the


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runway and the mowing of the grass on the airfield. Some of the costs are recovered with landing fees and having events, such as airshows, on the airfields. Take a look at Beaufort West. This was a commercial airport that was not sustainable with normal passenger transport. Me. Bambie Heiberg bought the facility and with the assistance of investors has been able to tar the runway. The location of the runway is also out of town and noise does not play a role. A flight school has been established and the airfield is becoming a self sustaining entity which is creating jobs and enticing international tourists. There is a snowball effect and the Hangars being built at the Douglas Airfield

Intercity airport in Caracas, Venezuel community benefits from the increased activities. The entity managing the airfield should take cognisance of the requirements for insurance. Many visiting aircraft may have a requirement for the airfield to be registered – refer to the ”Oversight” section below - before being covered for operations to and from a specific airfield.

Business Opportunities

Having a useable airfield that is well maintained can become an economic hub, and presents the following opportunities:

• Easy access for emergency services and a medevac / airlift capability; • Access for high-end tourists with time / travel constraints; • Development and expansion of local economy; • Additional income stream with fly-inns and air shows spaced throughout a year; • Possible development of aviation related industries, e.g. rapid transportation of specialized goods as well as local tour operator services.

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User Requirements From a user’s perspective, the basic requirements for an airstrip include: • The airfield must be safe and well maintained; • The runway edges should be marked with white markers; • There must be a serviceable windsock to indicate wind direction; • Aviation fuel should be available; • Basic amenities such as water and toilets should be available; • There should be a form of security to safeguard property; • A contact number to speak to somebody regarding the real-time weather as well as the condition of the runway; • Hangarage is expensive but would be a bonus to safeguard the assets.

Oversight

The South African Civil Aviation Authority (SACAA) regulates and oversees local aviation. www.caa.co.za. The detail requirements for various types of airfields are

AVIATION FOR SUSTAINABILITY

listed or the Airports Section at the SACAA can be contacted directly. The Recreational Aviation Administration of South Africa has been mandated by the SACAA to oversee and manage recreational flying activities. These include Fly-Inns and Air shows. Their web address is www.raasa.co.za. Air shows in South Africa are supported by Airshow South Africa. Their web address is www. airshowsa.org.za. On this site, you will find all the dates and places of shows taking place. This well-oiled organization will also be able to assist with planning and supporting aerial activities. The location of various airfields in South Africa can be found using a search engine. I normally use www.pilotspost. com/fil0. This is an informal site populated and updated by pilots using the various airfields. The Information Centre of your town should ensure that the information regarding the airfield is updated and that a contact number is supplied for enquiries. Pilots need to make decisions regarding the safety of their passengers and aircraft before committing to a flight.

A Varieze aircraft at the Secunda Airshow

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SPOILT

FOR CHOICE

WORK

PLAY

STAY

DINE

RELAX

EXPERIENCE

INDABA HOTEL, SPA & CONFERENCE CENTRE - YOUR AFRICAN DESTINATION IN JOHANNESBURG Just north of the fast paced business world of Sandton lies the 258 bedroom Indaba Hotel, Spa & Conference Centre. It is a compelling blend of business-like efficiency and relaxed country atmosphere within close proximity of the International Airport making the Indaba perfect for groups and leisure travellers. The hotel features 24 multi-purpose conference venues ranging from Executive Boardrooms to large Banquet Venues seating up to 500 people. Boasting 2 world class restaurants and the renowned MOWANA Spa, the Indaba Hotel is sure to meet your business and leisure requirements.

T: +27 11 840 6600 W: www.indabahotel.co.za E: indaba@indabahotel.co.za


Just north of the fast paced business world of Sandton lies the 258 bedroom Indaba Hotel, Spa & Conference Centre, nestled beneath the vista of the magnificent Magaliesberg Mountains. It is a compelling blend of business-like convenience and efficiency, with a relaxed and warm country atmosphere.

home, you will be treated to excellent service and serene surroundings during PROFILE your stay.

Coupled with easy and convenient access to all main highways, O.R. Tambo International Airport and a mere 15 km from Lanseria International Airport, the hotel features an impressive selection of some 24 multi purpose conference venues that can accommodate up to 2 000 delegates in total, with banqueting facilities for up to 500 guests.

INDABA HOTEL, SPA & CONFERENCE CENTRE

Indaba Hotel as a Conference Ve Accommodation

With two restaurants on property, there is no need to leave the comfort of the hotel to enjoy world class cuisine. Our 300 seater Chief’s Boma Restaurant caters for all tastes with over 120 African inspired dishes ranging from North African Moroccan cuisine to Koeksisters and Melktert from the cape - and with a ‘Shisa Nyama’ grill boasting a variety of game meats, everyone is sure to find their favourite.

We look forward to welcoming you

Coupled with easy and convenient access to all main high O.R. Tambo International Airport and a mere 15km from La Well known for the lavish full South African Breakfast Buffet, the Epsom International Airport. Indaba Hotel in features anwith impressive se Designed keeping the cou Bistro allows you to dine in style with seasonal dishes prepared by our ofthesome 24 air-conditioned venues that can accommodat talented team of Chefs which will delight even most demanding style character of the hotel, each gourmet’s exacting standards. A traditional Carvery Lunch with Live Music 2 000 delegates in total, 258 withen-suite, banqueting facilities for up to can be enjoyed every Sunday. air-conditioned bedr 500 people. offer luxury accommodation with For the ultimate pamper, Mowana Spa is set in the tranquil bushveld gardens of the Indaba Hotel - a wellness sanctuary which will revive modern facilities. Your home awa your senses, rejuvenate your body and soothe your soul. Mowana Spa, which takes its name from the With majestic a Baobab Tree of the art 200 seater Auditorium, a Business and state home, you will be treated to exce of African Lore and Legend, offers wellness journeys based on the Indaba Hotel is flexible enough to recognised healing energy of Tribal Massagesco-ordination in keeping with the spiritcentre, the service and serene surroundings d of the “Tree of Life”. satisfy every need on every youroccasion. stay.

We look forward to welcoming you

Just north of art thefacilities fast paced business world en-suite, air-conditioned offer luxury State of the encapsulate in aofpicturesque setting make bedrooms the Indaba Hotel a firm fa Sandton lies theand 258specifically bedroom Indaba accommodation withConference modern facilities. Your in South Africa those Hotel, looking for a Johannesburg Venue or a loc Spa and Conference Centre. Nestled beneath

home away from home, you will be treated

Indaba Hotel

Indaba offers specialized conference facilities on request Connections as well the vistaHotel of the magnificent Magaliesberg to excellent service like andISDN serene surroundings to all conference delegates and in house guests. Mountains., it ‘s a compelling blend of during your stay. with easy cos Our award winning conference, meeting and banqueting facilitiesCoupled are recognized as and being business-like convenience and efficiency, O.R. Tambo International A comprehensive on the African Continent. with a relaxed and warm country atmosphere. Guest Facilities International Airport. Indab Coupled with easy and convenient access to The Indaba not only represents the24place where of some air-conditioned all main highways, O.R. Tambo International you will lay your head2 at night, our hotel is 000 delegates in total, w people. Airport and a mere 15 km from Lanseria equipped with exciting500 guest facilities. Spend

International Airport, the hotel features an the afternoon next to the outdoor rim-flow a state of of the art 200 impressive selection of some 24 multi purpose swimming pool. Revel inWith the abundance flora co-ordination centre, conference venues that can accommodate up and bird life on a scenic walk, sweat it out in the the I need on ever to 2 000 delegates, with banqueting facilities gym or enjoy dining atsatisfy one of every our sumptuous Restaurants or bars. for up to 500 guests. Our 300 seater StateChief’s of the art facilities encapsulate in a picturesque setting South Africa and specifically those looking for a Johannesb Boma Restaurant caters for all in tastes with over 120 African inspired dishes - and with a Indaba Hotel as a Conference Venue Indaba Hotel offers conference facilities on ‘Shisa Nyama’ grill boasting a variety of game With a specialized state of the art 200-seater auditorium, a requ to all conference delegates andco-ordination in house guests. meats, there is no need to leave the comfort Business and Travel centre, the Our award winning conference, meeting and banqueting fa of the hotel to enjoy world class cuisine. The Indaba Hotel is flexible enough to satisfy every comprehensive on the African Continent. Epsom Bistro allows you to dine in style with need on every occasion. State of the art facilities seasonal dishes prepared by our talented team encapsulated in a picturesque setting make the of chefs. A traditional Carvery Lunch with Live Indaba Hotel a firm favourite amongst those Music can be enjoyed every Sunday. For the planning events in South Africa and specifically ultimate pamper, Mowana Spa is set in the those looking for a Johannesburg Conference tranquil bushveld gardens of the Indaba Hotel Venue or a location for their corporate event. - a wellness sanctuary which offers wellness Indaba Hotel offers specialized conference journeys based on the recognised healing facilities on request like ISDN Connections as energy of Tribal Massages in keeping with the well as extensive Wi-Fi that is complimentary to spirit of the “Tree of Life”. all conference delegates and in house guests. Our award winning conference, meeting and Accommodation banqueting facilities are recognized as being Designed in keeping with the country style some of the best and most comprehensive on character of the hotel, each of our 258 the African Continent. THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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ENTREPRENEUR SINCE CHILDHOOD John Goosen


ENTREPRENEUR SINCE CHILDHOOD

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oday, many parents share this sentiment: “I am worried about my children – what are they going to do to earn an income – where are they going to work? How are they going to live – there is no work.” - Anonymous Blogger. The answer lies in your children’s ability to become successful entrepreneurs. The first step in the march to becoming a successful entrepreneur should start at the tender age of 3 years. Does this surprise you? This process should continue to the age of 18 years, when the learner normally completes his formal schooling. I am of the opinion that this age group is lacking and should receive far more exposure to the world of business. This article takes a brief look at how we aim to achieve this, followed by some insights into how we aim to achieve this in the Tourism Industry.

Exposing 3 – 18 Year olds to the world of business

For this reason I have created a full-time blog under the domain name www. OppiBlog.co.za. Upon entering the blog you are absorbed into a world of innovation, creativity, skills and passion as we explore and experience the joy of lives being touched and positively transformed. What a blessing to be part of a solution to the challenges facing our planet. OppiBlog. co.za is divided into various categories. Kids and Teens are catered for in specific age groups. Parents and formal educators, being crucial role-players in the education and development of children throughout their school careers, also receive priority attention. I believe that children and teenagers between 3-18 years should gain insight and an understanding of the world of

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entrepreneurship, enterprise development and the advantages to all of it. This fact is clear in research done on the same topic by Jayawarna et al. I am frequently asked why children at three years of age should form part of this extensive drive to promote the necessity of enterprise development as a solution to global unemployment. We could add the reduction of poverty, offering better living conditions, quality of life and bringing dignity to many millions of people as further outcomes to this drive. Keep in mind that kids aged 3-4 years speak between 250-500 words while they are able to answer elementary questions and fantasize very creatively. They begin to master the world of counting, while many of them are able to solve elementary problems. We are well aware that at this stage their imaginations are without boundaries. I detect the first characteristics and skills associated with an emerging entrepreneur. Young people should be given the opportunity to develop ideas, discuss it with their parents and teachers, be innovative as well as creative. They should be coached to distinguish between right and wrong, consider various options whilst making meaningful decisions. For this they need our support. We often underestimate the importance of developing ideas. It could have the potential to impact our world for the better. To this end OppiBlog is a channel through which ideas, planning, skills and solutions will be communicated, stimulating further communication. We must make an effort to help young people discover their potential. Let’s have a look at what we have available to start off with. A quick glance reveals time, energy, passion, a desire to be acknowledged and


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to be successful. Add to that the desire to become wealthy by using specific strengths, talents and attitude and we are well on our way. Impact and suggestions of how to utilize these assets, will be posted on OppiBlog. We need to offer them the opportunity to understand that life has real meaning, that they can enter and enjoy a bright future. Entrepreneurship is our vehicle to achieve just that. Young people will find that our Blog offers a spectrum of suggestions, information, skills and “how to.” Some examples are listed below: • Start and run a successful business • Determine the value of a business • Create your own wealth • Understand what a franchise is all about • Explain why the market economy is important • Become financially literate and so much more.

The Tourism Industry

The Tourism Industry presents multiple opportunities for entrepreneurs to establish very successful businesses in various categories. The UN World Tourism Organization clearly states in their publication UNWTO Tourism Highlights 2014 Edition: “An ever increasing number of destinations worldwide have opened up and invested into tourism, turning tourism into a key driver of socio-economic progress through export revenues, the creation of jobs and enterprises and infrastructure development.” To embrace this, The Tourism industry is in great need of innovation ideas and entrepreneurial development. The challenge to come up with very creative ideas which can be developed into sustainable small businesses, could be kids

ENTREPRENEUR SINCE CHILDHOOD

and teens. Posts covering entrepreneurship, enterprise development and all the skills to make a success of your tourism related business will be running wild. In order to achieve this, however, our kids and teens need to be exposed to innovative and brilliant ideas about becoming successful and wealthy entrepreneurs while learning to also focus on their environment. We should talk and discuss ways and means to positively change the environment in which we operate.

Just a sneak peep.

• How to surround yourself with successful entrepreneurs. Let them be part of your business team, or let them operate in an advisory capacity; • Overcome your fear of failure; • Communicating with our kids and teens, how to become and stay motivated, gain self confidence and improve your self-esteem. Learn about body-language and the impact it has on your business relationships and the way you project yourself towards customers or clients; • Discover how to gain financial intelligence; • How to move out of your comfort zone with confidence and face new challenges boldly. OppiBlog is there for all to use it’s information. We will bring together the Private and Public Sector, successful entrepreneurs, whether big or small, kids, teens, parents, educators, communities as well as countries from all over the globe. Let us all get involved and start doing. Let us use our innovative minds and entrepreneurial skills to realize a vision and make our world a better place for all.

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PROFILE

GARDENS FOR THE NATION:

SERVING AND SUPPORTING SOUTH AFRICA’S SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT FOR 20 YEARS Introduction South Africa celebrated 20 years of democracy in 2014. In addition, the South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI) celebrated its 10th anniversary in 2014, having been established through the proclamation of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act: No 10 (NEMBA) in 2004. In 2004, SANBI’s predecessor, the National Botanical Institute (NBI), established in 1989, published The Greening of a Nation: 1994 – 2004 to celebrate the first 10 years of freedom in South Africa. Ten years on, this publication tells the story of South Africa’s national botanical gardens and their contributions to the country’s social and economic development over the past 20 years, from 1994 to 2014. SANBI is the only institution in South Africa mandated through NEMBA to establish, manage, maintain and develop national botanical gardens in the country. Over the past 20 years, SANBI has adopted the broad international definition of botanical gardens: ‘institutions holding documented collections of living plants for the purposes of scientific research, conservation, display and education’to guide its work and development. More specifically, South Africa’s national botanical gardens are classified as ‘conservation gardens’, which are botanical gardens which manage areas

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of natural vegetation in addition to their cultivated collections, with the exception of the Hantam National Botanical Garden in the Northern Cape, which is classified as a ‘natural or wild garden’, conserving a large area of natural vegetation representative of the globally unique bulb diversity of the Bokkeveld Plateau and succulent vegetation representative of the Succulent Karoo Biome. In 1994 SANBI managed a network of eight national botanical gardens spread across five of South Africa’s nine provinces. Today, SANBI manages ten national botanical gardens in seven provinces, covering an area of over 7,500 ha and representing 25 of South Africa’s 440 vegetation types, having established the Hantam National Botanical Garden, in Nieuwoudtville, Northern Cape, in 2008, and the Kwelera National Botanical Garden, in partnership with the Eastern Cape Parks and Tourism Agency (ECPTA), established north of East London in the Eastern Cape Province in 2014. SANBI is also in the process of establishing a new national botanical garden in the Limpopo Province, scheduled for proclamation in 2015. South Africa’s national botanical gardens (as SANBI’s public face, and through which the majority of South Africans know about the organisation), which are in the business of ‘recreational conservation’, are dynamic places, vibrant, alive, opportunistic, ever-changing and adjusting to the needs, demands and trends in society, representing and remaining relevant to South Africa’s diverse landscapes and cultures. At all times, however, as sensitive natural heritage destinations, they must be nurtured, cared for, avoid crass commercialisation and observe adequate restraint and dignity. South Africa’s national botanical gardens combined have hosted 22,799,557 visitors in the past 20 years. Of these visitors, 13.68 million (60%) were visitors to SANBI’s flagship garden, Kirstenbosch, which celebrated its 100th anniversary in 2013.


Kirstenbosch NBG Tree Canopy Walkway picture courtesy of Adam Harrower


MEGA EVENTS FOR SUSTAINABLE TOURISM

Janet Landey


MEGA EVENTS

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ention the 2010 World Cup Soccer to a South African and the pride, prestige, euphoria and sense of belonging well up all over again. We can hear the glorious ‘Wave the Flag’, we’re transported back to the stadium, that sea of gold as South Africans proudly wore the Bafana supporter shirts. Flags waved, vuvuzela’s buzzed (albeit controversially), works of art adorned the faces of excited fans, makara pas spread messages of pride. Yes, this was our time, the World Cup belonged to us. The hosting of the 2010 FIFA World Cup tournament acted as a catalyst for expanding our infrastructure base, skills development, employment creation and economic growth. Finance Minister, Pravin Gordon noted three key points that could be adopted by government: “Firstly, complex challenges should be disaggregated into a number of clearly defined undertakings with budgets and cash flow. Secondly, using clearly defined projects, we need to develop a ‘roles and responsibility matrix’ that indicates which organisation does what work, and by when. Thirdly, the World Cup had an immovable deadline that all parties had to work towards and therefore an overall programme with individual project schedules, targets and deadlines was prepared. This kept the overall project tight with little room to manoeuvre. However, the most important legacy of the 2010 FIFA World Cup was the renewed confidence in ourselves as a nation that the hosting of the tournament has brought about”. The 2010 World Cup event served as a catalyst for the development of many ambitious public projects in South Africa. Mega events, by way of their size of significance, are those that yield extraordinarily high levels of tourism, media coverage, prestige or economic impact for the host community, venue or organization.

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(Getz, 2007) The hosting of mega events can play a significant role in local development – even a small music festival can have ‘mega’ impacts on a small town in terms of tourism, economic benefits or disruption. Hosted well, events can inspire local socioeconomic development, infrastructure, and accelerators for change. Events create opportunities for short, medium and long term investment as well as expansion in the event value chain. So, what are the links between event hosting and job creation? Overall the observation is that the critical contribution to local economic development emerges because events grow the capacity of local economies, expand their customer base, investors, range of markets, and trigger new sectors to grow or emerge. The knowledge, skills, abilities and resources required to organise an event are distinctly different from those required to deliver lasting legacy benefits. Wellplanned, well prepared and well produced sustainable events have the capabilities to significantly increase the socio-economic

Volunteers at the ICC – Cricket World Cup in South Africa


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and environmental health and wealth of local communities. The exciting challenge as we develop tourism routes like the N12 Treasure route is to ensure that events and the event value chain are specifically designed to engage and empower local communities, minimise leakage and maximise the multiplier effect. The benefits lie not only in the actual event, but opportunities before, during and after the event through Skills Development, Socio-Economic Development, Enterprise Development, Supplier Development and Preferential Procurement. The amended B-BBEE codes create an ideal platform for government, business and communities to work together using events as programmes that can build capacity in sustainable project management – showcasing innovation and making social and economic inclusion a possibility for historically disadvantaged individuals and communities. A key element in the amended B-BBEE codes is the introduction of “Empowering Suppliers” with one of the options being Skills Transfer – “at least spend 12 days per annum of productivity deployed in assisting black Exempted MicroEnterprises (EME’s) and Qualifying Small Enterprises (QSE’s) beneficiaries to increase their operation or financial capacities”. This presents a great opportunity for the industry to transfer skills and make a difference in the lives of many. The opportunities around the N12 Treasure Route and other tourism routes are substantial and events create unique opportunities to tell and share our stories and develop a range of souvenirs and collectables. We need to create and showcase event spaces that are ready to welcome domestic, continental and international visitors. We then need to share and sell the unique experiences. To reiterate, the key is ensuring that every aspect of the planning, preparation

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and production of each event is focused on short, medium and long term investment. The difference between project and event management is simply the design aspect. The development of the EMBOK – Event Management Body of Knowledge - was one of the first steps in the path to professionalism for the event industry. EMBOK provides a practical application of how events can create workplace experience and opportunities for Small and Medium Enterprises as well as co-operatives that can build capacity through events and the event value chain. All projects and events require a range of administrative enterprises to deal with the proper allocation, direction and control of the resources and event. This creates the opportunity to build capacity in a ‘safe’ environment in the fields of Financial, Human Resources, Information, Procurement, Systems, Stakeholder and Time Management. For Example: • Marketing enterprises address the functions that facilitate business development, cultivate economic and political support and shape the image and value of the project. This helps with building capacity in the fields of marketing plans, marketing materials such as printed materials, flyers, media kits, merchandising, collectable souvenirs, promotions, public relations, sales and sponsorship. • Operations focus on the people, products and services that are brought together on-site to produce the event project. These include attendees, participants, communications, infrastructure, logistics, technical and site management. All of these present great opportunities for the development of small enterprises that can work together to deliver the final product and the unforgettable experience.

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The Kimberley Club Boutique Hotel The Kimberley Club offers 21 en-suite bedrooms tastefully decorated to recreate the ambience of a bygone era. Facilities include all the mod cons one would expect of a four-star boutique hotel. The Club boasts a members’ bar, a lounge and dominoes room, an à la carte restaurant, a ladies’ bar, three dining facilities, a reading room and a billiards room. It is the ideal venue for functions, weddings and conferences.

Tel: 053 832 4224 | Fax: 053 832 4226 | 72 Du Toitspan Road, Kimberley info@kimberleyclub.co.za | www.kimberleyclub.co.za


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• Risk aspects are common to all businesses – compliance, decision, emergency, health and safety, insurance, legal and security – creating opportunities for the formation of support services for small enterprises. The space occupied by the Design aspect of events is cross-cutting: • Content design has never been more important – skills development is a key focus for advancing Africa and the incorporation of the principles and dynamics of adult learning through the selection of appropriate topics, formats, presenters and events to achieve the communication objectives and educational obligations of the projects is critical. • Entertainment, Décor, Food and Beverage, Production, Theme Development and Programme Design bring together the activities, elements, exhibits and amenities making up the event experience. This is job creation, learning happens and people are having fun. Furthermore events provide opportunities for workplace experience, capacity and competency building. There are direct and recurrent indirect impacts and benefits of events. Event tourism can contribute substantially to social and economic inclusion that we aspire to. South Africa has so much to share. In African Life Coping Skills, Ubuntu (the Zulu word meaning ‘humanness’) is discussed in the context of its relationship to ancient African values, life coping skills and the practical outcomes that emerge when these skills are applied. These human-based life

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coping skills of Africa are ready to be shared with the world. As Steve Biko (1970:46) declared: “The great powers of the world may have done wonders in giving the world an industrial and military look, but the great still has to come from Africa - giving the world a more human face” A key distinguishing factor in different event strategies appears to be the locus of control. Research shows that leading countries in the development of event strategies are characterised by government support for the development of events; event strategies linked into the national tourism strategy as a key objective, as well as regional and city level event strategies that contribute and continuously refer to the national event strategy. The National Department of Tourism (NDT), as strategic leader of tourism development in South Africa sees the N12 Treasure Route (N12 TR) as an ideal partner to pioneer tourism growth in rural areas to achieve government’s strategic goals of tourism-led job creation, transformation and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth. The N12 TR spans more than 1300 km from the Garden Route in George, via Kimberly, past Johannesburg and on to eMalahleni. It passes through six provinces and 38 towns. Alan Roxton-Wiggill, CEO of the N12 Treasure Route, says that there are literally thousands of unique and wonderful tourism attractions on the N12 which are mostly unknown. As government, business, and communities work together, what a great opportunity for collaborative success. One of the key strategies for local economic development and community capacity building includes the launch of a number of annual mega events. Plans for these events will be unveiled over the next 12 months. See you on the N12!

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THE DIAMOND FIELDS AWAIT YOU‌ Canteen Kopje Overlooking Barkly West is a small, unassuming kopje (hill) covered in thorn trees and cactus. This is the site where the first alluvial diamonds diggings in South Africa took place in 1869, sparking the diamond rush that came to define the region. The excavations revealed that Canteen Kopje was hiding more than just precious stones, and a wealth of archaeological artefacts have been found over the years. The artefacts have been traced back to the Stone Age and include stone tools and weapons dating back more than a million years.

Nooitgedacht Glacial Pavements These sleek black rocks are hidden in the bush alongside the Vaal River, 8 km from Barkly West. The fascinating slabs of rock were forged 250 million years ago in an ice age when freezing glaciers spread over ancient rock formed by the Ventersdorp lava. The glacier and rocky debris created claw-like scratches across the surface of the rock. The San made use of the unusual rock formations as canvases for their etchings around 1500 years ago.

the only breeding area for the species in the country Kamfers Dam has become a massively important ecological area and tourist attraction.

Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre Visitors to Wildebeest Kuil Rock Art Centre will experience an intriguing film on rock art before venturing on a guided walk to the sacred hill to see the ancient etchings, which include animals, celestial designs and mystical human figures. The centre also showcases a collection of contemporary San Crafts, artwork and prints on sale. This contemporary art has been exhibited nationally and internationally and displays how the deeply spiritual people are continuing their ancient artistic traditions by exploring new mediums.

Kamfers Dam Kamfers Dam is famous among birdwatchers for its huge population of Lesser Flamingos. The wetland is home to over 200 species of birds and a national heritage site. The flamingos flock to the dam to feed on the naturallyoccurring algae and to breed on the artificial S-shaped island in the middle of the dam. As

Frances Baard District Municipality Tel: 053 838 0911 Fax: 053 861 1538 E-mail: frances.baard@fbdm.co.za www.visitdiamondfields.co.za


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References • • • • • • • •

www.mediaclubsouthafrica.com/sport/1885-sa-driven-by-world-cup-momentum#ixzz3UoUl45VK GETZ, D. (2007) Event Studies. Theory, research and policy for planned events.1st Ed. Oxford : Elsivier – Butterworth-Heinemann. p.25 OECD LEED Programme - Local Development Benefits from Staging Global Events:Achieving the Local Development Legacy from 2012 www.embok.org, www.juliasilvers.com Ubuntu – African Life Coping Skills – Dr Johann Broodryk www.topkinisis.com/conference/CCEAM/.../BROODRYK%20Johann.pd (O’Toole, 2010) http://repository.up.ac.za/bitstream/handle/2263/32348/Kruger_ Along_2013.pdf?sequence=1 Alan Roxton-Wiggill – CEO N12 Treasure Route – Press Release Nov 21 2014

Alan Roxton-Wiggill (standing), CEO of the N12 TRA with Tim Scholtz (left) and Louis Nel (right) of the STPP

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SANPARKS PROGRAMMES EMPOWERS SMMES

Patrick Marsh


SANPARK EMPOWERS SMMES

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outh African National Parks (SANParks) is one of the organisations in South Africa that is mandated to implement the Extended Public Works Programme (EPWP). Individual EPWPs are funded by the Department of Environmental Affairs Natural Resource Management - and Social Responsibility Programmes. Currently, EPWP projects that are being implemented in Table Mountain National Park are : • Working for Water – Commenced under SANParks BSP from 2004 to date. Main deliverable is clearing of Invasive Alien Plant Species through labour intensive methods. • Working for the Coast – Commenced under SANParks BSP from 2008 to date. Main deliverables related to Beach rehabilitation and clean-ups, maintenance of recreational sites and Coastal Monitoring. • Working for Ecosystems – Commenced under SANParks BSP from 2013 to date. Main deliverables linked to Rehabilitation of degraded land, removal of old and defunct buildings and Fence maintenance. • Environmental Monitors – Commenced in 2012 to date. Main deliverables linked to support to SANParks Conservation Management. The main focus of EPWP is to provide poverty and income relief through temporary work for the unemployed to carry out socially useful activities. Within SANParks, the programme plays a major role in terms of the social investment into neighbouring communities to national parks, while at the same time addressing some core biodiversity management and strategic infrastructure development objectives for the entity. The development of SMME’s is core to the SANParks EPWP programme.

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All the contractors employed for the implementation of the various projects are from local communities. The development of contractors are addressed by assisting them to become independent companies that comply with all required legislation, have a bookkeeping system, exposure to tender for work and skills that can be used when projects end.  

Case Study of Christine Mdunyelwa

Christine Mdunyelwa originates from the Eastern Cape. Growing up in the Rural Village of Cala (approximately 50km from Queenstown) she knew from an early age what hard work meant and that one day she wanted to provide for her family the best she could. Being the youngest child in a family of 5 she was always aware of just how difficult it is to earn a living. Today, at the age of 43 Christine lives in the community of Masiphumelele in the Southern Peninsula. She is married and raising 2 boys.


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In 2005 she started working as a Contractor in the Working for Water Project. At the time she was unemployed and had no stable income, no vehicle, no experience and no equipment. The daily wage at that time was R39.00 per day. Christine rented a vehicle and trailer to be able to transport her team and the equipment provided through Working for Water. During the start-up period she received the necessary training giving her skills to manage her business. With her newly acquired skills Christine realised that it would be financially more lucrative to purchase a vehicle than to rent and started saving up for this purpose. She continued to rent the vehicle for approximately 11 months; during this time she saved up all the income to be able to purchase a vehicle of her own. Going into her first year following her appointment as a Contractor she was able to purchase her first vehicle, a Nissan 1 Tonner with Canopy and tow bar. She also bought her own trailer. With the skills Christine now possessed she decided to start tendering for other contracts outside the Working for Water Project. She was successful in tendering for Firebreaks for the City of Cape Town and rented another vehicle and trailer for this second team. She was able to purchase the necessary tools and equipment (brush

SANPARK EMPOWERS SMMES

cutters and chainsaws) with the income earned through Working for Water. For the next year Christine employed an Alien Clearing team and the Firebreak team and managed to save enough to now buy a second vehicle, a Ford Courier 4x4 and another trailer. By this time she became known for the quality of work provided and was able to tender for all sorts of work throughout the Cape Peninsula. She even managed to do some private work for various individuals. One of her teams did some gabion structures to prevent soil erosion. At the moment Christine is employing 3 teams; one Working for Water Alien Clearing Team working in the Southern Section of Table Mountain National Park. A firebreak team working for City of Cape Town and also sometimes for the Simons Town Section of Table Mountain National Park and she employs a Gabion Structure team that works for City of Cape Town. Christine was able to buy all her equipment (including 10 brush cutters and 2 chainsaws) cash. Her most recent and perhaps biggest asset acquired was a 22 seater Iveco bus. She was able to purchase this bus cash. Now she transports her Alien Clearing team (sometimes a group of 20 beneficiaries) with the bus. Being one of the Contractor Representatives for the Working for Water TMNP Southern Section Christine is involved in getting information from the PAC meetings back to the other contractors. She is a leader in her own right and recognised as a community leader in her area. In her own words Christine said the following “Without the help of Working for Water I would not have been able to get where I am today; the key is planning, focus, management and hard work�. With this positive attitude one can only imagine she will go from strength to strength and grow her business even further.

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PROFILE

MANAGING INCIDENTS – ARE YOU ACTING RESPONSIBLY? BY ANDRÉ DU TOIT How you manage incidents is critical for those involved and indeed the sustainability of your business. However, statistics gathered during over 5000 cases show that the capacity of tourism businesses to deal with critical incidents and accompanying exposures has proven to be a gap of its own. Most rely on staff and assistance companies to manage their incidents and evacuations. Whilst these are often carried out with acceptable outcomes, the minefield of potential exposures that have been escaped en route is terrifying. There’s a lot more to it and right now, whether you have realized it or not - you are exposed! It is important to understand that we cannot predict when and where an incident will happen, who will be there to deal with it and what the outcome will be. Every incident is different in its nature, location, type of injury, number of people, available resources etc., so it is important to manage according to principles and not predetermined protocols. Don’t use checklists, use resources. Don’t decide on your emergency response plan ahead of time; decide what you need to do when you understand what is happening. Treat each risk as unique. It’s okay to be abstract and vague before an incident and SPECIFIC during one. How we think is the crux of everything. We are all guilty of hindsight bias as it reassures us of our actions. Even if something does go wrong we tend to believe it could’ve been worse if we hadn’t done XYZ. As a result we seldom go back and analyze incidents, we just forge ahead and lose out on a precious learning opportunity. It is a fact that staff are prone to positive bias because of their role within the staff-guide-guest relationship and as a result tend to choose the more positive option when given two.

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Anchoring (i.e. once a decision has been made it is very difficult to change course) just makes this worse, regardless of the information received. If further symptoms made themselves apparent they may be ignored because the decision to see the incident through had already been made. Another two characteristics common to individuals in tourism are: • Premature closure – jumping to conclusions. • Action orientation – tending to take practical action instead of waiting for someone else to do or provide instruction. Sometimes this can be dangerous as the skills and expertise in incident management may not be present. Hospitality staff have a very powerful action orientation and are some of the worst at premature closure. Both can have detrimental effects in the course of incident management. These are the honest truths and the fact is that… • It is a rare person who is genuinely calm whilst responding to a threatening incident • It is a rare person who consistently makes good decisions under those circumstance • Nobody is naturally equipped to function in a multitask, multivariable rapidly changing stressful environment and those that choose to, are even rarer. • Everybody has limits. Exceed those and performance drops. Physiological and mathematical fact. DON’T EXPECT your PEOPLE to manage incidents – EVER – they need HELP from EXPERTS. This is what is required in order to manage an incident and ensure the best outcome. • Gather information about the incident – get accurate data/ask the right questions


PROFILE • On-site first aid • Managing the scene – for both staff and guests • Managing the media – limiting reputational damage with accurate reporting • Consulting with doctors • Communicating with all stakeholders • Activating and coordinating appropriate assistance e.g. Dispatching ambulance – ground or air • Arranging guarantees of payment and insurance • Preparing for Hospitalization • Post-operative care • Managing potential litigation or claims Find me someone who can do this all and manage your business and I will arrange the necessary spandex with cape and undies on the outside because they will be worthy of superhero status! With all due respect to your operations and teams on the ground and considering the way we think and act under stressful circumstance, I don’t believe many have the capacity to deal with the scenario (or would want to) when in actual fact they should be focusing on the remaining guests and leaving this up to a network of trained professionals. • The Types of Incidents: • Emergency medical incidents • Personal injuries/fatalities • Accidents (motor vehicle, quad-bikes, boating etc.) • Assaults and Robberies • Natural disasters (Flood, fire etc.) Core services to subscribe to: • Telemedical consultations • Incident management plan creation • Remote management of rescue and medical staff • Medical evacuations • Post traumatic risk assessments • Media management • Legal liability management

So …Why do You need Incident Management Services? • Because people’s lives and wellbeing depend on the right decisions being made • Because it is better to professionalize your management of critical incidents. • Because dealing with emergencies situations is beyond your scope of work • Because your business and its reputation is at stake • Because you are seriously exposed to liability when critical incident occur • Because the cost of liability can now easily exceed R100 million • Because it’s not worth taking the chance As you will appreciate, it is not one specific action that will mitigate risk but rather a combination that will reduce your exposure at the end of the day. There are a network of experts and specialists out there that you can team up with to better manage your risk and provide you with peace of mind. Use them. SATIB24 Crisis Call is one such critical incident management service with an insurance component ONLY available to SATIB clients. It forms an integral part of our African presence and can be coupled with medical emergency evacuation policies that can cover guests, staff or both. Critical incidents impose a threat of loss - something bad happening that may cost life, limb, and money, loss of reputation, property or asset damage or business interruption. Management of these situations by our specialist team minimises the loss and maximises the outcome. It is about taking the “luck factor” out of incidents and doing the things that stack the odds in your favour. The field of litigation has changed somewhat with liability becoming an onerous threat to all markets and for this reason we offer additional support by taking the load off your shoulders by managing the incidents and controlling exposure. It is your responsibility and this will ultimately ensure the sustainability of your business. THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

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SURVIVING IN THE WILD Herman Roos

S

urvival has grabbed the attention of adventurers and outdoor enthusiasts all over the world. With the appearance of numerous television programs and books on the subject of survival in the last decade, an ember of adventure has been stirred inside thousands of people to re-kindle their sense of adventure and to go out and see if they have what it takes to survive.


PROFILE

The Two Oceans Aquarium aims to raise awareness of environmental issues and promote conservation. This is in line with its mission to inspire action for the future well-being of the oceans.“We cannot do this effectively or with credibility if our own operations impact negatively on the environment. To this end we have introduced a wide range of initiatives to reduce our consumption of resources and to minimise our waste by reducing, recycling and re-using materials,” said Dr Patrick Garratt, the Aquarium’s CEO. The Aquarium is currently one of only three Platinum-status facilities in the Western Cape. Platinum status is the highest level of achievement in the Heritage Environmental Rating Programme, an internationally recognised eco-labelling programme. The Aquarium was selected as one of six renewable energy demonstration sites in South Africa and installed solar panels and a wind turbine with funding from the German government. With thanks to funding from Project 90 by 2030 the Aquarium designed and built a wave turbine in the Ocean Basket Kelp Forest Exhibit. In 2011 the Aquarium’s on-site restaurant, Shoreline Café, became the first MSC (Marine

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Stewardship Council) Chain of Custody certified restaurant in Africa. Dr Garratt said: “As an aquarium we have a special responsibility to help raise awareness of the state of the world’s fish stocks, and what choices people can make to help ensure the health of the world’s oceans. Our own credibility depends, as well, upon the sustainability of our sourcing policies and the MSC ecolabel helps make our commitment visible to our visitors. By choosing sustainable seafood, individuals can make their own contribution to the future of the marine world.” Thanks to the initiative of one of its staff members, the Aquarium has banned the single-use plastic bag from its premises and now employs a dedicated environmental campaigner to drive the Rethink the Bag campaign as well as campaigns against balloons, bottled water, cigarette butts, nooses and straws. By leading by example the Aquarium aims to educate and inspire its visitors on what they can do at home to reduce their ecological footprint. For more information, contact us on +27 (0) 21 418 3823, email aquarium@aquarium.co.za or visit www.aquarium.co.za


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In my time surviving in the Arctic and other extreme environments, I have come to realize how fragile we really are as human beings. We are not the fastest or the strongest out there and that makes us vulnerable. But I have also discovered a unique strength that we as human beings have and that is resilience. You have what it takes, you just don’t know it yet ! The special forces instructors have a saying that if you feel that you are going to die, you can push yourself twice as far before you will actually die. The human spirit and will to survive is a very powerful force. By attending a survival course and learning skills you will build confidence and tackle obstacles with ease that would have been a mountain of a challenge for someone without training. The more you spend time training in any discipline, the more your body and mind will adapt and you will condition yourself into a positive and confident way of thinking and performing tasks. I teach survival courses to equip normal people with skills and knowledge to be able to explore the outdoors safely. With modern 4x4 vehicles and shops full of equipment it has become easier to reach and explore wilderness locations that were previously reserved for only the most daring adventurers. With this new found freedom the need arises for aspiring adventurers to acquire survival skills to enable them to enjoy the outdoors and also to ensure a safe return. There are so many unknown factors in the outdoors that can easily turn an adventure trip into a nightmare. These include tragedies, natural forces, weather changes, injuries or simply getting lost. When you are in a survival situation in a remote location you will need skills that can save your life. As a human being you will need water, food, shelter and fire to stay

SURVIVING IN THE WILD

alive. In addition you will need rescue skills to get rescued and you will need first aid skills in the event of an injury to yourself or someone in your group. I teach the fundamentals of survival based on a simple rule of three’s. A human can survive for three minutes without oxygen, three hours in extreme temperatures, three days without water and three weeks without food. This rule can be used to determine your priorities of survival. In a survival situation you will need three essential items of equipment. A knife, a firesteel and a water bottle. Packing a small compact survival kit that can be carried on your person can mean the difference between making it out alive or not. The items in your survival kit should be chosen carefully and should include means to provide for your basic needs of survival. To survive in the wild takes guts, determination and a combination of skills and knowledge. These skills can only be obtained by completing a survival course where you will learn and experience the fundamentals of survival. There is no substitute for experience and completing a survival course will prepare you for when things go wrong. Realizing that you can very easily be a victim of a disaster or become stuck in a remote location, hopefully places you a cut above the rest of modern ignorant society that lives an artificially safe day to day existence. Life can and will throw unexpected challenges our way and when it happens you will be prepared to deal with it. The outdoors is an incredible place and should be explored. I encourage you to book a survival course with me and then get out there and experience the freedom of discovering new places. I have trained hundreds of students over the years and believe me when I say, “you have what it takes! See you around the campfire”.

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FORFOR MORE INFORMATION, CALL MORE INFORMATION, CALL

Westpoint Executive Suites,

Westpoint Executive Suites, We welcome+27you to (0)11(0)11 783 783 1150, westpoint@executivesuites.co.za, +27 1150, westpoint@executivesuites.co.za, www.executivesuites.co.za. www.executivesuites.co.za. enjoy hospitality at its Times Square Executive Suites, Times Square Executive Suites, best, and leave with +27 +27 (0)11(0)11 883 883 2325, bookings@timessquare.co.za, 2325, bookings@timessquare.co.za, memories to cherish, www.timessquare.co.za www.timessquare.co.za at Times Square Executive Suites.

both business and leisure traveller with comfortable, affordable andthe memorable experience. Each of theaelegantly furnished able and memorable Each of theThe elegantly furnished apartments is ideal for experience. business executives. apartments are apartments ideal for business executives. The apartments equipped withis32-inch LCD TVs, multi-channel cable TV, as wellare as equipped with 32-inch LCD TVs, multi-channel cable TV, as well as DVD players. A fully equipped kitchen is available for self-catering DVD players.aAwashing fully equipped kitchen available for self-catering and includes machine and istumble dryer. The apartand includes a washing machine and tumble dryer. The apartments boast stunning views of the city and all have balconies. ments boast viewsfloating of the city andequipped all have balconies. Guests can enjoystunning the spacious garden with gas Guests can enjoy as thewell spacious floating garden equipped barbecue facilities, as a heated swimming pool. with gas barbecue facilities, as well as a heated swimming pool. TIMES SQUARE EXECUTIVE SUITES SQUARE EXECUTIVE SUITES OnTIMES offer are one-bedroom luxury suites and one-bedroom execuOn offer are one-bedroom luxury suites and one-bedroom executive suites, elegantly furnished with a fully kitted kitchen, washtive suites, elegantly furnished with a fully kitted kitchen, washing machine and tumble dryer. The bedrooms are well-appointed ing machine and tumble dryer. The bedrooms are well-appointed with crisp white towels, and en-suite bathrooms with a bath or a with crisp white towels, and en-suite bathrooms with a bath or a shower. Guests can enjoy entertaining in their own private suite, shower. Guests can enjoy entertaining in their own private suite, where they have access to the Hotel Package DSTV/Cable on an where they have access to the Hotel Package DSTV/Cable on an LCD television. The LCD television. Thelounge loungeleads leadsout outtotoaabalcony balcony with with lovely lovely views. Time Square offers views. Time Square offerssecure securebasement basementparking parkingand andwireless wireless Internet access. These suites are spaciously designed Internet access. These suites are spaciously designedto toaccomaccommodate shortoror long-term modate shortlong-termstays. stays.Guests Guestshave haveaccess accessto toaa sparsparkling swimming pool with kling swimming pool withbraai braaifacilities. facilities.24-hour 24-hoursecurity, security,CCTV CCTV cameras and armed response cameras and armed responseare areprovided. provided.

EXECUTIVE SUITES GROUP Following the latest trend in Luxury Accommodation, Executive Suites Group offers guests a Luxury Lifestyle experience in the heart of Sandton’s CBD. With two 4-star Self-Catering Hotels on offer, Westpoint Executive Suites and Times Square Executive Suites, guests have access to a selection of suites to best suit their accommodation aspirations. From two Bedroom Suites with en-suite bathrooms, to one bedroom studios and apartments, Executive Suites Group promises to cater for your specific requirements every time. Westpoint Executive Suites is complimented by its gorgeous Urban Floating Garden, home to a sparkling 25m heated swimming pool and barbequing facilities. This tranquil garden is ideal for a perfect South African evening under the infamous African sunset; a rarity in the bustling city of Sandton. Guests can also stay active in the on-site gym, and unpack with ease whilst the efficient housekeeping staff

take care of laundry and ironing free of charge. Times Square Executive Suites, situated just 1km from its sister establishment, is home to an array of sophisticated one bedroom studios and apartments that accommodate the onthe-go traveller and couple. Its trendy interiors and prime location make it a favourite amongst Sandtoneers who frequent Nelson Mandela Square, Sandton City and the Sandton Gautrain Station. Guests will enjoy unlimited access to Wi-Fi and a bouquet of Satellite television channels in the comfort of their suites. At Executive Suites Group, we believe that hospitality is not about where a guest departs from, but rather the memories and experiences that they depart with. Thus, Executive suites Group strives to provide the best of both worlds: The conveniences of a hotel accompanied by the comforts of home. Guests are encouraged to return to their very own “home away from home” with each and every stay they book.


It’s in this City where leisure and corporate travellers alike can find solace in Times Square Executive Suites. Our prime location in Sandton offers convenience for those wishing to travel with the Gautrain, shop at Sandton City, Dine at Nelson Mandela Square or visit the Sandton Convention Centre, all located within walking distance of the property. With 32 spaciously furnished apartment suites, Our 4 star Hotel offers you the best of both worlds; providing the comforts of home and the conveniences of a hotel, at a fraction of the price. Our Luxury Studios & Apartments include the following: • Personal balcony • King/ Queen size bed/ two three quarter beds • Linen, pillows, duvets, toweling • Washing machine and tumble dryer • Fridge/ freezer, microwave, stove and oven • Coffee perculator and toaster • Place setting for two / four people, including crockery, cutlery, glasses and utensils • Executive study and en-suite bathroom • Large 42 inch LCD TV • Satellite TV reception, DVD /CD player • Personal digital safe • Hair dryer • Air conditioning / Heater and electrical blanket (upon request) A team of World Class staff ensure that suites are perfectly maintained to exceed every expectation, and monitored 24 hours, whilst guests enjoy all that Sandton has to offer. The ladies at Times Square Executive Suites are available for housekeeping daily (including Saturdays & Sundays), and will gladly do your laundry and ironing free of charge as part of our service excellence attitude. Stretching out under the warmth of South African Sunshine, the outdoor swimming pool provides a communal space for guests to relax and rejuvenate their senses. Complimentary Wi-Fi ensures that all guests remain connected and up to speed on the latest news and trends.

Visit

www.executivesuitesgroup.co.za OR phone +27(0)11 783 1150 TODAY to book your Executive Lifestyle Experience.


A PERSPECTIVE ON QUALITY ASSURANCE

Niki Glen and Caroline Ungersbock


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QUALITY ASSURANCE

With so many people now travelling, both within their own country and often far beyond, the idea has arisen of devising one single scheme which could be applied to hotel accommodation throughout the world for the benefit of both consumers (tourists) and travel professionals (tour operators and travel agents, in particular) UNWTO

Discussions on the topic of grading are met with mixed perspective. In South Africa, I have found that on the one hand, many businesses say that they will always grade, as it is a critical indicator to their market of what to expect, and it ensures that the business is always able to meet customer expectation. On the other hand, businesses are vehemently opposed to grading as they feel the system is unfair, costly and erodes an accommodation establishment’s ability to provide a “unique” experience. According the UNWTO, the debate on finding a single framework that is recognised by travellers worldwide, remains a challenge, as it has to weigh up the needs to regulatory entities, tourism businesses, the travel trade and the traveller, i.e.: • Regulators need to protect industries and provide guidance to consumers; • Businesses should be able to compete freely, and therefore generally resist more compliance than is already required; • For the travel trade, standards present reduced risks in matching the needs of travellers with that of destinations; • Travellers need assurance that they will get what they pay for, especially in unknown / lesser known tourism destinations.

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The UNWTO study done in 2003/2004 in partnership with International Hotel and Restaurant Association, analysed existing systems across 32 countries. Only 5 countries did not have a system and many countries had decentralised systems, for example each province in that country could create their own guidelines. It is commendable that so many countries already have systems in place and countries agreed that the need for quality systems exist to 1) manage customer expectation, 2) market destinations better and 3) have a mechanism to monitor development in the tourism sector. According the Denmark, their system “is easily understood as all criteria are measurable; grading meets the expectations of the customers, and the independent classification board ensures the credibility of the scheme.” Most other countries shared similar sentiments. Coming back therefore to the opposers to grading in South Africa: it is undeniably important that we have a quality assurance system, as this will not only ensure that we remain competitive, but that we are able to ensure that we always meet the need of tourists visiting our destinations. The issue of whether the system should exist in the first place should be put behind us. The question that accommodation establishment owners/managers really be asking is: “why am I in tourism in the first place?” Is it to provide accommodation, is it to make money, is to provide an experience, or is it to ensure continued return business from very satisfied customers? The truth is, whatever the reasons for why you are in tourism, a quality assurance system is not there to hamper you, but to help you in achieving your goals. Tourists travel for many reasons, whether it be for business, adventure, discovering new


18

places, sport, relaxation, cultural learning… the list goes on. You are free to provide them with all of the above. But what customers expect, no matter what their reasons are for travelling is 1) a clean place to stay, 2) service when it is needed, 3) value for money 4) a sense of security. Whether travellers make their own travel arrangements or whether it is a travel agent doing it, they have certain expectations, which will be satisfied adequately to make a booking and which should be met upon arrival. Failing that, they will lose confidence in the establishment, the town, the region and the country, especially if there are numerous such failures. South Africa has a system, which is deemed to one of the best in the world – the Tourism Grading Council’s star grading. It is not mandatory to adopt the star grading and it is designed to meet all the criteria mentioned above for the industry. In the rest of the world, there are few tourism destinations which do not have mandatory

QUALITY ASSURANCE

systems. But how many tourists or travel agents for example, would actually have the time, capacity and inclination to go and study what each country’s quality assurance standards promises? Would a system based on international norms and standards not be easier to communicate to travellers? So the next issue that we need to address is to make our system work better for the tourism sector as a whole. While it is not mandatory from a regulatory point of view, it should be mandatory from a business owner’s point of view. If the implementation of the system is problematic, e.g. if it’s costly or if you feel it does not represent your business, then raise this through your local association, through a collective voice and when you are given opportunities to do so. It is time for us as a tourism industry and as a country to move forward and solve the problems, not throw solutions out of the window! Quality assurance is after all, part of Sustainable Tourism for Businesses, Communities and Industries.

References •

UNWTO The Joint WTO & IH&RA study on Hotel Classification, April 2004, http://www.e-unwto.org/content/k532g6/fulltext.pdf

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In the heart of Big 5 malaria-free Madikwe Game Reserve on the northern border of South Africa, lies Tau Game Lodge, an oasis of tranquillity and hospitality, where you can relax, revitalise and rejuvenate your body, mind and soul in uniquely African surroundings. Overlooking a natural waterhole, the thirty luxury chalets offer excellent views of animals approaching from the opposite bank all day long. Add to that the luxurious Tau Spa Oasis and a fully equipped Convention Centre, as well as the Tau Cubz Club, and you have the ideal corporate or family destination in the serenity of the untouched bush and wildlife. Madikwe Game Reserve has the distinction of being one of the few game reserves in the world to be proclaimed purely on the grounds of being the most appropriate and sustainable land use for an area, run as a joint venture between the state, the private sector and local communities, thus involving the local communities directly in the benefits of wildlife tourism and the protection of the natural environment. Madikwe boasts year-round game viewing and is one of the few reserves where one can view a wide variety of fauna from the Big 5 to Spotted and Brown Hyena, the endangered Wild Dog, not to mention a bird population of over 250 different species.

In addition university sponsorships are granted to students who show academic potential. After the great success of the Tau Tree Fund, started to allow visitors our guests an opportunity to plant protected tree species and to learn a little about the trees that they are planting, thereby playing an active role in conservation through the re-establishment of trees into the lodge area, where they were originally cleared out many years ago to build the lodge, we have begun greening the local village of Supingstad one tree at a time. Through actively recycling glass, cans and plastic, Tau is also able to support the Mmasebudule Recycling Company, and as an extension of the Mmasebedule community project the task of supplying trees to lodges in the Madikwe Reserve was initiated, to teach the community to collect seeds and germinate indigenous trees for resale both within and outside of the game reserve. This project has already gained significant success, which has obtained valuable funds to be used within the greater scheme of the waste management solution, not to mention the benefit of planting over 300 trees in otherwise barren areas of the game reserve.

At the current rate of poaching, fuelled mainly by a magnanimous demand from the Asian traditional medicine trade, the Rhino’s situation is deemed to be dire. Over the past 6 years rhino poaching statistics have worsened dramatically, to the point of a current crisis situation. In October 2012 Tau was one of the 1st companies to support the Rhinose Foundation by making the Rhinose available in our curio shop and by fitting each of our game drive vehicles with its own Rhinose. In 2013 Tau has chosen to express how committed we are to continued support of this worthy cause by becoming a formal sponsor of the Rhinose project. In line with the philosophy behind the creation of the Madikwe Reserve, The Tau Foundation was set up with an eye to funding community development. This social responsibility programme is delivering tangible results, including the fencing and safe keeping of the school properties and upgrading of the school sports fields and play grounds, as well as the renovation of school buildings and facilities, setting up of vegetable gardens, computer rooms, creating a borehole and installing guttering and water tanks and toilets with running water at the high school.

For any additional information, please feel free to contact us on +27 11 466 8715 or taugame@mweb.co.za Alternatively, please view our website: www.taugamelodge.co.za


INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY Aquila Private Game Reserve Arusha International Conference Centre Blue Train Cape Nature City of Cape Town Tourism City of Joburg

PAGE 108 32-33 48 39-41 4 IFC; 1

Climate Neutral Group

26

Elephant Coast Tourism

84

Fedhasa Frances Baard Future Light Gauteng Tourism Gautrain Management Agency

6; 50-51 144 96 24-25 112-113

Go Limpopo

168

Indaba Hotel

130-131

Kenneth Kaunda District Municipality

104-105

Kimberley Club and Boutique Hotel

142

THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

165


Forest Camp

Accomodation and full catering for 22 people at the foot of the Drakensberg ● Birding and guided game walks

Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre ● Daily tours Successful breeding programmes Management course for game farming ●

Forest CampMountain View & Tracking courses

Forest Camp

Accomodation and ● full catering for 22 people the foot of the Drakensberg ● Accomodation Accomodation andat full catering for 22 people ● Birding and guided game walks ● ●

for 28-plus peopl of the Drakensberg at the foot● Accomodation ● B&B, full catering Birding and guided game walks ● Guided bird and wildlife bush walks, night drives

Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre

Wildlife Rehabilitation Centre

● Daily tours Successful breeding programmes Management course for game farming

Ya Mati

● 5x luxurious chalets on the bank of the Blyde River. Daily tours ● ● Self-catering or full catering ● Wedding facilities for up to 120 people For more info and bookings: ● Successful breeding programmes ● Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre: ● ● Management Mountain View & Tracking courses course for game farming ●

Fo Tel: +27 (0)15 795-5236 ı Fax: +27 (0)15 795-53 Mountain view: Cell: 082 907 5983 Forest Mountain View & Tracking Ya courses Mati: Cell: 072 191 2024Tel: / 084 511(0)15 3000 +27 ● Accomodation for 28-plus peopl ● Fax: +27 (0)12 348 4926 Moun Ya Mati ● E-mail: moholo@worldonline.co.za ● B&B, full catering

Accomodation for 28-plus peopl ● B&B, full catering Guided bird and wildlife bush walks, night drives ●

● ●

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Ya Mati: C night bush walks, night drives drives www.moholoholo.co.z

Ya Mati

● ●

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Forest Camp & Rehabilitation Centre: Accomodation for 28-plus peopl ourses ses Mountain view: Cell: 082 907 5983 B&B, full catering Tel:Tel: +27 Tel: (0)15 +27 795-5236 (0)15 795-5236 ı Fax: +27 ı Fax: (0)15 +27 795-5333 (0)15 795-5333 +27 (0)15 795-5236 ı Fax: +27 (0)15 795-5333

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Ya Mati: Cell: 072 191 2024 / 084 511 3000

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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS COMPANY LAM

PAGE 122-123

Lion Park

110

Moholoholo

166

Mozambique Tourism National Cleaner Production Centre(NCPC) Ndege Marketing t/a Ngwenya Glass Nkambeni Safari Camp

120-121; 165 10 88-91 70

SANBI

136-137

SATIB

150-151; OBC

Soft Chemical Laboratories

1-2; 58-59

South African Tourism Association

22

South African Youth Travel Confederation

20

Sustainable Tourism Partnership Programme

12

Table Mountain

14-15

Tau Game Lodge

162-163

Times Square

156-157

Two Oceans Aquarium V&A Village & Life

154 169; IBC 128 THE TOURISM HANDBOOK

167


PROFILE

V&A WATERFRONT The V&A Waterfront is one of Africa’s most visited cultural and historical hubs. Set on the edge of a natural working harbour with the iconic Table Mountain as its backdrop, it offers local and international visitors a cosmopolitan mix of experiences ranging from tourism and leisure to retail shopping and exclusive entertainment. Its prime positioning boasts panoramic views of the ocean, city bowl and mountain peaks. Up to 100 000 people per day visit the V&A Waterfront during peak season. With 22 official historical landmarks, the V&A is also part of South Africa’s legacy. Jointly owned by Growthpoint Properties Limited and the Government Employees Pension Fund (GEPF), represented by the Public Investment Corporation Limited (PIC), the V&A Waterfront was developed in 1988 by the state owned transport corporation, Transnet Limited, while official commercial trading commenced in November 1990. Beyond its commercial interests the V&A Waterfront is committed to creating a unique urban space which adds value to the City of Cape Town through development that is both sustainable and green in design. CEO David Green sees the V&A Waterfront as “an extension of the city and a neighbourhood within the city”, with a vision to create “the most desirable place for Capetonians to live, work, shop, play, stay and eat at”. This vision is built on the commitment to ensure environmentally conscious and sustainable

practice, in all aspects of waterfront developments. Commitment to green development has won the V&A Waterfront a number of prestigious awards most notably for its Silo District development. The cutting-edge No. 1 Silo development has received the most acclaim, winning three awards at the South African Property Owners Association (SAPOA) Awards in June 2014 as well as being crowned Overall Winner. While its sister residential property No. 2 Silo was rated as the greenest and best place to live in South Africa. In 2013 No.1 Silo was awarded a 6 star Green Star SA rating for design by the Green Building Council of South Africa (GBCSA), making it the first building to receive this rating in the Western Cape and only the second in South Africa. A year later it achieved a 6 Star ‘As Built’ rating from the (GBCSA) for its impressive and environmentally-friendly construction. The GBCSA developed the Green Star rating system to provide an objective measurement for green buildings and to recognise and reward environmental leadership. The internationally recognised rating is awarded to buildings which not only incorporate sustainable principles in their design but can also offer proof that these design principles work in practice, long after construction is complete. Further contributing to their green credentials, the V&A Waterfront was upgraded to a gold level recipient of the Heritage Environmental Rating Programme, in 2012 and received the coveted Eskom ETA Award in the same year.


If you had one day of complete freedom The V&A Waterfront is waiting to welcome you. Come and join us when the early morning sun reflects goldenly on the water, the seagulls are grooming their feathers, the harbour starts stirring to commence business for the day. Be here when restaurants open their doors and tables are arranged on the quayside. Be here when fresh produce and local delicacies are arranged in glorious technicolour splendour. Come shop, come eat, come marvel at underwater creatures. Lick an ice-cream, sit on a bench, laugh at a seal, listen to the music floating on the sea breeze, soak up the sun. Watch when the sun goes down and the bright lights of party nights go on. It’s like a lifetime in one day – all in one place, all at the V&A Waterfront ~ keep discovering ~


Tourism Volume 3  
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