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The Green Building Handbook South Africa Volume 12 The Essential Guide

www.alive2green.com


The Green Building Handbook South Africa Volume 12 The Essential Guide EDITOR

SALES DIRECTOR

Llewellyn van Wyk

David Itzkin

assistant editor

project Manager

Shannon Manuel

Annie Pieters

CONTRIBUTORS Dirk Conradie , Llewellyn van Wyk, Stanley Lutchman, Jan-Hendrik Grobler, Chris Rust, Louiza Duncker, R Mokoena, A Rampsersad, Jeremy Gibberd, Ozumba, A.O.U

peer reviewers Emuze Fidelis, Jan Hugo, Nishani Harinarain, Vittoria Tramontin, Chris Amoah, Iruka Anugwo, Modupe Mewomo, Obinna Ozumba, Ferdinand Fester, Fabio Giucastro, Theodore Haupt, Cameron Ferriera, Naalamkai Ampofo-Anti, Chris Rust

ADVERTISING EXECUTIVES Louna Rae, Felicity Krige

MANAGING DIRECTOR Robert Arendse

FINANCIAL DIRECTOR Andrew Brading

EDITORial enquiries lvwyk@csir.co.za

LAYOUT & DESIGN Richard Smith

distribution manager Edward Macdonald

Client Liasion officer Linda Tom

PUBLISHER

www.alive2green.com

The Sustainability Series Of Handbooks

PHYSICAL ADDRESS: Alive2green Cape Media House 28 Main Road Rondebosch Cape Town South Africa 7700 TEL: 021 447 4733 SALES: 021 987 7616/3722 FAX: 086 6947443 Company Registration Number: 2006/206388/23 Vat Number: 4130252432

ISBN No: 978 0 620 45240 3. Volume 5 first Published February 2012. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any way or in any form without the prior written consent of the publisher. The opinions expressed herein are not necessarily those of the Publisher or the Editor. All editorial contributions are accepted on the understanding that the contributor either owns or has obtained all necessary copyrights and permissions.

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IMAGES AND DIAGRAMS: Space limitations and source format have a affected the size of certain published images and/or diagrams in this publication. For larger PDF versions of these images please contact the Publisher.

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INTERNATIONAL FRANCHISE ENQUIRIES info@alive2green.com PAPER

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www.sika.co.za


PEER REVIEW

PEER REVIEW

ALIVE2GREEN PEER REVIEW PROCESS

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Foreword:

SAIA President – Maryke Cronjé It has been my privilege to serve our membership as SAIA’s 66th president for the past year. As stated in the foreword to SAIA’s constitution, it is the institute’s mission to act as a collective voice serving the interest of its members in pursuit of excellence and responsible design. It aims to uphold the dignity of the architectural profession and contribute meaningfully to the enhancement of society and the environment. SAIA acknowledges the drive towards the goal of sustainability as a broad-based initiative and we are proud to endorse this, the 12th edition of the Green Building Handbook. I was asked recently whether I feel anxious about climate change. In my opinion we should all be anxious about climate change and the uncertainty about the future of humanity and of our planet. I was recently asked ‘What is the impact of architecture on society?’ Sir Norman Foster sums it up splendidly: ‘Architecture is an expression of values’. The relationship between architecture and society – and society and architecture – fluidly influence and correlate with one another. Architecture as a maker of place informs, reflects and moulds various tiers of society. With the intention of being a sustainable force within society, architecture should be generated holistically.

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As a framework the Circles of Sustainability as recognised by the United Nations, namely economic prosperity, cultural vitality, social equity and environmental sustainability, serve as a mode of reference in understanding an integrated approach to architecture’s role within society. It is the use of all four pillars collectively that produce responsive approaches and resiliency in the built environment. This being said, society’s role within the architectural realm is equally vital. Without the participation of society, architecture is unable to reflect or represent communities, cultures, histories and identities. A quote by Christopher Alexander from his acclaimed book, A Pattern Language, aids in understanding: ‘Towns and buildings will not be able to become alive, unless they are made by all the people in society, and unless these people share a common pattern, within which to make these buildings…’. The multi-faceted relationship between society and architecture is constantly exposed to change. It is the role of the architect to take upon himself this responsibility and to react to it accordingly. To conclude, I can only concur with past president Sindile Ngonyama who stated in a previous edition: ‘The Green Building Handbook series stands out as a trusted information source for all those inspired and striving towards sustainability in the built environment’.


Foreword:

CSIR – Dr. Bethuel Sehlapelo Executive Director Built Environment Unit

Infrastructure is essential for socio-economic growth to improve the quality of life of South Africa’s people. The CSIR uses science, engineering and technology to contribute to the development and maintenance of the country’s socio-economic infrastructure and through it, the transformation of human settlements. The main focus areas are the integration of data in decisionsupport systems for planning, operating and maintaining settlements, improving the efficiency of buildings, developing new building materials and construction methodologies, formulating design methods and maintenance procedures for road, port and railway infrastructure, and developing models and methods for more efficient public and freight transport. CSIR interventions in this domain also include the incubation of national capabilities to support service delivery in areas such as health, education and water treatment. Two capabilities that are set to add value to service delivery are a multi-sectoral decision-support centre and the development of earth observation technologies. The organisation has a sound track record in using its research and development capability to address issues related to the increasing strains resulting from urbanisation. In this handbook CSIR researchers are sharing the findings of their research work

in these fields. A particular focus is on the research work undertaken in support of the design and construction of a science centre for the Department of Science and Technology (DST) in Cofimvaba. The project was tasked with the development, piloting and demonstrating new technologies in building the centre in accordance with a Cabinet resolution of August 2013. While many of the passive design strategies employed in the project are well-known, the CSIR has used its modelling capabilities to measure the performance of these strategies and to apply the required interventions to optimise the performance of those elements. Examples featured in this handbook include solar protection, geothermal heat pumping, and solar chimneys. In addition, researchers have focused their attention on critical infrastructure services such as water and sanitation especially in the light of climate change. A broader sustainability assessment of South Africa’s infrastructure has also been done. Lastly, Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) offers a vast treasure trove of knowledge developed locally through generations of experimentation and experience. IKS has been tapped to contextualise the science centre within the socio-cultural community which it will serve. I trust that our readers will benefit from the research learnings contained in these chapters.

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Recent climate change reports, including the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC SR1.5) as well as the UNEP Emissions Gap Report of November 2018, indicate that countries are likely to miss their carbon emission targets, putting in jeopardy their ability to constrain global temperature rise to 1.5°C. As the UNEP report notes, “if the emissions gap is not closed by 2030, it is very plausible that the goal of well below 2°C temperature increase is also out of reach.” The UNEP report urges countries to strengthen the ambition of NDCs and scale up and increase

Llewellyn van Wyk Editor

effectiveness of domestic policy to achieve temperature goals of the Paris Agreement. The UNEP report notes that “accelerating innovation is a key component of any attempt to bridge the emissions gap.” To this end, the CSIR is, through its ongoing research work, pushing the innovation envelope with view to reducing the energy consumption of buildings during construction and operation. In 2017 funding was secured for the construction of a science centre in Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. This building offered the CSIR the expressed opportunity to explore the development, implementation and assessment of a number of passive design strategies and innovative building technologies (IBTs). Some of this work is presented

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EDITOR’S NOTE

in this edition of the Green Building Handbook. Research findings include the efficacy of geothermal heat pumping systems in South Africa, and the efficacy of solar chimneys for heating and cooling. Other passive design research examines the impact of solar protection on building comfort. The science centre design also offered an opportunity to examine the social dimension of sustainability, a component that is often overlooked. Given its location within the Eastern Cape research was undertaken to include Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) into the design of the interior architecture. Climate change will have significant impacts on water availability and quality in South Africa too: two chapters focus attention on building water resilient human settlements and the impact of climate change on sanitation. At a higher level the quality of infrastructure in South Africa continues to deteriorate and achieving sustainable infrastructure in the light of increasing demand is a key requirement for improving the quality of life of our people. A chapter is dedicated at exploring the sustainability requirements for infrastructure in South Africa. Lastly, it is time for me to say farewell and to pass on the editorship of this handbook: I am happy to announce that my colleague Peta de Jager, will take over the helm in the new year. I wish her every success in her future endeavours. It has been a pleasure and a privilege to be involved in the conceptualisation and development of the Handbook over the past 12 years, and for this I am very grateful to the publishers Alive2Green and the various staff members I have had the pleasure of working with. Thank you all.

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Contributors Dirk Conradie

Dirk is a senior researcher in CSIR Built Environment Unit. He originally trained and practised as an architect but later specialised in systems and software related to the built environment. He is currently part of a research group that focuses on predictive building performance analysis. He can also be viewed as one of the CAD pioneers in South Africa.

Llewellyn van Wyk

Llewellyn van Wyk graduated in 1980 from the University of Cape Town with a Bachelor of Architecture degree. He opened his practice in 1984 completing building projects throughout Southern Africa. He joined the CSIR in 2002 and is currently a Principal Researcher in the Built Environment Unit.

Chris Rust

Chris Rust holds a PhD in Civil Engineering from the University of the Witwatersrand and is currently the Strategic Innovation Manager at the CSIR Built Environment Unit. He is a registered professional civil engineer and has 35 years’ experience in research in infrastructure related topics.

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Louiza Duncker

Duncker is a principal researcher and an anthropologist. She has managed and led research in rural and urban areas on social and community dynamics and behavioural patterns through projects on gender issues, housing, sanitation and infrastructure technologies, empowerment of women, water conservation, and wildlife crime prevention in developing communities for sustainable development.

Jeremy Gibberd

Jeremy Gibberd is an Architect with interests in sustainability, inclusion, sustainable built environments, community and education buildings. He has developed a range of tools, guides and training for government, the private sector and the UN on urban sustainability, sustainable buildings, sustainable facilities management and sustainable materials.

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Photo: Georges De Kinder

A GREENER FUTURE IN OUR HANDS

Reynaers Campus Belgium | Architect: Jaspers Eyers Reynaers Aluminium systems used: Hi-Finity (minimalistic) and bespoke curtain walling

With over 50 years of experience worldwide Reynaers Aluminium offers practical and cost effective building solutions. Reynaers Aluminium … • Is GREEN committed – helping you achieve credits for LEED & BREEAM • Adheres to the highest international TECHNICAL STANDARDS • Offers you a 10 YEAR SYSTEM GUARANTEE • Can assist you with the DESIGN and TESTING of challenging FACADES

TO G E T H E R FO R B E T T E R

Call us to find out how we can assist you with your next design or bespoke project: www.reynaers.co.za | Werner Schulz | +27 82 807 1564

Affiliated member


CONTENT

contents Materials and technology section

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1.

Calculating solar protection for buildings in South Africa: A case study Dirk Conradie (CSIR)

28

2.

Cultural relevance in interior architecture: A case study Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

40

3.

Feasability study for a geotherman heating system: A case study Stanley Lutchman (CSIR), Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

48

4.

Evaluating the efficacy of solar chimneys for heating and cooling: A case study Jan-Hendrik Grobler (CSIR), Dirk Conradie (CSIR), Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

54

5.

South African infrastructure: Condition and future sustainability Chris Rust (CSIR), Louis Duncker (CSIR), R Mokoena, A Rampsersad

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6.

Developing a Framework for a Water Resilient Built Environment Jeremy Gibberd

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7.

Sanitation and climate change adaptation Louiza Duncker (CSIR)

86

8.

User experience of building performance factors in educational facilities Ozumba, A.O.U., Pillay, S., Van Ginkel, D., Ngubeni, S.

100

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Materials and Technologies Section

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Belgotex

90

Bergvik Flooring (Pty) Ltd

20-21

Caesarstone

16

DB Property Development Company

93

Den Braven SA (Pty) Ltd

18-19

Gull Management (Pty) Ltd Magnastruct

24

Isoboard (Pty) Ltd

22-23

Prosite Plan Africa (Pty) Ltd

26-27

Reynaers Aluminium SA (pty) Ltd

25

Sika South Africa

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Southern Africa Stainless Steel Development Association (SASSDA)

13-15


What would’ve made this timeless beauty just a little more beautiful?

In 1889, the Eiffel Tower cost $1 495 137.43 to build. Since then, this iconic landmark has been painted every 7 years, (a total of 18 times), using 60 tonnes of paint, every time, taking 25 painters up to 18 months to complete the job. What is clear is that if the Eiffel Tower had been made from stainless steel, the maintenance of this global symbol of engineering ingenuity would’ve been easier, more cost effective and made it even more staggeringly beautiful. Of course, in stainless steel, it would never have to be painted, but considering that stainless steel wasn’t even invented in 1889, we can forgive Gustave Eiffel this little oversight.

Stainless Steel. It’s Simply Brilliant. Call 011 883 0119 or visit www.sassda.co.za.


Stainless a no brainer for long term sustainabilty and reduced costs Stainless steel has traditionally been viewed as an expensive option for architectural applications but what many professionals and the public at large fail to realise, is that its long-term, environmentally friendly benefits offset its initial cost by a large margin. Unfortunately, the reality is that professionals i.e. Architects and Quantity Surveyors are driven by price and often choose mild steel given that it’s initially cheaper than stainless steel. However, what isn’t taken into account is that mild steel requires regular maintenance, like sanding, priming and painting. Therefore the initial cost of stainless steel versus mild steel cannot be compared when life cycle costing and environmental impact is taken into consideration. From a sustainability viewpoint a life cycle cost assessment is a very useful tool due to the fact that it assists project managers in making sustainable decisions by identifying and quantifying all costs, initial and ongoing, associated with a project or installation over a given period. By choosing stainless steel instead of mild steel, professionals are also specifying a material that is 100% recyclable without any loss in quality. These recyclable credentials stem from the fact that during production, the use of scrap metal is a normal part of the production process. In fact, 65% of all stainless steel is produced from recycled stainless steel. In addition, stainless steel is not coated with harmful materials and therefore doesn’t produce toxic run-off due to exposure to water and environmental corrosive elements. This means that even if stainless steel isn’t recycled and does find its way to a landfill or disposal site, it has no detrimental effect on the soil or groundwater. Mild steel, for example, will corrode due to environmental exposure and will need ongoing maintenance, with toxic coating and paints that eventually damage the environment. As a result, Sassda member and balustrade specialist Steel Studio highly recommends the specification of stainless steel Grades 304 for inland applications and Grades 316 for coastal environments

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WORLD CLASS WINNERS: SASSDA

for the manufacturing of balustrades, to prevent them from deteriorating and resulting in danger to those utilising the building. From a structural point of view it’s also important to take into account that with stainless steel’s noncorrosive properties, the structure doesn’t become weak (if maintained in the correct manner) in areas that could result in the failure of a key building elements like a balustrade system. In comparison, mild steel corrodes and if not maintained and repaired could result in weak spots that lead to the failure of a balustrade system. This is extremely concerning given that this type of structure is ultimately a safety element of a building and an accident could result in serious injury or even death. Often, however, architects who initially specify the balustrades on a project and quantity surveyors that appoint balustrade contractors on projects, don’t follow up on whether the balustrade is being maintained or not and are unaware of what the effects could be on a deteriorated mild steel balustrade system. Overall, stainless steel is the preferred material for green buildings throughout the world given that its impact on the environment is minimal when compared to other materials and its environmental impact reduces significantly as it is used and recycled. A huge difference can therefore be made by companies and individuals who are committed to the long-term sustainability and cost saving benefits of this ‘simply brilliant’ material by choosing stainless steel. For more information go to www.sassda.co.za or e-mail mankabe@sassda.co.za

This year’s Sassda Columbus Stainless Awards saw 189 entries from 53 companies resulting in a stellar list of more than 60 finalists resulting in a number of world-class entries. In the Building, Construction & Architecture Category, Antonini Darmon Architects was crowned winner for the CTLES Centre in France where it was responsible for; “creating modern, beautiful architectural signature, blending in with the environment, true to form and function, making dramatic use of reflectivity, demonstrating a complete understanding of stainless steel’s characteristics”. Runner Up ArgoWeld was recognised for designing an innovative and uncompromisingly brilliant spiral staircase, using stainless steel to create a fully functional and aesthetically pleasing masterpiece. In terms of the star performers in the Environmental Category these included winner Inox Systems and Easyflex - that were awarded top honours for reducing leakage in municipal water service pipes and domestic water systems in a waterscarce country, using corrugated stainless steel pipes to replace conventional materials and serve as an effective long-term solution. First runner up Hlakani Engineering Services which manufactured burners for Eskom was recognised for improving efficiency and lowering emissions, while second runner up Senior Flexonics SA that produced an Exhaust Gas Recirculation Cooler for automotive applications was seen as; “Significantly working towards reducing emissions into the air and reducing fuel consumption.”

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Cornelis River Dam

The Phumelela Local Municipality is currently experiencing severe water shortages and is considering options to ensure the provision of a sufficient and sustainable potable water system for the future. The final objective of this project is to implement a sustainable regional bulk water supply scheme in the Phumelela Local Municipal area, prioritizing Warden. The Cornelis River Dam, situated in the Free State between Johannesburg and Durban, 56 km North of Harrismith had undergone major refurbishment. The project commenced in June 2017 by contractors Raubex, and was scheduled for completion in May 2018. Sika’s reputable range of concrete repair and protection products were the top choice of specified products by project managers, Rudnat Projects CC. BHM readymix from Harrismith supplied all the concrete with our SikaPlast V220 and SikaPlast Stallion-2 admixtures. In order to grout the anchor rods into the rock, before pouring the concrete, to create the steps Intraplast-Z was used as a grout admixture that is designed to introduce micro bubbles into the grout mix, thereby creating wet volume expansion and to increase fluidity without segregation. As a curing agent to prevent premature water loss, Sika’s Antisol E was sprayed onto areas of mass concrete. Separol-GU, an oil based release agent, was used to provide easy release properties to the

formwork and permitting a high quality surface finish of the dam wall. Sika micro fibres were specified to be used in the spillway concrete, as well as in the concrete mix of the dam wall, to reduce any crack tendencies in early-age concrete. The concrete wall was repaired using Sika MonoTop-610 an easy to apply cementitious, polymer-modified, one-component slurry. This high quality primer provides excellent bond for Sika MonoTop-612 a high strength repair mortar containing silica fume and synthetic fibre reinforcement. Providing excellent slump resistance, it is particularly suitable for application on overhead and vertical surfaces. Sika Waterbar Type O-20 was centrally placed in all the expansion joints. Manufactured from virgin thermoplastic PVC for strength and flexibility and easy, on-site welding. Internationally tested Sika-Waterbars are used to seal construction and expansion joints in all water retaining structures. Used as admixtures for the structural concrete and blinding concrete, SikaPlast Stallion-2 and SikaPlast V220 were used, as multi-purpose water reducers and superplasticizers, utilizing Sika’s ‘ViscoCrete’ polycarboxylate polymer technology. It is expected that this project will be completed in 18 months. The aim of the project was to refurbish 5000m² of concrete however it is assumed that the area will increase on completion of the project.

Sika South Africa Nadine Slabbert • Durban, South Africa • +27 31 7926500 • slabbert.nadine@za.sika.com


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DEN BRAVEN SA

Seal it right first time – and seal it Green For decades now in Southern Africa DIY home enthusiasts, professional contractors and architects alike have been dedicated to using and specifying the reliable and effective Den Braven range of quality sealants and adhesives – designed for applications to suit every renovation and construction purpose for wet or dry environments, harsh external weatherproofing applications – as well as for effective fire-retardant application in commercial and home environments. Sustainability and the harmful effect of VOCs are top of mind in the built environment today and through research and technological advancement in hybrid technology, Den Braven has now modified and produced a range of new high performance sealants and adhesives. Hybrid sealants and adhesives have increased chemical resistance as well as high and instant tack properties. They also have better weathering characteristics than conventional polyurethane sealants and provide better adhesion, abrasion resistance and low temperature extrudability. Den Braven’s hybrid product range has a very low VOC content allowing for conformation to the Green Building Council of South Africa standards. Den Braven offers the full scope of comprehensive technical advice and assistance for its quality high performing products. Aluminium Window Specialists, in collaboration with Glass Specifics recently

adhered, with no mechanical support, nine mirrors each weighing a massive 39 kilograms at the Curro Woodhill College, using Den Braven’s unique Mirrorfix-MS. Den Braven was on site to advice and guide in the correct application of the MirrorfixMS. Den Braven recently hosted the facility management fraternity to hands-on demonstrations of their products for use in the maintenance of such facilities as shopping malls, office blocks and hotels, at their Johannesburg, Durban and Cape Town offices. The right choice of sealant or adhesive is essential, whether in the DIY environment, or the shop-fitting trade, commercial and industrial areas. Den Braven products were specified for iconic buildings such as Knightsbridge on Sloane Street, the Kusile and Medupi Power Stations; Standard Chartered bank in Ghana; Christiaan Barnard Memorial Hospital in Cape Town; the Hilton Hotel Durban; Menlyn Main Precinct in Pretoria; Learning Hub, Polofields Residential Estate in Gauteng.

A product workshop at Den Braven in Randburg

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THE COMPLETE THE THECOMPLETE COMPLETE BERGVIK SOLUTION BERGVIK BERGVIKSOLUTION SOLUTION

Bergvik’s African Footprint Bergvik’s Bergvik’s African African Footprint Footprint

ISO FLOOR & ISO COMPACT FLOOR: ISO ISO FLOOR FLOOR & ISO & ISO COMPACT COMPACT FLOOR: FLOOR:

Bergvik works in conjunction Features: with the client’s professional • Full stability from 200 - 2100mm finished floor height teams to provide an optimally Panel sizes from 315 - 1220x600mm Bergvik Bergvik works works in conjunction in conjunction •Features: Features: designed floor and supplies a heavy electrical equipment is supported directly by the rigid withwith the client’s the client’s professional professional •• All Full • Full stability stability fromfrom 200 200 - 2100mm - 2100mm finished finished floorfloor height height complete array of materials, self-supporting sub-structure teams teams to provide to provide an optimally an optimally • and Panel • Panel sizessizes fromfrom 315 315 - 1220x600mm - 1220x600mm including all raised floor • The rigid sub-structure provides full stability even if all panels designed designed floorfloor and and supplies supplies a a • All • heavy All heavy electrical electrical equipment equipment is supported is supported directly directly by the by rigid the rigid accessories. We will install the are removed. No other raised floor offers this added value complete complete arrayarray of materials, of materials, and and self-supporting self-supporting sub-structure sub-structure floor in accordance with the • Up to 1200mm between pedestals; maximum void space in the including including all raised all raised floorfloor • The • The rigidrigid sub-structure sub-structure provides provides full stability full stability eveneven if allifpanels all panels approved design and supply all under-floor plenum accessories. accessories. We will We install will install the the are removed. are removed. No other No other raised raised floorfloor offers offers this this added added valuevalue after-market requirements to the • Up to 25% more equipment on the same floor space floorfloor in accordance in accordance withwith the the • Up • to Up1200mm to 1200mm between between pedestals; pedestals; maximum maximum void void space space in the in the client, meaning there is one less year standard warranty – priceless approved approved design design and and supply supply all all• 5under-floor under-floor plenum plenum item you need to worry about. after-market after-market requirements requirements to the to the• Up • to Up25% to 25% moremore equipment equipment on the on same the same floorfloor space space client, client, meaning meaning therethere is one is one less less• 5• year 5 year standard standard warranty warranty – priceless – priceless Applications itemitem you need you need to worry to worry about. about. Control rooms | Switchgear rooms | MCC/Low/high voltage rooms | Transformer rooms | Energy centres | Substations | Data Halls / Server rooms / Network rooms | Battery rooms | Office space

Applications Applications

Control Control rooms rooms | Switchgear | Switchgear rooms rooms | MCC/Low/high | MCC/Low/high voltage voltage rooms rooms | Transformer | Transformer rooms rooms | Energy | Energy centres centres | Substations | Substations | Data | Data HallsHalls / Server / Server rooms rooms / Network / Network rooms rooms | Battery | Battery rooms rooms | Office | Office space space Granite | Alder | Oak

High quality floor panels with durable finish

HighHigh quality quality floorfloor panels panels withwith durable durable finish finish Granite Granite | Alder | Alder | Oak | Oak “Apart from the numerous advantages and cost savings the Iso Flex-Grid provides us, it’s also an esthetically good-looking product, coupled with Bergvik’s excellent design coordination and installation teams. This is a must for Teraco, being Africa’s largest Data Centre and Colocation company, serving a wide variety of esteemed international and domestic “Apart “Apart fromfrom the numerous the numerous advantages advantages and cost and savings cost savings the Iso theFlex-Grid Iso Flex-Grid provides provides us, it’s us,also it’s an alsoesthetically an esthetically good-looking good-looking clients. I can therefore highly recommend Bergvik’s Iso Flex-Grid Structural Ceiling System.“ product, product, coupled coupled with with Bergvik’s Bergvik’s excellent excellent design design coordination coordination and installation and installation teams. teams. This This is a must is a must for Teraco, for Teraco, beingbeing Gys Geyser - Teraco Data Environment, SA Africa’s Africa’s largest largest Data Data Centre Centre and Colocation and Colocation company, company, serving serving a wide a wide variety variety of esteemed of esteemed international international and domestic and domestic THE GREEN BUILDING HANDBOOK 202 14 clients. clients. I canI therefore can therefore highly highly recommend recommend Bergvik’s Bergvik’s Iso Flex-Grid Iso Flex-Grid Structural Structural Ceiling Ceiling System.“ System.“ Gys Geyser Gys Geyser - Teraco - Teraco DataData Environment, Environment, SA SA THE GREEN THE GREEN BUILDING BUILDING HANDBOOK HANDBOOK 202202


THE THE ISO ISO FLEX-GRID FLEX-GRID An engineered structural An engineered structural ceiling system that that ceiling system actsacts as both a dropped as both a dropped return air ceiling return air ceiling plenum and and a support plenum a support grid,grid, providing a cost providing a cost effective solution for use effective solution for use in Data Centres, clean in Data Centres, clean rooms, labs labs and and otherother rooms, environments. environments.

Features Features • Variable • Variable ceiling ceiling grid grid • Can • Can be adapted be adapted to your to your equipment equipment layout layout for optimal for optimal access access in allinaisles all aisles • With • With all the all equipment the equipment supported supported directly directly either either below below or above or above the the Iso Flex-Grid, Iso Flex-Grid, no struts no struts or other or other supports supports will need will need to penetrate to penetrate the the ceiling ceiling tiles,tiles, reducing reducing air leakage air leakage to a to minimum a minimum • With • With the M10 the M10 threaded threaded slot slot in the in grid the grid extrusion, extrusion, it is it easy is easy to add, to add, change, change, or remove or remove any installations, any installations, saving saving time,time, material material and and labour labour costscosts for the for life the of lifethe of system the system • Support • Support structure structure for hot/cold for hot/cold aisleaisle containments containments

Applications Applications Commercial Commercial spaces spaces | Hospitals | Hospitals | Clinics | Clinics | White | White Spaces Spaces / Data / Data HallsHalls / Server / Server Rooms Rooms / Network / Network Rooms Rooms | Control | Control Rooms Rooms | Security | Security Rooms Rooms

PointPoint loadload ratings ratings at L/250 at L/250 (span/250) (span/250) • 63kg • 63kg at the at center the center of a of 1200mm a 1200mm spanspan • 89kg • 89kg at 300mm at 300mm fromfrom a supported a supported connector connector • 300kg • 300kg and and moremore directly directly under under a supported a supported connector connector

“We “We are very are very impressed impressed by Bergvik by Bergvik as a as supplier a supplier of raised of raised flooring. flooring. CADCAD drawings drawings or Revit or Revit layout layout models, models, material material deliveries, deliveries, installations installations and and project project documentation documentation – everything – everything works works perfectly. perfectly. We also We also knowknow fromfrom experience experience that that Bergvik´s Bergvik´s high high quality quality products products last for lastmany for many yearsyears to come. to come. It’s aIt’s good a good investment investment to buy to raised buy raised floorsfloors fromfrom Bergvik.” Bergvik.” Caj Lundqvist Caj Lundqvist - Sydvatten, - Sydvatten, Sweden Sweden

STARLINE STARLINE TRACK TRACK BUSWAY BUSWAY Distributing Distributing Power. Power. Removing Removing Limitations. Limitations. WithWith Starline Starline Track Track Busway, Busway, easyeasy installation installation means means faster faster expansions expansions and and additions, additions, plusplus the lower the lower costcost of ownership. of ownership. Our Our flexible flexible and and scalable scalable busway busway system system allows allows you to yourelocate to relocate power power anywhere anywhere you need you need it, and it, and at anytime at anytime without without shutting shutting downdown power. power. By inserting By inserting the plug the plug headhead anywhere anywhere along along the busway the busway and and rotating rotating it 90itdegrees, 90 degrees, you get you aget constant, a constant, locked locked in, reliable in, reliable connection connection – eliminating – eliminating power power interruptions interruptions caused caused by overheating by overheating or loss or loss of connections. of connections.

Features Features • • • • •

Reduced • Reduced Facility Facility Construction Construction Costs Costs Faster • Faster Installation Installation Flexibility • Flexibility for the for Future the Future Scalable • Scalable and and customizable customizable lengths, lengths, sizessizes and and configurations configurations A •variety A variety of plug-in of plug-in unitsunits and and Starline’s Starline’s monitoring monitoring capabilities capabilities

Applications Applications DataData Centres Centres / Mission / Mission Critical Critical | Retail | Retail | Industrial | Industrial | Universities | Universities and and LabsLabs

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Calculating solar protection for buildings in South Africa: A Case Study Dirk Conradie (CSIR)

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1.0 Introduction

A bioclimatic analysis (Table 1) clearly indicates that solar protection is one of the most important passive design measure to reduce energy usage and to improve internal comfort. Passive solar buildings aim to maintain interior thermal comfort throughout the sun’s diurnal and annual cycles whilst reducing the requirement for active heating and cooling systems (Mazria, 1979: 28). There is a long history of methods to calculate the shading on buildings and a significant corpus of knowledge has been built up starting with purely graphical methods 66 years ago to recent parametric simulations with powerful energy simulation software using weather files (Richards, 1952: 10-12; Olgyay, 2015: 63-83; Mazria, 1979; Jakica, 2018). This article briefly discusses some of the shading calculation systems devised over the years. Different climate zones change the requirements of the size of horizontal overhangs on the northern façade (elevation dominated solar angles) and the periods when the eastern, western and southern facades (azimuth dominated solar angles) should be protected. An experimental research platform has been developed to support this investigation. This method enables the calculation of required shading angles where there is a balance between the hot periods (requiring cooling) and cool periods (requiring heating). Over and above the calculation of current solar angles this method also facilitates the calculation of the increase in overhang sizes that will be required with climate change such as with the expected A2 climate change scenario (business as usual scenario) for South Africa. A case study for Cofimvaba Science Centre (Eastern Cape) is used to describe


CHAPTER 1 and quantify how the different solar angles were derived. Cofimvaba currently falls in a Cfb (Temperate, Perennial Rainfall, Warm Summer) Köppen-Geiger climatic zone. The new experimental method recently developed by the author is able to analyse and quantify solar protection on building facades resulting in a rational balance between the hot and cold periods without initially being forced to use the current practice of extensive parametric simulation with energy simulation software.

2.0 Methodology

The chapter firstly discusses some of the early shading design systems that have been devised over the years. It then looks at the various solar protection measures available that a designer can consider when designing for solar protection. This is followed by a description of how the solar protection for the northern façade of the Cofimvaba Science Centre has been calculated. Cofimvaba is situated in the Intsika Yethu Local Municipality approximately 77 kilometres south-east of Queenstown in the Eastern Cape Province. The location is 32° 0’ 27.34” S, 27° 35’ 2.66” E and an elevation of 942 m above mean sea level. The building is oriented 22.5° east of north. To support the solar radiation, bioclimatic analysis (Table 1) and the recommended solar angle calculations two weather files were generated with the Meteonorm v7.2.4 software using typical meteorological years based on interpolated data as there are unfortunately no official measured weather stations in this deep rural area. The first weather file is for the 2009 climate and the second weather file quantifies the effect of climate change up to the year 2100 using an A2 climate change scenario of the Special Report on Emission

Scenarios (SRES) for the period 1961-2100, using the first weather file as a baseline. An A2 scenario can also be described as Business As Usual (BAU). Recent climatic research (Engelbrecht et al., 2016: 247) indicates that this is unfortunately the most likely scenario for South Africa. Using the two weather files, a comprehensive bioclimatic analysis (Table 1) was run by means of Climate Consultant 6.0 to determine the passive design potential and to quantify the potential savings that appropriate solar protection measures could theoretically realise. This was complemented by an analysis with the recently developed bespoke Experimental Solar Research Platform (ESRP).

3.0 Background

Over the past 66 years many different methods have been devised to determine the amount of sunlight and shade on building facades. Initially the methods were course and paper based and the focus was solely to determine the extent of shade for a given time of day and specific latitude. In this era before computers became freely available there was no established methodology to accurately determine when solar protection should really take place and the determination of shading was mostly qualitative. In one of the earlier systems developed at the former National Building Research Institute (Richards, 1952: 10-12 ) a set of accurately printed solar charts and a special transparent protractor was developed for South African latitudes of 20° to 34° (2° spacing) south. Inter alia the same publication included suggested periods for maximum shading, summer cooling period and the winter heating period. For example in the case of Port Elizabeth the suggested period for maximum summer shading was 19 October

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to 23 February and the winter heating period from 15 June to 15 August. Olgyay (1963); Olgyay (2015: 63-83) extensively discusses various solar control measures including a discussion of shading effectiveness. The shading effects of trees and vegetation are also discussed. The concept of overheated period charts, methods to determine the position of the sun and methods to determine the type and position of the shading device are described and illustrated. Olgyay (2015: 69) has already noted that inside shading protection devices can only intercept the solar energy which has just passed through the glass surface and can eliminate only that portion of the radiant energy which can be reflected through the glass again. It is evident from Olgyay’s analysis that horizontal overhangs on the northern or southern side (depending on the earth’s hemisphere) and outside moveable vertical louvres/ fins on the eastern and western side are very efficient with shading coefficients of respectively 0.25 and 0.23 to 0.10. Mazria (1979) made a significant contribution in the further understanding and quantification of solar protection. His biggest contribution was the invention of a special solar chart with a horizontal axis marked in +120° to -120° degrees1 (azimuth) and a vertical axis marked from 0° to 90° (elevation or altitude). This enabled him to introduce a shading calculator that was used to generate a shading mask. The curved lines that run from the lower right-hand corner are used to plot horizontal obstruction lines parallel to a window and the vertical lines on the calculator serve to plot vertical obstruction lines parallel to the window. This original on-paper concept is currently used in the modern Climate Consultant v6.0 software that was developed over many years by the Energy Design Tools Group, UCLA Department of

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Architecture and Urban Design (Milne et al., 2013). One of the refinements in said software is the introduction of the separate display of the two halves of the year. The one half spans from 21 December to 21 June and the other half from 21 June to 21 December (Figure 1). This became necessary as the two halves of the year are not symmetrical from a climatological point of view. Inspection of Figure 1 reveals that the 21 December (Summer solstice) to 21 June (Winter solstice) half is significantly hotter than the 21 June to 21 December half. This fact was not recognized by Mazria (1979) as weather files were not freely available at the time and it was impossible to implement this in a paper based system.

Figure 1: A Climate Consultant 6.0 implementation of the original Mazria (1979) solar chart. The two halves of the year are illustrated


CHAPTER 1 for the Cofimvaba climate with a 22.5° rotation east of due north. The image on the left is for 21 December (Summer solstice) to 21 June (Winter Solstice) and the right hand for 21 June (Winter Solstice) to 21 December (Summer Solstice). The analysis suggests a solar elevation protection angle of 62.17° above the horizon for the northern façade.

Szokolay (2004: 54-62) also describes various solar design aspects and alludes to two important aspects for designers, i.e. the apparent movement of the sun (the solar geometry) and the energy flows from the sun and how to design for it (exclude it or make use of it). Sun path diagrams or solar charts are the simplest practical tools for visualising the sun’s apparent movement. The sky hemisphere is represented by a circle (the horizon). Azimuth angles (i.e. the direction of the sun) are indicated on the perimeter and altitude (also called elevation) angles (from the horizon up) are indicated by a series of concentric circles, 90° (the zenith), being in the centre. Several different methods are used in the construction of these charts. The orthographic, or parallel projection method is the simplest, but it produces very compressed altitude circles near the horizon. The equidistant method is in general use in the United States of America (USA), however it is not a true geometrical projection. The most widely used type is the stereographic chart. These are constructed by a radial projection method, in which the centre of the projection is vertically below the observer’s point, at a distance equal to the radius of

the horizon circle (the nadir point). According to Szokolay (2004: 59-62) solar radiation can be measured in two ways: 1. Irradiance is measure in W/m² and is the instantaneous flux- or energy flow density or power density. 2. Irradiation expressed in J/m² or Wh/m² is an energy quantity integrated over a specific period of time. Irradiation values were used below to calculate the critical solar angles along with a specific temperature threshold described in detail below. Szokolay (2004) suggested the use of a shading mask, which can be constructed with the aid of a shadow angle protractor. He improved somewhat on the ideas of Mazria (1979). In an analysis of almost 200 solar design tools, Jakica (2018: 1296-1298) extensively analysed the numerous software features regarding accuracy, complexity, scale, computation speed, representation as well as building design process integration in approximately 50 2D/3D, CAD/CAM and BIM software environments. However he also notes that there is currently still a significant gap between the Early Design Phase (EDP) and the detailed Building Performance Simulation (BPS) performance simulations methods. There is therefore a great need for improvement in terms of developing simplified models and tools aimed at EDP to ensure that better decisions are taken earlier in the design process. This may explain why architects still widely use rules of thumb in the EDP phase that currently often leads to suboptimal solar protection design. The better the EDP methods become, the more efficient the later stages of detailed design by means of BPS becomes, because designers can converge sooner to a solution.

1 In modern energy simulation software azimuth angles are generally expressed from 0° (north) clockwise to 360° to avoid confusion. In Figure 1 the extent of the diagram is therefore potentially only 120° to 240°.

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4.0 Types of shading devices

In the design for the solar protection of Cofimvaba at least 12 different generic shading devices could potentially be considered (Figure 2).

Figure 2: Different types of shading devices (Author after Olgyay (2015); Bellia et al. (2014); CIBSE (2014)) A: Horizontal overhang (fixed) This type of overhang is mostly suitable for altitude/ elevation (sun is far above the horizon) dominated solar angles, typically on northern (or near northern) facades. It can take various forms such as illustrated in A to E. This could also be in the form of a projecting awning or horizontal sun blind. B: Fixed vertical screen combined with horizontal overhang. This configuration is a variation of A and is

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intended to exclude the lower rays of the sun, thereby reducing the glare problem. C: Side fin/vertical projection (fixed) The side fin used on its own is suitable for use on facades where the solar altitude/ elevation is mostly azimuth dominated, i.e. low solar angles above the horizon. This option is often combined with A for facades that are not due north and where there is a mix of altitude/ elevation and azimuth dominated solar angles that need to be


CHAPTER 1 excluded. D: Light Shelf (fixed) This is another variation of A and is used to improve the natural light penetration in a space by means of a reflecting light shelf. E: Horizontal louvres (fixed or moveable) This is a variation of A and if it is moveable it is more flexible than A. Is typically used with altitude/ elevation dominated solar angles. They have the advantage to permit air circulation near the façade. Slanted louvres give better protection than vertical ones. F: Vertical louvres (fixed/ moveable) This protection device is found in different forms. In its simplest form it could be a fixed vertical screen some distance away from the building façade. In a more complex form it could consist of multiple louvres set right in front of the window or some distance away from the façade. The most sophisticated variation would be a moveable system with or without computer control. G: Integral blinds In this system blinds are built into a double glass system. This has some advantages such as the protection of the blind. These systems are normally moveable. H: Special glass such as heat absorbing, reflective and photochromic. This is the weakest type of shading device as it depends on the treatment of the glass and can ultimately not avoid heat gains in the interior. I: Vertical external screen There are many types of this screen. In its simplest form it could be a fixed fine woven metal mesh. More complex systems consist of special screens that can be opened and closed when desired. J: External louvres, insulated louvres, louvered blind and vertical roller blind These types are mentioned by CIBSE (2014)

and there are many variations with varying degrees of durability. Some researchers even suggested the integration of screens with flexible photovoltaics (Sampatakos, 2014). Insulating blinds are mentioned by Kristinsson (2012: 61-67). K: Internal screen, louvre drapes, blinds or curtains. This family of solar protection devices are not that efficient to reduce heat in a space as it is not excluding the solar radiation from the outside. This causes the gradual built up of heat in the space due to the hot house effect. However it is useful as a means to control solar glare with low solar angles in the early morning and late afternoon. Ideally these type of devices should be used in conjunction with well-engineered external solar protection devices. This type of screening could venetian blinds, vertical louvered retractable blinds, fabric roller blind and fabric curtains. L: Double-skin façade This the most sophisticated type of façade. This façade takes many forms depending on the specific façade application and is successfully used in hot climates. Three fundamental types can be recognized, such as Buffer Façade, Extract-air Façade and Twin Face Façade. Where the chief concern is controlling solar heat during the hot season, the most effective means of control is to block the direct rays before they can pass through the glazed areas (Richards, 1952: 2; Olgyay, 2015: 67-72). Generally speaking shading types that exclude the sun externally during the overheated period and allow it in during the cold period are more efficient. In contrast fixed screens, although they are very efficient, have the disadvantage that they exclude the sun even during the cold period and hence the energy saving opportunity by balancing the overheated

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with cold period is unfortunately lost. Automated and moveable solar protection, although they are very efficient, is generally not a good idea as the mechanisms tend to wear out and need constant maintenance. In a study of three buildings in the Phoenix (USA) metropolitan area, i.e. Burton Central Library, Tempe Transportation Center and Papago Park Center, Grijalva ( 2012, 46-50, 90) stated that most mechanically operated systems require a high level of maintenance. In the case of the Tempe transportation Center the system stopped working properly several months after the building was occupied. The automated system was replaced with fully retractable aluminium horizontal louvre modules that are controlled manually from the interior of the building. It was therefore decided that a fixed exterior solar protection system would be most suitable. In the schematic diagrams below (examples A to E) there are solar elevation lines that indicate the 50% and a 100% protection angles. If you want to protect a window 50% at a particular time, the designer would calculate the solar elevation combined with an overhang that keeps the top half of the window in shade at the desired time. Similarly if you want 100% protection the overhangs would be designed in such a way that the window is protected completely during the overheated period. In the mornings and afternoons solar elevation angles are low above the horizon and hence there is a glare combined with an overheating problem (solar azimuth dominated). The mornings and afternoons are not symmetrical. The early mornings have essentially a glare problem and the afternoons overheating combined with glare. In the middle of the day the solar angles are high and solar protection devices need to be designed for higher solar angles (solar

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elevation dominated). In the quantified calculations that follow below and also in the experimental platform it has been assumed that for solar elevation angles below or equal to 45° vertical fins or solar screens should be used and above 45° horizontal projections or solar screens. The rationale is that if you want to protect a façade with a horizontal projecting fin for solar angles below 45°, then the device would become impractically wide and also expensive.

5.0 Experimental Research platform

The visualisations and solar angle calculations in Figures 3 and 4 were undertaken with the new ESRP software platform (developed by the author) that uses as its input a typical meteorological year weather file and combines it with advanced algorithms inter alia using k-means clustering and harmonic mean to calculate the solar azimuth and elevation for each of the 8 760 hour data records available in the weather file. The base 8 760 data points have been interpolated to 35 037 data points to ensure a less granular solar exposure diagram. Note the figure eight patterns in Figure 3. These are called analemmas and are essentially the effect of the difference between apparent and mean time (Equation of time). In other words it is the difference between the hour angles of the true sun and the mean sun. Sometimes the true sun is ahead and sometimes behind the mean sun. This is caused by the earth’s slightly elliptical orbit and the varying orbital speed that in essence follows Kepler’s laws. Figure 3 is therefore expressed in mean Sun time (clock time) to make it more accessible for direct civil use (Meeus, 2015: 183). Figure 3 below is an analytical graphical screen that displays the annual temperature/


CHAPTER 1 radiation combinations with solar azimuth degrees on the horizontal axis and elevation degrees above the horizon on the vertical axis. The azimuth is expressed in degrees clockwise from 0° (north). The elevation is expressed in degrees from the horizon to vertical (0° to 90°). This facilitates the study of the annual temperature and radiation distributions and also support advanced early design phase analysis to determine the times when solar protection and shading would be necessary. Four temperature categories were colour mapped on each chart to make the temperature/ radiation trends visible: Cold (Blue): Drybulb temperature <= 18 °C Comfortable (green): Drybulb temperature > 18 °C and Drybulb temperature < 23.8 °C Warm (Magenta): Drybulb temperature >= 23.8 °C and Global Horizontal Irradiation < 315.5 Wh/m² Hot (Red): Drybulb temperature >= 23.8 °C and Global Horizontal Irradiation >= 315.5 Wh/m²

Figure 3: Solar exposure chart for Cofimvaba generated with the ESRP software for a northern building facade rotated 22.5° east from north. The four temperature categories are clearly visible as well as the solar path at winter solstice (blue), equinoxes (grey) and summer solstice (red). The temperature asymmetry between morning and afternoon is also clearly visible. It is evident from Figure 1 and 3 how much hotter the afternoons (western exposure) are in comparison with the mornings. According to ASHRAE 55 (2010: 5-10) solar protection (shading) should be introduced when a drybulb temperature of 23.8 °C combined with a Global Horizontal Irradiation exceeding 315.5 Wh/m² is reached and exceeded. In Figure 3 the blue line indicates the solar movement during winter solstice (solar elevation = 34.56°), the grey one during the vernal and autumnal equinox (solar elevation = 58.00°) and the red line at summer solstice (solar elevation = 81.44°). At the equinoxes on 20 March and 23 September2 it is the only time that the sun rises exactly east and sets exactly west. Unlike the diagrams suggested by Mazria (1979: 267-308) and the Climate Consultant 6.0 software this research platform supports a bearing of any angle including due south and also supports analyses in the tropical zone of the earth where both the northern and southern facades get a significant amount of solar exposure.

6.0 Solar protection of Cofimvaba

Before the solar protection was quantified some initial analyses were done to 2

The exact dates vary slightly between years, but never varies more than a day.

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understand the design problem better. By means of the ESRP software it was determined that Cofimvaba annually requires 23 212 Heating Degree and only 17 691 Cooling Degree hours. It is therefore currently quite a cool climate. The northern façade (rotated 22.5° east of due north) would be exposed to 3 834 hours, the eastern façade to 2 452, the southern façade to 1 676 and the western façade to 3 058 annual hours potential sunlight hours and natural daylight on these surfaces. The asymmetry between the eastern and western facades is due to the fact that the building is rotated 22.5° to the east of north (Figure 3). The bioclimatic analysis in Table 1 details the current suggested passive and hybrid strategies for Cofimvaba as well as the change in strategy with an A2 climate change scenario by the year 2 100. The analysis was done with Climate Consultant 6.0. It evident how important solar protection will become in future. If no hybrid system intervention is used, it is currently theoretically possible to achieve 73.4% comfort and with climate change by 2100 only 62.2%.

The suggested elevation protection angle is almost the same (62.2°) as suggested by Climate Consultant v6.0 (62.17°) in Figure 1. Only “Hot” data points with a drybulb temperature >= 23.8 °C and Global Horizontal Irradiation >= 315.5 Wh/m² were used in the analysis. The different colours indicate the analysis clusters that are generated to calculate the suggested angles.

Table 1: Suggested passive and hybrid design strategies for Cofimvaba in the Cfb climatic zone, currently and with climate change to the year 2 100. The contribution of each strategy is expressed in hours per annum. (Author) Design strategies

Figure 4: Recommended solar elevation and azimuth solar cutoff angles suggested by the ESRP. 3A

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Cfa (Cofimvaba)

2009

Comfortable 1 913 Sun shading of windows 803 High Thermal Mass 253 High thermal Mass Night Flushed Direct Evaporative Cooling

21003 1 564 1 394

337

weather file with an A2 climate change scenario as defined by the IPCC (2000) has been used to calculate these values.


CHAPTER 1 Two-Stage evaporative Cooling Natural Ventilation Cooling Fan-Forced Ventilation Cooling Internal Heat Gain 3 759 Passive Solar Direct Gain Low Mass Passive Solar Direct Gain High Mass 1 652 Wind Protection of Outdoor Spaces Humidification Only Dehumidification Only 7464 Cooling, add Dehumidification if needed 105 Heating, add Humidification if needed 1 527

670 2 768

1 835 18 1 6195 974 788

Figure 5: The final overhang width for the horizontal solar protection

at Cofimvaba using a solar elevation angle of approximately 62° (after rationalisation) and an azimuth solar angle of 346.5° for solar protection at Cofimvaba (Author). Both Climate Consultant v6.0 and the ESRP strongly suggest a solar elevation protection angle of approximately 62°. If a trigonometric calculation is made with an angle of 62° and a storey height of 3 000 then the overhang should be 1 595 mm. w = h x tan(90 - 0 ) (1) Where: w is the recommended horizontal overhang width. 0 is the height of the surface (window) that needs to be protected. If the formula is applied the overhang width should be 1 595 mm. An analysis of the recommended azimuth angles (Figure 4) suggested 317.6° for the western afternoon sun. Inspection of Figure 4 indicates that the intense afternoon glare and overheating really starts from 317.6°, however there is also some glare and overheating from approximately 347.5°. It was decided to introduce 50% transparent vertical fins to reduce the afternoon glare at an angle of 346.5°. 4 If the hybrid methods marked in red are not applied, i.e. a totally passive building then the theoretical comfort hours would be 6 428 out of 8 760 annual hours (73.4%). If all the listed methods are applied then 100% is achievable. 5 If the hybrid methods marked in red are not applied, i.e. a totally passive building then the theoretical comfort hours would be 5 448 out of 8 760 annual hours (62.2%). If all the listed methods are applied then 100% is still achievable, but with significant hybrid system assistance.

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This resulted in small vertical fins of 379 mm at the male ablutions and 1 526 mm at the main entrance. In the final design the vertical fin and horizontal overhangs were rationalized to 1 526 mm for aesthetic and practical reasons. Due to the orientation of the building and the cold mornings solar protection is not really necessary for the rotated eastern faรงade. External screens or adjustable internal blinds or curtains should be considered to reduce the glare problem. In Figure 5 the green geometry indicate the calculations for the horizontal overhang and the red the geometry for the vertical sun screens.

7.0 Conclusions

Many conclusions can be made from the article and some really interesting discoveries have been made. Modern simulation techniques now make it possible design accurately engineered solar protection devices. However there is unfortunately a shortage of good EDP software tools and too many detailed BPS simulation tools. Improved EDP tools will expedite the detailed solar protection calculations as designer would be able to reduce the number of parametric simulations required to optimise the faรงade solar protection (sun and shade) designs. The ESRP software that was developed helped with the EDP quantification of the Cofimvaba solar protection. There is a significant opportunity to improve South African building facades for efficient solar protection. Unfortunately, there are still many poor examples around or solar protection is ignored altogether. The various analyses and simulations clearly indicate the significant benefit of protecting the various facades of the building against

38

direct solar gain, especially if these facades contain glass in windows or entire facades. It is also far more efficient to keep the direct and indirect solar radiation out of the building by proper ventilated outside shading devices, rather than trying to rely on expensive glass such as low-e glass that is not nearly as efficient. It is clear that in hot climates during heatwaves or with the expected climate change solar control is becoming increasingly important. It is reasoned and supported by simulation that this will mean increasing the amount of shade by increasing the overhang size on the northern faรงade. In practice this means keeping the roof as cool as possible and using correctly sized overhangs on the northern faรงade and appropriate solar protection on the other facades. It is important to realise that there are solar gains from the southern faรงade as well. The research indicated that the northern overhang size will have to be increased to counter the overheating caused by climate change. Although the article concentrated on solar protection other passive design aspects such as adequate ventilation and use of natural daylight should never be neglected. Improved ventilation will also help to promote evaporative cooling from the skin and in the process increase the general sense of comfort during the overheated period. From personal experience it is clear that the human body can withstand higher temperatures than previously thought if it had enough time to adapt or acclimatize.

8.0 Acknowledgements

The financial support of CSIR, Built Environment Unit and the support to test


CHAPTER 1 the fundamental ESRP concepts in two projects, i.e. the Hillside clinic project in Beaufort West (Coralie van Reenen) and the Cofimvaba Science Centre in Cofimvaba (Llewellyn van Wyk and Jan-Hendrik Grobler) is gratefully acknowledged.

9.0 References

ASHRAE 55. 2010. Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy. Atlanta, GA., p. 5. Bellia, L., Marino, C., Minichiello, F. & Pedace, A. 2014. An overview on solar shading systems for buildings. In Energy Procedia 62 ( 2014 ), p. 311. CIBSE LG10. 2014. Lighting for the built environment. The Society of Light and Lighting (part of CIBSE), Page Bros. (Norwich), p. 39. Engelbrecht, C.J., & Engelbrecht, F.A. 2016. Shifts in KĂśppen-Geiger climate zones over Southern Africa in relation to key global temperature goals. In: Theoretical and Applied Climatology, 123(1), pp. 247-261. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1354-1 Grijalva, K. 2012. Sun Control and Shading Devices. Master of Science Degree, Arizona State University, pp. 46-50, 90. IPCC. 2000. Summary for Policymakers: Emissions Scenarios. Special Report of IPCC Working Group III of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. pp. 3-5. Jakica, N. 2018. State-of-the-art review of solar design tools and methods for assessing daylighting and solar potential for building-integrated photovoltaics. In Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 81 (2018) pp. 1296â&#x20AC;&#x201C;1328. Kristinsson, J. 2012. Integrated Sustainable Design. Delftdigitalpress, Delft/ Deventer. MAZRIA, E. 1979. The passive solar energy book. Rodale Press, Emmaus, Pa. pp. 28, 267-308. MEEUS, J. 2015. Astronomical Algorithms:

Second Edition. Willman-Bell, Inc., p.183. Milne, M. and Liggett, R. 2013. Getting to 2020: Two Software Tools to Help Californians Design Zero Net Energy Homes. Energy Design Tools Group, UCLA Department of Architecture and Urban Design. Olgyay, V. 1963. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. Princeton University Press. Olgyay, 2015. Design With Climate: Bioclimatic Approach to Architectural Regionalism. Princeton University Press. Richards, S.J. 1952. Solar Charts for the design of Sunlight and Shade for Buildings in South Africa. The South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Reprint from South African Architectural Record, vol. 36, No. 11. Sampatakos, D. 2014. Development of three dimensional PV structures as shading devices for a decentralized facade unit of the future. MSc. in Architecture, Urbanism and Building Sciences, TU Delft department of Architecture. pp. 71-110. Szokolay, S.V. 2004. Introduction to Architectural Science: The Basis of Sustainable design. Elsevier Science, Oxford.

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Cultural relevance in interior architecture A Case Study Ciwanay Malan (CSIR) Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

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Introduction

Humans communicate and express themselves individually and collectively through a number of media, typically language but not limited to language. Humans also express themselves through images and objects, and these images and objects can become embedded as an expression of a group. This is referred to as visual culture, i.e., the aspect of culture expressed in visual images (Mirzoeff, 2011). The design of the science centre in Cofimvaba was mindful of what was being expressed in the community, and set out to deliberately incorporate expressions of Xhosa visual culture in its imagery in general and the interior architecture in particular. Cofimvaba, a rural village located in the Eastern Cape Province in South Africa, is one of the poorest Municipalities in the country and also has a high unemployment rate (Chisango, 2014). The Municipality is dependent on grants from the government: of its total revenue of R39 625 200, only R15 000 is self-generated (JacquelinAndersen, 2012). The Eastern Cape Department of Education (ECDOE) and the Department of Science and Technology (DST) are collaborating with the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) to construct a science centre in Cofimvaba. The aim of the Science Centre is to promote science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) education among the students and educators in the school district. According to Settee (2013), STEM education is important not only for the well-being of individual citizens, but also for the nationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s competitiveness in the global economy. In support of STEM, the application of innovative building technologies (IBTs) and sustainable design formed part of the project brief with the purpose of designing


CHAPTER 2 a net-zero energy and water consumption building (Van Wyk, 2014). There appears to be some discrepancy with regard to the percentage of South Africans who are deemed to be indigenous. Settee (2013) estimates that the indigenous population of South Africa is approximately seven percent whereas other writers find that the estimate is closer to one percent (Jacquelin-Andersen, 2012). Settee further states that indigenous people are mostly not affected by industrialisation and make use of indigenous knowledge that has been developed in the unique circumstances and environments from which they originate. Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) can be described as a systematic body of knowledge generated by local people over several decades of experience (Meyiwa et al, 2013). It is of great importance to the wellbeing of a community (Malan, 2018). IKS plays an important role in the lives of indigenous people and local communities (Meyiwa et al, 2013). Three fundamental pillars make up the prerequisites for sustainable development, namely: environmental sustainability; social sustainability; and economic sustainability. The social pillar has been identified as the least recognised and researched pillar which results in an uncharted terrain between the social and environmental pillars (Meyiwa et al, 2013). In order to foster a socially sustainable interior architecture, the indigenous knowledge of the district has been taken into consideration. The design phase is informed by cultural art and local heritage; and the construction or installation phase will be executed by artisans drawn from the local community. The Purpose of the study is to critically analyse the relevance and impact of Indigenous Knowledge Systems towards social and environmental

sustainability of the Science Center infrastructure Project in Cofimvaba, and its architectural imagery.

Literature Review

A systematic literature review (SLR) was undertaken to access assess indigenous knowledge with regard to its use in the built environment in general and the design of the interior architecture in particular. Sustainable development does not only refer to the use of environmentally conscious construction materials and methods but also allowing citizens meet their needs without harming the environment nor endangering the lives of people in the present and in the future (Girardet and Schumacher Society (Great Britain), 1999). Indigenous knowledge is an immense source of knowledge and it is unfortunate that it is not yet mobilized in the design and construction industry (Phillips and Titiola, 1995). Although there is a substantial repository of indigenous knowledge available, the available literature has not yet benefitted from it for the purpose of research (Oliver, 2010). According to Bostrom (2012), the linkage between the social and environmental pillars of sustainable design development requires more research to improve economic growth. Indigenous people make use of the resources and methods available to them to construct settlements which contributes to sustainable design and construction (Dayaratne, 2018). Even though the contemporary design community has marginalised indigenous knowledge, believing it to be out-dated and irrelevant, it would be wise to refer to indigenous knowledge as a foundation of knowledge for sustainable construction because of the vast amount of knowledge that has been generated by indigenous people

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over several decades (Ford and Martinez, 1999). Furthermore, indigenous knowledge can possibly improve contemporary design through its holistic approach. The American architect Frank Lloyd Wright proposed a concept of â&#x20AC;&#x153;organic designâ&#x20AC;? in the 19th century and this method of design can fall under the classification of indigenous design because it is in harmony with its surrounding environment (Dayaratne, 2018). Wrightâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s architecture optimised the surrounding environment by making use of the available materials, resources and colours that are visible in the vistas to design and construct the buildings. Traditional developments might not necessarily be contemporised, but its fundamentals and practices may be useful to rethink the production and maintenance of modern settlements. Little research has yet been done on how indigenous knowledge can affect modern developments and how it can be applied (Dayaratne, 2018). A greater implementation of indigenous knowledge is required in the field of the built environment with particular reference to architecture (Boucher, 2018). Boucher further stated that significant knowledge is available but has not yet been embraced. A recent example is the work of a creative studio in Australia named Balarinji which recently designed the graphics on an aircraft based on the indigenous art of Emily Kame Kngwarreye, a renowned local artist of Australia (Boucher, 2018). According to Boucher (2018), IKS must be implemented into architecture from the very start of the project in order to allow room for influential design of applied arts.

Research Methodology

In determining an appropriate research methodology for the paper, consideration was given to the key characteristic of the

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Arts of Emily Kame Kngwarreye (Boucher, 2018)

Balarinji aircraft graphic design (Boucher, 2018)


CHAPTER 2 research problem i.e. assessing the relevance of indigenous knowledge to interior architecture, and how it can be applied. This study makes use of a systematic literature review (SLR). This research methodology has been used by other researchers working in comparable fields with a similar desired outcome (Walter et al., 2009). Siddaway (2014) defines an SLR as a review of a clearly formulated question that uses systematic and explicit methods to identify, select, and critically appraise relevant research, and to collect and analyse data from the studies that are included in the review. Kitchenham et al. (2009) describe an SLR as a means of identifying, evaluating and interpreting all available research relevant to a particular research question, or topic area, or phenomenon of interest. Reasons for undertaking an SLR include (Kitchenham et al., 2009): •To summarise the existing evidence concerning a topic area of a phenomenon of interest; •To identify any gaps in current research in order to suggest areas for further investigation; and •To provide a framework/background in order to appropriately position new research activities. The literature review appraises the critical points of current domain knowledge and methodological approaches adopted in this domain with a view to summarizing the current body of knowledge on IKS and developing indigenous based interior architecture. The Cofimvaba science centre has been designed to contribute to sustainable development by means of net-zero energy and water consumption, and the application of indigenous knowledge, culture, and heritage of the district. In addition, the science centre contributes toward

STEM education and serves as a real-life experiment for students and educators to observe the new technology techniques as well as applied indigenous knowledge. Three fundamental indigenous knowledge aspects of the Cofimvaba community have influenced the final interior architecture of the project, namely: The architectural style, cultural community, and indigenous cultural arts and heritage. The Cofimvaba Architecture Most of the Cofimvaba residents are Xhosa (Frescura, 1989). Frescura further states that the Xhosa people culture in rural areas are recognized as a diverse group that cannot be regarded as a single identity. Nevertheless, Xhosa architecture is profoundly homogeneous consisting of cylindrical structures built out of available resources such as clay, stone and timber. Xhosa women generally whitewash the façade of the residence with monochromatic patterns leading to chroniclers referring to Xhosa people as being “white faced” (Frescura, 1989). In Xhosa architecture, the structural strength of a building is derived from a constructed column, (usually a gum pole), placed in the centre of the interior of the domed development.

Research Results

Cofimvaba is located within the Intsika Yethu Local Municipality of the Chris Hani District of the Eastern Cape. In isiXhosa Intsika Yethu is “our pillars” (Meyiwa et al, 2013). The direct link between the meaning of Intsika Yethu and the main construction component of Xhosa architecture – column in the centre of the interior of the cylindrical structure – inspired the incorporation of gum pole columns into the interior architecture of the centre.

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Xhosa traditional hut construction (Vollaers, 2018)

Cretestain finish by Cemcrete, 2018

Cultural Community

The project seeks to employ Cofimvaba residents to take part in the construction phase of the science centre. It will employ skilled residents to design indigenous crafts pertaining to beadwork and mosaic that will be applied to the interior design of the main entrance foyer. Selected students from all of the schools in Cofimvaba will be given the opportunity to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;make their markâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; on the science centre by applying their whitewashed hand mark onto a wall of the science centre that is visible to visitors from the interior and exterior of the centre. The colour scheme used in the science centre consists of natural earthy toned colours, chosen because of the similarity to the colours of the clay used as a local building material in the district. The images below illustrate the close colour match between a chosen finish and the clay gravel found on the site of the science centre.

Clay gravel found on site by L. Van Wyk 2018

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Cofimvaba science centre initial foyer design by author (2018)

Cultural Arts and Heritage

Beadwork plays a significant role in the indigenous knowledge and heritage of the Xhosa people. Furthermore, different coloured beads each have a unique meaning in the Xhosa tribe generally referring to wealth, status and different phases in the life of an individual (Hamann and Tuinder, 2012). The significance of Xhosa beads and a traditional Xhosa necklace inspired the main concept of the logo design for the centre. In addition, Xhosa IKS also influenced the design of the logo, in particular, the significance of the dandelion plant found in the Eastern Cape amongst the Xhosa communities. The dandelion plant has been used for medicinal purposes in Xhosa traditions for generations (Qureshi et al, 2017). A concept was derived from the plant, referring to the roots of the dandelion as the IKS of the district being constant and reliant. The dandelion has marked life phases: when at its dying phase, the


CHAPTER 2 dandelion sheds its leaves and they blow away in the wind resulting in the spreading of its seeds. The shedding of the dandelion leaves is conceptually referred to as the spreading of knowledge in the Cofimvaba district to be generated in new areas so that growth can be encouraged in the district and in South Africa as a whole. The reference to the dandelion and its lifespan is also linked to the different meanings of coloured beads in various stages in the life of a Xhosa member. The overall concept of the logo and of the project represent how the end-users of the science centre make use of the knowledge within the centre for their own improvement just like the Xhosa people make use of the land for their own well-being. A traditional Xhosa necklace pattern was shaped by dots that represent the beads of the necklace. Different colours represent different meanings for the Xhosa people. The colours that were chosen to be used within the logo are red, orange and yellow which refer to a sunrise or sunset in the Cofimvaba village among its vast mountains. The necklace pattern appears to be spreading and falling apart like a dandelion at the dying phase of its lifespan.

Cofimvaba science centre logo design by author (2018)

Conclusion

The paper finds that the vast amount of indigenous knowledge derived from numerous generations can serve as a useful source of knowledge for the sustainable design of a building and its interior architecture. According to the literature review, additional research needs to be performed within the field of social sustainability in terms of the built environment. The implementation of IKS can have an enriching impact on a building project (Boucher, 2018). Even though in todayâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s society, IKS is not being used and is seen as having little value due to contemporary design and industrialisation, it provides us with abundant knowledge that aids sustainability. It would be unwise not to make use of this knowledge in order to improve the fundamentals and practices on which sustainably designed settlements are based (Dayaratne, 2018).

Future Research

Initial concept sketches of Cofimvaba science centre logo design by author (2018)

The implementation of IKS in the built environment depends on the locally available resources and the skills of the community which result in a unique sense of IKS interpretation for various developments. Therefore, the location and the culture of the community of an IKS inspired building will

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affect the final design of the development. For future studies, a framework toward sustainable IKS inspired development design could be researched.

References

Boström, M. (2012) A missing pillar? Challenges in theorizing and practicing social sustainability: introduction to the special issue, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 8(1), pp. 3-14, DOI: 10.1080/15487733.2012.11908080 Boucher, D. L. (2018) “Indigenous Urban Design ‘ Not Just a Moral Choice but a Profitable One ,’” The Urban Developer. Chisango, G. (2014) Technology challenges faced by rural women in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa: A case study in the Chris Hani municipality,” (1), pp. 1–181. Dayaratne, R. (2018) “Toward sustainable development: Lessons from vernacular settlements of Sri Lanka,” Frontiers of Architectural Research. Elsevier B.V., 7(3), pp. 334–346. doi: 10.1016/j.foar.2018.04.002. Ford, J., Martinez, D. (1999) “Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Ecosystem Science,and Environmental Management,” Ecological Applications, 10(5), pp. 2–4. doi: 10.2307/2269402. Frescura, F. (1989) “Styles of Southern African Architecture,” Juta’s South African Journal of Property, 5, pp. 18–27. Girardet, H. and Schumacher Society (Great Britain) (1999) Creating sustainable cities, Schumacher briefings. Green books, Devon. Hamann, M. and Tuinder, V. (2012) “Introducing the Eastern Cape : A quick guide to its history, diversity and future challenges,” Stockholm Resilience Centre, pp. 1–41. Jacquelin-Andersen, P. (2012) The Indigenous World, The SAGE Handbook of Social Anthropology. doi: 10.4135/9781446201077.n34.

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Kitchenham, B. et al. (2009) “Systematic literature reviews in software engineering - A systematic literature review,” Information and Software Technology. Elsevier B.V., 51(1), pp. 7–15. doi: 10.1016/j. infsof.2008.09.009. Malan, C. (2018) “Indigenous knowledge and its influence on human settlements,” in Science technology and innovation for sustainable human settlements. Meyiwa, T., Letsekha, T. and Wiebesiek, L. (2013) “Masihambisane, lessons learnt using participatory indigenous knowledge research approaches in a school-based collaborative project of the Eastern Cape,” South African Journal of Education, 33(4), pp. 1–15. doi: 10.15700/201412171329. Oliver, P. (2010) “Shelter for All: continuity and change in the world housing,” in. ISVS 5 Conference. Phillips A.O., Titiola, S. O. (1995) “Sustainable Development and Indigenous Knowledge Systems in Nigeria,” in The Cropper Foundation UWI. Qureshi, S., Adil, S., El-hack, M.E. (2017) “Beneficial uses of dandelion herb (Taraxacum officinale) in poultry nutrition,” in World’s Poultry Science Journalurnal, pp. 591–602. Settee, P. (2013) Pimatisiwin: The good life, global indigenous knowledge systems, University of Saskatchewan, pp. 35-38 Siddaway, A. (2014) “What is a systematic literature review and how do I do one?,” University of Stirling. Walter, M. et al. (2009) “Quo vadis efficiency analysis of water distribution? A comparative literature review,” Utilities Policy. Elsevier Ltd, 17(3–4), pp. 225–232. doi: 10.1016/j. jup.2009.05.002.


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Feasibility Study for a Geothermal Heating System A Case Study Stanley Lutchman (CSIR) Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

BACKGROUND The Department of Science and Technology (DST) together with the Eastern Cape Department of Education (ECDOE) are cofunding the construction of a science centre in the village of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The purpose of the science centre is to promote the study of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the school district. The Council for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR) was appointed as DSTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Implementing Agent for the project. The express purpose of this appointment was to pilot, evaluate and demonstrate the application and efficacy of innovative building technologies (IBTs) on the project in accordance with a South African Government Cabinet Resolution of August 2013 regarding the application of IBTs in government projects. A key objective is to apply IBTs to enhance the economic, social, environmental and institutional sustainability of public buildings. For this project attention is focused on achieving net-zero energy and water consumption, and reducing waste water disposal and construction waste. A key strategy to achieve a net-zero building was to eliminate reliance on mechanical heating and cooling. CONTEXT In an effort to balance the energy supply and demand of the proposed new science centre in Cofimvaba a number of strategies are being pursued, including passive heating and cooling. Among the technologies investigated in this regard is the use of Geothermal Heating and Cooling (GHC). Cofimvaba is situated in the Intsika Yethu

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CHAPTER 3 Local Municipality approximately 77 kilometres south-east of Queenstown in the Eastern Cape Province. The site measures 1,7ha in extent and is located on the corner of Hill and Main Streets. Most portions of the site is covered by grass and small to large sized boulders. The site has a moderate fall of approximately 10m towards the south-east. As noted in the geotechnical investigation rep0ort (Plichta and Mulovhedzi 2016) the site is located in a valley and is underlain by red and grey mudstone and sandstone of Burgersdorp Formation, Beaufort Group, Lower Triassic Age. The younger dolerite of Jurassic age overlies the mudstone and sandstone along the slopes of the valley. Mudstone is a fine grained sedimentary rock composed of clay or mud and silt-sized particles, whereas sandstone is composed of sand-sized grains cemented together in a matrix of silt or clay sized particles and is also a sedimentary rock (Plichta et al 2016). The report notes that the completely weathered (residual) mudstone has high clay content with a heaving characteristic which forms numerous surface cracks in the soil upon drying. The report notes that the soils on the site are not suitable for platform/terrace construction, as they have high clay content or are contaminated by building rubble or fill. The report therefore recommends that the soil for the area of construction being 40m x 40m be excavated to a depth of 1,5m and removed to spoil. The removal of this material presented the opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the installation of a closed loop GHC system to attenuate indoor air temperature. The term “geothermal energy” is used, generally, to describe the high-temperature energy that is derived from the heat flux

from the earth’s deep interior and that one finds either in very deep boreholes or in certain specific locations in the earth’s crust, or both. However, GHC is not primarily concerned with geothermal energy but is more focused on the relatively new science of “thermogeology” which involves the study of ground source heat, i.e. the low quality form of heat (or thermal energy) that is stored in the ground at normal temperatures (Lutchman 2018). There are several different types of GHC systems which are categorized by the geothermal heat exchangers layouts that are employed. Heat exchanger layouts are divided into two categories: open loops and closed loops. For purposes of this study only the horizontal closed loop system was considered for the reason described above. Furthermore, for purposes of the analysis a ground temperature of 19°C was assumed. METHODOLOGY The methodology for the feasibility study followed was as follows: • Fan coil units (FCUs) are designed to work in conjunction with the geothermal heat exchangers. • High level concept designs of two different cases were performed to determine the order of equipment required in the facility. • Conclusions and recommendations were drawn on the analysis and the effectiveness of each of the cases. The cases that were analysed were: • Case 1 where geothermal tempering is used, i.e. water heated in a geothermal heat exchanger supplies heating to fan coil units to temper the air in occupancy areas. • Case 2 where geothermal heating is

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used, i.e. water heated in a ground source heat pump system supplies heating to fan coil units to increase the air temperature in the occupancy areas to achieve thermal comfort. ANALYSIS The analysis involved the following: • Heat load analysis • Fan coil unit analysis • Geothermal heat exchanger analysis For purposes of this paper the fan coil unit analysis is omitted as the unit was selected based on the performance characteristics of fan coil units available from a commercial FCU manufacturer. Heat Load Analysis The climate chart for Cofimvaba indicates that heating the facility rather than cooling the facility is required. A heating load analysis was carried out to determine the worst-case heating requirement of the facility. The climate chart for Cofimvaba indicates that June and July are the coldest months reaching a mean daily temperature of 3 °C (Figure 1). This temperature is therefore used in the heating load analysis. Furthermore the analysis was performed for 08:00 in the morning the assumption being that this was the time that occupants would enter the building.

Figure 1: Cofimvaba climate chart (Meteonorm 2018)

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The heat load analysis was determined by calculating the energy required to increase the required ventilation air to the required comfort temperature considering the heat gains from the occupants, the solar irradiation and the heat loss of the building. The following assumptions were made for purposes of the calculation: •Maximum daily solar direct normal irradiance (DNI) was found to be 600 W/ m², thus it was taken to be 300 W/m² at 08:00. A cosine loss of 83 percent was incorporated due to the low sun angle at 08:00 and the orientation of the building, resulting in an overall solar irradiance of 51 W/m². The solar irradiance was added as a heat gain only to occupancy areas. • A U-value of 1 W/m².K was assumed for the building. • The required comfort temperature was assumed to be 22 °C. • The heat gain from the occupants was assumed to be 130 W/person (78 W sensible and 52 W latent). • The room height of 3 m was used for each of the occupancy areas. • The density of the air was assumed to be 1.13 kg/m³. • The analysis was done for the building in a steady state condition with full occupancy. • The number of air changes per hour was determined by the requirements of SANS 10400-O. The heat load analysis was determined by calculating the energy required to increase the required ventilation air to the required comfort temperature considering the heat gains from the occupants, the solar irradiance and the heat loss of the building. The heat load analysis is summarised in the equation below (Lutchman 2018):


CHAPTER 3

where Qreq is the total heating power required, QA is the power required to increase the temperature of the ambient air from the external conditions to the required internal conditions, QB is the building heat loss, QO is the heat gain due to occupancy activity, and QS is the heat gain due to solar irradiation. The total heat load of the building taking heat gain (irradiance and occupant) and heat loss into account was calculated using equation 1 to be 85.9 kW. This value was used as the basis for the feasibility study. Geothermal Heat Exchanger Analysis An analysis of the geothermal heat exchanger system was then performed to determine the length of piping required in the ground loop to meet the heating requirements of the building. The layout is shown in Figure 2.

Figure 3: Geometry of a spiral (Lutchman 2018) For purposes of calculating the length of piping required the following assumptions were made: • The diameter of each coil is 1 m. • The pitch between coil loops is 0.5 m • The distance between adjacent coils is 0.5 m • The thermal resistance of the HDPE piping was determined to be 0.0472 m·K/W • The thermal resistance of the soil was determined to be 0.605 m·K/W • The heat transfer rate per unit length of the piping was determined to be 5.67 W/m The total length of a spiral can be calculated as follows (Lutchman 2018):

Figure 2: Layout of spiral earth coil (Lutchman 2018) An area requirement of the piping is more useful than a length requirement since an area requirement could easily be compared with what is available on the site. Horizontal ground loops are typically laid out in a “spiral” from as shown in Figure 2. The geometry of the spiral is shown in Figure 3.

Based on equation 2 the total length of piping required to achieve the required heat transfer rate of 85.9KW was 15.1 km. Laying this in the spiral pattern as illustrated in Figure 2 would require an area of 70 m x 70 m. However, the area of excavations

51


was only 40 m x 40 m. The calculations were therefore rerun based on the diminished area. This indicated that a hypothetical heat capacity of 28860W would be realised which would provide a final air temperature in the occupancy areas of 16.7 °C, which is insufficient to meet the design requirements of 22 °C.

will provide a per metre heat transfer of (Lutchman 2018):

Heat Exchanger with Heat Pump Analysis As noted in Case 1 in the methodology, i.e. water heated in a geothermal heat exchanger supplies heating to fan coil units to temper the air in occupancy areas as shown in Figure 3 below.

Substituting 17.6 W/m for 5.67 W/m in equations 2 and 3 for determining pipe length yields a pipe length of 4 876 m and an area of 1 533 m² which falls within the area of excavation. However, to operate the heat pump will require an input power of 17.9 kW: thus, 85.9 kW of heat can be provided but an input mechanical-electrical power of 17.9 kW is required to achieve the required temperature of 22 °C.

Figure 3: Layout of geothermal heat exchanger with a heat pump system (Lutchman 2018) The analysis indicates that given the area available the temperature of the air is 6 °C short of providing the required heating for occupancy comfort. Accordingly the use of a geothermal heat exchanger with a heat pump was then analysed to determine whether it would contribute to meeting the design requirements of 22 °C. A heat pump extracts more thermal energy from the ground loop water such that the return temperature of the water from the heat pump to the ground loop reaches a level that provides the needed temperature difference to raise the heat transfer rate in the ground loop. If the temperature could be brought down to 7.5 °C, the ground loop

52

CONCLUSION The analysis For Case 1 shows that in the case of geothermal tempering, while discomfort is reduced to some extent, the required temperature is not achieved. A much larger geothermal installation would be required to get closer to the target temperature which would require a substantially larger area of excavation. Given that the loop is only 1.5m below ground the performance of the loop could also potentially be negatively impacted by seasonal variation (3m is typically the preferred depth to avoid seasonal variation). Either option, i.e. larger loop area and/ or deeper loop depth, would substantially increase the excavation required. It must also be noted that this case study sought to achieve a specific temperature: a temperature range could also be used of say between 18 °C to 26 °C. However, even then the geothermal tempering is insufficient.


CHAPTER 3 The analysis for Case 2 shows that with geothermal heating the required temperature could be provided but that it would require an input power which would complicate a key objective of this project, viz, net-zero energy. Nonetheless, this approach merits closer scrutiny where appropriate. The analysis indicates that there are a number of factors which influence the performance of GHC, not least being the field area, the depth of installation and the temperature of the ground. A decision to use GHC will require substantial investigations and detailed design to determine its ultimate efficacy. Finally it may well be, as the analysis seems to indicate, that there isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t sufficient temperature difference between the ambient air and the ground temperature in South Africa for this system to be beneficial. REFERENCES Meteonorm 2018. Meteonorm software. [Online] Available from https://www. meteonorm.com/ {Accessed: 09 March 2018]. Lutchman, S. 2017. Feasibility study and concept design of a building heating system: CSIR science centre, Cofimvaba. Pretoria: CSIR. Plichta, M. and Mulovhedzi, M. 2016. Cofimvaba science centre geotechnical investigation. Pretoria: Knight Hall Hendry.

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Evaluating the efficacy of solar chimneys for heating and cooling A Case Study Jan-Hendrik Grobler (CSIR) Dirk Conradie (CSIR) Llewellyn van Wyk (CSIR)

BACKGROUND The Department of Science and Technology (DST) together with the Eastern Cape Department of Education (ECDOE) are cofunding the construction of a science centre in the village of Cofimvaba in the Eastern Cape. The purpose of the science centre is to promote the study of science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) in the school district. The Council for Science and Industrial Research (CSIR) was appointed as DSTâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Implementing Agent for the project. The express purpose of this appointment was to pilot, evaluate and demonstrate the application and efficacy of innovative building technologies (IBTs) on the project in accordance with a South African Government Cabinet Resolution of August 2013 regarding the application of IBTs in government projects. A key objective is to apply IBTs to enhance the economic, social, environmental and institutional sustainability of public buildings. For this project attention is focused on achieving net-zero energy and water consumption, and reducing waste water disposal and construction waste. A key strategy to achieve a net-zero building was to eliminate reliance on mechanical heating and cooling. Context The Aeronautics Systems Competency (ASC) within the Defence, Peace, Safety and Security (DPSS) Competency Area of the CSIR was requested to evaluate a concept design for a passive ventilation system for the science centre (Figure 1). Solar chimneys, also known as thermal chimneys, are an attractive option for

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CHAPTER 4

Figure 1: Science centre with the solar chimneys (circled in red) incorporated in the ventilation system (CSIR 2018) naturally ventilating buildings by using convection of air heated by passive solar energy. Due to its passive operation it is able to potentially lower operational costs, reduced energy consumption and a smaller carbon footprint. The chimney provides a large plenum where ambient air is heated by the sun. As a result, the air density lowers and buoyancy forces carries it upward drawing replacement air from the building. Significant research has been done on solar chimneys since the 1990s, using experimental, numerical or analytical approaches (or a combination). Khanal and Lei presented a comprehensive overview of solar chimney research, referencing more that 40 papers published from 1990 to 2010 [Khanal & Lei, 2011]. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was employed in 39% of the solar chimney investigations, either as the only approach or in combination with experimental or analytical methods. They found that the

use of CFD modelling in solar chimney studies was increasing, no doubt due to more powerful and affordable computer hardware becoming available. Some researchers develop their own CFD codes for their analysis [Imran et al, 2015], but the use of commercial CFD software remain a very popular option. Many general purpose CFD codes are available with FLUENT (recently bought by ANSYS) and STAR-CCM+ (recently bought by Siemens) dominating the market. Researchers generally use a similar approach. Solar heating on the absorber wall is modelled either as isoflux or isothermal heating; walls are specified as no-slip; second-order upwind differencing is the scheme of choice for solving the momentum, energy and turbulence transport equations and under-relaxation factors are used to ensure numerical stability [Khanal & Lei, 2006].

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The k-epsilon turbulence model is available in almost all commercial CFD codes and frequently employed in solar chimney models. Experimental data can be matched withing 2% [Harris et al, 2007] although results within 15% may also be deemed acceptable [Lei et al, 2016]. Meshes of fewer than 1 million cells are generally sufficient to model the chimney region. For example, Lei found results varied by less than 2% between meshes consisting of approximately 304 000 and 357 000 cells [Lei et al, 2016] while Suárez-López found negligible differences in meshes varying in size from 100 000 to 2 million cells [SuárezLópez et al, 2015]. Methodology The commercial CFD code, STAR-CCM+, was used to analyse the flow in a model of the science centre on a typical summer and winter day. The model was designed in accordance with the general approach outlined above. Simulations were performed on the 276-CPU computer cluster of the CFD facility of CSIR. The analysis was performed in two phases. In the initial phase, a simplified model of the chimney region only was simulated in order to obtain realistic chimney wall temperatures. These temperatures were then used as input for the next phase where the model was extended to include the relevant parts of the building and environment. Phase 1: Chimney-only models The temperature reached by an external surface, for example the roof of a building, can be estimated by evaluating the balance between the energy absorbed from the sun and the energy radiated back to the sky, assuming steady state conditions and

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ignoring any transmission of energy to the interior. The inputs required are: • Solar radiation reaching the roof surface (W/m2) • Solar absorptance coefficient of the roof surface • Solar emittance coefficient of the roof surface • Convective heat transfer coefficient resulting from airflow over the roof surface (W/m2K) •Sky temperature (°C or K) •Ambient air temperature (°C or K) The sky temperature (in Kelvin) can be estimated with the following empirical formula which is valid in the range -20°C to 30°C (Lienhard et al., 2008): Where:

Calculations based on this method were used to validate the chimney-only CFD model. The chimney-only CFD model consisted of a solid region, representing the carbon steel chimney walls, and a fluid region, representing the air present on the inside and outside of the chimney. An inlet and outlet flow boundary allowed air to flow through the chimney along the z-axis. (Figure 2). Radiation energy entered and left the domain through two additional boundaries (along the y-axis in Figure 2). The model was designed to simulate a representative section of the chimney wall and did not attempt to account for corner effects. It could therefore extend any distance along the x-axis in Figure 2. The chimney-only model consisted of 287 040 cells (283 600 fluid cells and 3 440 solid cells).


CHAPTER 4

Figure 2: Chimney-only model The results obtained from the CFD chimneyonly model and estimates based on the calculations compared well. Simulations were performed with a solar absorptance coefficient of 0.9 and 0.26. The CFD model predicted roof temperatures of 57.3 °C and 35.7 °C for the higher and lower value respectively, compared to the calculated values of 65 °C and 39 °C, respectively. The chimney-only model was then used to obtain chimney wall temperatures for the relevant chimney surfaces on the days selected for simulation. Phase 2: Extended models The extended model included not only the chimney, but also the lecture rooms, connecting passages and a part of the environment, as shown in Figure 3.

Figure 3: Extended CFD-model including the chimney, lecture room and environment

The analysis required the solution of a buoyancy driven flow problem. Hot air in the chimney rises and is replaced by ambient air drawn through the lecture room windows. The air passes though the lecture rooms and enters a passage at ceiling level which is connected to the chimney. The CFD model was a closed loop system: the air expelled from the chimney returned to the region where the windows were located, cooled along the way to approximate the desired ambient air temperature. To support the various calculations such as solar radiation and the solar angles at critical times a typical meteorological year weather was generated with the Meteonorm v7.2.4 software using typical meteorological years based on statistically interpolated data and satellite data for solar radiation. Unfortunately there are no official measured weather stations in this deep rural area. The weather file is for the 2009 climate. Two critical days were selected for analysis: the hottest day of the year and the coldest. The available weather data indicated that statistically, these days were 1 January (hottest) and 16 July (coldest) with peak ambient air temperature of 32.989 °C and 16.547 °C, respectively. Figure 4 and 5 show the available weather data for 1 January and 16 July, respectively. Ecotect v5.60 was used to determine these two days.

Figure 4: Weather data for 1 January (CSIR 2018)

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can be calculated in one of two ways: a∙b = a1b1 + a2b2 + a3b3 (2) or: a∙b = ||a|| ||b|| cos 0

(3)

where 0 is the angle between the vectors. Figure 5: Weather data for 16 July (CSIR 2018) In addition to the direct and diffuse solar radiation, the sun angles were also available every hour on the hour. The sun angles were calculated by means of a bespoke new Early Design Phase (EDP) experimental software platform (developed by author) that uses as its input a typical meteorological year weather file, and combines it with advanced algorithms to calculate the solar azimuth and elevation for each of the 8 760 hour data records in the weather file. The base 8 760 data points have been interpolated by means of a La Grange polynomial interpolation routine to 35 037 datapoints to ensure a less granular solar exposure diagram. The solar energy available on the walls of the solar chimney could be calculated with this data. The sun angles were given as the azimuth (in degrees clockwise from north) and elevation (in degrees with horizontal as 0°). The effective direct solar radiation on a surface will depend on the angle between the incoming rays and the surface normal. If the angle of the incoming radiation and the surface normal are known, the angle between them can be obtained by evaluating the scalar product of the vectors. This angle can then be used to determine the effective solar radiation on the surface. For two 3-dimensional (3D) vectors, a = [a1; a2; a3] and b = [b1; b2; b3] the scalar product

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By combining these equations, the angle between the vectors can be determined. If the radiation hits the surface perpendicular, the surface normal and a vector pointing towards the position of the sun both point in the same direction (i.e. 0 = 0°). A ray bundle with a unit area cross section will be spread over the same area on the surface, i.e. there will be no dilution of the radiation intensity. At any other angle, the rays from the unit area cross section will be spread over a larger-than-unit area on the surface, resulting in an effective dilution of the radiation energy. The extent of the dilution effect can be determined by geometric considerations, as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6: Solar radiation entering through unit area, t, is distributed over surface, s In Figure 6, side t (in red) represents a unit area perpendicular to the ray bundle and side s represents the surface area over which the radiation energy is spread when it hits the surface. Vector b points in the direction of the sun vector a normal the surface. Consider right triangle ABC in Figure 10:


CHAPTER 4 sin(90°− 0 ) = t/s= cos 0 (4) The effective direct solar radiation is therefore given by cos 0. If rays hit the surface perpendicular (i.e. 0 = 0°) cos 0 =1 and 100% of the available radiation per unit area hits a unit area on the surface. At 60° for example, cos 0 = 0.5 and only 50% of the available radiation per unit area will reach a unit area on the surface. Results Hottest day (1 January) The method outlined above along with solar radiation data from weather files were used to obtain solar loads on the relevant surfaces of the chimney wall which in turn, were used as input to the chimney-only model to obtain surface wall temperatures. The results obtained for 1 January are shown in Table 1, below.

A at ceiling level, as seen in Figure 12. This slight difference can be attributed to lower velocities in the region above Room B which in turn is due to the layout of the building. The shortest route from Room A to the chimney leads through a passage with a cross section of approximately 4.3 m2 while air from Room B must cross a section with an area of approximately 2.4 m2. This section can be subdivided in a subsection with an area of approximately 1 m2 where most of the air from Room B could easily reach the chimney and a subsection of approximately 1.4 m2 where it has to join the air from Room A for access to the chimney inlet. Due to these factors Room B would experience significantly more resistance to reach the chimney inlet and as a result, a larger part of the outside air will pass through Room A to reach the chimney (Figure 7).

Table 1: Surface temperatures obtained from chimney-only model for 1 January Surface Temperature (°C) West 54.03 South 41.56 Top 69.17 The temperatures were applied to the relevant wall boundaries in the extended model and simulations were performed. In addition to the chimney walls, heat could also enter the domain through the people present in the lecture rooms. A total of 60 people were modelled (30 in each of the lecture rooms) adding and average of 100 W metabolic energy per person. The part of the building that was modelled contained two rooms: one directly adjacent to the chimney (Room A) and one not directly adjacent (Room B). Room B had a slightly higher temperature than the Room

Figure 7: Velocities at ceiling level and through centre chimney outlet Velocity vectors in the lower region of the chimney is shown in Figure 8. The vectors are coloured by their magnitude. A recirculation zone is clearly visible at the bottom of the chimney. The momentum of the air entering the chimney carries it to the outer wall where it remains as it ascends.

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of the lecture rooms will be shut tight which implies that no through flow of air is possible in the lecture rooms or chimney. The chimney could still be of benefit if hot air could be drawn from its plenum into the lecture rooms. This scenario was modelled by making minor adjustments to the extended model.

Figure 8: Recirculation zone in lower part of chimney Simulating the hottest day of the year (statistically) at the hottest time of the day (14:00) gave the performance in a best case scenario. Results indicated that the chimney would perform quite well under such circumstances. The predicted air change rate was approximately 41, which is relatively high. Significant air flow is drawn in through the windows, with maximum air speeds of approximately 0.55 m/s, which is also relatively high. Given that the ambient air temperature on that day was almost 33 °C such speeds are welcomed as it would help evaporatative cooling effect over the skin. The main aim of the simulations were to firstly determine if the solar chimney will work adequately and secondly to give an indication of how well it could work. The model predicted that the chimney will work very well in a best case scenario. It is understood that the performance of the chimney in real-life conditions will vary between this optimum performance point and a minimum where it is not expected to work at all. For example, the chimney is not expected to function at all is during overcast or rainy days. Coldest day (16 July) In winter, it is expected that the windows

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Hot air will have to be drawn from the chimney into the lecture rooms by mechanical means. No information was available regarding the size of any fans, their characteristics or where they would be located. It was assumed that all windows would be closed but that some air would still leave the domain due to seepage. For the purpose of the simulation four air changes per hour (ACH) were selected to account for this effect: 0.5, 1, 2 and 4. The closed loop system where air that exits the chimney eventually re-enters the windows was interrupted and the windows were instead specified as outlets and air was allowed to enter the domain through a pressure boundary. The selected ACH were specified at the window boundaries. Figure 9 shows the location on the boundaries in the modified model.

Figure 9: Location of boundaries in modified model: outlet (red) and pressure (orange)


CHAPTER 4 Simulations similar to those used to generate the results shown in Table 1 were performed using weather data and solar angle inputs for the coldest day of the year, which was 16 July (statistically). The results obtained are shown in Table 2. Table 2: Surface temperatures obtained from chimney-only model for 16 July Surface Temperature (°C) West 48.40 North 28.28 Top 28.80 These temperatures were applied do the relevant wall boundaries in the (modified) extended model and simulations were performed. Figures 10 and 11 show some of the key features of the flow in the building.

Figure 11: Velocity distribution in building with 4 ACH ventilation rate The results show that the increase in room temperature due the extraction of hot air from the chimney seem to reach a limit, as shown in Figure 12. The outside air (at 16.21 °C) is heated to approximately 19.23 °C after passing through the chimney at 1 ACH.

Figure 12: Average temperature in lecture rooms as a function of ventilation rate

Figure 10: Temperature distribution in building with 4 ACH ventilation rate

Conclusion The concept design for a passive ventilation system for the science centre was simulated using commercially available CFD software. A hot summer day and a cold winter day were simulated. The results indicated that a maximum ACH of 41 is possible under favourable conditions in summer while ambient air drawn through the chimney at a

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rate of 1 ACH could be heated from 16.21 °C to 19.23 °C on a cold winter day. The simulations indicate that a solar chimney can perform well in the particular climatic conditions. References Harris, D. and Helwig, N. 2007. “Solar chimney and building ventilation.” Applied Energy 84 (2007) 135-146. Imran, A., Jalil, J., and Ahmend, S. 2015. “Induced flow for ventilation and cooling by a solar chimney.” Renewable Energy 78 (2015) 236-244. Khanal, R. and Lei, C. 2015. “A numerical investigation of buoyancy induced turbulent air flow in an inclined passive wall solar chimney for natural ventilation.” Energy and Buildings 93 (2015) 217-226. Khanal, R. and Lei, C. 2011. “Solar chimney – A passive strategy for ventilation.” Energy and Buildings 43 (2011) 1811-1819.

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Khanal, R. and Lei, C. 2014. “An experimental investigation of an inclined passive wall solar chimney for natural ventilation.” Solar Energy 107 (2014) 416474. Lei, Y., Zhang, Y., Wang, F. and Wang, X. 2016. “Enhancement of natural ventilation of a novel roof solar chimney with perforated absorber plate for building energy conservation.” Applied Thermal Engineering 107 (2016) 653-661. Suarez-Lopez, M., Blanco-Marigorta, A., Gutierrez-Trashorras, A., Pistona-Favero, J. and Blanco-Marigorta, E. 2015. “Numerical simulation and exergetic analysis of building ventilation solar chimneys.” Energy Conservation and Management 96 (2015) 1-11.


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South African Infrastructure: Condition and future sustainability Chris Rust (CSIR) Louis Duncker (CSIR) R Mokoena A Rampsersad

Introduction It is well known that infrastructure is vital for socio-economic development and alleviation of poverty, provided that the infrastructure functions well in an efficient system (Perkins, 2011). A few countries conduct regular evaluations and/or gradings of the condition of infrastructure in a report card. These include the USA (American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) 2017), Canada (Canadian Infrastructure Report Card (CIRC), 2016), Australia (Kaspura, 2017) and the UK (Living with Environmental Change Initiative (LWEC), 2015 and the Institution of Civil Engineering (ICE, 2017). The poor condition of infrastructure is a world-wide phenomenon. The condition of US infrastructure was rated as D+ in 2017 (ASCE, 2017). Although the Canadian Report Card does not provide a grading, it states that â&#x20AC;&#x153;one-third of our municipal infrastructure is in fair, poor or very poor condition, increasing the risk of service disruption.â&#x20AC;? The South African government emphasized this through their intentions to develop and fund infrastructure as indicated in several official documents including the National Development Plan (National Planning Commission, 2012); the national Infrastructure Plan (Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission, 2012) and the Medium-Term Expenditure Framework. Over the next three-year period government budgets for expenditure of more than R900 billion for infrastructure such as roads, energy generation plants, water infrastructure and public buildings. However, the NDP and the Diagnostic Report (National Planning Commission 2011), as well as the South African Institution of Civil Engineering (SAICE)

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CHAPTER 5 Infrastructure Report Cards (SAICE, 2006, 2011, 2017) have all reported that much South African infrastructure is in a poor condition particularly in the areas of health infrastructure, water infrastructure, sanitation, as well as secondary and tertiary roads. The last SAICE report card in 2017 indicated that infrastructure is deteriorating further. The challenges are caused by a number of factors including insufficient funding for building and maintaining infrastructure; a dire shortage of skilled resources; and a lack of institutional capacity. In this scenario archaic technological solutions are often used that leads to infrastructure not being sustainable and not performing to expectations. In many instances infrastructure has become dilapidated. A case in point is the wellpublicised fire in September 2018 in an old government building in central Johannesburg due to faulty electrical systems that claimed the lives of firemen. SAICE also found that the ratio of population to engineer in South Africa is of the order of 3200 to 1, twenty times less than those of countries like Australia, the USA, China and India (Wall et al, 2015). In other African countries the ratio is even worse, ranging from 1:5400 in Kenya (Arasa, 2012), to 1:49,000 in Uganda (Odango, 2017). This is indicative of the low levels of investment in R&D and impacts severely on Africa’s ability in technological innovation in infrastructure. In addition to the above, climate change will impact significantly on infrastructure due to increased temperatures that impact on building and road performance, increased radiation that ages materials such as asphalt, increased extreme weather events that lead to flooding and storm damage,

and rising sea levels that could impact on low lying infrastructure and ports. The responses to these challenges vary from improved procedures such as maintenance, increased funding, improved institutional capability and harnessing new technologies such as those from the 4th Industrial Revolution (Schwab, 2017). However, in the current low-growth economic scenario it will require a concerted effort to ensure the sustainability of South Africa’s infrastructure into the future. Purpose of the study and methodology SAICE conducted the work for three infrastructure reports cards to highlight the challenges pertaining to the condition of infrastructure in South Africa, and particularly the challenge with maintenance of infrastructure assets. The purpose of the research was therefore to determine the condition of infrastructure through desk top studies of existing information as well as through a survey amongst SAICE professionals. Based on this information, the researchers proposed initial gradings for 31 classes of infrastructure. The information and gradings were then reviewed by SAICE appointed grading panels. South African Institution of Civil Engineers Infrastructure Report Cards SAICE started publishing an Infrastructure Report Card (IRC) in 2006, similar to those published by the American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE, 2017) and the Canadian Infrastructure Report Card (CIRC, 2016). Subsequently, SAICE published two follow up IRCs – in 2011 and 2017. The purpose of the IRC series has been to point out the importance of maintenance of infrastructure and to factors underlying its condition and

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sustainability mainly to government and decision makers. Since 1994, significant progress has been made in correcting imbalances in infrastructure availability especially for the poorest, disadvantaged communities. Special emphasis has been placed on infrastructure for water reticulation and treatment, sanitation, education, energy, health services and roads. (Rust et al, 2018). However, the combination of limited resources, public sector restructuring, inefficiency, and shortages of key skills has led to extreme pressure on the condition of the public infrastructure asset base and its sustainability (Wall and Rust, 2017). SAICE’s IRCs utilize a five-point scale to grade public sector infrastructure: • A: World class • B: Fit for the future • C: Satisfactory for now • D: At risk of failure • E: Unfit for purpose

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The methodology to compile the SAICE infrastructure report cards included basic research by the Council for Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) and gradings by SAICE panels. The three South African IRC publications to date (SAICE 2006, SAICE 2011, SAICE 2017) provide a time series which permits assessment of the trend in infrastructure condition. The overall grading of infrastructure in 2006 was a D+ grade. This improved to a C+ in 2011, mainly due to significant investment by government in prior years in preparation for the Soccer World Cup in 2010. However, in 2017 the grade has regressed to D+ again. The result of the gradings over three years is shown in the table below. Table 1: SAICE gradings for infrastructure in South Africa in 2017 (SAICE, 2017)


CHAPTER 5

This analysis indicates that, apart from national transport infrastructure, there is a general problem with sustaining the quality of infrastructure, particularly those associated with service delivery such as roads, water, sanitation, commuter rail transport, health care and education. Four of these sectors are discussed in more detail below. In general, there has been an improving trends in transport infrastructure, but a significant decreasing trends in bulk water infrastructure, electricity distribution infrastructure and health infrastructure.

Water infrastructure Exploding growth in world populations and increased agricultural and industrial production are putting a strain on existing water supplies worldwide. According to estimates by the Water Resources Group, global water demand is on track to outpace supply by 40% within the next two decades. It is estimated that the water demand in South Africa will reach 17.7 billion cubic meters in 2030, outstripping the supply, which will equal only 15 billion cubic meters. A report by ActionAid (2016) stated that â&#x20AC;&#x153;although South Africa has made significant

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progress in ensuring that more citizens have access to fresh water, this trend is rapidly reversing due to crumbling infrastructure and extreme weather eventsâ&#x20AC;?. The challenges are the large backlogs in water and sanitation services, the poor state of the majority of the water and sanitation infrastructure, the environmental degradation in many natural systems, the shortage of skills, and the fact that South Africa is a mostly water- stressed country, with climate change projected to result in increased aridity in certain parts of the country and an increased variability in rainfall in the future (http://mg.co.za/ article/2014-03-27-facing-challenges-in-thewatersector). The main challenges for South Africa lie in the area of sustaining services. Poor operations and maintenance in the water sector are compromising the effective delivery of water services. Maintenance expenditure is not adequate and there are insufficient resources from tariffs and subsidies to properly sustain the service. Most of South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water pipe networks and pump stations were installed between 1960 and 1990 and are reaching, or have reached, the end of their effective life span. The enormous expansion in networked services over the past decade has not been matched by similar expansions in operating budgets, staffing and expertise, for example 31% of water services posts nationally are currently vacant (Palmer, et.al, n.d.). It is evident that advances in service coverage have outpaced expansion of water, sewers and wastewater treatment capacity (Palmer, et.al. n.d.). The upkeep, refurbishment and/ or upgrading of collection and treatment infrastructure has been ignored over the years (Zhuwakinyu, 2012). Decision

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makers rather opt for the provision of new water or sanitation services over demand management and asset management. The skills required to operate and manage advanced technologies are often scarce outside of major urban centres. Downstream users and ecosystems then bear the consequences in the form of high pathogen loads, eutrophication, and higher treatment costs to achieve potable water standards. It is clear that the government and the private sector should partner to effectively implement the water policies of South Africa and to identify and develop sustainable solutions. A blend of solutions is necessary, which should include technical improvements to increase supply (as well as measures to enhance productivity and efficiency), to balance competing demands on a finite resource, and to ensure that the country is able to meet its water needs both today and into the future. Road infrastructure The South African Department of Transport has recognised the need for a greener and more sustainable transportation system with the Draft Green Transport Strategy: (2017 â&#x20AC;&#x201C; 2050) as published in the Government Gazette (2017). The challenges faced by the roads industry in terms of sustainability include the depletion of non-renewable resources (rock, soil, potable water) and the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG). As an example, Steyn and Paige-Green (2009) projected that 1 200 m3 of a gravel road can be abraded or blown away within 5 to 8 years (based on environmental and traffic conditions). The Department of Environmental Affairs (2014) reported that the transport sector accounts


CHAPTER 5 for 10.8% of the country’s total greenhouse gas emissions with road transport contributing 91.2% of these emissions. There has been advances and actions taken by the industry as well as in Research and Development in promoting more sustainable roads in terms of depletion of nonrenewable materials. Among them include, but are not limited to: • • • • •

The use of phosphogypsum as a pavement material for roads (Paige-Green and Gerber, 2000). The use of seawater as a replacement to potable water in road compaction (Netterberg, 2004). The use of recycled asphalt in their surfacing layer as opposed to using virgin resources for rehabilitation projects (Steyn and Paige-Green, 2009). The sustainable use of oil sand for geotechnical construction and road buildings (Anochie-Boateng and Tutumluer, 2011). The use of waste crushed glass in the production of asphalt mixes (Anochie-Boateng and George, 2017).

The drivers of GHG emissions in the road infrastructure sector mainly includes the production of road building materials, the construction process and vehicle emissions. Actions that are taken to combat GHG emissions include, but are not limited to: • • •

Introduction of Bus Rapid Transit to promote model shifts from private vehicles to public transport (Vas and Venter, 2012). Progress in bicycle friendly roads in an effort to lower GHG emissions (Jennings, 2015). Adoption of electric vehicles and

• •

supporting infrastructure needs (Handel, 2018). Using specialized equipment (Dynamic Cone Penetrometer) to rehabilitate specific road sections as opposed to a larger area (Paige-Green and Pinard, 2012). The use of fly ash as a substitute in road building materials. Fly ash is a by-product of the burning of coal, which does irreversible damage to the atmosphere (Heyns et al., 2016).

It is essential that the above-mentioned actions be sustained in the industry as well as in Research and Development. Further areas of interest that need to be developed to ensure a sustainable road infrastructure network in South Africa include: • •

The use of nanotechnology to develop long life (perpetual) pavements and recycling of materials in existing pavements (applications include self-healing pavement materials, characterization of the aging of bituminous binders and the use as concrete enhancements). Addressing the effect of GHG emissions based on the condition of roads in terms of road roughness (Mashoko et al., 2014).

Railways South Africa’s rail infrastructure is rated as being in a poor condition with a few exceptions being the high-speed passenger rail network (Gautrain) and a few sections along the heavy haul network (SAICE, 2017). A lack of adequate maintenance, particularly along the passenger rail system (PRASA) and branch lines is a major concern which compromises the sustainability of rail transport in the country. Reportedly,

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the main challenge has been historic underinvestment in rail infrastructure resulting in its deteriorating condition over the years. A focus on maintenance has been the status quo of South African rail operators but this alone will not be sustainable in the long run considering the old age of majority of the rail network. Theft and vandalism remain to be an underpinning concern to all rail providers in the country. Outdated infrastructure and poor operational performance is also reported to be highlighting concerns facing the rail sector (George, et al., 2018). The National Rail Policy Green Paper of 2015 identifies the status quo (lack of competitiveness, lack of investment, low line density, old technology, over-aged equipment, narrow Cape gauge and limited network coverage) as unsustainable. An emphasis is placed on shifting towards rail transport from roads by revitalising the sector through strategic interventions to attract funding and investment in a new small high-performance network. Green rail infrastructure is not specifically identified as one of the objectives however; it is recommended to be investigated as a possible means reduce the carbon footprint of rail transport. On an international scale, Manalo et. al (2010) investigated the use of fibre composites as a sustainable material for timber sleepers. Fernandes et. al (2008) showed that the use of geosynthetic reinforcement in the sub-ballast layer of a railway track in Brazil reduced sub-ballast strains and ballast breakdown, thereby allowing the use of mining waste to be used in sub-ballast construction. Considering the significant amount of waste generated by mining activity in South Africa and the railway tracks supporting these mines, it may be worthwhile to explore similar prospects in the direction of environmentally

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sustainable rail infrastructure as part of governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s revitalisation initiatives to upgrade outdated rail infrastructure. One of the objectives of Transnetâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s 7-year Market Demand Strategy (MDS) in 2012 was to provide rail infrastructure which can accommodate the modal shift from road to rail transport. The Department of Environmental Affairs (DEA) conducted a Mitigation Potential Analysis (MPA) which showed that this shift can address the three pillars of sustainability by being more environmentally, economically and socially sustainable. The shift can potentially reduce the carbon dioxide equivalents (ktCO2) by 3000 kilotons per year by the year 2050. This figure represents 0.7% of the total mitigation potential in South Africa. It is also a more cost-effective transport option with an overall positive impact on national employment. Although the MPA shows the benefits of the modal shift, a national survey (CSIR, 2013) showed that there is scepticism in the private industry towards freight rail and more still needs to be done address the loss of market share in the rail sector. A more likely solution, as identified by the survey, may be to introduce an integrated system of road and rail transport. More recently the International Heavy Haul Association (IHHA), which consists of various national and state organisations including South Africa, has been commissioned to conduct a study on the development of heavy haul rail in the Fourth Industrial Revolution. The revolution points towards artificial intelligence, automation, real-time monitoring and digital solutions (Liedtke, 2018). An uptake of these developments would assist in addressing the technology deficit in South Africaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s railway sector.


CHAPTER 5 Findings and concluding remarks The series of three report cards indicate that South Africa has a significant problem with the condition of infrastructure that, in spite of budgeted increases in infrastructure spending by government, is still well below average in several sectors. There are particular challenges in water and sanitation infrastructure, roads (other than national roads), electricity distribution, health care and education. According to SAICE, and supported by the survey results, this is mainly due to a lack of funding, a lack of proper maintenance, infrastructure overloading, and some aspects of design and technology. In some instances a lack of institutional capability also plays a significant role (SAICE 2017). The SAICE report card series clearly indicated that South Africa has a significant problem with the sustainability of its infrastructure. This is particularly evident in the face of increased effects of climate change. Potential solutions lie in firstly improving South Africa’s skills relating to infrastructure decision making, particularly in government bodies. The second major aspect to be addressed is increased funding as well as an improvement of how the funds are spent, including budgeting and planning for effective maintenance. The dilemma of balancing the challenges of maintaining existing infrastructure with provision of new infrastructure to address the inequalities of the past also needs to be addressed. Within the above and considering the complexity of the infrastructure provision and management process, a holistic approach is required that will combine new technological advances with solutions addressing institutional capability and the social aspects of infrastructure.

The condition of infrastructure is furthermore, threatened by the effects of climate change due to increased temperatures and adverse weather conditions thus threatening the sustainability of infrastructure. References ActionAid South Africa. 2016. Running on empty: What Business, Government and Citizens must do to confront South Africa’s water crisis. Report written by Changing Markets based on contributions by Pegasys Institute, Dr Anthony Turton, Dr Anja du Plessis, Jo Walker, Stefanie Swanepoel, for the Water Interrupted Campaign. April 2016, ActionAid South Africa. Anochie-Boateng, J and George, T. (2017). Investigation of the use of waste crushed glass in the production of asphalt mixes. Proceedings of the Institute of Civil Engineers – Construction Materials. ISSN: 1747 – 650 X. Anochie-Boateng, J and Tutumluer, E. (2011). Sustainable use of oil sands for geotechnical construction and road building. International symposium on Testing and Specification of recycled materials for sustainable geotechnical construction. Baltimore, USA. ASCE (2017). Infrastructure Report Card 2017. American Society of Civil Engineers. Available at https://www. infrastructurereportcard.org/ Arasa, Gilbert, M. 2012. Presentation by Eng Gilbert M Arasa, Registrar of the Engineers Board of Kenya, 22 April 2012. CIRC, (2016). Canadian Infrastructure Report Card 2016. Available at http://www.

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canadainfrastructure.ca/en/ CSIR, 2013. Annual state of logistics survey for South Africa, Pretoria: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Department of Environmental Affairs. (2014). GHG National Inventory Report for South Africa (2000 – 2010). Fernandes, G., Palmeira, E. M. & Gomes, R. C., 2008. Performance of geosyntheticreinforced alternative sub-ballast material in a railway track. Geosynthetics International, 15(5), pp. 311-321. George, T. B., Mokoena, R. & Rust, F. C., (2018). A review on the current condition of rail infrastructure in South Africa. Pretoria, Southern African Transport Conference. Government Gazette. (2017). Draft Green Transport Strategy: (2017 – 2050). Department of Transport, No. 41064, Pg. 189 – 270. 25 August 2017. Handel, M. (2018). Electric vehicle adoption in the South African context. United Nations Industrial Development Organization. CSIR. South Africa Heyns, M. W., Adedeji, J. A and Hassan, M. M. (2016). Utilization of Fly Ash in Road Construction in South Africa: Environmental Assessment. 21st Century Human Habitat: Issues, Sustainability and Development. Pg. 426 – 432. Akure, Nigeria. ICE, (2017). State Of The Nation 2017: Digital Transformation. Institution of Civil Engineers, London, UK. Jennings, G. (2015). A bicycling renaissance in South Africa? Policies, programmes and trends in Cape Town. 34th Southern African

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Transport Conference. ISBN: 978 – 1 – 920017 – 63 – 7. Kaspura, A. (2017). Infrastructure in Australia. Institution of Engineers Australia, Barton. Liedtke, S., 2018. Engineering News-Railway industry to develop new roadmap towards Fourth Industrial Revolution. [Online] Living With Environment Change initiative. Available at http://www.ukcip.org.uk/lwecinfrastructure-report-card/ Available at: http://www.engineeringnews. co.za/article/railway-industry-to-developnew-roadmap-towards-fourth-industrialrevolution-2018-04-18 Manalo, A., Aravinthan, T., Karunasena, W. & Ticoalu, A., 2010. A review of alternative materials for replacing existing timber sleepers. Composite Structures, 92(3), pp. 603-611. Mashoko, L., Bean, W. L and Steyn, W. J. vdM. (2014). Investigating the environmental costs of deteriorating road conditions in South Africa. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. Technical Report. National Planning Commission. (2012). National Development Plan 2030 Netterberg, F. (2004). Use of seawater in slurry of Cape Seal. Proceedings of the 8th Conference of Asphalt Pavements for Southern Africa. ISBN Number: 1 – 920 – 01718 – 6. Odango, Michael M. 2017. “Why Engineers are Still in Short Supply in Uganda.” Article in Newsvision, 28 March 2017.


CHAPTER 5 Paige-Green, P and Gerber, S. (2000). An evaluation of the use of by-product phosphogypsum as a pavement material for roads. South African Transport Conference. 17 – 20 July 2000. South Africa. Paige-Green, P and Pinard, M. I. (2012). Optimum design of sustainable sealed low volume roads using the dynamic cone penetrometer. 25th Australian Road Research Board Conference. Palmer, I., Graham, N., Swilling, M., Robinson, B., Eales, E., Fisher-Jeffes, L., Käsner, S. & Skeen, J. n.d. South Africa’s Urban Infrastructure Challenge. Contribution to the Integrated Urban Development Framework for the Benchmarking Initiative. CoGTA, Pretoria. Perkins, P. (2011). The role of economic infrastructure in economic growth: building on experience. Focus, 60: 24-33 Presidential Infrastructure Coordinating Commission. (2012). A Summary of the South African National Infrastructure Plan

SAICE (2017). SAICE 2017 Infrastructure Report Card. The South African Institution of Civil Engineering Schwab, Klaus. (2017). The Fourth Industrial Revolution, World Economic Forum, Crown Business Steyn, W. J. vdM and Paige-Green, P. (2009). Evaluation of issues around road materials for sustainable transport. University of Pretoria. Vas, E and Venter, C. (2012). The effectiveness of Bus Rapid Transit as part of a poverty-reduction strategy: some early impacts in Johannesburg. 31st Southern African Transport Conference. ISBN: 978 – 1 – 920017 – 53 – 8. Wall, K and FC Rust. 2015. “A rating tool to assess the condition of South African Infrastructure.” The 5th Conference on Smart and Sustainable Built Environments. Pretoria, South Africa. Zhuwakinyu, M. 2012. Creamer Media’s Water Report, 2012.Research Unit of Creamer Media. Johannesburg

Rust, FC, K Wall and S Amod. (2018). South African infrastructure condition – an opinion survey for the SAICE Infrastructure Report Card. Article submitted for publication in the SAICE journal, South Africa. SAICE. (2006). The SAICE Infrastructure Report Card for South Africa: 2006. The South African Institution of Civil Engineering, Midrand. SAICE. (2011). SAICE Infrastructure Report Card for South Africa 2011. The South African Institution of Civil Engineering, Midrand.

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Developing a Framework for a Water Resilient Built Environment By: Jeremy Gibberd

1 Introduction Climate change is having a significant impact on rainfall and water resources in South Africa. These impacts will become more severe and climate change models project increased occurrence of reduced and irregular rainfall in some areas and the intensification of extreme rainfall events and floods in other areas (Engelbrecht, 2016). At the same time, rapid urban growth in South Africa is placing additional pressure on municipal services and infrastructure and backlogs are increasing (Wilkinson, 2014; Msindo, 2018). Ageing infrastructure and a lack of maintenance are also causing increased leakage and water outages (SAICE 2011; Wensley and Mackintosh, 2015; Statistics South Africa, 2017). It is, therefore, increasingly important to understand water systems in built environments in South Africa and identify their vulnerabilities. As water is an essential service these vulnerabilities must be addressed and the resilience of systems improved. This chapter presents a framework for built environments that can be used to understand and enhance water resilience. It concludes that the framework could play a useful role in improving awareness about water resilience in the built environment and provides a useful basis for further work in this field. 2 Water in South Africa As a continent, Africa is rapidly urbanizing and urban areas are expected to experience a growth rate of 3.9% through to 2050 (Bahri et al., 2016). Much of this growth is projected to occur in smaller towns with limited infrastructure and therefore new water supplies will be required (Bahri et al., 2016; South African Cities Network, 2014). Densification and increasing populations

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CHAPTER 6 in existing suburbs, as well as changing lifestyles, have increased water consumption and is changing patterns of use (Popkin, 2006). More prevalent impervious landscapes have magnified runoff in many urban areas, increasing storm water flows and flooding (Roberts, 2010). In South Africa, urban growth has resulted in growing housing and service backlog (Fatti and Patel, 2013; Muller, 2007). In 1994, housing backlogs were estimated to be 1.5 million, in 2011, 1.9 million and by 2017, were estimated to be 2.3million (Wilkinson, 2014; Msindo, 2018). In 2017, Statistics South Africa estimated that 13.6% of households in South Africa lived in informal dwellings (Statistics South Africa, 2017). It also indicated that a significant proportion of households (11%) did not have a water supply on their premises (Statistics South Africa, 2017). In addition, 18% of households in South Africa in 2017 were deemed to have substandard toilet facilities such as chemical toilets, a pit latrines without vents or bucket or ecological sanitation (Statistics South Africa, 2017). Ageing water infrastructure in many municipalities has also not always been adequately maintained leading to significant losses through leakage (South African Cities Network, 2014; SAICE 2011; Wensley and Mackintosh, 2015; Bahri et al., 2016). Increasing backlogs and poor infrastructure heighten the risks of poor health and the outbreak of disease (Gundry et al., 2004). Climate change Climate change has already had significant impacts on urban water systems in South Africa. In 2017, Cape Town, a major city, faced the possibility of running out of water and had to institute severe water rationing

(City of Cape Town, 2017). Patterns of water scarcity in other towns also exist. In 2014, the Department of Water and Sanitation indicated that water resources in 30% of South Africa’s towns were already in deficit and suggested that water shortages would be expected in at least another 15% of South Africa’s towns in the next 5 years, with an addition 12% of towns also suffering shortages in the 5 years following this (Department of Water Affairs, 2013). While climate change modelling is subject to uncertainty, the accuracy and detail of projections in this area are rapidly developing. Recent climate change projections have been carried out for South Africa at an 8 x 8 km resolution for a range of different scenarios (Engelbrecht, 2016). Projections for a low mitigation scenario (RCP 8.5) for the period 2021 – 2050 relative to 1961-1990 indicate the following changes: • Hotter temperatures: Temperature increases of 1 to 2.5°C in the southern coastal areas and 3°C in the northern areas of South Africa are projected for the period 2021 to 2050, relative to temperatures in the period 1961 – 1990. • Minimum temperatures: Minimum temperatures are projected to increase by 2 to 3 °C for the period 2021 – 2050, relative to the period 1961 -1990. • Very hot days: An increase in very hot days is projected for the period 2021 – 2050, relative to 1961 – 1990. • Changes in rainfall: Increases in annual rainfall are projected in the central interior and east coast, while reductions are expected in the western interior and the north-eastern parts of South Africa in the period 2021-2050, relative to the period 1971 – 2000.

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• •

Extreme rainfall events: Extreme rainfall events are projected to increase in frequency in the central interior and east coast for the period 20212050, relative to the period 1961 – 2000. For the period 2070-2099, relative to the period 1961 – 2000, reductions in these events are projected for Lesotho and Kwa-Zulu Natal Midlands areas. Increased wind speeds: Wind speeds are projected to increase in the northern interior regions of South Africa and decrease in other regions for the period 2021-2050, relative to the period 1961 – 2000 (Engelbrecht, 2016).

These projections have significant implications for built environments (Gibberd, 2018). Many of these are relevant to water systems in built environments and are listed briefly below. • •

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Water scarcity: In many areas of South Africa water is likely to become increasingly scarce. Water will, therefore, have to be used more efficiently and carefully in built environments and alternative, additional sources of water, such as rainwater harvesting, found. Water supply reliability: Irregular rainfall patterns will affect the capacity of existing water resources and may lead to less reliable water supplies. The capacity and resilience of existing water resources, as well as the identification of additional resources, will, therefore, have to be considered in the development of built environments. Increased on-site storage of water and rainwater harvesting systems may

• • • •

become necessary in some areas. Water usage: Higher temperatures will lead to increased water consumption as more water is used for irrigation, cooling and personal consumption. Increases in water supply will, therefore, have to be required or water usage in the building will have to be reduced. Personal adaptation: Increased temperatures will required people to undertake a range of personal adaptive measures to keep healthy and cool. Built environments will have to support this adaptation, by for instance, by providing cooler spaces and access to drinking water (Krecar, et al., 2014) Structural implications: Extreme rainfall events may result in structural damage as buildings experience conditions in excess of their designed capacity. This could result in the collapse of roofs and walls, the overloading of rainwater systems and flooding and damage as a result. Flooding: Extreme rainfall events will increase the likelihood of flooding and vulnerable built environments may be damaged and collapse as a result.

Given the scale of the risks to the built environment it is important that climate change is addressed effectively. Investments in new water systems to unserved areas and the upgrading of existing systems must, therefore, ensure these are more resilient (Bahri et al., 2016; Muller, 2007). As water and sanitation infrastructure may last over 100 years before being upgraded it is particularly important that projected


CHAPTER 6 changes, such as climate change, that may occur during its lifetime are addressed in the planning and design of systems (Muller, 2007). Similarly, as built environments usually have a lifespan of at least 50 years, it is also important that water systems in buildings are designed to accommodate projected changes over this period (Guan, 2009). Incorporating the concept of resilience in water infrastructure and built environment planning, design and operations can be used to ensure that projected future changes are addressed effectively. 3 Resilience Many different definitions exist for resilience (Holling, 1973; Adger, 2000; Zhou et al., 2009). Resilience has its origins in the field of ecology and can be described as â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;the persistence of relationships within a system and the ability of this system to absorb changes, and still persistâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Holling, 1973). A review of resilience definitions suggests that there are two main characteristics in resilient systems. The first relates to the ability to maintain particular aspects of a system, in spite of change. This means that key aspects of a system, such as the function and structure remain intact and are retained during, and after, a change (Folke, 2006). The second characteristic relates to the capacity of the system to recover after a disturbance. This requires the system to have self-organising, regenerating and reorganising properties that enable the system to reform and maintain itself (Folke, 2006). The framework proposed in this chapter, therefore does not aim to capture the full complexity of resilience in water systems in built environments but has a focus on

the key functionality of water systems in built environments, which is to supply clean water. Based on the above review a definition for water resilient systems can therefore be developed as follows: Water resilient systems are planned, designed, constructed and operated to ensure that there is a reliable supply of clean water within the building that enables it to be occupied and allows key functions to continue (Author). 4 Proposed Water Resilient Built Environment Framework The Water Resilient Built Environment Framework defines key objectives and criteria within each of the 5 areas of a built environment water system (water resources, water reticulation, water use, wastewater reticulation, and waste water treatment) that should be achieved in order to support improved resilience. Broad resilience objectives within urban and building water systems are the same, however, the measures applied to achieve these objectives may differ. Where this is the case, specific reference to urban and building measures are made within the respective criterion. The framework below, therefore, describes the key resilience objectives for each area. This is then followed by more detailed criteria that reflect how this objective can be achieved through measures within urban and building water systems. 4.1 Water Resources Objective: Water resources for the built environment have adequate capacity to provide a reliable ongoing supply of clean water.

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Climate change and other risks A study of existing and future risks, including climate change, social conflict and crime, to water resources has been carried out and is addressed in water resource planning, development and operation. Capacity of water resources Water source(s) have sufficient capacity to meet ongoing requirements. This can be demonstrated through studies that take into account future demand and risks such as climate change. Where it appears there may be insufficient capacity, existing capacity is enhanced and alternative sources of water are provided. At an urban scale, capacity can be enhanced through catchment area management initiatives which address soil erosion and exotic vegetation removal. It could also include increasing the capacity of dams and reservoirs. Alternative sources of water could include desalination plants, reusing water from wastewater treatment plants and the use of boreholes. At a building scale, rainwater harvesting capacity can be enhanced by increasing catchment areas and onsite storage capacity (Gibberd, 2015). Alternative sources of water could include onsite boreholes and the use of water from onsite wastewater treatment plants (World Health Organisation, 2009; Kiker, 2000; Lee et al., 2016). Water treatment Water treatment requirements are minimised through upstream interventions which ensure water quality of the resource is high. Required inputs for water treatment such as chemicals and power are minimised and are sourced from reliable sources, with alternatives and back up options available, should these be required. Quality of water The water supply meets required quality standards for drinking water. Measures are in place to regularly check water quality and minimise the risk of contamination. Systems are in place to contain contamination to small volumes of water should this occur. Management Well-resourced capacity is in place to manage water resource (World Health Organisations, 2009; SAICE, 2011). At an urban level, required capacity would include an organisational structure that is appropriately resourced and staffed with people with appropriate technical skills and training. At a building level, required capacity would include ensuring there is at least one appropriately trained person within the building that fully understands the water systems and can operate these. There should also be a manual that explains the water system and how they are operated.

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CHAPTER 6 Monitoring Effective monitoring systems are in place to monitor the capacity and quality of water supplies (World Health Organisation, 2009). At an urban level, the monitoring systems would include a comprehensive network of meters and sensors that are can be used to monitor water resources. This monitoring system should be linked to wider catchment, weather and consumption monitoring systems to enable a comprehensive picture can be developed. Analytical and modelling capabilities should also be in place to ensure that data is used in effective planning processes which address to potential future risks such as droughts. At a building scale, the monitoring systems would include sensors in water storage capacity, such as rainwater tanks, to enable accurate reporting on retained water volumes. User Awareness Effective systems are in place to ensure built environment users are aware of condition and capacity of water resources. At an urban level, user awareness would include a web portal which indicates volumes of usable water at water resources. This should also provide an indication of how long this water resource would last at current water consumption rates. Ideally, water volumes available at the water resource and water consumption rates should be provided over time in a simple graph to enable water users to understand limitations of the water resource and the consequences of water use patterns. At a building level, user awareness would include providing data on available water resources on a web page. Alternatively, it may also be posted on a notice board where it will be seen by water users in the building. Ideally, available water and water consumption rates should be provided over time in a simple graph to enable water users to understand the limitations of the water resource and the consequences of water use patterns. 4.2 Water Reticulation Objective: Reticulation of water from water resource to use in the built environment is efficient, robust and well managed and maintained. Climate change and other risks A study of existing and future risks, including climate change, social conflict and crime, to water reticulation systems has been carried out and is addressed in water reticulation planning, development and operation. Reticulation Design and materials used for reticulation are high quality and have a lifespan of at least 20 years. Water reticulation systems are designed to ensure ongoing supply even if there is a failure in one or more areas of the systems through, for instance, water network loops (EPA, 2015).

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Pumping system The reticulation system is powered by gravity or energy efficient robust technology. Power for the system is reliable and back up and alternative systems are in place to ensure operations continue if there is a mains power failure. At an urban level, electrical pumps within the reticulation system have a dedicated secure uninterrupted power supply and/or local backup generators. At a building level, electrical pumps have an alternative power supply such as battery backup power/backup generators/photovoltaic systems. In smaller buildings, manual pumps may also be supplied. Management Water reticulation is well managed and maintained. Regular checks are in place to ensure there are no leaks or damage (World Health Organisation, 2009; SAICE, 2011). Water reticulation includes features and technology which can be used to reduce water consumption. At an urban level, mechanisms are in place which controls water flows and pressure within the system to reduce water consumption and wastage. At a building level, strategically located valves can be used to reduce pressure or cut off the water supply to areas to reduce water consumption and wastage. Monitoring Effective monitoring systems including a leak detection system is in place. User Awareness Effective systems are in place to ensure built environment user can report water reticulation failures such as leaks. 4.3 Water Use Objective: Water used in built environments is only used where required, is used efficiently and is not wasted. Climate change and other risks A study of existing and future risks, including climate change, social conflict and crime, to water uses have been carried out and is addressed in water use planning, development and operation. Water uses Water is used only where necessary in built environments, for instance, for personal consumption and washing. In water scarce areas all unnecessary uses of water such as topping up ornamental ponds and irrigating ornamental landscaping are eliminated.

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CHAPTER 6 Water efficient systems All water delivery devices and equipment such as taps, shower heads and washing machines are highly water efficient and minimise the use of water (Gibberd, 2009). Greywater systems Greywater systems are in place which ensures that grey water is used within the built environment to reduce consumption of water resource (Gibberd, 2009). Sanitation Built environments are designed to minimise water use in sanitation systems. Where possible, water-based sanitation is avoided (Gibberd, 2009; Gibberd, 2018a). Water metering Effective systems are in place to ensure water use is metered and reported on to enable this to be managed effectively. At an urban level, all water uses are metered and monthly consumption levels are reported to water users. At a building level, as well as the main meter on the incoming supply, a system of sub metering is in place in larger buildings to monitor water uses in different areas. Water use monitoring and charging Effective systems are in place that ensures that water users are aware of their water use and can manage this. At an urban level, charges and tariffs are used to ensure water use is within water resource constraints. At a building level, water use targets are set and a system of penalties and incentives provided to achieve these. Water awareness Effective systems are in place to ensure that water users are aware of levels of water consumption relative to available capacity and understand how they can change their behaviour to use water within capacity constraints. 4.4 Wastewater Reticulation Objective: Reticulation of wastewater use locations in the built environment is efficient, robust and well managed and maintained Climate change and other risks A study of existing and future risks, including climate change, social conflict and crime, to wastewater reticulation has been carried out and is addressed in wastewater reticulation planning, development and operation.

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Reticulation Design and materials used for reticulation are high quality and have a lifespan of at least 20 years. Reticulation systems are designed to ensure ongoing operation even if there is a failure in one or more areas of the system through, for instance, network loops (EPA, 2015). Pumping system Wastewater reticulation is powered by gravity or by energy efficient, robust technology. Power systems are reliable and back up and alternative systems are in place to ensure continued operation if there is a pump or mains power failure. Management Wastewater reticulation is well managed and maintained and regularly checked to ensure there are no leaks or damage (World Health Organisations, 2009; SAICE, 2011). Monitoring Effective monitoring systems including leak detection systems are in place. User Awareness Effective systems are in place to ensure that the built environment occupants report wastewater reticulation failures and leakages. 4.5 Wastewater Treatment Objective: Wastewater from uses in the built environment is reused where possible and treated to avoid this contaminating water resources. Climate change and other risks A study of existing and future risks, including climate change, social conflict and crime, to wastewater treatment has been carried out and is addressed in wastewater treatment planning, development and operation. Capacity of the wastewater treatment system Wastewater treatment system has sufficient capacity for ongoing requirements. This can be demonstrated through studies that take into account future demand and risks such as climate change. Where it appears there may be insufficient capacity, additional capacity and alternative approaches are identified that ensure that the system is sufficient to meet ongoing requirements. Alternative approaches could include increased use of onsite ecological water treatment and ecological sanitation systems (World Health Organisation, 2009; Gibberd, 2018a). Wastewater treatment Wastewater treatment requirements are minimised through upstream interventions which ensure that the level of wastewater contamination is as low as possible. Required inputs for wastewater treatments such as chemicals and power are minimised and are sourced from reliable sources, with alternatives and backup options available.

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CHAPTER 6

Quality of treated wastewater Treated wastewater from system meets required quality standards for wastewater and will not contaminate water resources. Management Well-resourced capacity in place to manage wastewater treatment systems (World Health Organisation, 2009; SAICE, 2011) At an urban level, required capacity would include an organisational structure that is appropriately resourced and staffed with people with appropriate technical skills and training. At a building scale, this would include ensuring there is at least one person within the building that is appropriately trained and fully understands the wastewater treatment system and can operate these. There should also be a manual that explains how the wastewater treatment systems work and should be operated. Monitoring Effective monitoring systems in place to monitor the quality of treated wastewater (World Health Organisation, 2009). Wastewater generation and charging Effective systems are in place that ensures that users are aware of the volumes of wastewater they generate and can manage this. Wastewater treatment charges and tariffs that ensures that treatment of wastewater achieves standards and that sustainable funding avoids system failures and contamination of water resources. User Awareness Effective systems are in place to ensure that built environment users understand wastewater treatment requirements and can report when these are not being met, for instance, when there is contamination of water resources as a result of ineffective treatment. The breadth of Water Resilient Built Environment Framework means that its application may have to be coordinated with a range of role-players, such as water utility companies, municipalities and individual building owners as well across a range of scales, such as the water catchment area, water storage locations, urban water reticulation systems and urban waste water reticulation systems as well as water and sanitation systems within a building site.

5 Conclusions and Recommendations Water is essential for human health and productivity. Adequate and reliable supplies of water within built environments are therefore crucial. However, rapid urbanisation is making it difficult for municipalities in South Africa to provide adequate services to new developments, resulting in increasing backlogs, and settlements without bulk service infrastructure. Ageing and poorly maintained

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infrastructure in many areas have resulted increases in leaks and supply interruptions. Irregular rainfall and higher temperatures associated with climate change have made this situation worse and there are increasing risks of water shortages and outages in many South African cities and towns. The proposed Water Resilient Built Environment Framework presented in this chapter responds to this situation by providing guidance on how water systems can be made more resilient. It advocates a comprehensive and proactive approach to enhancing the resilience of water systems in built environments and provides a basis that can be used for undertaking further work in this field. 6 References Adger, W.N., 2000, Social and ecological resilience: are they related, In Progress in Human Geography, 24, 347–364. Bahri, F., Brikké, F. and Vairavamoorthy, K., 2016. Managing Change to Implement Integrated Urban Water Management in African Cities. Aquatic Procedia, 6, pp.3-14 City of Cape Town, 2017, Day Zero. Retrieved from https://coct.co/water-dashboard/ [Accessed 11 December. 2017]. Department of Water Affairs, 2013. National Water Resources Strategy. Retrieved from http://www.dwa.gov.za/documents/Other/ Strategic%20Plan/NWRS2-Final-emailversion.pdf [Accessed 11 December. 2017]. Engelbrecht, F., 2016. Detailed projections of future climate change over South Africa, CSIR Technical Report. EPA, 2015. Systems Measures of Water Distribution System Resilience. 600/R-14/383, January 2015. Fatti, C.E. and Patel, Z., 2013. Perceptions and responses to urban flood risk: Implications for climate governance in the South. Applied Geography, 36, pp.13-22.

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Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses, Global Environmental Change, 16(3), pp. 253–267. Gibberd, J. 2009. Water Conservation, Chapter in the Green Building Handbook Volume 1, Alive 2 Green Publishers, ISBN 978-0-620-45067-6 Gibberd, J., 2015. Rainwater harvesting playing a valuable role in increasing the resilience and sustainability of water supply, Sustainable Water Resource Handbook Volume 6, Alive 2 Green Publishers Gibberd, J., 2018. Climate Change: Implications on South African Building Systems and Component, Green Building Handbook, Volume 11, The Essential Guide. Gibberd, 2018a. Sanitation Options for Sustainable Housing: A Decision Making Tool. Out-of-the-Box Human Settlements Conference, 24 – 25 October 2018, CSIR, Pretoria, South Africa Guan, L., 2009. Preparation of future weather data to study the impact of climate change on buildings. Building and environment, 44(4), pp.793-800. Gundry, S., Wright, J. and Conroy, R., 2004. A systematic review of the health outcomes related to household water quality in developing countries. Journal of water and health, 2(1), pp.1-13. Holling, C.S.,1973. Resilience and stability of ecological systems”, Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics, 4, pp. 1–23. Kiker, G., A, 2000, Synthesis Report for the Vulnerability and Adaptation Assessment Section: South African Country Study on Climate Change. Department of Environmental Affairs and Tourism, Pretoria. Krecar, I.M., Kolega, M. and Kunac, S.F., 2014. The Effects of Drinking Water on Attention. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, pp.577-583. Lee, K.E., Mokhtar, M., Hanafiah, M.M.,


CHAPTER 6 Halim, A.A. and Badusah, J., 2016, Rainwater harvesting as an alternative water resource in Malaysia: potential, policies and development. Journal of Cleaner Production, 126, 218-222. Msindo, E., 2018. Housing backlog: Protests and the demand for Housing in South Africa, Public Service Accountability Monitor. Retrieved from http:// psam.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/ Housing-backlog.pptx [Accessed 11 December. 2017]. Muller, M., 2007. Adapting to climate change water management for urban resilience. In Environment and Urbanization, 19(1), 99-113. Perrings, C., Mäler, K.G., Folke, C., Holling C.S., and Jansson B.O., (Eds.), 1995. Biodiversity loss: economic and ecological issues, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp. 84–125. Popkin, B.M., 2006. Technology, transport, globalization and the nutrition transition food policy. Food policy 31 (6), 554–569. Roberts, D., 2010. Prioritizing climate change adaptation and local level resilience in Durban, South Africa. Environment and Urbanization, 22(2), 397-413. SAICE, 2011. The SAICE Infrastructure Report Card 2014, South African Institution of Civil Engineers. South African Cities Network, 2014. The State of Water in Cities: Analysis of water resource and its management in Cities. Statistics South Africa, 2017. General Household Survey 2017. Retrieved from http:// www.statssa.gov.za/publications/P0318/ P03182017.pdf [Accessed 11 December. 2017]. Wensley, A., & Mackintosh, G. 2015, Water Risks in South Africa, with a particular focus on the “Business Health” of Municipal Water Services. DHI-SA 2015 Annual Conference. World Health Organisation, 2018. Cholera. Retrieved from https://afro.

who.int/health-topics/cholera [Accessed 11 September. 2018]. World Health Organisation, 2009, Summary and policy implications Vision 2030: the resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change. WHO Press. Wilkinson, K., 2018. Factsheet: The housing situation in South Africa. Retrieved from https://africacheck.org/factsheets/factsheetthe-housing-situation-in-south-africa/ Zhou, H., Wang, J., Wan, J., and Jia, H., 2009. Resilience to natural hazards: a geographic perspective, Natural Hazards, 53(1), pp. 21–41.

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Sanitation and climate change adaptation By: Louiza Duncker (CSIR)

Introduction Climate change is a natural process; however, human activities are contributing to its relentless acceleration. With likely long-term changes in rainfall patterns, rising temperatures and shifting climate zones (IPCC, 2013), climate change is expected to increase the frequency of climate-related shocks, which in turn will put pressure on food, energy and water supply. Water is a key resource for sustaining life and society. No community and no economy can survive without water of sufficient quality and quantity for the purposes needed. Water is becoming more and more polluted by human activities due to wash-off in areas with inadequate sanitation and open defecation practices, and due to a number of wastewater treatment plants that are unable to cope with the increased volumes of wastewater from rapidly growing urban areas (DBSA, 2013). Whilst nature-based, infrastructure-based and technology-based adaptation are important, it is the human factor that rocks and sinks the boat. Technologybased adaptation interventions can only be partially effective if they do not also address factors that are the underlying contextual drivers of vulnerability to climate change (USAID, 2015). For example, the implementation and effectiveness of non-conventional toilets is limited by their acceptance in a community, which in turn depends on their needs, aspirations, and cultural preferences (Duncker, 2017; Duncker, 2014; Duncker & Matsebe, 2008), as well as its costs, ease of use and maintenance, and access to spare parts and service support. Even though technology can increase the effectiveness of adaptation, it will not solve

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CHAPTER 7 all the uncertainties associated with climate change and sanitation. It needs to be combined with other enabling mechanisms to be effective in reducing vulnerabilities and building resilience. Given the many relationships between the impacts of climate change, the water and sanitation sector, as well as the social and economic systems, adaptation cannot be implemented efficiently by itself or as a strictly technical or environmental issue (Howard et al., 2010). Long-term, sustainable adaptation to climate change requires Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) that promotes the coordinated development and management of water, land and related resources, in order to maximise economic and social welfare in an equitable manner, without compromising the sustainability of vital ecosystems (Slootweg, 2009; DWA, 2013, Kohlitz, Chong & Willets, 2017). The National Climate Change Adaptation Strategy supports this by recommending that adaptation should go beyond the biophysical and economic variables and should respond to the triggers and processes that define and influence changes in decision-making and action (DEA, 2017). The purpose of this chapter is to raise awareness about the effects of climate change on the sanitation value chain, and the importance of community-based climate change adaptation regarding sanitation. Sanitation infrastructure is important, but what people do and their attitudes and behaviour regarding sanitation in the changing climate is crucial. An environmental scan has been conducted to obtain a delineation of the issues regarding sanitation and adaptation to climate change. The environmental scan involves using various sources of information, such as academic and grey (popular) literature, press

releases, newsletters and journal articles; key word internet searches; proceedings of conferences or seminars; and tracking blogs. Analysis and synthesis of the information follow the scanning. The loop stays in play, directing further scans (Gordon & Glenn, 2009). Background Water and climate change are inextricably linked, as the effects of climate change are first felt through droughts, floods and storms. These disasters can destroy water supplies and toilets, or can leave behind contaminated water, endangering the lives of millions of people (UNICEF, 2016; Hutton & Chase, 2016; SAHRC, 2014; Braks & de Roda Husman, 2013; Howard et al. 2010; OHCHR, n.d.). In September 2015, the United Nations endorsed the Sustainable Development Goal 6 (Ensure availability and sustainable management of water and sanitation for all). This goal cannot be met without explicitly recognising climate change as a key component (UN, 2015). Rapid urbanisation and population growth is putting extraordinary demands on water, accompanied by the disposal of equally large volumes of wastewater into rivers, dams and the groundwater (WWF-SA, 2016; UN-Habitat, 2018; Miller & Hutchins, 2017). Faecal waste and raw sewage are present in the environment often due to a lack of adequate toilets, or poor quality toilets, broken sewers and inadequate or overburdened wastewater treatment systems (DBSA, 2013). This contributes to contamination of surface and groundwater, thus impacting on the wellbeing of humans and wildlife. Even though greenhouse gas emissions from septic tanks, pit toilets, and open-

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air defecation are largely unquantified, emissions from wastewater are expected to rise by almost 50% by 2020 (Bates et al., 2008; Bogner et al., 2007; Fischedick et al., 2014), with developing countries being the primary contributors due to the larger number of septic tanks and other on-site sanitation facilities and practices. Good wastewater management does reduce greenhouse gas emissions and therefore it can be assumed that these levels of emissions may decrease as sanitation coverage increases (El-Fadel & Massoud, 2001; Prendez & Lara-Gonzalez, 2008). However, sanitation and wastewater management poses a number of operational challenges. Studies showed that 80% to 90% of all wastewater generated in developing countries is discharged without proper treatment into surface water bodies (UNESCO, 2017). With increasing population growth, urbanisation and industrialisation, the collection, treatment, and disposal of increasing quantities of wastewater remains a major challenge for municipalities and utilities in both developed and developing countries. Climate change not only affect lives and livelihood but also make social and socio-economic system of the country vulnerable. As a result, social discrimination, deprivation, dissatisfaction, unacceptability and migration are increasing significantly (WaterAid, 2012). The National Climate Change Response Plan White Paper of South Africa (DEA, 2017) defines governmentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s vision for effective climate change response and transitioning to a climate-resilient, low-carbon economy. The National Climate Change and Health Adaptation Plan of the National Department of Health adopted community

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participation as one of the guiding principles for implementing the Plan, especially as behavioural change is likely to be important for adaptation and coping strategies (Garland, 2014). Climate change and sanitation infrastructure Climate change is already a major pressure on wastewater infrastructure. Excess rain (too much water) or drought (too little water) can lead to threats for sanitation ranging from increased concentrations of pollutants (with negative health consequences), a lack of adequate water flow for sewage, and flood-related damage to physical assets (Sinisi & Aertgeerts, 2011; Midgley et al., 2005). The consequences of the increases in average and extreme temperatures that are projected by climate models are the changes in the incidence of several critical excreta-related diseases; an increase in water consumption (this is also impacted by the availability and quality of water supply which in turn is influenced by the climate); and the extent and rate of algal growth in nutrient-enriched surface waters (Arouja, et al., 2016). While there is an abundance of toolkits and guidelines internationally on climate change adaptation in general, there is remarkably little on specifically sanitation (Fankhauser & Burton, 2011). The little on sanitation that exists focus mostly on system vulnerability and technical change as adaptation measures. At the National Sanitation Indaba on 18 May 2015, the then Minister of Water and Sanitation also focussed on technical adaptation by saying that: â&#x20AC;&#x153;We must introduce new technologies that appreciate that water is a scarce resource and as such provide solutions to dispose of effluent via alternative methods. Itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s not all


CHAPTER 7 about flushing and that is the Sanitation Revolution we are here to instigate,”….”We must begin by challenging the property development sector through regulation and licensing requirements to invest itself in developing properties less reliant on water for sanitation in order to ensure we introduce the alternative solutions to low, middle and high income areas” (https:// www.gov.za/speeches/ national-sanitationindaba-18-may-2015-0000). The National Sanitation Policy (DWS, 2016) supports this approach in saying that the long-term effects and impacts of climate change on the sanitation services sector need to be understood and means to avoid, minimise and mitigate these effects need to be incorporated into policy and legislation with special attention to enhancing the capabilities of communities to adopt climate resilient sanitation technological options.

they can become flooded, overflow and pollute the environment (USAID, 2015), causing contamination at the local level; and wash out and destruction of sewers and treatment plants (Fewster & Smith, 2012). Flooding may also result in the areas with on-site sanitation becoming isolated, leading to them not being be emptied, as well as an increase in transport costs for trucking excreta due to flooded roads and access points. Where changes in climate result in increased waterlogging, it is likely to cause pits, tanks and sewers to be inundated with groundwater, which will impact on treatment processes as well as the groundwater (Franceys, Pickford & Reed, 1992). Flooding from sea level rises can lead to inundation of pit toilets, and/or sewage treatment facilities, which increases the risk of contamination of the environment (Howard & Bartram, 2010).

Generally sanitation technology refers to everything from toilets to sewerage to domestic wastewater treatment plants. These technologies are part of the sanitation value chain, which forms the basis for sanitation services delivery. The sanitation value chain comprises broadly of collection/ storage; transport/conveyance; treatment; distribution; wastewater treatment; and discharge/disposal or recycle/re-use. Each link of the chain is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change – some examples of infrastructural vulnerability are given below.

Transport/conveyance In urban areas, sewage is typically conveyed through a system of pipes, pumps, and other associated infrastructure to a centralised storage and/or treatment system. These sewer systems may be damaged by adverse weather conditions and cause uncontrolled discharge of domestic wastewater, including sewage and greywater, into aquatic systems (DEFRA, 2012), which can lead to microbial and chemical contamination of the receiving water, oxygen depletion, increased turbidity, and eutrophication (Howard et al., 2016). As the sewer infrastructure ages, it becomes vulnerable to infiltration of groundwater, contamination of groundwater and pollution of the environment (UNFCC, 2017). Wastewater discharge onto streets or open ground can contribute to spread of disease, odours, contamination of wells, deterioration of streets, etc. (DWS, 2016; EPA, 2004). Prolonged periods without any rainfall cause

Collection/storage/emptying In settlements not served by sewerage systems, sanitation may be based on on-site systems, such as pit toilets, bucket toilets or flush toilets connected to septic tanks, which are highly susceptible to adverse weather conditions and climate change as

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the degradation of sewers and the resulting accumulation of solid waste sediments and encrustation in sewers that can clog them and attract an increasing population of rodents; a decrease in wastewater flow and unpleasant odour from water rotting in the system; and a growing risk of disease dissemination (Sinisi & Aertgeerts, 2011). Treatment Sewage treatment plants are often positioned on low-lying ground, as sewerage systems rely on gravity, but this puts them at risk when water levels rise due to flooding or sea-level rise. Declining annual rainfall and/or drought leads to insufficient water resources being available to flush sewage systems adequately, and accompanying higher temperatures can have an impact on how sewage systems operate. Every extreme in hydrology (flooding or drought) causes fluctuations in pollutant concentrations in wastewater inflow to the wastewater treatment works and adversely affects the efficiency of the treatment processes (Howard et al., 2016). The differences in biochemical load cause problems in different technological sections and related treatment processes. Lower oxygen solubility in water can lower the efficiency of active sludge compartment (Sinisi & Aertgeerts, 2011). Sea level rise threaten coastal zones due to saline intrusion and damage to wastewater treatment works from inundation during coastal storms (Oates, et al., 2014). Discharge/disposal Flooding and drought affect the receiving body as the quality of the effluent vary depending on the volume of water in the receiving body (Miller & Hutchins, 2017). Drought reduces the capacity of surface water to dilute, attenuate and remove pollution (DWA, 2013).

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Climate change adaptation options for sanitation The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) released a report stating that future climate-related risks could be reduced by the upscaling and accelerating multi-level and cross-sectoral climate mitigation, as well as both incremental and transformational adaptation (IPCC, 2018). Adaptation is a broad concept covering actions and interventions by individuals, communities, private companies and governments. Adaptation actions can range from nature-based to infrastructure-based solutions (UNFCC, 2017). Nature-based solutions include plant cover expansion, coastal resource management, and mangrove and natural reef ecosystem protection. Infrastructure-based solutions comprise climate-proofing infrastructure, including storm drainage systems, water supply and treatment plants, as well as the protection or relocation of energy or solid waste management facilities (UNFCC, 2017). The most common and most mentioned adaptation options for sanitation identified in the environmental scan are the following: Appropriate and effective technology Appropriate and effective sanitation technology can minimise the dependency of settlements on rainfall or their vulnerability to extreme weather events. For example, on-site and decentralised sanitation solutions could be more systematically investigated, even in large cities. Sewerage systems are not always the ultimate sanitation solution as they are generally too expensive for locally available funds (Gabert, 2016). A focus can be placed on modular, decentralised, energy-efficient wastewater treatment technologies (Howard


CHAPTER 7 & Bartram, 2010; Massoud, Tarhini & Nasr, 2009) and no-water sanitation facilities, where appropriate, to conserve water and to reduce public safety risks in the event of failure due to climate shock. Decentralisation means that the service is not dependent on a centralised hub or main area to function, thus if the main hub is destroyed or damaged due to adverse climate conditions, the decentralised service provider responsible for daily and vital services to communities is still able and operating (USAID, 2015). Sanitation facilities should not be located in or near flood plains, rivers and wetlands, to prevent flooding. On-site sanitation solutions, especially ecological sanitation, are more resilient to climate change (Nadkarni, 2004) owing to decentralisation and ownership of operation and maintenance. Encouraging low-income residents to empty their pit toilets before the rainy season starts reduces the amount of faecal waste flowing into streets and spreading through communities during periods of flooding (WSUP, 2018b). Wastewater treatment plants could improve the energy efficiency of their operations to reduce demands on fossil fuel energy sources. They could also produce renewable energy using biogas, solar, and wind, to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions (WRC, 2017). Building robustness, i.e. hardening infrastructure More robust sanitation infrastructure is more likely to ensure resilience to climate change (Venema & Temmer, 2017; Ministry of Interior, Hungary, 2011). For example, design and siting of sanitation facilities in coastal areas should take into account projected sea level rises and storm surges. Storms, heavy rainfall events and a higher frequency of flood events require protection of drainage

systems, sewer systems and wastewater treatment works against inundation; high peaks of hydraulic load; and damage (Sinisi & Aertgeerts, 2011), such as constructing barriers and retaining walls, ensuring emergency back-up generation, and keeping key electrical equipment elevated. Optimal resource use and re-use In many cities, around 50% of water can be lost before it even reaches customers (WSUP, 2018a). Non-revenue water has a crippling effect on the availability of water, as well as water for flushing toilets and washing hands. As droughts become longer and more frequent, leakages must be reduced and available water needs to be used optimally. Creative re-use of wastewater and sludge minimise reliance on conventional sanitation services and centralised sewer networks that are vulnerable to climate change. Greywater re-use and composting of human waste for fertiliser apply water, energy and nutrient recycling principles that are crucial for resilience to climate change (WRC, 2017). Energy recovery, such as biogas, can generate thermal and electrical energy for the internal usage of biogas plants, thus reducing operational demand (Jordaan, 2018; GIZ & SALGA, 2015; DWA, 2013). Resource extraction from sludge (e.g. fertiliser) is already being done at a number of wastewater treatment works. Water reclamation, particularly in acid mine drainage and desalination can be done (GreenCape, 2016). In 2013, the National Strategy for Water Re-use was developed to better inform decision-making for the implementation of water reclamation projects (DWA, 2013). Policy and economic instruments National and local role players and the international community should be made

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aware of the need for realistic and adapted sanitation planning and solutions. Sanitation policies and strategies, climate adaptation plans, and carbon emissions reduction strategies will be more effective and equitable if all role players are fully involved throughout the adaptation processes, i.e. an integrated and holistic approach, which can result in better climate agendas (WSUP, 2018a). Climate financing can be an incentive to drive the joint development and climate actions that are needed to achieve universal access and build climate resilience (WaterAid, 2016). Monitoring and evaluation Monitoring and evaluation (M&E) is essential because of the complexity and inter-related nature of climate change adaptation measures, and the number of stakeholders involved with its execution. The Global Water Partnership (GWP) and UNICEF (2017) state that M&E is vital to know which interventions worked and why, and what needs to be adjusted. Strong monitoring and information management systems will enable constant adaptation and the upgrading of plans and activities to effectively track progress, advocate for improved sanitation resilience, and make informed choices on policy and resource allocation (GWP/ UNICEF, 2017). It is important that the data collected and analysed through the M&E system is reliable and credible to ensure that decisions are based on accurate, current and complete information (DEA, 2017). Monitoring systems can put pressure on community members to maintain adequate sanitation standards, as well as pressure on the authorities to provide the necessary supporting inputs (WSUP, 2018a).

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Community based adaptation to climate change Not only must society limit greenhouse gas emissions and fossil fuel use, but it must adapt to rising sea levels, increased droughts and floods, extreme storm events, all of which affect their vulnerability and adaptability (UNFCC, 2017). Marginalised and vulnerable populations, such as lowincome people, indigenous communities, and other disadvantaged groups, generally have decreased resources to adapt to climate change (Levy & Patz, 2015). These populations generally have very little or no input into the decisions that affect their lives, particularly related to sanitation. People in general will put in major effort to make themselves safer, especially if they are provided with the necessary information and resources, but there are limits to what a community or household can do (DEA, 2014). Households can make plans to prevent or prepare for flooding, but they are usually not able to build the stormwater infrastructure that would most effectively mitigate the effects of a flood on their homes and sanitation facilities. Awareness of the impacts of climate change and adapting to it is wholly dependent on adaptive capacity, especially for the vulnerable systems and groups (Noble et al., 2014; Abdul-Razak & Kruse, 2017). â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Adaptationâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; describes a large set of behaviours and strategies by a variety of actors (Gorddard et al., 2016, Rozenzweig et al, 2015). Adaptation needs vary with the particular climate vulnerability experienced by an area or settlement, including the economic, institutional and socio-economic context (Ancha, Ikyaagba & Tondo, 2017; Smit & Wandel, 2006). Effective adaptation capacity requires that people have assets, flexibility, learning, and social organization,


CHAPTER 7 but also the power and freedom of choice to activate adaptation responses (Sorre, Kurgat & Musebe, 2017; Cinner et al., 2018). Good policy, planning and implementation can result in, at best, partial adaptation; there also needs to be intrinsic adaptation where the people affected by climate change alter their own behaviour and environments to adapt (DEA, 2014; Gorddard et al., 2016; IPCC, 2018). Community-based adaptation is essential as a complement to planned adaptation by government. It goes beyond the development of technological solutions to climate change, it endeavours to empower people, build adaptive capacities and reduce vulnerabilities. Community-based adaptation recognises that environmental knowledge and resilience to climate impacts lie within societies and cultures. It recognises the different situations of children, women and other vulnerable groups in society and builds on their specific needs and assets (Ayers & Huq, 2009). This involves incorporating both the function of the sanitation system as well as the vulnerability of users (e.g., women, children, elderly, ill or disabled) into the design. The focus of community-based adaption is on empowering communities and individuals within communities to take action on vulnerability to climate change, based on their own decision-making processes (Mitchell & Tanner, 2006). “Community-based adaptation can reach the poor by targeting the communities most vulnerable to climate change and developing appropriate adaptation options with them, building on information about community capacity, knowledge and practices used to cope with climate hazards” (Huq, 2008). It operates at the local level in communities

that are vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. It identifies, assists, and implements community-based development activities that strengthen the capacity of local people to adapt to living in a riskier and less predictable climate. It generates adaptation strategies through participatory processes, involving local stakeholders and development and disaster risk-reduction practitioners. It builds on existing cultural norms and addresses local development concerns that make people vulnerable to the impacts of climate change in the first place (Ayers & Forsythe, 2009). The advantages of community-based adaptation are better tailored interventions that consider the needs of different social groups within communities. Constraints are the high cost of local level initiatives - many successful projects have remained islands of success, struggling to be scaled up to a regional or national level. Often there is no link between these initiatives and higher level policy formulation, which limits the potential for mainstreaming (Butterworth & Guendel, 2011). To reduce the vulnerability of people to climate change, communitybased adaptation initiatives should (Mitchell & Tanner, 2006; CARE, 2014): • •

begin with a thorough understanding of local factors and context – climate change adaptation is sustainable when it is tailored to reflect local realities, including cultural norms and practices regarding sanitation and the timing of livelihood and domestic activities and local planning cycles; help communities develop an understanding of the main climate risks and how they impact on sanitation and health (through a learning-by-doing approach);

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• promote inclusive and informed participation and decision making - empowering local stakeholders, including members of particularly vulnerable groups, to participate in and contribute to adaptation processes is more likely to result in local ownership and sustained outcomes; • emphasise active participation of community members in all stages of an adaptation intervention (design, implementation, monitoring) and use existing social institutions to implement activities; • encourage the strong participation of women, recognising their role as community resource managers, while also acknowledging their specific roles and vulnerability to climate risks; • combine different knowledge types – integrating local and scientific knowledge along with information and knowledge from other sources will ensure that decisions about adaptation strategies and plans are robust, locally relevant and responsive to climate change impacts; • promote social learning in co-generation of new insights and knowledge among multiple stakeholders; • be flexible in community plans and actions to enable people to anticipate and respond to changes in climate conditions and trends, as well as other changes and opportunities; and • invest in long-term resilience building efforts, which also meet immediate development needs for sanitation. Conclusion Sanitation, and its requirement for water, is affected by climate change and have an impact on climate change. All future

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sanitation development and technology needs to be sustainable and resilient to climate change. All climate change activity and adaptation interventions for sanitation should take into account the impact on water resources and the water security of individuals and communities. Climate change affects people both locally and regionally, and participatory approaches need to take a regional as well as local perspective, and provide for better coordination between communities and the government. Whilst local people are aware of changes in their environment due to the weather, they often have little knowledge of the global causes and effects of climate change. Due to the ‘top-down’ nature of climate change knowledge, people will distrust any initiative that does not address their local priorities. It is thus essential that locally perceived climate problems and priorities are well understood before decision making and action planning takes place. Knowledge, capabilities and adaptive, participative governance make communities and societies more resilient and better able to cope with the uncertainties of future weather events and the impacts of climate change on sanitation (Oates et al., 2014). Adaptation approaches that are rooted in local knowledge and coping strategies, and in which communities are empowered to take their own decisions, are likely to be far more successful than top-down initiatives. In addition, communities have the right to participate in decisions that affect them (Warrick, 2009). Sanitation is a very sensitive matter and impacts on every individual. To be left out of the decision making process for something so close will spark protests and non-adoption, resulting in not adapting to climate change. Community based adaptation can be cost effective economically, socially and environmentally under almost all potential


CHAPTER 7 climate scenarios, including when the climate is favourable. Communitybased adaptation programmes provide communities the opportunity to participate in identifying priorities, both local and regional, and in planning, implementing, monitoring, and reviewing adaptation, and to link up with the relevant decisionmaking institutions. The capacity of local organisations and local governments to enable effective participation in decisionmaking processes need to be strengthened. Flexibility is needed from government to integrate non‐governmental and community initiatives in its planning and to allow these initiatives to become common practices. The most effective conditions for adaptation to climate change are a combination of strong, effective government and representative community organisations working together. No more ‘about us without us’. References Abdul-Razak, M. & Kruse, S. 2017. ‘The adaptive capacity of smallholder farmers to climate change in the Northern Region of Ghana’. In: Climate Risk Management 17 (2017) 104–122. Published by Elsevier B.V. Ancha, P.U., Ikyaagba, E.T. & Tondo, M.M. 2017. ‘Assessment of Adaptive Capacity of Communities to Climate Change in Mbakaange Council Ward, Vandeikya Local Government Area of Benue State, Nigeria’. In: Journal of Research in Forestry, Wildlife & Environment Vol. 9(4) December, 2017. Araujo, J., Marsham, J., Rowell, D., Zinyengere, N., Ainslie, A., Clenaghan, A., Cornforth, R., De Giusti, G., Evans, B., Finney, D., Lapworth, D., Macdonald, D., Petty, C., Seaman, J., Semazzi, F. and Way, C. 2016. ‘East Africa’s Climate: Planning for an Uncertain Future’. In: Future Climate for Africa / Africa’s climate: Helping decisionmakers make sense of climate information.

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CHAPTER 7 and sanitation planning work? Lessons learnt from West Africa, South East Asia, Madagascar, and Haiti. Paper prepared for and presented at the 2015 BORDA Symposium. GRET, Nogent-Sur-Marne, France. Garland, R.M. 2014. ‘National policy response to climate change in South Africa’. In: Afr Med J 2014;104(8):584. DOI:10.7196/SAMJ.8605. GIZ & SALGA. 2015. Biogas potential in selected waste water treatment plants: Results from scoping studies in nine municipalities. South African-German Energy Programme (GIZ-SAGEN). Deutsche Geselschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit (GIZ) & South African Local Government Association (SALGA), Pretoria. Gorddard, R., Colloff, M.J., Wise, R.M., Ware, D. & Dunlop, M. 2016. ‘Values, rules and knowledge: Adaptation as change in the decision context’. In: Environmental Science & Policy 57 (2016) 60–69. Gordon, T.J. & Glenn, J.C. 2009. ‘Environmental scanning’. In: Glenn, J.C. & Gordon, T.J., eds. Futures research methodology - Version 3.0. The Millennium Project, Washington, DC. GreenCape. 2016. Water: Market Intelligence Report 2016. GreenCape Water Sector Desk, Cape Town. GWP/UNICEF. 2017. Monitoring and evaluation for climate resilient WASH. WASH Climate Resilient Development Technical Brief. UNICEF and Global Water Partnership. https://www.gwp.org/ globalassets/global/ about-gwp/publications/unicef-gwp/gwp_ unicef_monitoring-and-evaluation-brief.pdf Howard, G., Calow, R., Macdonald, A. & Bartram, J. 2016. ‘Climate Change and Water and Sanitation: Likely impacts and emerging trends for action’. In: Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 2016. 41:253–76. Howard, G. and Bartram, J. 2010. Vision

2030 The resilience of water supply and sanitation in the face of climate change. Technical report to the World Health Organisation. WHO Document Production Services, Geneva, Switzerland. Howard, G., Charles, K., Pond, K., Brookshaw, A., Hossain, R. & Bartram, J. 2010. ‘Securing 2020 vision for 2030: climate change and ensuring resilience in water and sanitation services’. In: Journal of Water and Climate Change (2010) 01.1, 02-16. Huq, S. 2008. ‘Community-based adaptation’. In: Tiempo, Issue 68, July 2008 (Special issue on community-based adaptation). Hutton, G. & Chase, C. 2016. ‘The knowledge base for achieving the Sustainable Development Goal Targets on water supply, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)’. In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 2016, 13, 536. IPCC. 2018. Summary for policy makers. First Joint Session of Working Groups I, II and III of the IPCC. 48th Session of the IPCC, 06 October 2018. Incheon, Republic of Korea. IPCC. 2013. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Stocker, T.F., D. Qin, G.-K. Plattner, M. Tignor, S.K. Allen, J. Boschung, A. Nauels, Y. Xia, V. Bex and P.M. Midgley (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, United Kingdom and New York, NY, USA, 1535 pp. Jordaan, G.P. 2018. Evaluating the sustainable potential of biogas generation in South Africa. Thesis for the degree of Master of Science in Sustainable Agriculture, University of Stellenbosch. Kohlitz, J.P., Chong, J & Willets, J. 2017. ‘Climate change vulnerability and resilience

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CHAPTER 7 Europe. Copenhagen, Denmark. Slootweg, R. 2009. ‘Integrated Water Resources Management and Strategic Environmental Assessment – Joining forces for Climate Proofing’. In: Perspectives on water and climate change adaptation Introduction, summaries and key messages. Netherlands Commission for Environmental Assessment, 5th World Water Forum, Istanbul. Smit, B. & Wandel, J. 2006. ‘Adaptation, adaptive capacity and vulnerability’. In: Global Environ. Change 16 (3), 282–292. Sorre, A.M., Kurgat, A. & Musebe, R. 2017. ‘Adaptive Capacity to Climate Change among Smallholder Farmers’ in Busia County, Kenya’. In: IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science. Volume 10, Issue 11 Ver. I (November 2017), PP 40-48. UN-Habitat. 2018. Climate change. https:// unhabitat.org/urban-themes/climatechange/. Accessed on 19 October 2018. UNESCO. 2017. Wastewater, the untapped resource. The United Nations World Water Development Report 2017. United Nations World Water Assessment Programme (WWAP), Perugia, Italy. UNFCC. 2017. Initiatives in the area of human settlements and adaptation. Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice, Forty-sixth session, Bonn, 8–18 May 2017. United Nations Framework for Climate Change (UNFCC). UNICEF. 2016. Climate Change. Updated 04 April 2016. UNICEF/HQ07-0896/Georgina Cranston. URL: https://www.unicef.org/ wash/3942_4472.html USAID. 2015. Incorporating climate change adaptation in infrastructure planning and design: Sanitation. Global Climate Change, Adaptation, and Infrastructure Issues Knowledge Management Support Project, United States Agency for International

Development. Washington DC. Venema, H. & Temmer, J. 2017. Building a Climate-Resilient City: Water supply and sanitation systems. The International Institute for Sustainable Development and the University of Winnipeg. Canada. Warrick, O. 2011. ‘Ethics and methods in research for community-based adaptation: reflections from rural Vanuatu’. In: Participatory Learning and Action 60. The International Institute for Environment and Development (IIED). Russell Press, Nottingham, UK. Water Aid. 2012. Handbook: Climate Change and Disaster Resilient Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Practices. Nirapad and WaterAid in Bangladesh. WHO & DFID (Department for International Development). 2009. Vision 2030 – The Resilience of Water Supply and Sanitation in the Face of Climate Change. World Health Organization, Geneva. WSUP. 2018a. An integrated approach to peri-urban sanitation and hygiene in Maputo. Working with city authorities to improve services and practices. Topic Brief, February 2018. Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) and World Bank. WSUP. 2018b. Mapping sanitation in periurban Lusaka: a toilet database. Practice Note, June 2018. Water and Sanitation for the Urban Poor (WSUP) and World Bank. WRC. 2017. Greywater: an under-utilised resource? Drought Series Report No. 4. May 2017. SP 105/17. Water Research Commission, Pretoria. WWF-SA. 2016. Water: Facts & Futures. WWF-SA, Cape Town, South Africa.

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User experience of building performance factors in educational facilities Ozumba, A.O.U., Pillay, S., Van Ginkel, D., Ngubeni, S.

ABSTRACT This study was purposed to explore the linkage between building performance factors and user performance in learning spaces within higher education institutions. A review of extant literature was complimented with field work which included a survey by questionnaire, and physical data measurements. Limitations were experienced in the form of incomplete questionnaires, reluctance to participate, and lack of access to some measurement equipment and building schematic data. However the survey produced a dataset of 401 responses which provided rich data. Findings generally agree with extant literature in positively associating building performance factors with user comfort and productivity in learning spaces. However there are strong suggestions of personal preferences, adaptive capacity of individuals, and the impact of awareness on POE outcomes, among others. A major implication is that regardless of the general agreement with extant literature there is need to investigate the full spectrum of factors which influence user perception of space adequacy and satisfaction. Keywords: Buildings, user experience, comfort, facilities, performance. 1. INTRODUCTION The research interest here relates to building performance (BP) factors and their possible linkage with various experiences, response or reactions, and demonstrated productive capacity of users within educational buildings in the institutions of higher learning. The chapter proceeds through an exploration of literature on BP factors and user experience of spaces, especially learning spaces. The deductions are complimented with the results of a field study.

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CHAPTER 8 1.1 Building performance analysis (BPA) According to descriptions in Wilde (2018), BP can be viewed from the technological and purely aesthetic perspectives. There is also the socio-technical view of BP, which centres on the relationship between the people and the building (Lowe, Chiu and Oreszczyn, 2018). BPA can be conducted at various stages in the project life cycle (Negendahl, 2015), including post construction stages (Cohen, Standeven, Bordass and Leaman, 2001), which highlight the relevance of BP to facilities management (Douglas, 1996). BPA also provides useful insight in the development of sustainable buildings (Deng, Wang, and Dai, 2014). Following descriptions in Firth, Cole, Kane, Fouchal and Hassan (2018), BP studies or analysis involves the collection of observations, measurements, modelling, simulation, statistical analysis, optimisation, and parametric analysis. BP studies also use post occupancy evaluation (POE), which considers user comfort and satisfaction (Lowe, Chiu and Oreszczyn, 2018). 1.2.1 A focus on user perception, comfort and satisfaction Arguably, BPA is centred around operability, usability and especially user comfort. POE, pioneered through the Probe studies in Britain, brought a user sensitive approach to BPA, which experienced a resurgence following the Egan report (Cooper, 2001). POE holds potential for improving BP directly and generating results that better fit clients, users, the wider built environment, and the natural environment (Hay, Samuel, Watson and Bradbury, 2018). Consequently numerous studies have applied POE in evaluating BP; see (Parkinson, Reid, McKerrow and Wright, 2018). Most studies have followed these three approaches: The collection of quantitative data on

physical factors of lighting, temperature, acoustics, and IAQ (Oral, Yener and Bayazit, 2004); qualitative data in the form surveys (Zagreus, Huizenga, Arens and Lehrer, 2006); and extensive review of relevant literature (Horra, Arif, Kaushik, Mazroei, Elsarrag and Mishra, 2017). 2. BUILDING PERFORMANCE OF LEARNING SPACES AND USER COMFORT AND PRODUCTIVITY One major area of application for the socio-technical approach is the evaluation of BP, and its association with the attitudes, comfort and performance of learners, within educational spaces such as classrooms and lecture theatres. The performance of learning spaces has gained more recognition since the 1990s (Amaratunga and Baldry, 1998). The main goal of user experience is to achieve highquality physical and mental satisfaction (Norman, 2017). Extant literature abounds with various studies of BP in educational spaces and usersâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; conditions. Studies show various foci including: Thermal simulation of indoor environment (Arendt, Jradi, Shaker, and Veje, 2018), adaptive thermal comfort for various scenarios (de Dear, Kim, Candido, and Deuble, 2015), subjective preferences and thermal comfort (Corgnati, Filippi and Viazzo, 2007), acoustic and luminous comfort (KrĂźger and Zannin, 2004), and linking perceived comfort and building thermal performance (Liang, Lin and Hwang 2012), linking BP factors with user satisfaction, health and performance (Mishra and Ramgopal, 2015). Other writers focus on visual comfort (Barret, Davies, Zhang and Barrett, 2015), ventilation and thermal comfort (Frontczak & Wargocki, 2010) and indoor air quality (Barret et al., 2015). Generally the results point to a positive association of BP factors with user

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perception, satisfaction and productivity, of learners at all levels of learning, including higher education. 2.1 Rationale and setting for the study While such studies hold appreciable potential for extrapolations to other contexts such as South Africa, there is need for empirical studies from the local context to compare with the deductions presented above from globally sourced extant literature. Particularly in the context of higher education institutions (HEIs) in South Africa, there is a need to empirically investigate BP of learning spaces and attempt to link the results with user productivity. A base line of results will be generated for future studies within the local context. Following this aim, the guiding research question is: What is the performance of learning spaces in educational buildings in South African higher education institutions, the user experience, and their linkage if any? It is noteworthy that the South African context is sensitive to requirements for BP and user comfort. The National Building Regulations and Building Standards Act, 1977 provides for such considerations (Act 103 of 1977). The South African National Standards (Sans 10400) regulations equally provide relevant and enforceable requirements (Sans10400, 2012). Furthermore, the Department of Education with regards to the South African Schools Act (84/1996) provides regulations for thermal, acoustic and visual comfort in learning spaces (Department of Education, 2009). Therefore it is reasonable to expect results that will correspond with ideal outcomes of user satisfaction and

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BP. However, there is scarcity of empirical evidence from the local context. 3. RESEARCH DESIGN FOR THE STUDY The study could have proceeded from a positivist epistemological stance. However considering, that external and inherent factors could influence user perception and attitude towards learning spaces, an overarching pragmatist perspective (Saunders, Lewis and Thornhill, 2009: 127), was adopted. In order to understand the units in the study, the following questions were answered: What will be studied (unit of study = Educational buildings, and the users of educational buildings); what will be observed in the study (unit of observation = BP factors in class/lecture rooms, and user experience in terms of comfort and productivity); and what will be the aim or focus of the analysis (focus of analysis = Adequacy of BP, user experience and productivity, and the linkage between the two). Following the stated answers and the pragmatic stance adopted, the research strategy combined the strengths of case study (Yin, 1999), survey (Trochim, 2006), and observations (Shadish, Cook and Campbell, 2002). The results were cross-validated, and then compared with extant literature. A survey questionnaire was administered to respondents, while physical condition data was collected with electronic handheld measuring instruments for sound, temperature, and lighting. 3.3 Sampling A purposive sampling approach was adopted since it was a baseline study. The population in this case consisted of buildings and their users. One school building was chosen within a university campus in the Johannesburg area of South Africa. The building is relatively new, with


CHAPTER 8 some of the latest technologies and modern facilities, for lectures and self-study. Users were purposively chosen as students who attended lectures at least three times a week in the study building, to reduce variability. The total number of participants aggregated for the study was 401. Out of this sample only two participants were lecturers. 3.4 Implementation of the field study, ethical considerations, and issues of validity and reliability For ethical considerations, informed consent was given and participation was voluntary. No personal details were collected or reported and all participants were 18 years of age or above. The implementation of the field study was carried out by a group of three researchers in October of 2017. The survey was carried out for four days while the measurement of physical data was carried out for five days. The study was performed between (Monday 9 and Thursday 12) October 2017, between 08.00h and 16.00h each day. Data was collected according to three sessions (Session 1 - 08:00-09:45; Session 2 – 10:15-12:00; Session 3 – 14:15-16:00). For the implementation, researchers arrived at the specified venue for the day, an hour before the lecture commences, to take measurements for 30 minutes before the lecture. Measurements were also taken at given intervals into the lecture (15 minutes, 1 hour, and 2 hours). At the end of the lecture, questionnaire instruments were distributed to participants who completed and returned them at the venue. Physical data measurements were repeated, 10 minutes after collecting all questionnaires.

BP indicator schedule. The questionnaire administered to participants was also a structured type, with a ranking system, where they had to select between (very bad, bad, neutral, good, and very good). To address the validity of instruments and reliability of results, all members were present at the recording of BP factors data. Each research team member had responsibility to operate one measuring instrument at a time, while the validation of recorded data was performed by other team members by crosschecking the readings on the tool and the recordings on paper. The same system of validation was performed on the completed questionnaires, for completeness and clarity. With regard to limitations, it was not possible to acquire the schematic data needed for the Autodesk BP simulation. Thus it was removed from the original research design. Furthermore, the carbon metre for measuring IAQ could not be acquired. Hence only sound, temperature, and lighting, were measured. Furthermore, most lecturers were not keen on participating in the study, and there were some incomplete questionnaires which had to be discarded and destroyed. 3.4 RESULTS On the basis of the above strategy, sampling and execution plan, results of analysis of data are presented hereunder. The total responses were 401, which resulted from the following numbers for respective days: Day 1 – 168 participants; Day 2 – 78 participants; Day 3 – 113 participants; Day 4 – 42 participants. Figure 1 and 2 below present aggregated results from the study, using the following key:

The instrument used for recording data from measuring equipment was a structured

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Figure 1: 4 Day aggregated user experience response The results show a relatively high number of respondents being positive about the BP each day, especially the acoustics. However the percentage of people that are dissatisfied with thermal, lighting and IAQ, are appreciable, especially when you add indications of neutral. In Figure 2, a generally higher number of people were positive about their user experience of the spaces. However the indications of ‘neutral’ were slightly higher than those who felt positive about the space, which is a very significant outcome, because neutral could hint at some element of dissatisfaction.

Figure 2: 4 Day aggregated user productivity experience response Figure 3, 4, and 5 below present aggregated results from BP indicators measured during the study. The readings in Figure 3, for the respective days, were generally uniform and closer to expectations. The average sound levels for the five days moved from relatively low, to high, and low, between the morning and afternoon. Before lectures was 56.772 dB, during lecture – 57.164 dB, and after lecture – 56.164 dB. Essentially the measured sound levels were relatively higher during and after the lecture periods.

Figure 3: Aggregated sound level study for five days In Figure 4, the average light levels for the five days moved from relatively high, to low, and then high, between the morning and afternoon. Before lectures was 223.038Lx, during lecture – 214.036Lx, and after lecture – 251.274Lx. Essentially the light levels were relatively lower during the lecture periods.

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Figure 4: Aggregated lighting study for five days

Figure 5: Aggregated temperature study for five days In figure 5, the readings for the respective days were generally uniform and closer to expectations. The average temperature before class activities for the five days was 20.89°C, during lectures – 22.068 approximated to 22.0°C, and after lectures was about 22.066 which is approximated to 22.07°C. So generally the temperature increased with the class activity and reduced afterwards. 3.4 Discussion According to local regulations, an adequate or standard level of sound must range between 40dB to 50dB (Department of Education, 2009). The average sound levels over the five days of study were clearly above regulation permits. A major reason is the use of public address (PA) systems in the class by lecturers. Day 4 and 5 investigations were conducted in the tutorial rooms, which are located on the upper floors of the building. The physical data collected on these days indicates that the background noise level is still above regulation but less than 5% increase, due to the absence of a (PA) system. Although the venues investigated, have openings (windows) situated only on the west side of the external walls,

the regulations for openings were met as in Sans10400 (2012). Daylighting still required assistance with artificial lighting. Regardless, 44.9% of the users were satisfied with the venue, 27.7% were neutral. Only 27.4% of participants were dissatisfied with the lighting quality, while about double of this percentage of participants were generally satisfied with the acoustics. It could be suggestive of a relatively higher deterministic strength for lighting quality, over acoustics, or personality and individual preferences. This is probably noteworthy because the percentage of people who were dissatisfied with lighting quality, presented the highest percentage of dissatisfaction for any criteria in the survey. There could be other reasons beyond the scope of the current study. With regard to thermal comfort, it is normal that thermal comfort performance should differ between the summer and winter. Regarding day 1-4, the venue temperature fluctuated between 25°C and 21°C. The highest temperature readings also occurred during the lecture periods. The major reason would be more heat generation due to numbers and movement. Parson (2001) notes that clothing by human users of built spaces contribute to the thermal environment. Over

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the five days of measurement with instruments, the average temperature fluctuated between 20°C and 22°C. However on Day 5, without activities, the temperature readings dropped down to a day time average of 17.52°C. This drop in temperature suggests that the spaces would be probably more comfortable with more users. The general atmospheric temperature cannot be disregarded in this case as the month of October could still experience appreciable wind and cool breeze in Johannesburg, which could strip the spaces of heat. Generally results from the study confirm the general findings from extant literature, such as (Amaratunga and Baldry, 1998) on learning spaces; Leaman and Bordass (2001) on positively associating user comfort with user wellbeing and productivity; (Liang et al., 2012) on linking perceived comfort and building thermal performance; (Mishra and Ramgopal, 2015) on linking BP factors with the user satisfaction and performance. Others support the linkage between indoor air quality, ventilation and thermal comfort, with productivity or performance of learners (Frontczak & Wargocki, 2010). Yet others emphasise the importance of visual comfort (Edwards & Torcellini, 2002). Regardless of the general agreement with extant literature, certain findings such as the appreciable percentage of neutrality in responses could be a direct result of adaptive capacity. There is also the suggestion of higher deterministic strength for lighting quality. Extant literature emphasises adaptive thermal comfort (de Dear et al., 2015), and issues of subjective preferences and thermal comfort (Corgnati et al., 2007). Yet there is a need to understand the level influence on perceived comfort and user productivity. The instance of more respondents

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claiming satisfaction in a place that utilised artificial lighting during daytime would be a focus on the performance of the space. However considering that some indications of satisfaction reduced consistently from the first day onwards, it is possible that growing awareness and sensitisation influenced the perception of participants. Since participants where reporting their perceived comfort levels, it is possible that with more sensitisation due to the ongoing research at the time, they may have become progressively more critical, and less ‘forgiving’ in their evaluations. 4. CONCLUSION The study presented here sought to build a baseline of information regarding BP factors and their linkage with user experience and performance, in learning spaces of educational buildings in higher education institutions, using South Africa as context. Regardless of the limitations, the survey collected an appreciable dataset of 401 participants, made up of students and lecturers. In addition, readings were collected for five days, using a three-step approach which generated appreciable data. The results at this stage constitute a rich baseline of information for future studies. There is appreciable agreement with extant literature as shown in the discussion section. The results at this stage strongly suggest that there is a strong link and a generally positive correlation between BP factors and user productivity. User responses showed strong links between lower thermal comfort and increased negative response to perceived productivity as the day progressed. Furthermore, visual comfort seemed to be a stronger determinant of user experience than the acoustics. Considering the comparison of the various indications discussed in the current study, issues of adaptive capac-


CHAPTER 8 ity, personal preference, and awareness, also need to be explored further. In conclusion, the limitations and highlighted issues in the current study, lead to a recommendation for future studies with larger population, multicampus settings, employing laser scanning technology where schematic drawings are unavailable; and utilising virtual simulation fully, and the full complement of measuring instruments for physical data. 4. REFERENCES Parkinson, A.T., Reid, R., McKerrow, H. and Wright, D. (2018) Evaluating positivist theories of occupant satisfaction: a statistical analysis, Building Research & Information, 46(4), pp.430-443. Amaratunga, D. and Baldry, D. (1998). Appraising the Total Performance of Higher Education Buildings: A Participatory Approach towards a Knowledge-Base System. In proceedings of RICS COBRA ’98, December 1998. London: RICS. Arendt, K., Jradi, M., Shaker, H.R. and Veje, C.T. (2018) Comparative analysis of white-, gray- and black-box models for thermal simulation of indoor environment: Teaching building case study. In proceedings of 2018 Building Performance Analysis Conference and SimBuild. Chicago, IL, 26-28 September. pp.173-180. ASHRAE and IBPSA-USA . Barrett, P., Davies, F., Zhang, Y. and Barrett, L. (2015) The impact of classroom design on pupils’ learning: Final results of a holistic, multi-level analysis, Building and environment, 89(July), pp.118133. Cohen, R., Standeven, M., Bordass, B. and Leaman, A. (2001) Assessing building performance in use

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INDEX OF ADVERTISERS

COMPANY Belgotex Bergvik Flooring (Pty) Ltd Caesarstone

PAGE IFC 20-21 16, IBC

Den Braven SA (Pty) LtdSika South Africa

18-19

Gull Management (Pty) Ltd - Magnastruct

24, 63

Isoboard (Pty) LtdProsite Plan Africa (Pty) Ltd

22-23

Prosite Plan Africa (Pty) Ltd

26-27

Reynaers Aluminium SA (pty) Ltd

10, 25

Sika South Africa Southern Africa Stainless Steel Development Association (SASSDA) South African Wood Preservers Association (SAWPA)

100

2,17 13-15 47


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