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Volume 8, No. 4 July 2013

ISSN 17479258

ALISS Quarterly

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Association of Librarians and Information professionals in the Social Sciences

Special issue: evolving roles.

Using archives in teaching and learning Archiving Bedlam; ALISS AGM review Data support

University of the West of England, RDMRose

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Metadata

Cataloguing in the digital age:

Cataloguers’ and library schools’ opinions on RDA and AACR2r Supporting International students Barcelona and Bristol

A Comparison of University Library Services


ALISS Quarterly Vol. 8 Number 4 July 2013 Š The authors

Editor: Heather Dawson h.dawson@lse.ac.uk

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Published by ALISS.

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Each article is copyrighted to its author(s) and all rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reprinted or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording or any information storage or data retrieval system without prior written permission from the author(s) and full acknowledgement to ALISS.


ALISS Quarterly Volume 8 no. 4 July 2013 Special issue: evolving roles. Using archives in teaching and learning Editorial

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Using Special Collections in Research and Teaching ALISS AGM review Heather Dawson

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Archiving Bedlam: Bethlem Archives and Museum Caroline Smith, Education and Outreach, Bethlem Archives and Museum Using social media to promote archive use Laura Cowdrey, National Archives

Data support

Library Readiness for Research Data Management Judith Stewart and Jenni Crossley, University of the West of England

RDMRose: Open learning materials about Research Data Management tailored for Information Professionals Andrew M. Cox, Eddy Verbaan, Barbara Sen University of Sheffield

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Metadata

Cataloguing in the digital age: Cataloguers’ and library schools’ opinions on RDA and AACR2r Resoum Kidane

Supporting International students Barcelona and Bristol A Comparison of University Library Services Angela Joyce, University of Bristol Resources for supporting international students in the UK Heather Dawson


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Editorial Welcome to the latest edition of ALISS Quarterly. It has been published by ALISS (Association of Librarians and Information Professionals in the Social Sciences). This special issue was inspired by this year’s ALISS AGM which focussed upon the evolving roles of information professionals. It explored new ways in which archives and special collections can be used in teaching and research. The issue opens with a review of the papers and links to the full text presentations which can be viewed and downloaded free of charge from our website.

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The rest of the issue looks at other perspectives on the evolving roles of information professionals in the 21st century. It extends upon the April 2013 features by including two more articles on data management from RDMRose and the University of the West of England which discuss the development of new skills by the individual and the institution to prepare for increasing data demands. It then follows this with articles on evolving metadata standards and ways of supporting international students all areas identified as needing increasing emphasis in the future. We hope you enjoy the issue.

Keep up to date with our new website at http://www.alissnet.org.uk

We also have a new twitter channel where you can keep up to date with our latest activities. http://twitter.com/aliss_info we are using it to highlight weekly listings of new social science websites and publications Remember that you can also keep up to date with ALISS news by subscribing to our free electronic mailing list LIS_SOCIAL SCIENCE at http://www.jiscmail.ac.uk/lists/LISSOCIALSCIENCE.html . Or consulting our website at: http://www.alissnet.org.uk

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Heather Dawson. ALISS Secretary h.dawson@lse.ac.uk

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Using Special Collections in Research and Teaching ALISS AGM review Heather Dawson The 2013 ALISS agm focused on the timely issue of using archives in teaching and learning. The three speakers :

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• Archives in an online world – creating the LSE Digital library Ed Fay Digital Library manager, LSE. • Teaching and learning at Kings College London using archives and special collections. Geoff Browell Senior Archives Services Manager, King’s College London Archives,  and Katie Sambrook, Special Collections Librarian, King’s College London • Using social media to promote archive use, Laura Cowdrey, National Archives

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Highlighted different aspects of the issue offering insight and practical tips from their experiences. The papers and slides relating to their presentations can be downloaded from the ALISS website at: http://alissnet.org.uk/2013-agm-using-special-collections-inresearch-and-teaching/ Ed Fay spoke about his role in creating the LSE Digital library. http://digital.library.lse. ac.uk/ He highlighted how a key factor in its successful development was the fact that it is embedded into the institutional structure of the LSE. Its priorities form part of the LSE Library Vision and Strategy http://issuu.com/lselibrary/docs/libraryvision_and_strategy ‘Build and preserve distinctive collections to support research and learning, and represent a record of thought in the social sciences” “Develop our digital library so that we are able to acquire, preserve and provide access to digital collections which match the strength of our print collections” “…information repository services to support new forms of scholarly communication and enable the School to manage, disseminate and preserve these intellectual assets

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The materials chosen include both historic collections (Manuscripts, pamphlets, photographs, maps, audio/video recordings) which need to be digitised and Born-digital materials (Research outputs (publications, data, Institutional assets, public events, records, web harvesting (tweets, blogs, social media) Digital archives, official publications). Key examples of the historic projects undertaken include the Emily Wilding Davison centenary exhibition which has fascinating photographs, museum objects and documents online http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/exhibitions/emily-wilding-davison-centenary Also available are the Beatrice Webb diaries http://digital.library.lse.ac.uk/browse. Dating from 1869 to 1940s, these include both the manuscript and typescript versions and are an invaluable resource for social historians. They are currently working on a timeline for the Women’s Library@LSE. This chronology of key social political and economic events in Women’s history will incorporate images of key primary source materials from the collections. Another recent project is the Phonebooth. This is creating a mobile phone enabled version of the Charles Booth systematic investigation of living and working conditions in London, 1886-1903 ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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This includes maps from the Descriptive of London Poverty 1898-9, plus police notebooks with eye-witness, street-by-street observations which are of great value to researchers of social history as well as to family historians interested in finding out more about the areas in which their ancestors lived. http://phone.booth.lse.ac.uk/

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Recent digital preservation work has also involved ‘born digital’ materials. Ed stressed how in many ways blog postings can be viewed as the modern equivalent of pamphlets and as such have a long term academic value which should be preserved. Also of significance for the long term are digital recordings from LSE events. These have been preserved post 2006. There are currently over 1,400 with associated audio recordings. Another area in which the LSE is aiming to move is the creation of a digital repository for government publications. This is believed necessary as the LSE library has a historic store of government materials, however as documents have moved online, increasingly, these have become unavailable in print. At the same time Internet availability can be variable as the redesign of UK government websites has lead to the loss of materials. Therefore research libraries can have a role in preserving the digital formats for posterity. Ed then provided a fascinating discussion of the stages undertaken to develop the digital library. This involved mind mapping the potential benefits, users and content of the service. Mind maps were also created of the functional, operational, technical and creative aspects of the site and from this developed an architecture and a design. The visual design went through a number of stages. Mock ups were created and input taken from stakeholder groups. The final design needed to incorporate a strong visual image, different routes into the content for different types of users, strong branding and the facility to showcase new content and news releases. The complexity of the number of issues this encompassed can be understood by viewing the slides on the website at: http://www.slideshare.net/ alissinfo/aliss-archives-inonlineworld Other issues that were involved in the creation of the digital library included:

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Staffing – this has been phased in over time. A separate digital library team has been created but liaison librarians have also had to develop new skills in collection development and information literacy training ; new IT infrastructure systems support has been adopted by the Collections team and the Archives team has also had to incorporate new skills of archive record creation. Licensing. The team needed to consider how their design might be reused by others. Creative commons licensing was adopted. The aim of this was to encourage noncommercial use but to ensure attribution with a link to the authoritative source. Inspiring examples of this reuse was shown from Flickr blogs and other social media showing how the materials had reached new audiences and were being creatively reused. The terms can be viewed at http://www.lse.ac.uk/library/collections/digital/strategy_policy/content_ licensing.aspx. Creative reuse of material was also a key message of the presentation from Geoff Browell Senior Archives Services Manager, King’s College London Archives http://www.slideshare. net/alissinfo/teaching-and-learning-at-kings-college-london-using-archives-and-specialcollections ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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There are more than 5 million archive items in the collections. They include the Liddell Hart Centre for Military Archives and institutional, research and personal paper collections. Many with a military, medical, and or psychiatric focus. The archive has been involved in a number of collaborative projects including some organised by Aim25 http:// www.aim25.ac.uk/. This has been significant in developing collaboration and building communities, but it has also involved institutional commitment, advocacy from archives staff and attention to fund raising efforts.

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They emphasised how some of the most successful work has been in interpreting the collections broadly to draw in new audiences. For instance, recently they have worked on Navigating Nightingale. http://www.centrescreen.co.uk/projects/navigatingnightingale with AIM25 and Centre Screen Productions. This has developed a new iPhone app offering users a guided walk along the banks of the River Thames in Florence Nightingale’s time. This broadened the appeal of their collections, attracting a nursing audience as well as members of the general public. Other successful ventures have involved collaborating with established courses to create material for which there is an established need. The development of course related materials was a theme developed by his colleague Katie Sambrook in her presentation about the Special Collections at Kings. They have Around 180,000 items, mainly books but also manuscripts and photographs. They are housed in the Foyle Special Collections Library, a self-contained dedicated wing of the main library building. Items range in date from 1483 to the present day. They span the humanities, social sciences and sciences, with notable strengths in world history, languages / literatures and medicine. The Historical library of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) is the largest collection. The Special Collections have seen a significant rise in teaching involvement in past five years. The reasons for using the special collections in this way included

Raising institutional awareness of collections and reinforcing their value as scholarly resources Introducing undergraduates and taught postgraduates to primary sources Offering an inspiring experience for students Building links with academic colleagues through partnership working Fostering innovative teaching methods / academic content Developing the teaching, research and communication skills of Special Collections staff However challenges faced included.

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• Risk of damage to items, through inappropriate handling • Lack of teaching space • Significant time commitment required to deliver effective teaching

Some interesting facts highlighted by their experience also included. • The potency of the physical object. Interestingly students often asked How are books made? What is the paper made of? How is a binding made? How many copies would have been printed in an edition? How is a woodcut made? What is an engraving? This led to Increased emphasis on the history of the book / descriptive ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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bibliography / book as object in the teaching sessions • A Rapid increase in take-up of teaching was fuelled by the growth of taught postgraduate courses, the growth of interdisciplinary humanities degree and growth of 3rd year dissertations • Special collections seminars are now feeding directly into teaching content in some disciplines Some tips on good practice offered by their experience included.

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• Building the use of special collections into academic curriculum / assessed coursework • Introductory sessions for taught postgraduates in some disciplines to sow ideas / whet appetites for dissertation topics • Setting upper limits on class size, to ensure adequate supervision and provide supports for large or fragile items • Presenting jointly with academic colleagues • Including house rules, catalogue searching tips, useful resources online • Including a practical exercise in the sessions • Offering follow-up consultations for individuals The final paper Using social media to promote archive use from Laura Cowdrey, offered an insight into the ways in which the UK National Archives has been using social media as a promotional tool. This is discussed more fully in a separate paper in this journal issue. However, some key themes again were the ability of social media to connect with new ‘non traditional audiences’ . It was particularly interesting to learn that one of the most popular retweeted messages was not about academic archive content but the message ‘I love archives’!

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The full slides can be downloaded from http://www.slideshare.net/alissinfo/ agm2013cowdray. Other key messages from the presentation included the importance of planning, both in assessing the type of collections and their potential audience and in timing tweets to achive maximum impact. An example of the latter included increased response to new Flickr historic photograph collections when these were announced on days of importance to specific communities eg national days of groups featured in the images .It was also emphasised that while the value of social media had been to remove barriers to archive use, to open it up to a wider audience who had not considered this type of research before, one should not underestimate the need for preparation to find the right kind of impersonal voice suitable for blogging etc – which is different to that of formal communication channels. There is also a need to evaluate the impact of the new forms of media to assess what messages are the most popular. To try to time postings to fit with wider social events so they receive maximum impact.

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Archiving Bedlam: Bethlem Archives and Museum Caroline Smith Education and Outreach, Bethlem Archives and Museum Context The word ‘bedlam’ has considerable recognition and for many conjures an image of noise and chaos. There is less recognition of the fact that the word was originally merely a corruption of the first name of Bethlem Royal Hospital and that the hospital, albeit in a very different form, is still a working hospital today. From its earliest home in Bishopsgate in the heart of London, Bethlem moved twice more before relocating to Beckenham in 1930.

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On the same site as the hospital, and shortly to occupy new premises within the site, is Bethlem Archives and Museum which holds extensive collections relating to the history of Bethlem and its related institution, Bridewell. In addition to the wealth of archive material including casebooks, committee records and early photographs, there are extensive art collections, the earliest of which was begun by Dr Hyslop, superintendent of Bethlem at the end of the nineteenth century. Other collections include twentieth and twenty first century works many of them by former or current service-user artists. The Archives and Museum aims to use the collections as a focus for fostering a better understanding of mental health and addressing the stigma and prejudice surrounding mental illness. It is also committed to sharing the stories of those who have suffered mental illness or who have worked in the hospital during its long history. We try to make the collections accessible to a wider audience, through booked visits, outreach to schools and community groups, talks and conferences. Original material can also be viewed on our website.

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Challenging stereotypes and misconceptions One of our key tasks is to provide accurate information to set against, widely held but often, inaccurate views. In the popular imagination the asylums of the past are frequently regarded as harsh places, associated with mechanical restraint, the display of patients to the general public and a lack of interest in curing and discharging them to their ordinary lives. Indeed, the idea that many of these patients were not mad at all but merely an inconvenience to their families, still looms large. Popular culture both past and present, through literature and film has often contributed to and perpetuated this view. Serious abuses of the system undoubtedly did exist but were not as commonplace as often supposed. It comes as something of a surprise to many visitors to learn that following the 1840s, a significant number of hospitals, Bethlem included, ended the use of mechanical restraint; that the Bethlem governors ended unrestricted public visiting in 1770 and that there was a strict policy of admission. In the nineteenth century, for example, the hospital would only admit patients they felt could be cured and would then only keep them for twelve months. They held the view that this was sufficient time to effect a cure if one were possible, and after this, patients should be looked after somewhere more suitable for their long term care. Of course the history of the care of the mentally ill in general and Bethlem in particular is ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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not a story of continual progress and there have been dark periods of neglect, but it is a history which is more nuanced; our collections are able to highlight this complexity. Raising awareness The material held in the archives provides a wealth of material for dealing with aspects of history such as the growth of modern London, wartime experiences in the twentieth century and employment opportunities for women, as well as changing attitudes and wider social reform. Many other collections could claim the same. It is the specialist nature of the material which allows us to also offer something different and which is of current significance.

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Whilst we want to present the archives as an inspiring place for everyone, this is not our only objective. By reason of their content, our holdings lend themselves to encouraging people to think hard about issues of mental health and ill health, what these have meant in the past and how they relate to the present. They raise questions for society as a whole and, for some visitors, can be a way into articulating their own challenging circumstances. Mental health remains a sensitive topic despite the fact that one in four will suffer mental illness at some point in their lives and many more will be affected by the illness of family or friends; yet it is a topic that many find hard to talk about. The Archives and Museum at Bethlem is well placed to provide resources which might promote a wider understanding. For some of our visitors, the material we hold may touch on difficult personal experiences; others may face issues not previously explored or even acknowledged. By adding an historical perspective, difficult topics can be approached obliquely. Considering the circumstances of those in the past can initiative discussion on modern issues at a “safe” distance. Our art collections can fulfil a similar function. Art often produces an immediate reaction, thereby providing a valuable starting point for discussion. Analysing the work, the ideas and motivations behind it can be a way in to the discussion of difficult areas.

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The impact of the individual The enthusiasm generated by the use of 150 year-old records, written and photographic, can be considerable. Adults and young people alike appear fascinated by being able to touch and examine a record that, such is the extent of Bethlem’s case books, may not have read by anyone since it was written. Finding accompanying letters or family accounts is spine tingling. Our responsibility is to channel that enthusiasm away from pure voyeurism towards the task of addressing complex questions about mental wellbeing, what might contribute to it and how we treat those around us who may be mentally unwell. It is generally easier to engage with the particular than the abstract; our visitors often find individual records the most accessible and moving. Casebooks provide a tantalising glimpse of an individual life at a particular point. The personal details of family, occupation, perhaps a recognisable address, bring home to the reader the impact that illness might have had on an otherwise flourishing life, affecting not just one individual but other dependents. Such insights help to stress that there is no great divide between ‘them’ and ‘us’ and no one is immune to the vicissitudes life may offer. The wider social concerns raised in the past ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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about the provision made for those with mental illness and society’s attitudes to them are broadly those we confront today. Challenges There are clearly challenges to presenting actual archive material to a wider public that go beyond the practical difficulties presented by nineteenth century handwriting.

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The material needs to be handled in a sensitive manner to protect not just those reading now what might be distressing material, but those whose experiences it records. Having been critical of the eighteenth century hospital’s open visiting policy as being voyeuristic, we want to avoid visiting the Archives and Museum falling into the same trap. There are important questions to be raised about privacy; at what point does making the record available become an unnecessary intrusion? It is important to stress that the case notes are not the last word on an individual, nor the most significant aspect of their life. They record a tiny chapter which was not written by or for the patient concerned, was not seen by them and was solely for the hospital’s use.

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It would appear from visitor numbers that there is considerable interest in both the historic material and the contemporary issues it raises. Our role is to make this a positive experience in all respects.

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Using social media to promote archive use Laura Cowdrey, National Archives The National Archives has a website visited by millions of people each month but we also involve ourselves with social media in order to extend our web presence and engage with people worldwide. We aim to put our content in places people would like and expect to find it. Social media channels enable us to engage with online users globally, helping us to promote our collection, services and the work we do.

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Looking at examples from the work we’ve done, this article hopes to highlight considerations, methods and channels when using social media to promote collections. Preparation and planning If using social media to promote archives, preparation and planning is very important. You must ask yourself key questions: What collections do you have, and what is unique about them? What are you hoping to achieve? Who are you trying to reach? And what do you want them to do (if anything) once you have their attention?

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You must be clear about what you want to achieve and also take time to get to know your audience. Who are they, what do they like and what do they expect from you? By being clear about what you want to achieve and who you want to talk to you will have a clear focus and be able to make decisions as to which social networks to use. Another key consideration is what you want people to do, and also what they will want to do, as this will also inform which channels you should join. At The National Archives we have an overriding strategy setting out high level objectives, yearly action plans focusing on specific activity and all other projects are looked at on a case-by-case basis to ensure that we and our visitors get the most out of our social media presence.

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Following on from your planning you may still be unsure as to whether social media is the right approach for your collection or organisation. Social media is invaluable in the following ways: 1. It’s great for removing barriers, increasing access to your collection and engaging people. 2. It has a worldwide reach – sites like Flickr allow thousands of people a month to look at images of documents, when in comparison your on site footfall may be hundreds (or less) 3. It’s great for raising awareness of what you do and what you hold 4. It gives you the chance to provide a more personal touch, which online visitors often miss out on if they don’t also visit your reading rooms 5. It doesn’t require a budget (although many organisations do spend in this area) 6. Depending on your internal policies, social media can be immediate – allowing you to respond immediately

There are of course risks. You should consider, for example, whether you can devote enough resource; if you have copyright cleared for the content you want to share; and if ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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you have correct procedures and guidelines in place to ensure your social media does not cause your organisation any reputational damage? And there may be many others. Before starting a social media campaign it’s important to identify all your risks so that you can do everything possible to avoid them. Methods and channels Blogging is an easy and very effective way to successfully promote archive use. You can share details of projects, highlight parts of a collection or explain in some detail more complicated parts of your work, or maybe even reasons behind changes in service or your organisation.

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Being on Twitter allows you to be a part of conversations that are relevant, as well as promoting your own messages and news. You can also respond quickly to these conversations. In November 2012 we noticed the phrase ‘5th of November’ was trending. With one carefully written tweet – ‘Guy Fawkes was caught on the night before 5th of November, see his confession’, we were able to send over 3,500 people to one page of our website, where some years previously we had already published a copy of the confession. When using blogs, and Twitter especially, you should note:

1. You could easily spend all day monitoring 2. People often expect fairly instant responses (hence point one!) 3. If faced with a difficult or complex discussion or query, don’t be frightened to move the discussion off Twitter to somewhere you have the space to explain 4. But at the same time, don’t always re-direct people somewhere else 5. More for blogs, but consider how you will moderate comments and also, remember to respond to them 6. Ensure your colleagues know if there is anything they can’t blog or tweet about – for example embargoed or sensitive information.

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You should be prepared to receive, at some point, negative comments or criticism. But use these instances to provide great customer service – can you help or fix their problem? Sometimes just by replying and being seen to empathise is all it takes. As with the real world, it is how you deal with the situation that is important – nobody likes to be ignored. Another great way to promote archive use via social media is to use channels to publish and share content. Sites like Flickr allow you to showcase your collections and are easy to use, both for you as an organisation, but also for the users. By unlocking your content in this way people are able to use it, share it and add their own knowledge to it via comments. And well tagged content becomes easier to find and discover. Remember to take time to understand the community you are joining, check you will not be breaching anyone’s copyright and always read the sites terms and conditions – know what you’re signing up to! The National Archives is currently one of the largest contributors on Flickr Commons. Our World Through a Lens project, where we uploaded thousands of images from the Foreign and Commonwealth photographic collection, has been incredibly successful. We are positively encouraging people to tell us what they know about the images and to use them ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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in innovative ways. As a result of this project, last year alone our Flickr account received over 3.5million views. Possibly the best reason for using social media is that it allows you to engage with your audiences – both new and old. You can have a two-way conversation, gain instant feedback and respond to queries – helping users use, and learn about, your collection. And by engaging well with your audiences you can develop a loyal and vibrant community who will discuss and share your collections.

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At The National Archives we have taken feedback from Twitter to help us develop our online services and have held an online debate on the effect the digital world has had on the research trail. This drew in people from a variety of backgrounds who all contributed to a great discussion.

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Social media can of course be used for promotion. It’s a cost effective way to promote your services and collection. However, social media only really works well when used in a social way – don’t just use it to broadcast your messages and news. Always try to monitor and evaluate your social media contributions. You can use many free tools and statistics from the social media sites themselves to see how your audiences and communities are growing, what content they like and share and also what’s not so popular. Continually checking how you are doing means that you can improve the quality and make improvements. So in conclusion, social media takes time and effort, but is worth it. Picking good content and publishing it at a relevant time, such as the Guy Fawkes tweet, will have the most impact. You should be prepared to engage, and sometimes even, to be challenged. Always remember to be polite and friendly and know the community that you are joining.

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Social media helps promote archive use as it allows you to provide information about your services, work and collections. It gives your audiences easier access to both you as an organisation and your collection and makes your content easy to share – and more likely to be talked about. It also provides a network of organisations and people where discussion and debates can be sparked and enthusiasm and passion can be shared.

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Library Readiness for Research Data Management Judith Stewart and Jenni Crossley, University of the West of England. lib.rke@uwe.ac.uk Twitter : @UWERKE

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Introduction: the Jisc MRD projects The University of the West of England’s Jisc funded project in Research Data Management (UWE 2013), is one of a group of projects developing research data management infrastructure and is part of Jisc’s Managing Research Data Programme (Jisc 2013). The project was initiated by us as the Research and Knowledge Exchange Librarians, with support from the university’s Research and Business Innovation Service. Drawing on the outputs and expertise developed in earlier Jisc funded projects, the UWE team has developed accessible and appropriate models for managing research data in a modern university. Working with researchers, research administrators, and IT specialists, the work has focused on selected projects in Health and Life Sciences, and has the potential to be rolled out to other areas within the university. The objectives of the project As well as confirming the research data management (RDM) needs of our group of researchers, we set out to clarify and develop processes that fitted with existing university administrative structures. Gaining agreement in the institution for a draft data management policy was an extension of this. In addition we aimed to produce online guidance and information for researchers to support them in making decisions in managing their data; and finally we set out to establish a data repository to sit alongside UWE’s Research Repository, and to provide clear and obvious links between research outputs and their underlying data.

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So what has this got to do with librarians? Although not a formal aspect of our project, we have during its life had more than one reason to consider the role of librarians in managing research data. The reasons behind a preponderance of library led initiatives in RDM formed the basis of a presentation given at the UC&R SW conference (now Academic and Research Libraries group) DARTS3 in Dartington in June 2012. More significantly, funded by a training strand of the Jisc MRD2 Programme, there are several exciting projects producing guidance and training materials for academic librarians in supporting and contributing to RDM (for example University of Sheffield 2013, University of East London 2013). In addition to this work, the report Reskilling for research, commissioned by RLUK and written by Mary Auckland (RLUK 2012), identified areas where academic librarians need to develop their knowledge and skills in order to support researchers. Auckland’s research found nine areas with significant skills gaps - that is where 50% or more of respondents indicated that they have limited or no skills or knowledge. More telling however, was that all areas were identified as being of increasing significance over the next two to five years. (RLUK 2012, p43) Of these, and based on the experience of our project, we have identified the following areas as pertinent specifically to Librarians working with and supporting RDM. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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• Ability to advise on preserving research outputs This is undertaken by many institutions through their institutional repositories, usually managed through the Library service however it is named, or through disciplinary databases. The interrelationship between published output and underlying data is becoming ever closer, with links to data accompanying published papers, and on occasion even that data itself rather than published papers is becoming the most significant output of research. (Pryor, 2012)

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• Knowledge to advise on data management and curation, including ingest, discovery, access, dissemination, preservation, and portability Librarians can act as a point of advice, and need knowledge about data curation rather than experience of data curation. This is where the Jisc training projects mentioned previously, and the accessible materials from the Digital Curation Centre provide valuable resources.

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• Knowledge to support researchers in complying with the various funders’ mandates including open access requirements. • Knowledge of sources of research funding to assist researchers to identify potential funders These points can be seen to be closely related. Researchers need to be aware of the requirements funders set in relation to Open Access publishing of outputs and data, and of how these might or might not relate to deals the institution has with particular publishers and content providers. Monitoring and interpreting these perspectives, and identifying what is important to know is a key task for librarians, and an integral part of the RDM landscape.

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• Knowledge to advocate, and advise on, the use of metadata • Skills to develop metadata schema, and advise on discipline/subject standards and practices, for individual research projects In the RLUK report there is a great emphasis on the role of the ‘subject librarian’ and the importance of liaison with the researcher. However, metadata is a field where librarians with very different knowledge and skills can make a significant contribution. For the ‘cataloguers’ metadata is what they do, and this knowledge needs to be harnessed in the cause of RDM. • Ability to advise on the preservation of project records These might include the administrative or process records of a research project which have value as part of the underlying infrastructure, and depending on the type of project may be valuable in sharing and repurposing of data. Issues related to IP, copyright, and data protection are also significant here. (emphasis added) The areas of skill and knowledge identified here will need to be both developed by indivdual librarians, and become embedded as part of the body of professional knowledge. However, an institutional and departmental ‘readiness’ to engage with RDM is also required. If we consider that the data on skills gaps identified by the RLUK report were drawn from libraries supporting research intensive universities, we might predict that the skills gaps among librarians in modern and business focused universities is likely, though not necessarily, to be as great.

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Assessing your library’s RDM maturity Drawing on experience from the Jisc project, and based on the Digital Curation Centre’s (DCC) Mini-Cardio quiz (JISC 2011), the project team at UWE has developed a maturity model that can inform the process of assessing an institution’s readiness for for RDM. It also allows stakeholders to set an aspirational vision of where the institution should/could be in a given time frame. Repeating the exercise after a given time enables and indicates a measure of progress.

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Using the areas identified in the RLUK report as a basis, the model has been adapted to be library specific. Members of library teams or management can plot their assessment of their readiness for RDM by identifying with one of a range of statements relating to (as it stands) six different outcomes or aspects of RDM: • Libraries and the institutional approach to RDM • Knowledge about research funder data policies

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• Knowledge relating to data management and curation • Training support and guidance for researchers

• Advocating and advising on the use of metadata • Institutional repositories for data.

To illustrate this further, here are the statements, expressing increasing maturity or readiness in relation to the outcome ‘Training support and guidance for researchers. The Library/Information Service doesn’t include RDM issues in training support or guidance for researchers.

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The library/Information Service offers some training, support and guidance on issues loosely related to data management (for example Copyright, IP, FoI requests), but doesn’t offer anything specifically focussed on RDM.

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Librarians are developing their own knowledge and skills in order to offer RDM training for researchers in the future.

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We are actively involved in devising the right training strategy for RDM for all relevant staff in our institution.

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Librarians are working with colleagues in other parts of the university to apply expertise and toolkits from information, research and learning skills perspectives to support researchers with RDM.

Participants can place a mark or sticky dot on the section that most closely reflects their view of where their service is, and another dot to indicate where they think the institution can progress to in, say, three years time, or where they aim to be after a training and development programme. The complete maturity model can be found on the UWE project web site. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Pryor (2012) has argued that librarians have unrivalled occupation of the high ground when it comes to owning a long list of fundamentally appropriate skills in classifying, organising, appraising, selecting, annotating, preserving, storing, retrieving, distributing, sharing and managing access to information – some list indeed, , and one that closely reflects the activities implicit in the DCC data curation lifecycle model! (Pryor 2012, p15)

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There is much to be done in many, if not most, university libraries to ensure that existing staff skills and knowledge are built upon to meet the needs of the RDM agenda. This is one tool that can help in getting that process started. References

DCC (2011) Mini Cardio quiz [online] Available at http://cardio.dcc.ac.uk/quiz/ (Accessed 21 March 2013)

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Jisc (2013) Managing Research Data Programme website. [online] Available at http://www.jisc. ac.uk/whatwedo/programmes/di_researchmanagement/managingresearchdata.aspx (Accessed 21 March 2013) Pryor, G. (2012) Managing Research Data. London. Facet.

RLUK (2012) Reskilling For Research: an investigation into the role and skills of subject and liaison librarians required to effectively support the evolving information needs of researchers. [online] RLUK. Available at http://www.rluk.ac.uk/files/RLUK%20Re-skilling.pdf (Accessed 20 March 20130) Stewart, J (2012) Why is the Library leading on this? Academic and Research Libraries South West DARTS3 presentations on Slideshare. [online] Available at http://www.slideshare.net/ARLGSW/ darts-3-ppt-no-notes (Accessed 20 march 2013) University of Sheffield (2013) RDMRose http://www.shef.ac.uk/is/research/projects/rdmrose (Accessed 23 March 2013)

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University of East London (2013) TraD - Training for Data Management at UEL http://www.uel. ac.uk/trad/ (Accessed 23 March 2013) University of the west of England (2013) Managing Research Data: a pilot project in Health and Life Sciences [online] Available at http:bit.ly/Wn554u

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RDMRose: Open learning materials about Research Data Management tailored for Information Professionals Andrew M. Cox (a.m.cox@sheffield.ac.uk), lecturer, The Information School, University of Sheffield Eddy Verbaan (e.verbaan@sheffield.ac.uk), research associate, The Information School, University of Sheffield Barbara Sen (b.a.sen@sheffield.ac.uk), lecturer, The Information School, University of Sheffield

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Introduction As readers of ALISS Quarterly will know, in the last two or three years the issue of improving Research Data Management (RDM) has emerged as a priority for research funders. At the proposal stage they require researchers to produce data management plans (DMPs) to explain how they will look after the data they create. Particularly important in focussing attention on RDM has been EPSRC’s requirement for institutions to set out a roadmap to align their policies and processes with the funder’s expectations by May 2012, and the need to be fully compliant by 2015. This has triggered a lot of activity around RDM, at least at the policy level. JISC’s MRD programme (http://www.jisc.ac.uk/whatwedo/ programmes/mrd.aspx) (work from which was reported in ALISS Quarterly volume 8 number 3) and work of Digital Curation Centre (DCC) (http://www.dcc.ac.uk/) are widely cited for stimulating and coordinating UK HEIs’ response. It would seem that the curation of research data (particularly digital data, but not exclusively) has become important area for professional practice.

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What makes this challenging is that in a digital world research data is increasing in quantity and becoming more complex. If one thinks about all the social science researchers across even a single institution, each probably has multiple projects each using multiple data types, saved in multiple formats. It is easy for researchers to amass very large quantities of data. Such data is fragile in the sense that unless enough metadata about how it was collected is available it will be unfindable and un-reusable. Providing an infrastructure at the scale of an institution to store, selectively preserve and possibly share and reuse such data will be challenging. It may even be challenging simply providing useful advice to researchers, because for some of research data issues have been a professional concern for years and for others even the term “data” may be foreign. Indeed, RDM is a complex agenda. Compliance is an important driver, in response to funders’ requirement for data management planning and also some publishers’ requirement for data to be published. The need for storage of active data is also an immediate concern for many researchers; one they are likely to take first to computing services. Security is another issue that preoccupies computer services. Other drivers relate more to ensuring the quality of research. The Royal Society’s recent report “Open data” goes as far as to say that the publication of the data on which findings are based is essential to good research. Sharing data does require an infrastructure, but for other researchers who work with confidential or commercially valuable data, open or shared data is very problematic. Long term data preservation and effective access to curated data are further issues; but it is unclear how immediate they are compared to other priorities. Thus, as a fairly powerful but composite set of drivers, RDM has the potential to collapse into a set of different ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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agendas. If immediate data storage issues are solved, the current energy behind RDM could dissipate. Or if research funders signal a lack of intention to audit compliance, again RDM could slip down the priorities. In the meantime the sheer complexity of requirements across an institution with hundreds of researchers with multiple projects gathering all sorts of data, seems to be holding institutions back from committing to the scale of services that seem to be required.

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Notwithstanding these questions, there is already a body of literature suggesting that librarians have an important role in supporting RDM (e.g. Lewis 2010, Corrall 2012, Corrall et al 2013, Lyon 2012). This might be involvement in creation of policy and advocating the importance of RDM. It might be in advisory services, be that simple signposting, through to specialist advice on copyright, licensing or metadata. It could be teaching research students and early career researchers about RDM as an aspect of information literacy. It could be auditing the data assets of the institution or indeed involved in collection policy and management of an institutional data repository.

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There are a number of challenges for libraries in meeting such expectations. It seems to be increasingly recognised (Auckland 2012) that academic libraries have neglected support of researchers relatively speaking, compared to support of learning and teaching. There are therefore a number of possible new roles in addition to those relating to research data that will need to be developed. But that means even more demands on librarians’ hard pressed time: Where will priorities lie? This relative neglect of research support may mean libraries may have lost ground with researchers as the place to go to. Librarians will have to work hard to be “taken seriously� about RDM. Librarians tend not to have a personal history of research, so they cannot necessarily identify with the issues of researchers and so offer suitable services. Librarians have relevant information management skills, such as in metadata creation, but not necessarily knowledge specific to research data as such. Skills need to be translated to the new context. The complexity and scale of the issues; combined with the fact that most institutions have not yet determined RDM resourcing, infrastructure, management structures and processes, means that as well as knowledge and skills people operating in this area will need creativity and flexibility (Garritano and Harrision 2009) and the soft skills of persuasion and influencing to lead on change management. For all these potential issues, on the ground libraries seem to be playing a leadership role in thinking about how RDM can be supported. A survey by Cox and Pinfield conducted in late 2012 found that although not yet providing services in many areas, responding libraries saw providing a wide range of services in the next three years as a priority and rarely saw RDM activity as primarily the responsibility of other part of the institution (Cox and Pinfield 2013). Librarians have powerful networks to share good practice between institutions. What are needed are learning resources to help librarians build their confidence and skill base and gain entry into what can be thought of as a new, unfamiliar social world of the practices, standards, technologies, projects, people and institutions of RDM. RDMRose In this context the RDMRose project (http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/is/research/projects/ rdmrose) set out to adapt and create an open educational resource of learning materials for ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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self directed CPD and taught learning about RDM, tailored for information professionals. Now, at the end of the project, it a module on RDM is free to the community to use and made available under a sharealike creative commons licence, so that it can be repurposed by others.

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RDMRose was a JISC funded collaboration (2012-13) between the Sheffield Information School (http://www.sheffield.ac.uk/is) (formerly the Department of Information Studies) and library staff at the White Rose University Consortium’s libraries at the Universities of Leeds, Sheffield and York. White Rose already has shared services, such as the White Rose Research Online, their joint institutional repository. Coming together to develop shared training materials was also an area of likely collaboration. In RDMRose the Information School was a natural partner to lead a highly collaborative curriculum development process grounded in librarians’ learning needs. Through focus groups with the librarians and then an iterative process of delivering and then updating the learning materials, the RDMRose module was created. Version 1 was made available in January 2013; the final version was released in May 2013. By that time around 40 library staff at the three institutions and a number of full time Postgraduate Taught students had used the learning materials in classes led by the Information School. Their input was central to shaping the content and character of the material. The material has been designed to be used in a number of ways, all relevant to ALISS Quarterly readers:

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• For self-directed CPD. Each section contains slides, guide notes, recommended readings and activity sheets. They have been carefully designed for use in selfdirected learning (be that working singly or in groups) as well as in a facilitated session. Indexes provide quick access to material if one is interested in a particular area. The worksheet “Are you RDM ready?” can be used to help people identify areas where they want to build their knowledge with a link to where it is covered on the module. There is also a short introduction to the whole subject of RDM, RDMRose lite. • For use in teaching of library staff. Material can be reused and repurposed to fit local needs, such as cascading RDM knowledge through the library service. • For teaching new professionals entering the profession, such as on the Information School’s Masters in Librarianship or Digital Library Management; but the material can be used or repurposed by any LIS training provider.

The RDMRose module consists of eight half day sessions. A summary of each session is provided in the appendix, but it may be useful to summarise some of the thinking that went into the design of the module. Some of the main design principles were: 1. The module is designed to stimulate open-ended discussion and reflection on the role of the profession in a complex and fluid strategic context. The literature suggests a wide range of possible roles in RDM for libraries. Aspects of all these roles are explored in the module (and an index is provided organised around these, allowing the learner to quickly read up on that particular role if it is central ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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4.

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5.

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3.

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2.

for them). However, the set of roles actually adopted is likely to vary between institutions and for individual professionals. Therefore the module is designed around discussing the role of libraries in RDM within institutions and also emphasises the importance of individual reflection on the place of RDM within an individual’s own career trajectory. One of the central assumptions made in the design of the module was that librarians themselves often do not have in-depth experience of research. RDM and an increasing number of other roles to support research require understanding of the perspective of the researcher. Therefore considerable time in the module is devoted to actively exploring the nature of research and research data: participants interview a researcher. There are also extracts from long interviews with six researchers that illustrate the diverse perspectives of researchers in different fields on what data is and what the issues around RDM are. The module also encourages librarians to think about the potential role of other professional services, such as research administration, computing services and archives and records managers in RDM, since it is widely understood that joined up thinking by professional services is key. There is a strong emphasis on practical hands-on activities often engaging with real documents such as institutional RDM policies or data management plans. Librarians need this practical knowledge. Equally the course does emphasise aspects of theory (e.g. theories of the nature of academic discipline) and strategic concerns. In an evolving context requiring collaborative activities, thinking about the viewpoints of the many stakeholders in RDM is essential. A centre piece of the module is a fictional case study through which participants can think about the perspectives’ of researchers and professional service staff. An element of inquiry based learning is offered through the scaffolded exercise to plan an interview of a researcher. An element of problem based learning is used through a number of case studies based on documents and recordings relating to specific real projects (Session 7); and a fictional institutional case study (Session 8). The module is based on sound pedagogic principles.

Conclusion As well as creating a need for specialist data librarians and data curators, it seems probable that as a new area of professional practice, RDM will touch many librarians’ work. An appreciation of the issues will be needed across different library teams: among liaison librarians, digital resource managers, systems staff, special collections and metadata librarians. The RDMRose learning materials, alongside other offerings such as the Edinburgh’s Research Data Management for Librarians (see ALISS Quarterly volume 8 number 3), TrAD’s DM (http://www.uel.ac.uk/trad/), as well as more generic materials such as Mantra will help librarians get up to speed on the new subject, be that working alone, in self-help groups, in work teams or through formal courses. The RDMRose module can be used in all these contexts. The information school is also interested in talking to libraries using the material, so that we can support its use. In turn this will also help us keep the materials up-to-date. The process of Information School staff working closely with practising library professionals was an enriching process and a ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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model that we are keen to continue to further develop. Designing learning materials for an Open Educational Resource, was also a fascinating challenge. Maintaining RDMRose as a community resource will benefit all. Bibliography Auckland M (2012) Re-Skilling for Research: An Investigation into the Role and Skills of Subject and Liaison Librarians Required to Effectively Support the Evolving Information Needs of Researchers. London: Research Libraries UK. Available at: http://www.rluk.ac.uk/content/re-skilling-research/ (accessed 4 July 2013).   

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Corrall S (2012) Roles and responsibilities: libraries, librarians and data. In: Pryor G (ed) Managing Research Data. London: Facet, pp. 105-133. 

Corrall S., Keennan, M.A. and Afzal, W. (2013) Bibliometrics and research data management services: Emerging trends in library support for research, Library Trends 61 (3) 636-674.

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Cox, A.M. and Pinfield, S. (2103) Research data management and libraries: Current activities and future priorities, Journal of Librarianship and Information Science, first published ArticleFirst on June 28, 2013 as doi:10.1177/0961000613492542 Garritano JR and Carlson JR (2009) A subject librarian’s guide to collaborating on e-Science projects. Issues in Science and Technology Librarianship 57. Available at: http://www.istl.org/09spring/refereed2.html (accessed 4 July 2013). Lewis M (2010) Libraries and the management of research data. In: McKnight S (ed) Envisioning future academic library services: initiatives, ideas and challenges. London: Facet, pp. 145-168. Lyon L (2012) The informatics transform: Re-engineering libraries of the data decade. The International Journal of Digital Curation 7(1): 126-138. Available at: http://dx.doi.org/10.2218/ijdc. v7i1.220 (accessed 4 July 2013). Royal Society (2012). Science as an open enterprise. http://royalsociety.org/policy/projects/ science-public-enterprise/report/ (accessed 4 July 2013).

Appendix

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Session 1 – Introductions, RDM, and the role of LIS The first session introduces the RDMRose module, discusses RDM basics, and explores the role of LIS professionals in RDM, including examples of how academic libraries have started to respond to the research data management challenge. The session is concluded by an introduction to reflection and reflective writing. 1. Introduction to the RDMRose module 2. RDM basics 3. The LIS role in RDM 4. Reflection and reflective writing

Session 2 – The nature of research and the need for RDM The second session focuses on the nature of research, and the place of data in the research cycle. It then discusses the need for RDM, including funders’ mandates and university policies. Research data audits and interviews are discussed, and the RDMRose module’s overarching activity is introduced: preparing an interview with a researcher. The session is ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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concluded by a reflection on the participant’s experience with research. 1. The social organisation of research 2. Research, information practices and data 3. The RDM agenda, including Funders’ mandates and university policies 4. The research data interview and audit, including investigating a researcher 1 5. Reflection on research

1. Exploring the lifecycle 2. Data Management Plans 3. Stakeholders in RDM

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Session 3 – The digital curation lifecycle In the third session the DCC’s curation lifecycle model is introduced, followed by an exploration of Data Management Plans and a discussion of the point of view of different stakeholders in RDM, in particular of the professional services.

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Session 4 – Key institutions and projects in RDM The fourth session is devoted to the different ways of keeping up-to-date on research data management. This includes an introduction to the DCC, the DCC website, and an activity to design Library web pages with RDM support for researchers, based on an exploration of similar websites at other institutions. 1. Mapping the DCC website 2. RDM training for researchers 3. Designing Library web pages with RDM support for researchers 4. Investigating a researcher 2 5. Reflection on the learning process

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Session 5 – What is data? The topic of the fifth session is data: the findings of the preparatory desk investigation of a researcher are discussed with emphasis on data and data management issues. Also, a framework is presented that outlines different ways of looking at data, and a number of research data case studies are discussed. The drivers and cultural barriers to open data and data sharing are examined, and the session is concluded by a reflection on the participants’ understanding of research and research data. 1. Researchers and their data: investigating a researcher 3 2. Looking at data 3. Open data 4. Reflecting on research and research data Session 6 – Managing data The sixth session is devoted to the management of research data. This includes practical data management guidelines for researchers (such as file naming conventions and backing up files), issues around depositing, maintaining and finding data in institutional research data repositories, using subject repositories / data centres, and general metadata issues and data citation. Finally, participants reflect on how engaging with RDM may affect the organisation of the Library. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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1. Practical data management 2. Institutional data repository policies 3. Subject repositories 4. Metadata and data citation 5. Reflection on Library organisation

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Session 7 – Case studies of Research Projects The seventh session introduces a number of case studies that taken together follow the processes of research and handling research data: from project proposal and initial data management planning, via the reuse of existing datasets, to publishing research outputs and depositing relevant data. Finally, participants reflect on the impact of RDM on their professional role.

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1. Case studies of researchers and research projects 2. Design a job description 3. Reflection on RDM and your role as an LIS professional

Session 8 –Institutional Case Study and Conclusions The eighth session explores the viewpoints of the different RDM stakeholders within HE institutions, such as researchers and institutional policy makers, the library, research office, computing services, and staff development unit, by analysing an institutional case study. In the second part, participants reflect on the relevance of the potential roles in RDM for the Library. Finally, participants reflect on what they have learned and evaluate the learning materials.

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1. RDM the movie 2. Institutional case study 3. Reflection on the Library role in RDM 4. Evaluation of the RDMRose module

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Cataloguing in the digital age: Cataloguers’ and library schools’ opinions on RDA and AACR2r Resoum Kidane Introduction The advance of computer technology has revolutionised the way in which information is presented and delivered, this development led of the birth of digital publications. As a result, the proliferation of electronic resources and development of various audio-visual formats, led the cataloguing practice which used to describe resources in the 1980s being changed in the late 1990s and early 2000s.

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Since Panizzi’s Rules for cataloguing developed in 1841, the cataloguing rule went through different stage of revision and change. It is beyond the scope of this study to look at the history of revisions and changes which were done before the publishing of the AACR first edition in 1967.

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The first edition of the AACR was published in 1967, its second edition in 1978 and revised in 1988. Both the AACR and AACR2 were based on the Paris Principles which were written for card cataloguing. The Paris Principles were built to maximize on card catalog technology with main entries and added entries (Tillett 2009). Furthermore, the AACR2 is the first cataloguing code that clearly delineated the distinction between description and access. It also provides an infinitely expandable framework to accommodate new media (Principles and future of AACR 1998: 160 p.). From 1987 to 2002, the AACR2 publication went through a number of changes and revision. As a consequence of the ‘explosion’ of electronic publications in library collections, the issue of future cataloguing has become the main topic of debate within the cataloguer communities. In 1997 experts were invited at the International Conference on the Principles & Future Development of AACR in Toronto to develop an action plan for the future of AACR. According Cossham (2009) the purpose of this conference was to examine the underlying principles of cataloguing rules, and to evaluate the need for fundamental change.

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Chapman (2006) states that revisions of the text post-1997 addressed some issues in a limited way, but there was a growing recognition that a new resource was needed, not simply a third edition of AACR. Cossham (2009) also states that after the first draft of AACR3 appeared in late 2004, feedback from the wider library community showed that the changes in AACR3 did not go far enough. Thereafter the AACR3 changed its name to RDA which started to develop in 2005 and its first draft was released in 2008. In 2007, the JSC announced that RDA would be implemented by the end of 2009 (Kottman, 2012). However, after the result of the RDA toolkit test in late June 2010, the JSC recommends that RDA should be implemented by LC,NAL, and NLM no sooner than January 2013. Following the delaying implementing of the RDA, the debate for revising the AACR2r became the discussion in the autocate mailing list. In the light of the above, in early of 2012 a brief survey was conducted to find out the opinion of the cataloguers and library schools on the AACR2 and RDA which are based on ISBD and FRBR respectively. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Methodology and Data collection The main aim of this study is to look at the current and future trends in cataloguing with reference to the prospect of the RDA guideline in replacing the AACR2r code for cataloguing in the digital age. The result of this survey will provide an overview on the strength and weaknesses of RDA and AACR2 for the cataloguing community. To achieve the objective of this study, the survey was performed in March 2012 by e-mail to selected mailing list mainly to AutoCat, OCLC-CAT and ISKO UK subscribers. Those mailing lists were identified as heavily used by cataloguers, information specialists, researchers employed within academia, national and governmental libraries, and others.

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Most subscribers to AutoCat and OCLC-CAT are from the North America. In order to allow other cataloguers from other parts of the world, especially the UK, the survey questionnaire was also sent to individual cataloguers by e-mail and to other library and information professionals to circulate the questionnaire to the cataloguing communities; but only a few people responded to the survey. Most of the survey respondents were from the AutoCat, OCLC-CAT subscribers who are based in the North America. The questionnaire comprised of questions focused mainly on cataloguers’ and library schools’ opinions on RDA, AACR2, library system managements, etc., also including their knowledge of FRBR entity relation and RDA vocabularies. Findings Fifty four responses were returned from cataloguers and other information professionals. Of the 54 respondents 40 (73%) respondents returned a completed survey; and 14 (27%) respondents didn’t complete the questionnaire but sent only their opinions . As a result of it, only 40 respondents who completed the questionnaire were included in the data analysis. Of the 40 respondents, 37 participants were subscribers of the AutoCat, OCLC-CA and ISKO UK mailing list. Of these 32 (80%) respondents were from North America, 4(10%) from Europe and 4(10%) from Asia and Australia

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The findings of the survey are summarized in four sub-sections: respondents’ background, awareness of the RDA, comparison between RDA and AACR2, and Future cataloguing. There is a brief discussion about the findings of the survey separately in section. Respondents’ background information Table 1shows that the type of libraries where respondents are working, and professionals occupations. As can be seen from the table below, the professional occupation of 32 (80%) respondents are cataloguers. Of these 26(65%) work in academic libraries. 25 (65%) of respondents indicated that they library were hybrid library. Table 1. Respondent’s background information

Organisations

Academic

26

65%

Libraries

Digital library

4

Professionals/Occupations 10%

Cataloguer

32

80%

3

7.5%

Public

5

12.5%

Hybrid library

25

65.5%

Metadata officer

Special library

9

22.5%

Others

11

27.5%

Others

4

12.5%

Total

40

100%

Total

40

100

Total

40

100%

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Awareness of the RDA Additionally, the result of this survey found out that 40 (100%) respondents are aware of RDA and 37(92.5) are familiar with Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) entity relationships Group 1: work, expression, manifestation, and item. Although all respondents said that they are aware of RDA, only 4( 10.3% ) respondents said that their library management systems support RDA to display FRBR Group 1 entityrelations. The other 36(89.7%) respondents state that their library management systems did not support RDA to display FRBR Group 1 entity- relations. See fig.1

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Fig. 1 :LMS support RDA to display FRBR Group1

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Questions were also included on Library and Information Studies (LIS) syllabus and knowledge of RDA for teaching. Only 10 (23%) responses were received for LIS syllabus. Of these 2(5%) indicated that RDA with AACR2 are included in their current syllabus and 8(18) respondents states that the AACR2 is only included for teaching cataloguing.

A further question was asked to find out whether there a plan to include RDA in syllabus before or after 2013. As can be seen from Fig.2, 3 (37.5%) respondents said that there is no plan, 1(17.5) ongoing, 4 (50%) respondents said that there is a plan to include RDA in the syllabus. This could be before or after 2013. Fig. 2 Plan for teaching RDA Comparative respondents on RDA and AACR2

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A. Use of RDA and AARC2 for resource description A further question was asked in this survey to find out which cataloguing standard is currently used for resource description by the cataloguer, and this was answered by 40(100%) respondents. Of these 34(85%) said that they are using AACR2, 2(5%) said RDA and 4(10%) said both (RDA & AACR2).

Fig 4. Use of RDA and AARC2 for resource description

Future cataloguing A. RDA implements The above figure shows that 85% of respondents said that they are using AACR2 for cataloguing. To find out if they have any plan to use RDA for cataloguing in future, this question was also included in this survey.

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Regarding the use of the RDA in future, this survey found out 40(100) of respondents expressed their view about RDA. Of these 2(5%) respondents said RDA is already implemented, 11 (17.5%) respondents said that there is a plan for the implantation of RDA after 2013, 2(5%) respondents said soon, 23 (57.5%) respondents said that there is no plan yet for using RDA after 2013 and 2(5%) respondents said that they had that they had no idea.

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Fig. 5 RDA implementation

A. Opinion of RDA and AACR2 To obtain the opinion of cataloguers on and the advantage of using RDA and AACR2 for resource description, a relevant question was asked for the participant in this survey. As can be seen from figure 7, 24(60%) and 8(20%) respondents had positive opinions on AACR2 and RDA respectively; 6(15%) respondents had unfavourable opinions to RDA and 2(5%) respondents to AACR2.

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Fig.7. Respondents View of RDA and AACR2

Those respondents gave different reasons for their view on Postive/Unfavourable on AACR2 and RDA as follow: AACR2

AACR2 is working well now and there is no need to change unless there’s something substantially better, and RDA isn’t. Another respondent who is in favour of AACR2 also said that AACR2 needs revisions. On the other hand one respondent who answered unfavorable to AACR2 also states that mostly because of the unnecessary limitations it places on what you can record for metadata and the use of abbrevations. One respondent also said the AACR2 has limitations for cataloguing e-resources, but this is not remedied in RDA ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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RDA One respondent gave an explanation for the advantage of RDA by saying that having the content and carrier in searchable and controlled fields will be an improvement in access and description. Another respondent who is in favour RDA also states that RDA releases us from the restraints inposed by AACR; through RDA these resources can be better described, and be made more accessible to clients Example RDA is more descriptive and gives clearer fields such as AACR2: Smith, John , b. 1925 RDA : Smith, John , born . 1925

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Perception of future cataloguing Although 57.5% of this survey said that there is no plan yet for the implantation of RDA, the findings of this survey also shows that 42.5% respondents strongly believe that RDA will replace AACR2 and 12.5% respondents said others. For example one respondent said that “RDA will replace AACR2 and then will in turn be replaced by something even more complex. However, cataloguing may be eliminated by that time.

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On the other hand one respondent who is unfavorable to RDA gave his comment on the limitation of RDA “ the arrangement of the RDA is not according to the order in which MARC21 records.

17.6% respondents said AACR2 will not be replaced by RDA, for example one respondent said that “AACR2 works fine and there is no pressing need to change it”. “We will need to keep up with the latest development, but cataloguing rules should not change much”

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27.5% of respondents said that both would be used in the future, one respondent says “Both RDA and AACR2 will continue for a while. AACR2 should not be replaced by the RDA but future implementation of RDA is inevitable”. There were more comments of the future of AACR2 from respondents to mention a few here One respondent’s comment on AACR2 “AACR2 was sufficient for the old environment, but it is not flexible enough for the future for cataloguing e-resources. “Once RDA is implemented by the Library of Congress and the British Library in 2013, AACR2 is unlikely to survive as an alternative cataloguing standard”.

“RDA and FRBR are poised to take information retrieval into the 21st century. MARC and AACR2 were well-suited for 20th century needs but woefully inadequate for the future. Discussion For the past forty years the AACR2 has been used by cataloguers globally for describing and creating access point for printed and non printed formats. During these 40 years ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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the AACR2 went through several revisions. However, with the explosion of electronic resources the traditional methods of cataloguing which are focused on describing printed formats such as books are inoperative in our era of digital age. In 2005 the JSC decided not to revise the AACRr2, but to develop an alternative to the AACR2, this was after the JSC realised that the AACR2 was insufficient for 21st century cataloguing practice.  The issue of AACR2 being insufficient for future cataloguing has become the centre of debate within the cataloguers’ communities and between other scholars since 2005.

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One of the main reasons for insufficiency of the AACR2r relates to the AACR2 structure of its chapters. The structure of AACR chapters is organised on class of materials, which doesn’t work for digital materials. This is one of the constraints which is contributes to the inadequacy of the use of AACR2 for cataloguing in the 21st century.

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Kiorgaard (2009) states the AACR2 is organised into chapters based on the class of material. Example, chapter 5: Music, chapter 6: Sound recordings. This has led to inconsistency in the application of rules for different media. More importantly, it has limited the extent to which AACR2 could be adapted to new media.   Goff, (2008) adds that the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules (AACR2) is not able to accommodate the various forms in which information can be captured in a digital world. Furthermore Kiorgaard (2007) gave further explanation on the second edition of AACR2 which becomes difficult to apply in an environment where nearly all types of digital information content can be published on nearly all varieties of digital carrier such as compact disc and digital versatile disc.    Comparing the AACR2 with RDA, the RDA Toolkit is organized by area of the catalog record, not by material type. Example in the Chapter 3, “Describing Cariers,” there is a rule for the physical description of books, visual materials, computer files, microfilm, disc, cassettes etc (2013: University of Southern Mississippi Libraries)  

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Resource Description and Access (RDA) as an alternative to the AACR2 is  not only  a standard  for describing all type of collections of libraries, archives, museums etc. through changing the traditional cataloguing practice, but  it is  also  developed for  making easier the sharing of   bibliographic data  between  libraries, archives etc which currently use AACR2 and Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Books(DCRB) respectively., Both the AACR2 and RDA have their own strengths and weaknesses which we will look at briefly. • Cataloguing practice in abandonment of GMD[General Material Designation] In the RDA cataloguing practice the GMD in 245 subfield[ h] can no longer be used in the RDA. The GMD is replaced by the three new elements of RDA: Content type in MARC 336 field for expression, Media type in MARC 337 and Carrier type in MARC 338 for manifestation. One of the major changes within the RDA cataloguing practice is the abandonment of GMD which has been used for decades within the AACR2. The reason for the abundance of the GMD is more related for being too broadly and not specifically in describing resources. According to Hider (2010?) the GMD is often too broad; for example, the GMD “video ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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recording” can be used for both videocassettes and DVDs. Besides this the current GMDs are a mixture of terms designating both content and carrier; for example, “cartographic material” is a term designating content, while “microform” is a term designating carrier. Kiorgaard(2008) adds that the General Material Designation covers both content and carrier. Splitting of the GMD into Content and Carrier types allow for cleaner mapping to and from other standards, which is important for interoperability.

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The comments of responders which were received from of this survey show that on the one hand respondents stated , “Separating content from carrier is a major achievement of RDA-progress in managing linked data and making use of the semantic web is dependent on this separation”. On the other hand respondents also express their concern with the problem of displaying a record in OPAC when using Media, Carrier and Content terms in 336-338 MARC fields instead of GMD in 245 MARC field . Regarding this one responder said that, “It will be helpful when ILS vendors update the systems to accommodate the RDA terms. However, the GMD is very helpful as our current OPAC display includes the GMD which makes it easy to differentiate between print, AV, and electronic version of the same material”. • Cataloguing practice in transcribing data from a source The rule of three instructed by the AACR2 for a work with multiple authors is no longer use in the RDA cataloguing practice. The RDA states that entry under first author, regardless of number allows for cataloguers to transcribe names of multiple authors. The RDA example here shows principal creator in the 100 MARC field and the remainder in the 700 MARC field, irrespective of number.

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100$a Brown, Susan 245 $a Heroes / $c by Susan Brown, Melanie Carlson, Stephen Lindell, Kevin Ott, and Janet Wilson. 700 $a Carlson, Melanie. 700 $a Lindell, Stephen. 700 $a Ott, Kevin. 700 $a Wilson, Janet. The above example was adopted from the presentation of Tillett [2010, p.33 ]

The example above shows that the main entry in the RDA record naming the work by using the first-named creator [ Brown, Susan] and tracing all authors as opposed to only 2nd and 3rd . In older records in the AACR2 the main entry for work with more than three authors would be its title[Heroes] with an added entry for the first named creator in MARC field 700 but there is no MARC field 100. As can be seen from the AACR2 example below 245 $a Heroes / $c by Susan Brown … [et al.] 700 $a Brown, Susan. Regarding this cataloguing practice change, a responder from this survey said that “there is no reason to limit authorship to only three names in our current electronic environment. Also with all of scientific works that have many authors this really helps. I know that some of the cataloguers don’t like typing in all of the names but from access point of view, it makes so much more sense and is a much better service for our users” ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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This is also supported by other respondents also said that “RDA releases us from the restraints imposed by AACR; through RDA these resources can be better described and be made more accessible to clients”. Furthermore the RDA guideline also allows optional omission [and three (four) others] instead of … [et al.]. Below is an example which was given by one responder of this survey. AACR2: 245 subfield a Anthropolgy /|cSean Markey...[et al.]. RDA: 245 subfield a Anthropolgy /|cSeanMarkey[and four others].

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However this was not welcomed by other responders who said that “it is bad to have no standard for minimum number of authors to give in present.” This will add significant time to cataloguing, especially checking the authority file for all authors of efficiency, which is most important to me” said one responder. Apart from the above, there is also a difference in transcription data from a source in AACR2 and RDA cataloguing practice.

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Regarding this, Delsey (2009), in a presentation given at the CLA in May 2009, provided a snapshot comprising of data transcribing from a source in AACR2 and RDA catalogue records. In this presentation Delsey also pointed out that AACR allows abbreviations to be used in certain transcribed elements (e.g., edition statement, numbering, place of publication, distribution, etc., series) RDA guidelines state that elements should be transcribed rather than abbreviated. Example 250$a Second edition rather than abbreviate it as 2nd edition. RDA also permits abbreviations in transcribed elements only if the data appears in an abbreviated form in the source. Example Boston MA or Boston Mass

Apart from this all abbreviations should spell out in full words when the AACR2 record is edited to convert into RDA record, as can be seen from the example below

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• In MARC 130 or 630 subfield $p : the O.T and N.T abbreviation should be spelled out as it appeared on source Old Testament” and “New Testament • In MARC field 300: p., ill etc. abbreviation should be spelled out as it appeared on source Pages, illustrations etc. • In MARC field 250 : 2nded, 3rd ed. abbreviation should be spelled out as it appeared on source However, for some abbreviations to be spelled out was not welcome by a responder from this survey who said that spelling out well known abbreviations is a waste of time, but we’ll do it. It is worthwhile to mention briefly that Latin abbreviations such as s.l. (sine loco “without a place”), s.n. (sine nomine “without a name”), et al. (etalii “and other”), ca. (circa “approximately”) are no longer used in RDA. Regarding this, one responder of this survey said, “I support abandoning the use of abbreviations. Many of our users don’t know what they mean, especially s.l and s.n” As can be seen from the example below, RDA uses place of publication not identified instead of s.l ; publisher not identified instead of s.n. AACR2: 260|a[S.l. :|b s.n.]|c 1966 RDA 260|a[ Place of publication not identified] :|b[publisher not identified.]|c1966. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Challenges for the implementation of the RDA Regarding the implementation of RDA as a cataloging code, a responder of this survey said that RDA literature should be offered free of charge similar to MARC21 via the Library of Congress if universal implementation is truly the goal. Charge for individual training, but, not for the resources; the perceived shortcoming of AACR2r.

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The findings of the survey conducted by Sanchez (2010) shows that 53 percent of responders said that there will be limited access to the RDA toolkit because of its cost, while there are only 22 percent who indicated that they will purchase the RDA toolkit and will have access to it.As becomes clear from the survey conducted by Sanchez, the price of the RDA Toolkit to be subscribed is not only unaffordable by libraries in the developing countries but also in developed countries.

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Example, the price of subscriptions to RDA Toolkit for 5 registered users, with 3 concurrent - user licenses = $435 USD ($325 base price + 2 x $55) see Appendix 1. for more information. This would not be encouraging for institutes to subscribe to the RDA toolkit so this will have a considerable impact on the RDA implementing globally. Despite this fact certain libraries from the North America have started using RDA for their current cataloguing. Example in the table below shows the growth of the RDA bibliographic records at the University of Chicago. Cumulative Total of UChicago’s RDA Bibliograhic records

Original records Changed from AACR2 to RDA RDA copy Total

Dec 31, 2010 1, 301

Sept 15, 2011 6,517

Nov, 2011 8,001

June 15, 2012 11, 379

Dec 11, 2012 14,319

N/A

4,099

2,113

3,163

3,930

2,584

4,456

7,243

10,616

12,698

18,998

25,392

N/A

1,301

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Source: Building an RDA Implementation Strategy for Your Library by Cronin, Christopher viewed 25/02.2013 [http://www.academia.edu/2286284/Building_an_RDA_Implementation_ Strategy_for_Your_Library]

Currently, most of the Library Congress and OCLC cataloguing records for books published in 2012/13 are in RDA records. Based on information which was obtained from the OCLC mailing lists (OCLC-CAT@OCLC.ORG ) which was posted on 26 November 2012, there were around 100,000 RDA records only in the OCLC. Cronin (2012) also states that over the last two years up until the end of November..., there were about 105,000 RDA bib records in OCLC, and there were about 85,000 RDA authority records in OCLC in total. This is could be indicative that the RDA may have good prospects for its implementation globally in future. However, without having a basic knowledge of FRBR conceptual model it is a somewhat difficult task to implement RDA. To use the RDA guideline/ efficiently for resource description, it is essential for cataloguers to have a basic understanding of the FRBR conceptual model and terminology. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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The use of the FRBR entities work, expression, manifestation, and item in RDA will provide the potential basis for logical clustering of records (Todd, 2009?) One responder said that in my view understanding FRBR makes both RDA and the new generation OPACs much more understandable and another responder also said that it also makes it easier to understand how linked data might work Nevertheless the FRBR/RDA model concept is not straight forward to understand, this fact was pointed out by a responder from this survey who said;“I have been through RDA training but I don’t understand it at all, and no one ever demonstrates what a FRBRized catalogue would look like”.

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To conclude

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The RDA encounters another challenge from the library management systems. In this survey 36(89.7%) respondents state that their library management systems did not support RDA to display FRBR Group 1 entity- relations, there are only 4( 10.3% ) respondents who said that their library management systems support RDA to display FRBR Group 1 entity- relations.. See fig.1 The finding of this survey affirms that 100% respondents are aware of RDA and 37 (92.5%) are also familiar with FRBR entity relationships Group 1. This indicates that there will be good prospects for implementation of    RDA by cataloguers  Despite this, the RDA Toolkit subscription might have adverse consequences for delaying the implementation of the RDA by cataloguers globally. In addition,  respondents  in this survey also said that  the data which is encoded in MARC fields 336, 337 and 338  is not  displayed  in the OPAC and they preferred to use  the GMD in 245 MARC subfield [h] instead of  Content, Media and Carrier  types  in MARC 336, 337 and 338  fields respectively.

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To implement RDA effectively it also requires a basic knowledge of the RDA concept and awareness of these changes mentioned in the discussion section of this survey. Having essential knowledge and understanding of the RDA terminology will be a great advantage for efficiently converting bibliographical records from the AACR2 to RDA, editing or creating a new RDA records. Generally, 42% respondents on this survey thought that AACR2 might be replaced by RDA compared with 17.6% respondents who said that ACR2 will not be replaced by RDA. Additionally the growing number of RDA records in the OCLC, LC and Academic libraries is also another good indicator that RDA will probably have good prospects for replacing AACR2 in future. It is worthwhile mentioning that this survey was conducted in March 2012, when there were not many RDA records before effectively implementing of the RDA in April 2013. Since then, there has been a rapid rise in number of RDA records within the bibliographic records of the Library of Congress, WorldCat and other Academic libraries. The data and other relevant information which is presented in this research paper will be helpful for anyone who has interest to carry out further research on the RDA guidelines and BIBFRAME for use in the next generation catalogues. BIBFRAME is based on Semantic Web technology, specifically linked data which developed by the Library of Congress. ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Appendix - Subscriptions to RDA Toolkit AUD

EUR

Solo-user annual subscription-password $195 $215 £140 $245 access; one profile, one user Institutional subscription for one user at a $325 $355 £235 $410 time, unlimited number of total users and profiles Institutional subscription, additional concurrent users Annual fee for 2 or more concurrent users. Price shown is per additional user.     2–9 concurrent users $55 $60 £40 $70

€170

SGD $315

€285

$520

€50

    10–19 concurrent users

$50

€45

    20+ concurrent users

$45

$85 $75 $70

CAD

$55

GBP

£38

$65

F

USD

$50

£35

$60

€40

Example: 5 registered users, with 3 concurrent - user license = $435 USD ($325 base price + 2 x $55)

Source http://www.rdatoolkit.org/pricing Viewed 18/04/2013 References

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Chapman, Ann (2006) RDA: A New International Standard http://www.ariadne.ac.uk/issue49/ chapman Cronin, Christopher (2013) Building an RDA Implementation Strategy for Your Library.http:/ www.academia.edu/2286284/Building_an_RDA_Implementation_Strategy_for_Your_Library] Cossham, Amanda (2009) Introducing RDA: The new kid on the block (http://www.natlib.govt. nz/downloads/RDA-Workshop-Intro-31-Mar-2009.PDF Delsey, Tom (2009), AACR2 versus RDA: AACR2 versus RDA Presentation given at the CLA Pre-Conference Session From Rules to Entities: Cataloguing with RDA. http://tsig.wikispaces.com/file/view/AACR2_versus_RDA.pdf Goff , Gayla(2008) Resource Description Access A Synopsis of Autocat Discussions http://www. harep.org/Documentr/papers.pdf Hider, Philip and Huthwaite, Ann (2010?) The Potential Impact of RDA on OPAC Displays http://www.nla.gov.au/sites/default/files/hider_huthwaite.doc 6.Kiorgaard (2007) A rose by any other name?: from AACR to Resource Description and Access http://www.valaconf.org.au/vala2006/papers2006/83_Kartus_Final.pdf Kiorgaard, Deirdre (2008) Setting a new standard in. Resource Description and Access http://www. rda-jsc.org/docs/dkgermany-200806.pdf. Kiorgaard (2009) Resource Description and Access http://bukoxfwebapp.buk.blackwell.co.uk/ cgi-bin/patience.cgi?id=1d26df73-c35d-41cb-b91a-b0a5bcd6a938] Kottman, (2012) RDA and the Copy Cataloger http://newprairiepress.org/journals/index.php/ CULS/article/download/1613/1266. Sanche, Elaine R.(2010) RDA, AACR2, and you: what catalogers are thinking https://digital. library.txstate.edu/bitstream/handle/10877/2625/fulltext.pdf. Principles and future of AACR ( 1998) Principles and future of AACR : proceedings of the International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR, Toronto, Ontario, Canada, October 23-25, 1997 Tillett, Barbara (2009). International Cataloguing Principles (ICP) Report http://conference.ifla. org/past/ifla75/215-tillett-en.pdf Tillett, Barbara (2010) Changes from AACR2 for Texts http://www.rda-jsc.org/docs/10_1_12_ RDAchangesfromAACR2fortexts.ppt The University of Southern Mississippi Libraries (2013) Getting started with RDA. http://www. lib.usm.edu/techserv/cat/tools/rdagettingstarted ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Barcelona and Bristol A Comparison of University Library Services

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Angela Joyce, University of Bristol

At EUETIB, just after giving the presentation, Angela on the left

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Introduction

In my role as International Librarian at the University of Bristol, I need to be aware of how international students are supported in other universities and indeed other countries. So in March 2013 I set off on a visit to Barcelona, Spain, to visit the Universitat Polytecnica de Catalunya (UPC), or Technical University of Catalonia. I had met one of their librarians, Roser Alonso, at an international week in Munich previously. UPC is a major university with thirteen campuses throughout Catalonia, and I visited the EUETIB campus (Barcelona College of Industrial Engineering ) in central Barcelona. It was founded in 1904. http://www.upc.edu/the-upc/a-university-close-to-you/campusesand-regional-schools/euetib. This campus offers courses in engineering, for example, biomedical, energy, electrical, mechanical and chemical.

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The plan was to also visit the UPC North Campus and then the Pompeu Fabra University which offers business studies degrees, and is more like a UK Russell Group university. Unfortunately, food poisoning intervened and I ended up in hospital! Therefore these two visits were missed. At EUETIB I was met by Roser and taken on a tour of the library. The campus in Barcelona is built in “industrial style�. Some of the buildings were originally factories which are now updated and converted into attractive university premises. The EUETIB library is a bright and welcoming modern library, within a nineteenth century building. As in our libraries at Bristol, there are various zones for different activities, eg. bookable group learning rooms, noisier work areas, silent study areas and teaching rooms.

The ground floor of the library at EUETIB ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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There are 2,423 enrolled students at the EUETIB campus, of which 48 are international (so far fewer than at Bristol, where we currently have about 4,700!). Total numbers at UPC across Catalonia are 29,407, with 816 international students. They participate in programmes such as Erasmus and SICUE, an exchange programme between Spanish universities. Students come mainly from South America, Germany, France, Turkey, Italy and Romania. Very few students come from the UK, possibly due to language issues and the general reluctance of UK students to use other languages (see Sweeney, 2013). All students are encouraged to learn other languages using online interactive courses and by borrowing novels and DVDs of films.

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The university participates in exchange programmes with other Spanish and foreign universities. Their students mainly go to Germany, Denmark, Slovenia, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Italy, Great Britain, Norway and various countries in South America.

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Library systems and resources The Millennium library management system is used. They do not have RFID at this campus yet and there is a small issue and enquiry counter, staffed by any staff - subject librarian equivalents, library assistants and technical staff. All thirteen UPC libraries across Catalonia are integrated in terms of the online catalogue, e-resources and policies. Librarians (they are not called Subject Librarians, simply “librarians” but are responsible for various subjects) buy books and eBooks, based mainly on the reading lists they get from lecturers. Various eBook platforms are used – SpringerLink, Ebrary, MyiLibrary, ScienceDirect and EBSCOhost eBooks. They also use MetaLib which is used at Bristol and I believe Some other universities. Familiar databases such as Web of Knowledge, IEEE, Medline and Econlit are available. The classification system is UDC.

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Information Literacy There is a centralised system of IL training provided. Groups of the librarians take it in turn to produce or update different teaching materials. This is planned in conjunction with lecturers. All teaching materials (slides and video tutorials) are then stored on the Intranet and are available for use. Catalan is the main working language, with Spanish used too. The lecturer/librarian will talk in Catalan, but Spanish speaking students may reply in Spanish and this is generally understood. A little English is used in some teaching; the main university website has an English version. The translation is provided by their language centre. http://www.upc.edu/?set_language=en

There is also some tailored teaching for international students. Inductions are held at the beginning of term, and later on there are more in-depth classes covering databases and research skills, which sounds much like the system at Bristol. In addition, the library offers friendly “welcome guides” in Catalan, Spanish and English for any students, (PDF or print versions) with bite-sized chunks of information about library services.

ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Welcome guide with bite-sized information about library services

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Differences and similarities between UPC and Bristol During the visit I gave a presentation in Spanish with some English, about my role as International Librarian, and the staff had many questions about our services here. I explained that I speak a little more slowly to international students, and use plenty of visual prompts and body language to make things clearer. I don’t use too many colloquial expressions. I also allow plenty of time for questions and am happy to demonstrate online searches several times. They said that English people often speak very fast to them in English, expecting them to understand. It must be hard. There is no equivalent of the International Librarian role at UPC, and their proportion of international students is much lower. They expect numbers to grow in future though. They have also had cuts in library services, including a 4% wage cut.

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In many ways, their services are similar to ours. From what I have seen of various libraries in other countries, everywhere is becoming standardised and using many internationally available databases. (However, it is dangerous to generalise and I am sure that there are still some differences). At UPC, both print and online resources are important. Many of their eBook platforms and databases are known in Britain. The idea of having various zones for quiet study, noisy study or group work around the library is similar. The book stock seems good and is also well used. Library staff are friendly and helpful to students. Loan facilities are perhaps more diverse than at Bristol, with laptops, eBook readers and USB sticks available. QR codes are used to improve access to Web content and there is a Facebook page. Unlike here, all staff are expected to work at the counter. Our subject librarians do not do this. The concept of using three languages is mind-boggling, compared to British universities where English dominates. All in all it was a very interesting visit, despite my being ill for two days and missing out on more activities. I had a fantastic welcome from my EUETIB colleagues, and we really appreciated exchanging ideas and comparing our services. Angela Joyce, April 2013. angela.joyce@bristol.ac.uk References Sweeney, Simon. (2013) Going mobile: internationalisation, mobility and the European Higher Education Area. British Council, Higher Education Academy (2013) ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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Resources for supporting international students in the UK. Heather Dawson This section covers resources for and about overseas students studying in the UK.

Education UK http://www.educationuk.org

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International students may be unfamiliar with the UK education system. Other common questions relate to finance, immigration/visa regulations, English lessons and accommodation. In practice many of these issues require specialist advice. Most universities have local offices for international / overseas students where they can be referred. The resources below offer general introductions which may also be useful. In addition the National Union of Students website http://www.nus.org.uk has general advice.

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From the British Council which explains the basics of the UK education system. This includes coverage of how to apply for courses, student finance and finding accommodation. There is also a section on UK life and culture. UK Council for International Student Affairs (UKCISA) http://www.ukcisa.org.uk

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National advisory body serving the interests of international students. Its website offers free access to a useful collection of factsheets covering basic questions asked by international students. Topics include regulations, finance and support services. They have also developed the free tutorial Prepare for Success http://www.prepareforsuccess.org.uk which takes potential overseas students through a series of interactive exercises designed to teach them about studying in the UK. Topics include: what to expect from lecturers, methods of teaching and assessment in the UK. A final useful feature is the Student Calculator http://www.studentcalculator.org.uk which aims to prepare international students for the financial side of living in the UK including helpful tips on living costs and balancing budgets.

ALISS Quarterly 8 (4) July 2013


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