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A SENTIMENTAL TYPOLOGY Alison Carroll Masters of Architecture Thesis Tulane School of Architecture Spring 2014 Faculty Advisor: Errol Barron


TABLE OF CONTENTS

Abstract Thesis Document 7 8 10 14 17

Phenomenology of Architecture Genius Loci Hegemony of Vision Magic of the Real Conclusion

Conceptual Precedents 18 Therme Vals 20 Chapel of Reconciliation 26 Karsamaki Shingle Church

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Program

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Site

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Final Thesis Proposal

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Work Cited

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29 Program Analysis 32 Precedent Studies

37 Site Analysis 42 Precedent Studies

62 Annotated Bibliography 64 Bibliography


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ABSTRACT

“Why do so very few modern buildings appeal to our feelings, when almost any anonymous house in an old town or the most unpretentious farm outbuilding gives us a sense of familiarity and pleasure?” Juhani Pallasmaa, The Geometry of Feeling Architecture can provide a multi-sensory experience that connects with us on a physical, emotional and intellectual level. When late-20th century architectural theory gravitated toward exceedingly abstract and intellectualized designs, the emotional and physical experience sometimes became secondary. The tendency of architecture to turn highly academic can easily create a separation between the architect and the layman: the user of a building. By focusing too much on what a building can represent or express, its direct experiential qualities to any given user may never emerge. Many architectural theorists and designers, such as Christian NorbergSchulz, Juhanni Pallasmaa and Peter Zumthor believe that architectural design should be rooted in what they call a ‘sensual and holistic experience,’ determined by the particular needs of the site, its context, and its users. For them, architectural design does not over-emphasize visual form or space but concerns itself with the broader experience a building can provide its users. After a period in which architecture has sought dramatic expression at the expense of more experiential interactions, this thesis looks for an approach to this ‘phenomenological’ architecture. Through close study of buildings that successfully exhibit these qualities, we can begin to identify and isolate methods for orchestrating this type of atmosphere through a building’s design.


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PHENOMENOLOGY OF ARCHITECTURE The study of phenomenology was applied to architecture by the German philosopher, Martin Heidegger, in 1951. Heidegger is a controversial figure because of his support of the German National Socialist (Nazi) movement. However, he is a highly regarded philosopher and his thoughts on architecture have influenced modern architects and theorists including Christian Norburg-Schulz, Juhani Pallasmaa and Peter Zumthor. Phenomenology is a method of thought that is directly concerned with human experience. Heidegger took the first steps to connect this method of thought to building. He often criticized the procedures of professional practice and pleaded that the immediacies of human experience should not be forgotten(Sharr, Heidegger for Architects). His model of architecture was one that would reintegrate ‘building’ with ‘dwelling’. In his 1951 work titled “Building Dwelling Thinking,” Heidegger argued that when people think of things, buildings, or places, they do not just see visual images of them; instead, they correlate these places first and foremost with the experience they had when they were there. A place is remembered in association with the user’s own experiences, rather than as an ideal object, and the act of remembering a place involves someone projecting themselves to it through their imagination(Sharr, Heidegger for Architects). This process of imagining previously visited places involves and recalls our memories of the experience, qualities, events and people which are then constructed into the memory of the place. In this sense, buildings that successfully provide people with a connection to human experience and the world are places that allow us to dwell; the building itself recedes to the background and becomes the blank slate upon which our experiences can be had, enhanced and strengthened.


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GENIUS LOCI After Heidegger’s death in 1976, architect and theorist Christian Norberg-Schulz brought Heidegger’s thinking further into the realm of architectural theory. He believed that Heidegger’s work suggested a useful point of resistance to hard modernism and postmodernism in architecture: he saw phenomenology as an opportunity to condemn what he perceived as excessive design indulgence (Sharr, Heidegger for Architects). In his book Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture, Norberg-Schulz promotes a practice of modern architecture that is sensitive to place and people. In the book, he adopts much of Heidegger’s language and further explores the idea of ‘dwelling’. He equates ‘dwelling’ to the idea of an ‘existential foothold’, stating that “man dwells only when… he experiences the environment as meaningful. Dwelling therefore implies something more than ‘shelter’” (Norberg-Schulz, 5). He borrows from the Romans the term ‘genius loci’ or ‘spirit of place’ and believes that the task of the architect is to visualize the genius loci of place and use it first and foremost in design to create meaningful places where man can dwell. Norberg-Schulz notes that a ‘loss of place’ began after World War II. He generally criticized modern architecture for its lack of local character and identity (Norberg-Schulz).


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International Style, the name coined by Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson in 1932, was an architectural style that became prominent in the 1920s and 1930s. It was dominant in Western architecture and its characteristics were common to Modernism across the world. Three main principles characterized the style: the expression of volume rather than mass, an emphasis on balance rather than preconceived symmetry and the expulsion of applied ornament. Its newness in some ways symbolized Western capitalism and modern times. ‘Form follows function’ is an additional principle that is closely associated with this style.

FIG. 1- INTERNATIONAL STYLE: Federal Center, Chicago, IL

Norberg-Schulz criticized International Style for its influence on urban planning. Buildings in the International Style usually consisted of tall buildings placed in a park-like space or plaza, rather than reaching the street’s edge (see FIG 1). Norberg-Schulz states that the typical streets and squares no longer exist in the same way. Rather than the buildings being clustered and forming void open spaces, they are placed among openness, and there is no order, unless seen visually from a plane above. As a consequence, nodes, paths and districts lose their identity (Norberg-Schulz). Unlike the winding streets of Rome (FIG 3) that connect one piazza to the next and give a person the sense of ‘interiority,’ protection, guidance and place, these new urban schemes (FIG 2) place a person only in ‘openness’. There is no sense of order or clear distinction between public and private. Norberg-Schulz’s view is that while this open plan may work at the scale of a residence, it does not apply at the larger scale of a city. The International Style disregards the genius loci of a place, and as a consequence the architecture fails to exhibit qualities of locality and character.

FIG. 2- URBAN RENEWAL: Manhattan, NY 1950’s

FIG. 3- INTERIORITY: Aerial view of Rome

FIG. 1,3 Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci: Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980. FIG. 2- Zipp, Samuel. Manhattan Projects:The Rise and Fall of Urban Renewal in Cold War New York. Oxford: Oxford UP, 2010.

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HEGEMONY OF VISION

FIG 1- Le Corbusier’s proposed skyline for Buenos Aires -1929 (eyes,36)

While Christian Norberg-Schulz focuses on the importance of genius loci, architect and theorist Juhanni Pallasmaa looks at how all of the senses are important to create an architecture that connects us strongly with the world. He writes: “The timeless task of architecture is to create embodied and lived existential metaphors that concretize and structure our being in the world” (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 76). Pallasmaa, like Norberg-Schulz, sees buildings and architecture in a similar way as Heidegger. Pallasmaa moves the theory forward by focusing on how vision has become the dominant sense in the world, to the detriment of our other senses, and how this has affected architecture. Pallasmaa sees an ocular bias in the art of architecture; one which strains to create a striking visual image. He regards it as a strategy of advertising and instant persuasion. He notes that the contemporary cultural condition has people fixated on appearances and instant images, which over time have no sustaining power (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin).

FIG 2- The hilltown of Casares, southern Spain (Eyes, 36)

FIG. 1-2- Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Archi tecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2005.

Technological inventions, from the Industrial Revolution through the present, have provided architects and builders with the tools to create ever more visually dramatic buildings. The potential and the power of these many technological advances have led to a design ethic in which the drama of visual appeal has come to dominate the other senses by which we relate to our buildings. This trend has been referred to as a ‘hegemony of vision’ in which sight is given priority over our other senses. Visual appeal is very important, of course, but Pallasmaa calls for a re-integration of the other senses as well.


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Frank Gehry’s designs tend to exhibit this ‘hegemony of vision’. His typically dizzying, metal-clad designs are not only iconic in their environment, but are becoming iconic to Gehry specifically. They all look similar in that when you see one, you immediately know that it is one of his designs. Examples of Gehry’s programs range from museums and hotels to concert halls, and are located all over the world in all different climates. While they are, collectively, original and, in the case of Bilbao, have brought economic revitalization to the city, they are first and foremost sculptural and they are experienced mainly through vision.

FIG 3- Fisher Center at Bard College, New York

Gehry’s design process begins with the building’s program and uses block massing models to establish relationships between the building’s functions. Then the massing is placed in a model with context to ensure it is respectful to its inhabitants. Then, the sculptural phase begins. The catalyst for the sculptural design comes from sketches and experimental models (Abiri). This process of design is very common among architects. It is clear, however, that while context and function are important, the experiential qualities are not the primary focus. While this type of design can lead to spaces with atmospheric qualities, that is certainly not always the case. Rather than architecture designed for the eye, Pallasmaa calls for a multi-sensory experience. In his book, Pallasmaa states that the qualities of space, matter and scale are measured equally by the eye, ear, nose, skin, tongue, skeleton and muscle, and all of these senses interact and fuse with each other (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin).

FIG 4- Gugenheim Museum, Bilbao, Spain

FIG 5- Disney Concert Hall, Los Angeles, California

FIG. 3-5- Craven, Jackie. “Buildings by Frank Gehry.” About.com Architecture. About.com, n.d. Web. 23 Nov. 2013.

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SIGHT “The eye is the organ of distance and separation, whereas touch is the sense of nearness, intimacy and affection… Deep shadows and darkness are essential, because they dim the sharpness of vision, make depth and distance ambiguous, and invite unconscious peripheral vision and tactile fantasy (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 50).”

FIG. 1- Wedgewood cup

Pallasmaa is a critic of the dominance of vision; however, he does not dismiss it altogether. He specifically focuses on shadows and darkness. Just like shadows in a painting give shape and form to an object resting on a table (FIG 1), the shadows in a space cause ambiguity and awaken the imagination.

SOUND “Sight isolates, where as sound incorporates; vision is directional whereas sound is omni-directional… I regard an object, but sound approaches me; the eye reaches, but the ear receives (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 53).”

FIG. 2- Damp cave-like space

Sound can help manifest the experience and understanding of a space. The sound of dripping water for example, can give us a sense of the space, even when we cannot see its source (FIG 2). While we seek out information with our eyes, sound is ever present and finds us. Pallasmaa believes that the most essential auditory experience created by architecture is tranquility. A place of silence creates a sense of solitude and reflection.

SCENT “A particular smell makes us unknowingly re-enter a space completely forgotten by the retinal memory; the nostrils awaken a forgotten image, and we are enticed to enter a vivid daydream (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 58).”

FIG. 3- Spice market

FIG. 3,6- Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Archi tecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2005.

A smell can often remind us of past memories (FIG 2). In Marcel Proust’s novel “A la Recherche du Temps Perdu” (Remembrance of Things Past), he explores the theme of ‘involuntary memory’, famously using the example of how the taste of a Madeleine was able to transport the book’s central character back to his childhood home. People relate to Proust’s example because it is a clear illustration of how a multi-sensory experience is able to imprint a memory more deeply than simply an image.


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TOUCH

“The skin reads the texture, weight, density and temperature of matter… The tactile sense connects us with time and tradition… There is a strong connection between naked skin and the sensation of home. The experience of home is essentially an experience of intimate warmth (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 62-63).”

Even before we touch an object with our hands, our eyes begin to transfer information about the object’s texture. Engrained in our memories from a lifetime of interactions, we can start to learn by looking, whether an object is hard or soft, cold or warm, heavy or light. Pallasmaa concludes that when places are built with careful consideration given to textures that give off a sense of warmth, we are more likely to be connected with the sensation of home and dwelling. FIG. 4- Worn wooden chair

TASTE

“There is a subtle transference between tactile and taste experiences. Vision becomes transferred to taste as well; certain colours and delicate details evoke oral sensations (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 63).”

Taste is perhaps one of the most uncommon senses associated with architecture. Here Pallasmaa compares taste in a similar way to smell and vision. A familiar smell or image can trigger a fuller memory involving even more senses.

FIG. 5- Steamy water

ACTION

“As we open a door, the body weight meets the weight of the door; the leg measures the steps as we ascend a stairway, the hand strokes the handrail and the entire body moves diagonally and dramatically through space… It is this possibility of action that separates architecture from other forms of art (Pallasmaa, Eyes of the Skin, 63).”

Architecture is one of the only art forms that can be experienced holistically. The body’s reaction to a building’s physicality is an important aspect of one’s experience of a building. The inertia and momentum of gates, doors, and windows can be felt directly by the user. Rather than only visual inputs, these other elements of architecture can be encounters, confrontations that interact with memory.

FIG. 6- Sense of movement FIG. 1,2,4- Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. Experiencing Architecture. London: Chapman & Hall, 1959. FIG. 5- http://www.flims.com/en/activities/indoor/ thermal-bath/vals/

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MAGIC OF THE REAL “Architecture has its own realm. It has a special physical relationship with life. I do not think of it primarily as either a message or a symbol, but as an envelope and background for life which goes on in and around it, a sensitive container for the rhythm of footsteps of the floor, for the concentration of work, for the silence of sleep.” Peter Zumthor, Thinking Architecture Peter Zumthor’s work is often praised by Pallasmaa and associated with Heidegger’s philosophy. His architecture succeeds in increasing the range and heightening the impact of sensory experiences through his work by focusing his designs on experience, atmosphere and memory. Working beyond the physical fabric and visual form of a building, Zumthor draws his design inspiration from memories, often from childhood, to create an architectural atmosphere of comfort and security. In Zumthor’s book “Atmospheres,” he says that to him, quality architecture is when something manages to move him (Zumthor, Atmospheres). He looks at everyday occurrences and points out the atmospheric delight in them. Similar to phenomenological concepts, he explains the critical aspects of design and how one can begin to orchestrate an atmosphere that invokes what he calls a ‘Magic of the Real’. He describes this as the simple enjoyment of the real world through our physical and emotional experience of it.


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MATERIALS Zumthor first talks about materials and their importance in providing character for a building. Their compatibility with the context, the atmosphere and the other materials used in the design are important to orchestrate a feeling in the building. A certain material can affect many senses. Of course this is also true visually but the color, texture and composition of a material can also imply certain feelings.

MOVEMENT Another aspect that Zumthor focuses on is the clarity of a building’s circulation. A building’s spaces and their inter-connections can ‘coerce’ a user from one into another along a strict circulation path, or it can let the user meander and guide himself. Either way the intention should be clearly embodied in the design.

TIME

FIG 1- MATERIAL: Bruder Klaus Chapel

Zumthor uses light to evoke sensations of time and the passage of time. He thinks about a building as a mass of darkness and shadows and through his design he carves away at the interior darkness, letting light in (Zumthor, Atmospheres). Unlike artificial light or the physical building parts, natural light moves throughout the day, leaving a passage of time. Zumthor often constructs parts of a building very specifically to let light shine into the building in various ways, often acting as a kind of ‘structural’ sundial(Zumthor, Therme Vals).

JUXTAPOSITION OF COMPLEMENTS Viewed as a holistic process, Zumthor combines all of these elements and more into his designs of an atmosphere. By contrasting various elements, or complements, he can further heighten the overall experience for a user. For example, shifting from a clear circulation path to an open one heightens the casual quality of the ‘meander’ into the excitement and intrigue of an exploration.

FIG 2- MOVEMENT: Swiss Sound Box

FIG 3- LIGHT: Domino de Pingus Winery

FIG. 1-3- http://www.arcspace.com/bookcase/atmo sphere-/

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INTELLECCTUAL VS. EXPERIENTIAL Zumthor sees buildings as places for living. In contrast, Peter Eisenman’s work focuses on the concept and rationality of his design- - he is not concerned with livable architecture (Artemel).

FIG 1- Eisenman’s analytical drawing

FIG 2- Zumthor’s expressive sketches

FIG 3- Zumthor’s Serpentine Pavilion

FIG 4- Eisenman’s House III

FIG. 1-4- http://architizer.com/blog/peter-versus- peter/

“I do not know what my houses mean for living… I’m not dealing with mindless convenience… My work is not about convenience – it is about art. I am not suggesting that people would necessarily live in art… Who cares about the function? That is the reduction of architecture to the mindless convenience. I build to transcend function” (in Ellis and Cuff). Clearly, these two architects disagree on the fundamental purpose of architecture. While Zumthor, like Pallasmma, NorbergSchulz and Heidegger, think of architecture as an extension of the human experience, Eisenman sees it as an abstract practice to be undertaken for its own sake, whether in drawings or built work(Artemel). While Eisenman is solely concerned with the conceptual and intellectual, phenomenological architects focus on the experience of the subject. One may readily appreciate the vast difference between the way the two work. Eisenman’s diagrams are only created in axonometric (FIG 1) for he sees perspective views as too temperamental and personal (Artemel). His work is focused on reduction and addition- - to the mathematics of space and construction. Zumthor’s diagram of the Therme Vals seeks to share his desired atmosphere of emotion and experience (FIG 2). He highlights the circulation paths and the water in the building, designing it from the visitor’s point of view, while Eisenmen is essentially only concerned with the visual articulation of his conceptions. The photographs in FIG 3 and FIG 4 speak volumes to the designers’ intentions. FIG 3 of Zumthor’s Serpentine Pavilion is taken from within, showing people and life reacting with the building, while the Eisenman’s House III in FIG 4 taken from afar: a visual image of the intellectual and formal complexities of the design.


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CONCLUSION A phenomenological approach to architectural design puts the human experience first, hoping to provide a building that is not only functional, but able to provide man a ‘place to dwell’. This idea implies that the architecture is not merely shelter, but a place that implies the life within it. Architects who look at the genius loci, or spirit of place, during the design of a building hope to see what the building ‘wants to be.’ Designing in this way tends to create more comfortable yet still awe-inspiring architecture. Other ways to begin to design places of comfort is to design with all of the senses, rather than the usual dominant vision. Strong memories are crafted and more easily remembered when they engage all of the senses. This applies directly to architecture, and buildings that succeed in this tend to be highly praised, unforgettable architecture that stand the test of time.

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CONCEPTUAL PRECEDENTS

Therme Vals

Vals, Switzerland Peter Zumthor Crafting Atmosphere Zumthor and his team began the design process for the Therme Vals by ‘going back in time’. He found inspiration in a picture of the ancient Rudas Baths in Budapest (Zumthor, Therme Vals). Its rays of light streaming through the starry sky of the cupola, stone basins, steam and shadows were the inspiration for the atmosphere he hoped to achieve at Vals. He could hear the water being pushed around and the rooms echoing. Zumthor sought to create a building that had an archaic architectural attitude, one that ‘could have always been there.’

FIG 1- Carefully designed slits in the ceiling allow natural light to stream into the building in particular areas.

Once Zumthor pinned down the atmosphere, he then turned to the materials and composition of space in order to create the serene, primeval, meditative space. For this he looked at the genius loci. He drew inspiration from the stone roofs, boulders, quarries, rock formations, tunnels and galleries, and the dam of the Zervreila reservoir. ‘Boulders standing in water’ became the driving force for the design, and sketches began of ‘quarries.’ The project’s site was on a steep slope, so in doing the quarry sketches, the idea of carving out spaces on the slope and water filling crevices being left began to shape the building’s form (Zumthor, Therme Vals).

FIG 2- You can see here the two very different patterns of circulation; one is more strict while the other encourages exploration or ‘meandering’.


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The building’s space is defined by a “field of stone blocks.” The blocks provide two types of places, with two types of feelings. The interstitial spaces between the masses provide the building’s loose circulation path, which Zumthor calls “the meander.” This designed negative space provides the experience of walking through a forest, twisting and turning, making your own path while inevitably being led to points of discovery. These discoveries are embodied within the spaces of the blocks. Seemingly made of solid stone, as you meander throughout the space, you realize that they are hollow with various baths inside: the fire bath, ice bath, flower bath, along with others. Each bath has its own identity that makes it unique, whether it’s a shocking temperature, a lovely smell, or yet another small yet entertaining discovery to be made. Through the juxtaposition of various “complements,”shadows and light, solid and void, small passages and the sweeping overwhelming views of the mountain, the user’s senses are heightened providing a richer architectural experience. Zumthor uses native stone for almost all surfaces of the baths and creates large, serene masses. The masses are left alone so the presence of the stone is felt and can exert its own effect onto our bodies. Furthermore, the stone is heated to feel as if it was just warmed by the sun instilling a sense of comfort and hominess. By setting out to design a magical yet comforting space, Zumthor constructs atmosphere through circulation techniques, juxtaposition of qualities, and close attention to materials in order to enhance the architectural experience.

FIG 3- This purposeful water mark expresses the passage of time

FIG 3- The horizontality of the stone brings down the scale of the wall’s mass

FIG 4- The direct circulation space is darker and ‘strict’ but leads the user down and out into an open space of exploration, ending at the large windows overlooking the mountainside FIG. 1,3- Zumthor, Peter, Sigrid Hauser, and Hélène Binet. Peter Zumthor, Therme Vals. Infolio, 2007. FIG. 2,4- Underlays from: http://gdwylie.wordpress.ncsu. edu/2012/11/14/test/

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CONCEPTUAL PRECEDENTS

Chapel of Reconciliation Berlin, Germany Reiterman & Sassenroth

Preserving a Memory Traces of memory embodied in architectural form can be seen in the Chapel of Reconciliation in Berlin, designed by Reiterman & Sassenroth in 1999. In “Refutation, Revelation and Reconstitution: On Architecture and the Settlement of Memory,” Adam Sharr studies the chapel and uncovers the layers of history woven into the architectural design and construction process. The chapel was originally built in 1894 in a neo-gothic style and survived the Second World War. However, when the Berlin wall was constructed in 1961, the chapel lay in between the two walls. This area was known as “the death strip,” and in 1985, the German Democratic Republic had the chapel destroyed. The new chapel and the site are laden with a rich and emotional history, so when Reiterman & Sassenroth designed the new chapel in 1999, they looked to this history in order to create a design where the memory of the past is imprinted within the chapel’s architecture. Unlike Peter Eisenman’s Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe and Daniel Libeskind’s Jewish Museum, which seek to create worldsunto-themselves through internal intellectual schemes, the new chapel’s design is based on making memory apparent in architectural form (Sharr, Refutation). Reiterman & Sassenroth accomplish this through architectural layout, spatial programming and material choice.

FIG 1- Demolition of the Chapel by East Germany FIG. 1- http://www.kapelle-versoehnung.de/bin/eng lisch/geschichte.php


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FIG 2- Aerial view of Bernauer Straße showing the Wall and the “Death strip” behind the Wall inside East Berlin. Just inside East Berlin is the Versöhnungskirche or Church of Reconciliation which was later demolished.

FIG 3- The same area of the “Death strip” as it is today.

FIG 4- Two East German workers put broken glass atop the wall in 1961, the Church of Reconciliation behind them.

FIG. 2- http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Bernauer_strasse_luftbild.JPG FIG. 3- Map from Google Earth, diagram by author

FIG. 4- http://www.dw.de/the-west-berliner-it-was-a-horrible-shock-for- us/a-2130121

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Chapel of Reconciliation Berlin, Germany Reiterman & Sassenroth

FIG 1

FIG 2

FIG. 1- http://zoomtherapy.blogspot.com/2011/06/ das-ist-berlin-this-is-berlin-part-3.html FIG. 2,4- http://www.talkitect.com/2008/11/blogpost.html

The new chapel’s design, though contemporary, uses the site’s history to develop a space of remembrance, evoked through the architecture. The building lays over part of the remaining foundation of the historic church that once stood on the same site. It is a simple building, yet it is organized and constructed in a very precise way. The chapel’s floor plan consists of two ovaloids, one contained by the other. The outer ovaloid is shell-like, made of thin vertical wooden louvers, while the inner is a thick, solid wall made of rammed-earth. The outer ovaloid is twisted in plan in relation to the inner one, leaving an awkward transition space in between that doesn’t seem to serve any function. Inside the thick wall is the sanctuary which is entered through a metal box chamber. The small sanctuary is a simple space with a tall ceiling, lit only from above. The altar sits at a 45 degree angle to the entrance and at 90 degrees to the salvaged reredos from the original church, which are hung in a niche in the rammed-earth. The main axis highlights the original chapel’s organization while the second axis mocks the architectural tradition. The multiple axes in the chapel create a disorienting experience for the visitor who, through memory, expects a clear, single axis in a church. The chapel’s subtle suggestion at symmetry further acknowledges its absence (Sharr, Refutation). It is these sorts of subtle ambiguities that give the chapel its powerful atmosphere and character.


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FIG 4

FIG 3- Niedlich, Sebastian. Lobby of the Chapel. 2011. Photograph. Berlin, DE. Flickr. 11 June 2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. Interior of the sanctuary.

FIG 5

FIG 6- Shifted axis diagram FIG. 3- Niedlich, Sebastian. Lobby of the Chapel. 2011. Photograph. Berlin, DE. Flickr. 11 June 2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. Interior of the sanctuary. FIG. 5- Underlay provided by: Google Eart, Diagram by Autor FIG. 6- Underlay provided by: Sharr, Adam. “Refutation, Revelation and Reconstitution: On Architecture and the Settlement of Memory.” From the Things Themselves. Ed. Benoit Jacquet and Vincent Giraud. Japan: Kyoto UP, 2012. 405-31.

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Chapel of Reconciliation Berlin, Germany Reiterman & Sassenroth

The seemingly arbitrary space between the two shells provides another layer to the experience. There is no space to occupy for more than a moment. It is somewhat relatable to side aisles of a chapel; however, there is no visual into the sanctuary. Rather, the view is of slats of light being cast up the rammed-earth wall, slivers of the chapel’s surroundings, or views through glass panels revealing areas of the original church’s foundation. This space between the two walls represents the space between the walls of the “Berlin Wall.” The two materials of the walls further this theory. The two walls are opposite in feeling; one very strong and solid, the other more transparent and light. The awkward space between, unfamiliar for a chapel, mimics the charged void between the two Berlin walls (Sharr, Refutation). Lastly, the rammed-earth walls more literally mimic the memory of what was. Imbedded within the rammed-earth are actual fragments of masonry, stone, and tile from the original chapel’s rubble. While the more subtle aspects of the building’s layout and programming (or lack of) hint at an embodied memory, the fragments within the wall are more literally turn memory into built form (Sharr, Refutation).


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FIG 1

FIG 6- Floor Plan

FIG 6- Section - almost symmetrical

FIG. 1- Niedlich, Sebastian. Lobby of the Chapel. 2011. Photograph. Berlin, DE. Flickr. 11 June 2010. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. FIG. 2-Underlay provided by: Sharr, Adam. “Refutation, Revelation and Reconstitution: On Architecture and the Settlement of Memory.” From the Things Themselves. Ed. Benoit Jacquet and Vincent Giraud. Japan: Kyoto UP, 2012. 405-31. FIG. 3- Diagram by Author

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CONCEPTUAL PRECEDENTS

Karsamaki Shingle Church Karsamaki, Finland Lassila Hirvilammi

Constructing Culture An old wooden church once stood on the same site as the Kärsämäki Shingle Church, dating back to 1765. It had been demolished in 1841 and replaced by another church in a different location. When the idea to rebuild the church on the original site arose, it was decided that it would be a contemporary design, built using 18th century construction methods. FIG 1

The simple modern church is a nod to historic wooden Finnish churches and bell towers. Finns have agrarian roots and value being close to nature. The Shingle Church explores this identity through its design, providing a connection to the land with a warm, textured place to pray(Hughes). The church has a straightforward floor plan comprised of two parts, a ‘heart’ built of logs and a ‘cloak’ of shingles tarred black. The ‘heart’ houses the main congregation space while the intermittent space just inside the ‘cloak’ consists of the vestibules, vestry, and a storeroom.

FIG 2

FIG 3

FIG 4

FIG. 1-http://www.archmuseum.org/Gallery/Photo_16_3_k%C3%A4rs%C3%A4m%C3%A4ki-shingle-church.html?Page=1 FIG. 2- http://en.urbarama.com/project/karsamaki-church FIG. 3- Diagram by Author FIG 4- http://christhum.wordpress.com/2012/09/14/serenity-by-design-in-a-finnish-wooden-church/


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The church sits on a wide stretch of field next to a river. The approach is along a raised path that meets at the church’s corner where it ramps up through the interstitial space between the ‘cloak’ and ‘heart.’ This space is dark in comparison to outdoors as it is dimly lit to contrast the brightness of the inner church. This juxtaposition of light and dark heightens the experience of movement through and into the center of the church. In the congregation space, the cross-lantern draws in light as the church draws its worshippers. The congregation, coming and going of worshipers, is implied by the coming and going of the light. This, along with the natural materials, textured by the human touch, emphasizes humanity(Hughes). It truly is a sacred place of dwelling, inspired by the genius loci. FIG 5

FIG 6

FIG. 5- http://catesthill.com/2012/03/24/karsamaki-shingle-church-by-lassila-hirvilammi-architects/ FIG. 6- http://digiitalarchfab.com/arch226/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/karsamaki-church-226-MIDTERM1.pdf

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CONCEPTUAL PRECEDENTS

Karsamaki Shingle Church Karsamaki, Finland Lassila Hirvilammi

The rough tar-coated shingles, sawn limbers and hand-chiseled joints provide the church with sensuous qualities. The contrasting colors of the various materials add a thermal and optical effect of moving from cold and dark to light and warm, further heightening the spiritual atmosphere(Hughes). The logs for the load bearing frame were felled from local forests and hand cut, and the corner joints made with traditional hand tools. The ‘cloak’ is made of aspen, split and whittled into 50,000 shingles then dipped in hot tar. The precise design combined age-old traditions with contemporary architectural thought to achieve an atmosphere of archaic simplicity.

FIG 3

FIG 1,2

FIG. 1-2- http://en.urbarama.com/project/karsamaki-church FIG 3- http://en.urbarama.com/project/karsamaki-church


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PROGRAM

PROGRAM

WINEMAKING AND TERROIR “Starting with a vision, the winemakers activate the links that connect the Earth with vine and fruit, and guide the transformation from fruit into wine, oversee its maturation, and only then present the liquid that completes that circle, connecting us with the Earth from which it arose.” David G. Howell (Swinchatt) The character of a particular wine is determined from a long history of its place. A mix of forces and events combine to create the notion of terroir. Terroir is loosely defined as the ‘specificity of place’ which includes the soil, climate, weather, and anything else that can differentiate one piece of land from another (Franson). The most obvious pieces that go into the notion of terroir are the natural elements, but the human side of winemaking is also important. Viticultural practices, selection of the grape variety, growing and harvesting techniques, equipment selection and of course the winemaking process itself all are part of this ‘human side.’ Terroir is similar to genius loci in that it puts high importance on the characteristics of place and creating/designing for the locale. Just as wine created from a particular grape is a reflection of that place, architecture should be the same. Different from most businesses, a winery must perform as an industrial facility as well as a unique retail environment where visitor experience is just as important as efficiency in production. Many wineries have been designed first as a production facility, their design not intended for retail purposes. Recently, with an increase in wine tourism, as well as the economic slowdown, winery design has been aimed at enhancing visitor experience rather than increasing production in order to boost direct sales. Also becoming more popular are wine resorts, unique hotels that provide hands-on experience of processing grapes and making wine for the guests. Some have barrelshare programs that allow members to purchase barrels in which they can craft their own personal wines.

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PROGRAM

HOTEL:

WINERY:

20 Guest rooms @ 650 sqf each Restaurant Reception Spa Laundry and housekeeping Receiving and storage

Case goods storage Barrel room Vineyard Storage Tank room Tasting Room Crush pad Offices Bottling Shipping area

13,000 sq ft 2,500 sq ft 1,500 sq ft 1,000 sq ft 1,000 sq ft 1,000 sq ft

5,800 sq ft 2,266 sq ft 2,000 sq ft 1,500 sq ft 1,000 sq ft 750 sq ft 500 sq ft 400 sq ft 300 sq ft

NEW SQUARE FOOTAGE:

37,270 sq ft

SUPPORT 35%:

13,270 sq ft

GROSS SQUARE FOOTAGE:

51,186 sq ft


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PROGRAM

Guest Rooms Restaurant

HOTEL

Reception Spa Housekeeping Storage

Case Goods Barrel Room

SUPPORT

WINERY

Vineyard Storage Tank Room Tasting Room Crush Pad Services

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PROGRAM PRECEDENTS

Dominus Winery

Napa Valley Herzog and De Meuron 1997

FIG 1

The building’s program is divided into three units: the tank room, the barrel room, and the store room. The building’s exterior walls are formed with modular gabions filled with locally quarried basalt. This technique is used in river engineering to shore up earth works. Green in color, the building begins to blend it with its surrounding landscape while its rigid form keeps it from doing so completely. The stones toward the bottom of the building are more packed together and as the building gets taller, the stones get more room which allows transparency of light. This construction allows light and air to permeate into the building within. The light quality inside provides whimsy while the exterior contrasts this feeling with an almost ominous appearance.

PROGRAM (44,132 sqf): This winery is not built for the visitor. With no designated tasting room, the building is organized mainly around the function of the winery. Two large openings with crush pads are located on either side of the double height tank room. These openings split the building visually into three, as it does the floor plan. On one side is the barrel room and cellar, on the other, bottling and case goods storage. - - - - FIG 2

The Tank Room Barrique cellar/Barrel room Storeroom Office/Service Spaces


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PROGRAM

FIG 3

OFFICE AREAS WINEMAKING/STORING FIG 4- Floor plan and section

FIG. 1,2,4-http://openbuildings.com/buildings/dominus-winery-profile-3194FIG. 2- http://en.urbarama.com/project/karsamaki-church FIG. 3- http://dominusestate.com/

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PROGRAM PRECEDENTS

L’AND Vineyards Hotel Portugal Studio MK27 2011

L’AND Vineyards Hotel is an innovative resort concept that combines the rural experience of wine production with the amenities of leisure destination. The master plan was devised in a system of clusters of villas and terraced row houses reminiscent of the former agricultural compounds of the Alentejo (‘mound’)(Archdaily, L’AND). The main building functions as a winery where processes from grape selection, crushing, fermentation and pressing, to barrel aging, blending, filtering and bottling take place, while also functioning as reception, clubhouse, restaurant, spa and service spaces for the hotel’s program. FIG 1

The concept was to have all of the guest services in one central building with the winery. The mass’s edges are turned up to offer casual outdoor space. The winery sits in the center, with the spa, restaurant and reception surrounding it.

PROGRAM (32,000 SQF):

FIG 2- Spa

FIG 3- Sauna

FIG. 1-6- http://www.archdaily.com/315702/land-vineyards-hotelpromontorio-studio-mk27-marcio-kogan/

- - - - - - -

Reception Clubhouse Restaurant Spa with pool BOH services 22 Guesthouses Winery


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PROGRAM

FIG 4- Concept diagram

FIG 5

FIG 6- Site plan

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SITE

SITE

The North Fork is a peninsula at the northeastern end of Long Island. It was settled in 1640 by English Puritans and is rich in its agricultural and fishing history. Many barns and farms dot the landscape, a few surviving from the earliest days of European settlement. It consists of 11 small towns and villages and is surrounded by the Peconic Bay to the south and the Long Island Sound to the north. Located only 80 miles east of Manhattan, the area receives a lot of tourists year-round. The main draw of the North Fork to tourists is the pastoral setting, roadside farms, and most importantly, the many wineries. The first vineyard was planted in 1973 and there are 60+ more today ranging from 2 and half acres to over 500. In total, there are only about 3,000 acres under cultivation, the focus being on quality, not quantity. The long growing season allows for the yield of high quality grapes which are crafted by local winemakers. The wineries receive approximately 1.3 million visitors each year (Long Island Wine Counsil). Most of the wineries and tasting rooms are located on the Main Road which runs through almost all of the towns, while some vineyards are located on less trafficked ‘back roads.’ Within the past 3 years, two tasting rooms have opened on one of these back roads: Oregon Road. It has a few historic houses but is mostly farmland. This road is known for its scenic qualities. The proposed site sits at the end of this road anchoring Oregon Road to the Main Road. With fewer available locations along the Main Road, wineries must look to other areas. The site has many opportunities to design a winery that is rooted more firmly within an agricultural setting compared to other wineries on the more commercial road. As a hotel, it will provide a unique experience for the user to learn about wine while immersing oneself in nature. The site also touches the Long Island Sound on its north boundary which offers a wider range of experiential opportunities.

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SITE

NORTH FORK, LONG ISLAND NEW YORK

CUTCHOUGE

LAUREL

NEW SUFFOLK

MATTITUCK


LK

ARCHITECTURE OF THE SENSES CARROLL

SITE

SOUTHOLD

PECONIC

WATER MAIN ROADS FARM LAND VINEYARDS WINERIES COMMERCIAL

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SITE

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT 387’

530’

441’

263’

CT

AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT PRODUCED BY ANPRODUCED AUTODESKBY STUDENT PRODUCT

PECONIC

302’

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

1113’

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

PRODUCED BY AN AUTODESK STUDENT PRODUCT

1135’

807’

CUTCHOUGE

The site is about 20 acres which will yield about 3,100 cases of wine per year. The small size will allow for a more personalized wine club experience. The site slopes up toward the Long Island Sound which will allow any buildings to be placed at the back of the site to be visible from the road and also to enjoy a view of Long Island Sound. There is a 73’ slope from the top of the site to the water’s edge which allows for great views.

73’

LAUREL

+63’

0’ NEW SUFFOLK

+63’

P


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SITE

VINEYARD 20 ACRES = 871,200 SQF 20 ACRES = 3,100 CASES

OTHER 108,800 SQF

BUILT 54,400 SQF

OTHER 108,800 SQF

SITE 980,000 SQF

VINEYARD 20 ACRES = 871,200 SQF 20 ACRES = 3,100 CASES

UILT 4,400 SQF

SQF SES

41

BUILT 54,400 SQF

OTHER 108,800 VINEYARD SQFSQF 20 ACRES = 871,200

20 ACRES = 3,100 CASES

SITE 980,000 SQF

VINEYARD 20 ACRES = 871,20 20 ACRES = 3,100 C

SITE 980,000 SQF

SITE 980,000 SQ


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SITE PRECEDENTS

Parish Art Museum Watermill, NY Herzog and De Meuron 2012

The Parish Art Museum features a design that integrates the architecture with its surrounding landscape, emphasizing the relationship between art and nature. Besides nature, the inspiration came from the artist studios on the East End. The building’s form was based off of a traditional house section (archdaily). They overlayed the two sections, making the overlapping space a spine of circulation, and extruded the form to create two long rows of gallery spaces. FIG 1

FIG 2

The ordered post, beam and truss construction sequence, done with local materials and construction methods, defines the backbone of the building. Large concrete walls with various voids cut out of them act as the exterior walls. Along the exterior of the concrete walls runs continuous bench formed into the concrete to provide a base for sitting and viewing the surrounding landscape. This helps to proportion the building’s large scale materials and form back to the human body (Vinnitskaya).

FIG 3

FIG 4- Built in bench FIG. 1-5- http://www.archdaily.com/294936/parrish-art-museumherzog-de-meuron-2/

FIG 5- Circulation Spine


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SITE

Barn/Farm Studies The North Fork

Barns were the defining features of the rural landscape on Long Island, but with the advent of the automobile age and people moving to post-World War II developments, they have largely disappeared. The North Fork has the greatest concentration as there are many farms still thriving in the area.

FIG 6 - Located in Greenport, this barn is over 100 years old.

Many people are attracted to barns, finding them rustic. Their scale and simplicity, along with their variety, make them visually pleasing. Today, they come to symbolize a presence of an agricultural history. When settlers first built barns on the North Fork, they built three-bay English hay barns, suited to the needs of farming. In her book Barns of the North Fork, Mary Ann Spencer wrote: “Barns are visual icons in the rural landscape, but more importantly they chronicle the evolution of farming in a particular region” (Spencer,8).

FIG 7 - This English three-bay barn with hand-hewn timbers and mortise and tenon joints was built in the nineteenth century or possibly earlier.

FIG 8 - Small brick chimneys are common alongside barns.

I believe that because of the North Fork’s agricultural history, it is important to study the barn and farm architecture that exists today; it is the first step towards the genius loci.

FIG 6-8- Spencer, Mary Ann. The Barns of the North Fork. New York: Quantuck Lane, 2005.

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL Most wineries on the North Fork took over old potato barns and various farm buildings, over the years being renovated to provide more amenities for the visitor. Starting from scratch on a forested site situated 70 feet above the Long Island Sound, this design includes the planting of a vineyard as well as a comprehensive strategy for the site. Based on the farm typology, a collection of structures create various sheltered spaces. Both the winery’s public components as well as the retreat’s program work together to enclose a communal outdoor garden. Free circulation of the site is encouraged through the close development of various circulation paths with careful attention paid to the visitors holistic experience of the space, accentuated by various ‘architectural moments.’ The final solution seeks to provide the visitor with an authentic understanding of the Genius Loci, providing both an architectural landscape that solidifies a strong sense of place as well as seek to provide a contemplative space that evokes the intangible, emotional dimensions of our built environment within each visitor. N Long Island Sound--Connecticut

New York City

Context

Peconic Bay--South Fork


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Farm Typology The main impact of the buildings on the site happens beyond this ‘wall.’ A group of barn-form buildings create a semienclosed courtyard—similar to those of a traditional farm typology—sheltering a private, special space to be utilized by the visitors. The barn typology presents a dichotomy: it is both an object in a landscape as well as part of the overall architectural ‘field.’ Though an impressive form within a, usually, flat landscape, a barn’s image gives us a sense of familiarity and pleasure. This juxtaposition is only one that is used throughout the project in terms of organization, landscaping, and materiality.

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Organization The site provides an unimposing setting with a subtle presence and wonderful outlook. Its situation on the top of a bluff overlooking the sound is exploited by the building’s placement and arrangement.

Interior vs. Exterior Covered Space

Set back from the road almost 1000 feet, the building does not overwhelm the subtle, agrarian landscape. Two service buildings are placed closer to the road, flanking either side of the driveway, providing signage for the property as well as a gateway toward the main buildings. At this point, the buildings’ are seen: a long simple wall, accentuated by a tall tower, projecting confidence without arrogance. The buildings’ complexities remain concealed, only with hints of the varied activities within.

Enclosed Space

Objects in a field

Vistas

Circulation

Circulation


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Section A (nts) through entire site

Entrance from public road, through service barns

Entrance to tasting room and courtyard

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

B

A

A

C

C

B Ground Floorplan 1”=60’


A SENTIMENTAL TYPOLOGY CARROLL

FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

DN

Upper Floorplan 1”=60’

Cellar Floorplan 1”=60’

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Landscape The duality between the indigenous, wooded landscape and the formal geometricized vineyard planting is expressed in the project in various ways. The contrast is accentuated by either side of the buildings as well: one side looks out over the flat Long Island landscape, dotted with houses and barns, while the other looks over a 75-foot bluff overlooking the spectacular Long Island sound. The footprint for the complex of buildings is carved out of existing woods and brush, leaving a landscape buffer between the buildings and their neighboring properties. A patch of natural brush was preserved within the courtyard in for both enhanced privacy as well as sun shading for the vineyard-side rooms.

Formal vs. Indigenous Landscape


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Entrance to hotel

Vine-covered trellis circulation through courtyard

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Materiality

Board-Formed Concrete

The material presence within the building was used to create an emotive architecture. Juxtaposing solid concrete with a lighter, tactile wood constructing heightens the awareness of each. The winery’s entirety underground was done in wood-formed concrete, creating a dark, cavernous space. A catwalk connecting the tectonic wood tower to the concrete slab outlook through the bluff circulates the visitor through the barrel room, tank room, production area, case goods and wine cellar. The visitor can travel from the top of the tower, over looking the entirety of the area down into the earth, through the mysterious space of the winery, and jut back out over the sound. This procession accentuates the building’s presence within the world and provides an almost overwhelming experience for the visitor. The above-ground portion of the project was done in mostly wood, with exception of a few features. The fireplaces are all cast concrete as well as a few of the walls which accentuate various circulation paths. The fireplaces were done in concrete in order to heighten their presence an importance within the project as the hearth provides an emotional comfort, relating to memory. Similarly the concrete walls act in two ways: to juxtapose the wood construction as well as to create an illusion of protection.

Wood Floors

Cedar-Shingle Roofing

Barrel Room


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Restaurant

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Tasting Room

Courtyard


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

‘Living Room’

Section B (nts) through winery, courtyard, and ‘living room’

Section C (nts) through hotel room circulation and courtyard

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Tank Room

Pool


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

Reception

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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL


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FINAL THESIS PROPOSAL

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FINAL THOUGHTS

This research study has been an interesting process of architectural theory, thinking, and design. Unsure what exactly to focus my thesis on, I looked at buildings that I have visited which I, simply, found to be not only functional buildings but also enjoyable atmospheres. The study into phenomenology then emerged, opening a host of theoreticians and architectural styles to me that I had never known much about. I believe that this study has helped me to pin-point my personal architectural interest, and while my final project may not have fully captured what I wanted, I have learned both successful and unsuccessful ways to go about creating emotive spaces. The thesis, I believe, underwent a shift after my research portion. I focused on the genius loci of the place, specifically looking at farm typologies to give some order to my design. While this was helpful, I wish I had had more time to spend on more specific barn and farm typology studies, looking at structure and material more closely in order to create a richer final design. Finally, this thesis taught me what is most important and fundamental about architecture: creating enjoyable spaces for people where they can feel a sense of belonging. Our built environment is the way we inhabit the world and create a place for ourselves to live and exist. To me, designing with the intention to enforce this should always come first.


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ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY Barrie,Thomas. The Sacred In-between:The Mediating Roles of Architecture. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2010. In “The Sacred In-Between,” Thomas Barrie urges the reader to remember that human existence is fundamentally sensual. Our senses, though separate, work as an integrated system and come from all parts of the body to be organized in the brain. He argues that while western culture tends to rely mainly on vision over other senses, great architecture should be multi-sensory. Barrie looks at phenomenology, the assertion that subjective experience can be objectively applied in philosophical inquiry, and relates it to the sensory experience of architecture. Franck, Karen A., and R. Bianca. Lepori. Architecture from the Inside Out: From the Body, the Senses, the Site, and the Community. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2007. This book addresses the need for architectural design become less about “project,” imposing preconceived ideas upon a situation, but as a “process” which evolves from the inside. Franck and Lepori define this idea of designing from the “inside out” as a a process that evolves from movement, sensation, surroundings, and a dialogue between the architect and client. Human life, experience, and materiality replace a design focused around form and appearance. Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci:Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980. Christian Norbert-Schulz discusses the importance of architecture to provide man with an “existential foothold.” He investigates the psychic implications of architecture, rather than its practical side, and in doing so begins to outline a “phenomenology of architecture.” Norbert-Schulz begins be defining man’s “place” as “the concrete manifestation of man’s dwelling, and his identity depends on his belonging to place.” A building brings the earth, or landscape, closer to man. So, when approaching architecture, he proposes that the purpose of a building is primarily to make a site become a place by uncovering the meanings potentially present in the given environment. Then, a dwelling, or building, becomes more than simply a “shelter” but a “place”: a backdrop for an experience. The genius loci or, spirit of place, is the concrete reality man has to face and come to terms with in his daily life and architects must design meaningful places to help man to dwell. This book looks at both tangible and intangible “phenomena” of life and applies it to architectural theory in the hopes of creating a more meaningful and emotional architecture.


A SENTIMENTAL TYPOLOGY CARROLL

WORK CITED

Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in Architecture. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. In “The Embodied Image,” Juhani Pallasmaa discusses the over-use of images in our lives today and the negative affects it can have on ourselves and our architecture. He claims that the image often dominates or replaces reality and slowly, information is replacing knowledge. Pallasmaa states that “while architecture used to reflect a viable form of culture and lifestyle, today’s computer-generated visions often appear as mere graphic exercises without a sense of real life.” The high-tech world leaves little to the imagination. He argues that our imaginations will reject excessive or overly-dramaticised architecture; rather, understated architecture provides an open-ended narrative to be completed and embodied by the imagination of the observer or occupant. This is important to the fundamentals of architecture, for buildings are not only physical forms for humans function, but also “mental extensions and projections that are externalizations of our imagination, memory, and conceptual capacities.” Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley- Academy, 2005. Written before his book “The Embodied Image,” Pallasmaa’s “The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses” focuses on the various interactions of the senses and how they, when designed holistically, can create a meaningful architectural experience. With the dominance of vision and the suppression of the other senses, Pallasmaa fears that there is a disappearance of sensory and sensual qualities from architecture. By reversing this, architecture can relate, mediate, and project meanings. He writes: “Profound architecture makes us experience ourselves as complete embodied and spiritual beings.” This book looks into the role of the senses in our lives and shows how they should be incorporated into architectural designs. Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. Experiencing Architecture. London: Chapman & Hall, 1959. In this book written to re-introduce the public with architecture, Rasmussen highlights architecture’s ability to enrich our lives. He notes that architecture, like art, should not be explained, but must be experienced in order to comprehensively understand a particular building or place. Rather than focus on what a building can represent visually, he comments on the affects that architecture can have in our well-being. Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres: Architectural Environments, Surrounding Objects. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. Peter Zumthor’s architectural works each capture attentiveness to its occupants and surroundings. He uses the aesthetic category of “atmosphere” to design spaces that offer a haven and background upon which an experience can be remembered or made. This book is Zumthor’s words from a lecture about the importance of “atmosphere,” the facets that create it, and what it itself can further create.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY Abiri, Roni. “As Ist Berlin (This Is Berlin) Part 3 - The Wall.” Web log post. Zoom Therapy. BlogSpot, 11 June 2011. Web. 23 Nov. 2013. Artemel, AJ. “Peter Versus Peter: Eisenman And Zumthor’s Theoretical Throwdown.” Web log post. Architizer, n.d. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. Barrie, Thomas. The Sacred In-between:The Mediating Roles of Architecture. Milton Park, Abingdon, Oxon: Routledge, 2010. Cuff, Dana. Through the looking glass: Seven New York architects and their people. In Russell Ellis and Dana Cuff (eds) Architects’ people. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989. Franck, Karen A., and R. Bianca. Lepori. Architecture from the inside Out: From the Body, the Senses, the Site, and the Community. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2007. Print. Franson, Paul. “Building for Visitors and Sustainability.” Wines & Vines. Wine Communication Group, Inc, Jan. 2012. Web. 24 Nov. 2013. Hughes, Gareth. “Serenity by Design in a Finnish Wooden Church.” Web log post. Ad Fontes: Politics, Theology and Christian Humanism. Wordpress, 12 Sept. 2012. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. “Kärsämäki Shingle Church | FROM WOOD TO ARCHITECTURE.” Kärsämäki Shingle Church. Museum of Architecture, n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. “Kärsämäki Church.” Kärsämäki Church. Urbarama: Atlas of Architecture, 3 Nov. 2009. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. “L’And Vineyards Hotel / PROMONTORIO + Studio MK27 – Marcio Kogan” 07 Jan 2013. ArchDaily. Accessed 24 Nov 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=315702 Norberg-Schulz, Christian. Genius Loci:Towards a Phenomenology of Architecture. New York: Rizzoli, 1980. Pallasmaa, Juhani. “Hapticity and Time: Notes on Fragile Architecture.” Architectural Review. 207.1239 (2000). Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Embodied Image: Imagination and Imagery in Architecture. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2011. Pallasmaa, Juhani. The Eyes of the Skin: Architecture and the Senses. Chichester: Wiley-Academy, 2005.


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WORK CITED

Pallasmaa, Juhani. “The Geometry of Feeling: A look at the Phenomenology of Architecture.” Theorizi- ng a New Agenda for Architecture: An Anthology of Architectural Theory 1965-1995. Edited by Kate Nesbitt. New York: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. Rasmussen, Steen Eiler. Experiencing Architecture. London: Chapman & Hall, 1959. Rush, Fred Leland. On Architecture. New York: Routledge, 2009. Sharr, Adam. Heidegger for Architects. London: Routledge, 2007. Sharr, Adam. “Refutation, Revelation and Reconstitution: On Architecture and the Settlement of Memo ry.” From the Things Themselves. Ed. Benoit Jacquet and Vincent Giraud. Japan: Kyoto UP, 2012. 405-31. Spencer, Mary Ann. The Barns of the North Fork. New York: Quantuck Lane, 2005. Swinchatt, Jonathan P. and David G. Howell. The Winemaker’s Dance: Exploring Terroir in the Napa Val ley. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 2004. p 8 “The Region | Long Island Wine Country.” The Region | Long Island Wine Country. Long Island Wine Counsel, n.d. Web. 25 Nov. 2013. Vinnitskaya, Irina. “Parrish Art Museum / Herzog & de Meuron” 17 Nov 2012. ArchDaily. Accessed 24 Nov 2013. http://www.archdaily.com/?p=294936 Zumthor, Peter. Atmospheres: Architectural Environments, Surrounding Objects. Basel: Birkhäuser, 2006. Zumthor, Peter, Sigrid Hauser, and Hélène Binet. Peter Zumthor,Therme Vals. Infolio, 2007.

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A Sentimental Typology  

A Sentimental Typology  

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