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alison kim

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m i c rov e rs e The Story of Creating a Germ Education Universe

A L IS ON K IM

M FA G R A P H I C D E S I G N T H E S I S


c on tent s BAC KGROU N D

R E S E ARCH

E X P LOR AT IONS

SOLU T IONS

A PPENDICES


M IC R OV ER SE is about g er m educat ion for parents and child ren. It pr ov ides tools that aid people in making healthy germ-related decisions in their daily lives.


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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

t h e o r i gi n s o f m i c r ov e r s e

My thesis topic came about in Visual Communications Lab, where I f irst star ted exploring the pros and cons of bacteria. I chose this topic because I was scared of bacteria, but I also realized that bacteria are not always bad for people.

a. a bo ok e x p lo ri n g t h e to pi c o f b ac t e ri a b. fla sh c ard s e x p lo ri n g the au d i e n c e s af f ec t e d by bac t e ri a c. p oste r e x p lo ri n g the so c i al i m pac t s of bac t e ri a d. bacte ri a c an dy cr e ate d as t h an k yo u pr e se n t s f o r m y f o c u s grou p part i c i pan t s

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section_ B A C K G R O U N D

My thesis topic originated in my Visual Communications Lab class, where we were asked to choose a topic that would be the basis of a semester’s worth of assigments. I chose the topic of exploring the positive and negative side affects of bacteria because I was scared of bacteria, but also realized that being a germ-a-phobe was unhealthy. Since I did not know much about the subject, I thought it would be a great opportunity to explore it in this class. I got to explore the subject with various fun projects.

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my intructors for visual communications lab were phil hamlett and jeremy stout.

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Q U E S T I O N S T HAT P RO B E RE A S O N S A N D E V I D E N C E

Q U E S T I O N S A B O U T V I E W P O I N TS A N D P E RS P E C T I V E S

Q U E S T I O N S T HAT P RO B E I M P L I C AT I O N S A N D CO N S E Q U E N C E S

Q U E S T I O N S A B O U T T HE Q U E S T I O N

THE EXPLOR ATION OF BAC TERIA 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20

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QUESTIONS FOR CLARIFICATION What do you mean by the word bacteria? Are you talking about the effects of bacteria on humans? Do you want to focus on the effects of bacteria on the world? Or do you want to explore the effects of bacteria on people? Could you delve into how bacteria affect the earth and nature? Why do people tend to react negatively towards bacteria? Why are so many people so scared of or repulsed by bacteria? How does bacteria benefit a person’s health? What are some examples of how bacteria can be beneficial? Is it better to prevent getting bacteria, better to embrace it or neither? How do antibacterial products affect the health of humans and nature? Do the cons of bacteria outweigh the benefits, or vice versa? Is it possible for bacteria to become immune to these products? Will this someday cause bacteria to become more harmful to humans and nature? Do you want to focus on the benefits or cons of bacteria? Are there ways to prevent life-threatening bacteria from infecting humans? How does one discern from good bacteria and bad bacteria? And how does a person or population properly handle bacteria? Should people even be worried about bacteria; isn’t it a part of Mother Nature? Why does bacteria have such a bad wrap?

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QUESTIONS THAT PROBE ASSUMPTIONS What are you assuming when you say bacteria are bad? What do germaphobes assume when they hear the word bacteria? What do people who aren’t germaphobes assume about bacteria? Why would these groups of people make these assumptions? What are these assumptions based on? Do people assume that bacteria are bad from seeing antibacterial products? What causes people to make these assumptions? Do people assume or actually know more when it comes to bacteria? How do these assumptions vary in degree? How often do people question these assumptions? How often do people take these assumptions as facts? What are the consequences of these assumptions? Are the majority of these assumptions true or false? Are these assumptions based on experiences or hearsay? Are these assumptions fueled by marketing? What kind of effect do antibacterial products have on the way people think? If there were none of these products, would the fear of bacteria be less? Did people assume bacteria were bad 40 or 100 years ago? What are the differences the in assumptions back then and now? Why are these assumptions different or the same?

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QUESTIONS THAT PROBE REASONS AND EVIDENCE What would be an example of bacteria being harmful? What would be an example of bacteria being beneficial? How do you know that this is true? Are your answers adequate enough? Do you have evidence for either case? Does it make a difference with or without evidence? How important is evidence? Would evidence change the way people think about bacteria? Who has come up with this evidence? Are these people reliable sources? What makes these people reliable sources? Do you see any problems with your answer here? What led to you believing they were reliable? Are there bacteria that can both be harmful and beneficial? Can you explain why you answered the way you did? Do you need evidence to support your opinion? How would you know if this evidence was valid? Would you check the evidence or perform tests yourself? How much does evidence determine your reasons? Why do you think you believe this?

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QUESTIONS ABOUT VIEWPOINTS AND PERSPECTIVES Why do you seem to be approaching this issue from a health perspective? Why did you choose this perspective? How do you think other people would respond? Would the responses vary greatly? Would the responses depend on types of people? Would these types depend on sex, age, ethnicity or geography? How would you determine which types to use? How would these types of people respond? What would a person who agrees with you say? What would some who disagrees with you say? What might someone who does not know much about the subject say? What would a person marketing antibacterial products say? What would a scientist or doctor say? Do these different viewpoints affect each other? Have these people seen the topic in a different way? What were these people influenced by? How strongly did these influences play on their opinions? Could their viewpoints change? What kinds of things could change these viewpoints? Would these viewpoints change with education about the subject?

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QUESTIONS THAT PROBE IMPLICATIONS AND CONSEQUENCES What are you implying when you ask about the effects of antibacterial products? Are you implying that all or some of these antibacterial products are bad? What are the consequences of these antibacterial products? What would happen if these antibacterial products ceased to exist? Would it be much different than if they never existed? Why? What is the probability of these antibacterial products going away? What is the probability of these products creating super bacteria? What are the alternatives to using antibacterial products? If these alternatives are effective, why are there antibacterial products? What is the probability that bacteria are bad for one’s health? What is the probability that bacteria are good for one’s health? What would happen if everyone tried to limit his/her exposure to bacteria? What kind of effect would that have on society and people’s health? If germaphobes found out avoiding bacteria were bad, what would the effect be? How much would antibacterial products losing business affect the economy? What is the probability that this would happen in the future? What are you implying when you say bacteria can be good? If everyone thought bacteria was good, what would the consequences be? If doctors said antibacterial products were unhealthy, how would people respond? If bacteria can be good and bad, what else could be true?

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QUESTIONS ABOUT THE QUESTION What does the question, how to properly handle bacteria, assume? Is this a question that can be answered satisfactorily? What has to be done to answer this question? Is the question clear and easily understandable? How many people have asked this question before? Has this question been explored before? Why is this question about bacteria important? Is this question a highly debatable topic? What does this question ask us to research? Does this question give rise to more questions or answers? What kinds of questions does this question generate? What do these question say about your question? Is this question the main question about this subject? What influenced your question to come about? Why is answering this question significant to you? Is this question important to other people? How is this question relevant to other people's lives? What will happen once this question is answered? Is this question more relevant to humans or the environment? Is this question relevant to any other group or subject?

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mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

MICROVERSE

KIM

m i c r ov e rs e be g i ns t o f o rm

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section_ B A C K G R O U N D

In my Thesis Development class, I started exploring various avenues my thesis could go into. I eventually came up with the name, MICROVERSE, for my thesis, which I was really happy about because it summed up my topic well and as a bonus, it sounds cool. I explored different styles and hit a note when I started personifying bacteria. I got really excited about the idea of creating a more fun and playful approach to the subject, which greatly influenced my final thesis deliverables.

phil hamlett was my thesis development instructor .

In my Thesis Development class, I star ted developing a new language for my thesis, giving bacteria a fun and playful visual look and personality.

a. alc an i vo rax b o rku m e n s i s p o st er b. l ac to b ac i l lu s p o st er c. c yan o b ac t e ria p o st er d. b ac t e ri a are f riend s w i t h e art h p ost er

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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

re s e arc h & b ra i n s t orm i ng

My research included college microbiology textbooks and the Centers for Disease Control Web site, in addition to consulting with a pediatrician.

a. a se lec t i o n o f b o o ks t h at i use d f o r m y re s e arc h

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section_ R E S E A R C H

When I started this project, I had little knowledge about the details of bacteria. To solve this, I read college microbiology textbooks, articles on the Centers for Disease Control Web site, germ guidebooks, and articles about germs. The more research I did, the more I realized I needed to expand my topic from just bacteria to all germs in general. I also researched children’s books to get more inspiration for my visual style. After I developed most of my content, I consulted with a pediatrician, Dr. Ralph Berberich, M.D., who co-wrote The Available Pediatrician, to make sure that my content was accurate.

dr . ralph berberich is a partner of the pediatric medical group in berkeley, ca and is part of the children’s oakland hospital .

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mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ R E S E A R C H

Once I decided that one of my deliverables would include a children’s book, I started researching successful children’s books and how to make them. I also took a Children’s Book Illustration course in the Illustration Department at the Academy. I wanted to improve my skills in illustration and learn more about illustrating for children.

a. a s e l ec t i o n of m y c h i l d re n ’ s b o o k resea rch

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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

Organizing my research into detailed outlines helped me explore the different ways germs impact our daily lives. This helped me identify things that I needed to do more research on. They also helped me recognize that I needed to expand my topic to all germs in general, instead of just focusing on bacteria.

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section_ R E S E A R C H

RESEARCH: HOW GERMS AFFECT SOCIETY 1/3

HISTORY EVOLUTION • Single-celled microorganisms were the first forms of life to develop on Earth, approximately 3–4 billion years ago. • Further evolution was slow, and for about 3 billion years in the Precambrian era, all organisms were microscopic. • For most of the history of life on Earth the only forms of life were microorganisms. • Bacteria, algae and fungi have been identified in amber that is 220 million years old, which shows that the morphology of microorganisms has changed little since the Triassic period (a geologic period and system that extends from about 250 to 200 Ma (million years ago).

THE DISCOVERY OF GERMS • Anton Van Leeuwenhoek was one of the first people to observe microorganisms, using a microscope of his own design, and made one of the most important contributions to biology. • Before Leeuwenhoek’s discovery of microorganisms in 1675, it had been a mystery why grapes could be turned into wine, milk into cheese, or why food would spoil. Leeuwenhoek did not make the connection between these processes and microorganisms, but using a microscope, he did establish that there were forms of life that were not visible to the naked eye. • Leeuwenhoek’s discovery, along with subsequent observations by Lazzaro Spallanzani and Louis Pasteur, ended the long-held belief that life spontaneously appeared from non-living substances during spoilage.

HOW MAJOR DISEASES HAVE CHANGRED HISTORY • Pathogenic germs have caused infectious diseases in humans for millennia, possibly since the time of the first civilizations. • Although very few germs cause diseases, the pathogenic (disease-causing) germs are the ones we hear about most frequently. • Evidence of infections has been found in prehistoric humans, who may have even used natural remedies against them.

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- For example, in the intestines of the Iceman, a frozen mummy found on the mountains of Northern Italy and believed to have lived between 3300 and 3100 BC, scientists found the eggs of a parasite, Trichuris. They also discovered among the Iceman’s possessions the fruit of a birch fungus, which contains substances toxic to intestinal parasites. Perhaps prehistoric humans had identified this fungus as anti-parasitic and were using it as a remedy. • The Black Death (bubonic plague) changed the course of history.

human infectious disease that has been eliminated.

• Malaria, mentioned in Egyptian texts and described in detail by has also had a large impact on humans throughout history. Tran

through the bite of mosquitos that carry a parasite called Plasm was a scourge during the Roman Empire. Today, many swamps, toes breed, have been drained, so malaria seldom occurs in Euro

America. However, it continues to kill millions of people in the w regions, and given the climate changes anticipated for the futur

likely to expand into areas that today are not considered tropica West Nile virus infection has.

• Tuberculosis, caused by a mycobacterium and spread through t ancient disease that has plagued humans throughout history; ev haas been found in prehistoric skeletons and in Egyptian mumm the fourth millennium BC.Romanticized in the eighteenth and ni centuries and linked to artistic talent and temperament, tubercu millions of deaths until antibiotics were discovered in the mid-tw century and higher standard of hygiene, nutrition, and living con emerged. Tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death world curable infectious disease, and the new mycobacterial strains ar ous because they have become resistant to many antibiotics.

• Influenza, or the flu, is another infectious disease with a large im history. Widespread epidemics, called pandemics, or flu have oc times during the twentieth century. The most severe flu pandem caused between 20 million and 40 million deaths worldwide. Th more flu pandemics over intervening years, and we recently wen another one, the H1N1 pandemic, which was not as sever as othe

• HIV, the human immunodeficiency virus, which lads to AIDS, has pandemic. In 2008 alone, HIV\AIDS killed about 2 million people and another 33 million were living with the virus.

• Microbial diseases, such as smallpox, have shaped human evolut our behavior, and even led to the destruction of entire civilizatio

• Many of the diseases-causing microbes that cause us problems from domestic animals such as cows, sheep, pigs, and poultry. E lived in close contact with their livestock, and microbes must ha freely between people and animals. The measles virus for examp evolved from a virus that infects cattle.

• Infectious diseases caused by microbes that originally came fro such as smallpox, measles, influenza, typhus, and tuberculosis, s cities and towns.

- Many people died, but those who survived developed immun _023 protected them against the diseases.

- People who were able to fight off the disease lived to have c were also better adapted at fighting these infections.


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

RESEARCH: HOW GERMS AFFECT SOCIETY 3/3

RESEARCH: HOW GERMS AFFECT SOCIETY 2/3

MARKETING NEGATIVE PUBLIC IMAGE • Pathogens make up a small percentage of all bacteria, yet if asked to name ten bacteria in 15 seconds, almost everyone would name pathogens. • Since most bacteria arae beneficial, their public image needs to be improved. • In the past 2 years, scientists have recognized two different phenomena that have radically changed the way people perceive germs: - The appearance of new germs and the re-appearance of old ones that were on the verge of disappearing - The increase in the frequency of allergic conditions (asthma and other allergies) and autoimmune diseases (such as as lupus, some types of arthritis, type 1 diabetes, and ulcerative colitis). - The reasons behind these increases are not well understood, but some scientists have suggested that extreme cleanliness and antibiotic overuse (both in people and in animals) may be responsible.

HABITS dioxins in sunlight, and triclocarbon is a suspected carcinogen. At the moments, the risk of these chemicals to humans are not clear. • Because antibacterial soaps do not appear to lower the frequency of household infections and because they carry the theoretical risk of promoting antibiotic-resistent germs, the U.S. public health authorities recommend using plain soaps, plain detergents, and plain cleaning products at home, not ones with antibacterial action. • Hand sanitizing products not containing antimicrobials like triclosan or tricocarban, do not appear to contribute to antibiotic resistance. For this reason, and because they are often more acceptable than water and soap, they have been widely adopted for use in U.S. hospitals. - The CDC recommends that health care workers use hand sanitizers in hospitals between patient contacts.

HYGIENE • Hygiene refers to the set of practices perceived by a community to be associated with the preservation of health and healthy living. • While in modern medical sciences there is a set of standards of hygiene recommended for different situations, what is considered hygienic or not can vary between different cultures, genders and etarian groups. • Some regular hygienic practices may be considered good habits by a society while the neglect of hygiene can be considered disgusting, disrespectful or even threatening. • Hygiene is an old concept related to medicine, as well as to personal and professional care practices related to most aspects of living. • In medicine and in home (domestic) and everyday life settings, hygiene practices are employed as preventative measures to reduce the incidence and spreading of disease. • In the manufacture of food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic and other products, good hygiene is a key part of quality assurance i.e. ensuring that the product complies with microbial specifications appropriate to its use.

THE FEAR OF GERMS • The public fears infectious disease, resistant superbugs, and the high mortalities that bacteria have already caused in history

• The terms cleanliness (or cleaning) and hygiene are often used interchangeably, which can cause confusion. In general, hygiene mostly means practices that prevent spread of disease-causing organisms. Other uses of the term appear in phrases including: body hygiene, personal hygiene, sleep hygiene, mental hygiene, dental hygiene, and occupational hygiene, used in connection with public health.

ANTIBACTERIAL PRODUCTS • According to the market research firm Kline & Company, antimicrobial and antibacterial hand soaps represent about half of the $750 million market for liquid hand soaps in the United States.

• Hygiene is also the name of a branch of science that deals with the promotion and preservation of health, also called hygienics.

• Groups like the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology in Washington, D.C., see the use of antibacterial agents by soap manufacturers purely as a marketing ploy.

SANITATION • Sanitation is the hygienic means of promoting health through prevention of human contact with the hazards of wastes.

- “These products imply they lower the risk of infection, which is blatantly untrue,” says Robert Sharbaugh, an epidemiologist in Charleston, S.C., who chairs of APIC’s guideline committee on the topic. “There is a misbelief that if you use this, it will cut down on disease like colds. That’s crazy, because many of these diseases are viral in nature.”

- Hazards can be either physical, microbiological, biological or chemical agents of disease. Wastes that can cause health problems are human and animal feces, solid wastes, domestic wastewater (sewage, sullage, greywater), industrial wastes and agricultural wastes. Hygienic means of prevention

• “With so many of these products on the market, consumers may not even realize they are purchasing soaps that contain antibacterials,” says Dr. Eli Perencevich, an infectious diseases researcher at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center in Boston. “Check the ingredients closely.”

can be by using engineering solutions (e.g. sewerage and wastewater treatment), simple technologies (e.g. latrines, septic tanks), or even by personal hygiene practices (e.g. simple handwashing with soap). • The World Health Organization states that:

• The Federal Trade Commission recently has begun cracking down on some manufacturers for making unsubstantiated health claims regarding products containing the germicides.

- "Sanitation generally refers to the provision of facilities and services for the safe disposal of human urine and feces. Inadequate sanitation is a major cause of disease world-wide and improving sanitation is known to have a significant beneficial impact on health both in households and across communities. The word 'sanitation' also refers to the maintenance of hygienic conditions, through services such as garbage collection and wastewater disposal.”

• Growing consumer concerns regarding personal health care and an overall extra-cautious atmosphere pervading institutional and industrial settings is expected to steer demand in the hand sanitizers industry, which is likely to exceed $402 million in business merely five years from now. That's according to a new report from Global Industry Analysts Inc., a San Jose, Calif.-based marketing research firm, which reached its projected figure after profiling major companies in the industry including 3M Company, Best Sanitizers Inc., Dial Corporation, Ecolab Inc., GOJO Industries Inc., Medline Industries Inc., Pure-ific Corporation, Skinvisible Inc., Sprixx, STERIS Corporation, and Vi-Jon Laboratories Inc.

• The term "sanitation" can be applied to a specific aspect, concept, location or strategy, such as: - Basic sanitation - refers to the management of human faeces at the household level. This terminology is the indicator used to describe the target of the Millennium Development Goal on sanitation.

• Hand sanitizer gels marked their evolution during the 1980s, with many scientists and research institutes channeling vital resources and efforts for the development of these products.

- On-site sanitation - the collection and treatment of waste is done where it is deposited. Examples are the use of pit latrines, septic tanks, and Imhoff tanks.

- Global threats in the past such as SARS, avian flu, and the more recent H1N1 influenza or swine flu, led to a surge in demand for hand sanitizers.

- Food sanitation - refers to the hygienic measures for ensuring food safety.

- Growth was also propelled by the findings that gastrointestinal illnesses are reduced by about 60 percent in households that used hand sanitizers, compared to non-users, the report says.

- Environmental sanitation - the control of environmental factors that form links in disease transmission. Subsets of this category are solid waste management, water and wastewater treatment, industrial waste treatment and noise and pollution control.

• Antibacterial products (cleaning, soap, shampoo, lotion etc) usually contain either triclosan or triclocarban, which are chemicals with antibacterial action that are considered antibiotics.

- Ecological sanitation - an approach that tries to emulate nature through the recycling of nutrients and water from human and animal wastes in a hygienically safe manner.

• A recent study compared household using antibacterial soaps, detergents, and cleaning agents with household using plain, non-antibacterial products and found no difference in the frequency of infections in family members over the course of a year. This result is not surprising because most infections are caused by viruses, not bacteria, and antibacterial soaps and cleaning products do not work against viruses.

CLEANING • Since the germ theory of disease, cleanliness has come to mean an effort to remove germs and other hazardous materials. • A reaction to an excessive desire for a germ-free environment began to occur around 1989, when David Strachan put forth the "hygiene hypothesis" in the British Medical Journal. In essence, this hypothesis holds that dirt plays a useful role in developing the immune system; the fewer germs people are exposed to in childhood, the more likely they are to get sick as adults. The valuation of

• Triclosan and triclocarbon are persistent environmental pollutants, meaning that accumulate in the environment. - Both have been detected in surface water. There are concerns that triclosan contains small quantities of toxic dioxins and can be converted into other

ALISON KIM | MICROVERSEPROJECT.COM

ALISON KIM | MICROVERSEPROJECT.COM

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RESEARCH: THE PROS AND CONS OF GERMS 3/3

RESEARCH: A GUIDE TO EVERYDAY DECISION-MAK

ENVIRONMENT GERMS HELP REGULATE THE CLIMATE • Algae and bacteria help keep the ocean the right temperature. Part of the salty smell of the ocean comes from the gases produced by algae and bacteria near the surface. The gases combine with oxygen to produce water droplets, which then cause clouds to forms. As clouds increase over the ocean, they reflect some of the sun’s radiation, sending it away from the Earth. This cools the ocean below. But as clouds increase and the surface of the ocean cools, the growth of algae and bacteria slows down. This decreases the amount of cloud cover. Now, the surface of the ocean becomes warmer, and the numbers of bacteria and algae increase. In this never-ending cycle, ocean microbes play an important role in keeping Earth’s cloud cover just right. • Microbes play a direct role in Earth’s climate today. Carbon dioxide is one of the most abundant greenhouse gasses. Along with methane and some other gases, it traps the sun’s heat in our atmosphere, just like a greenhouse traps heat inside it. Without these naturally occurring gases, the average temperature of Earth would be about zero degrees Fahrenheit. Instead, it is about 57 degrees Farrenheit. If the levels of greenhouse gases get too high, Earth will become too warm. Cyanobacteria and algae living in the upper layers of the surface of the ocean use billions of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. Until recently in Earth’s history, photosynthetic organisms were able to keep the levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere fairly stable. • Cyanobacteria in the ocean change carbon dioxide in the air into food that ocean animals eat. By pulling the CO2 out of the air, the bacteria help keep this greenhouse gas at a normal level.

• Scientists have been using microbes to treat wastewater for over 100 years. Wastewater is the water that carries wastes from homes, businesses, and industries. It contains sewage and other disgusting stuff. Treating wastewater is expensive, but it is necessary to prevent the spread of human disease and the pollution of your waterways. • Pseudomonas bacteria are able to break down oil. Scientists use this microbe to help clean the environment. • Bacteria are also used for the bioremediation of industrial toxic wastes. • Microbes are Earth’s chief decomposers. Without germs, dead plants and animals would pile up, all the carbon on Earth would be trapped inside dead things, and all life on Earth would come to an end. • There are at least one billion microbes in just one tablespoon of soil. That’s almost as people are there are in China. What’s more, that tablespoon probably contains at least 5,000 different kinds of microbes. This collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and tiny animals plays a key role in maintaining Earth’s ecosystems. Most of these microbes are decomposers. They break dead plants and animals into smaller and smaller pieces. This makes carbon, nitrogen, and other chemical building blocks available to other living things. Dead material is turned into humus, making the soil rich with nutrients. • Many gardeners make compost from a pile of vegetable scraps, leaves and grass clippings. The microbes in the compost heap decompose the dead things to make a rich fertilizer for flowers and vegetables. • Fungi are good at decomposing really tough plant materials. They are the most efficient microbes at breaking down wood.

GERMS HELP PLANTS GROW • Ntitrogen-fixing bacteria in the soil help plants. These bacteria take in nitrogen, an essential chemical that plants need to grow. The bacteria change nitrogen into a form that plants can use. Many animals get the nitrogen they need by eating plants.

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• Bacteria can also be used in the place of pesticides in the biological pest control. This commonly involves Bacillus thuringiensis (also called BT), a Gram-positive, soil dwelling bacterium. Subspecies of this bacteria are used as a Lepidopteran-specific insecticides under trade names such as Dipel and Thuricide. These pesticides are regarded as environmentally friendly, with little or no effect on humans, wildlife, pollinators and most other beneficial insects. • Symbiotic microbes such as fungi and algae form an association in lichen. Certain fungi form mycorrhizal symbioses with trees that increase the supply of nutrients to the tree.

GERMS MAKE LIKE POSSIBLE • Bacteria have changed the face of the planet. About two or three billion years ago, bacteria that used sunlight for energy emerged. They also gave off oxygen in the process. Thanks to bacteria, the oxygen we depend on started appearing in earth’s atmosphere. • Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth’s element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms’ dead remains and waste products through decomposition. Microbes also have an important place in most higher-order multicellular organisms as symbionts. • Microbes are critical to the processes of decomposition required to cycle nitrogen and other elements back to the natural world. • billions of years ago, microbes created the oxygen-rich air we breathe, which made it possible for more complex living things to evolve • “The moon is what our planet would look like without microbes,” said the evolutionary microbiologist Lynn Margulis.

GERMS BREAK DOWN WASTES/RECYCLE

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GERMS IN THE ENVIRONMENT • Microorganisms are vital to humans and the environment, as they participate in the Earth’s element cycles such as the carbon cycle and nitrogen cycle, as well as fulfilling other vital roles in virtually all ecosystems, such as recycling other organisms’ dead remains and waste products through decomposition. Whether bacteria are helpful or dangerous, life couldn’t exist without them. • Bacteria that live in the stomachs of cows and other cud-chewing animals help them digest tough plants and grasses. • Bacteria have played a long and important role in life on earth. Bacteria got along find without us for billions of years, but we can’t survive without them • Bacteria are the most abundant creatures on the planet. They may be tiny, but they have made a huge impact on the world, good and bad. • Microorganisms are found in almost every habitat present in nature. Even in hostile environments such as the poles, deserts, geysers, rocks, and the sea. • Bacteria are in the air we breathe. They’re found in the water and in the ground. Bacteria live in and inside plants and animals.

THE USE OF GERMS IN ENERGY • Microbes are used in fermentation to produce ethanol, and in biogas reactors to produce methane. Scientists are researching the use of algae to produce liquid fuels, and bacteria to convert various forms of agricultural and urban waste into usable fuels.

HYGIENE IN GENERAL • Hygiene is the avoidance of infection or food spoiling by eliminating microorganisms from the surroundings. As microorganisms, in particular bacteria, are found virtually everywhere, the levels of harmful microorganisms can be reduced to acceptable levels. However, in some cases, it is required that an object or substance be completely sterile, i.e. devoid of all living entities and viruses. A good example of this is a hypodermic needle. • The practice of focused hygiene maximizes your protection from pathnogenic bacteria and viruses, while allowing a certain degree of exposure to nonpathogenic bacteria in the environmemt.

AT HOME • Healthy Habits for Preventing Infection and Illness • Handling food safely, practicing basic hygiene to prevent communicable diseases, and getting regular physical exams and immunizations are all healthy habits that help protect your child against illness and infection. • Thorough cleaning and food preparation helps keep you and your child from getting food-borne illnesses. Do your best to also choose restaurants that handle food safely. • The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends the following steps to prevent food poisoning: - Prepare foods safely. Because germs spread easily on surfaces that many people use or touch, it is important to wash your hands often and keep surfaces clean. - Shop safely. Raw meats, seafood, and eggs can contaminate other foods they touch. Keep these items wrapped in plastic and away from fresh foods in your shopping cart. - Cook foods safely. Meats and foods that have been in contact with raw meat need to be cooked thoroughly to prevent the growth of bacteria. The specific temperature varies by type of food. - Store foods safely. Keep food temperatures at safe levels to prevent bacterial growth that can cause illness. For example, perishable foods should be refrigerated promptly, not left out on the counter. - Follow labels on food packaging. Look for expiration dates on perishable foods before you buy or eat them. Also, follow cooking guidelines that are provided, such as temperature and cooking time. - Serve foods safely. Keep hot foods hot—140°F (60°C) or above—and cold foods cold—40°F (4.4°C) or below. If you are not sure if a food is safe to eat, throw it out. • Teach children to cover their mouths when they cough or sneeze, preferably using a tissue so that germs do not get on their hands. Also show them how to use tissues to wipe their noses. • Scrubbing with soap and water effectively removes germs from surfaces. This method is recommended for surfaces where chemical disinfectants are not appropriate, such as some furniture. • When possible, toys and surfaces should also be disinfected. Dishwashers are a convenient and effective way to disinfect dishes and utensils. Chemicals such as ammonia, hydrogen peroxide, and bleach are used to disinfect surfaces and objects. You can find a wide variety of brand-name products with varying ingredients. Be sure to follow the manufacturer's directions exactly as printed on the label. • You can make your own disinfectant with bleach and water, although it quickly loses its strength. It should be made fresh daily. Use the following ratios of bleach to water, depending on the strength needed. • For a strong bleach disinfecting solution (to clean bathrooms, diapering areas, and other surfaces): Add 0.25 cup (59.2 mL) household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) to 1 gal (3.8 L) cool water, or add 1 Tbsp (15 mL) bleach to 1 qt (1 L) cool water.

• Bacteria are important recyclers and decomposers in nature; they help break down dead plants and animal remains into simpler parts. This process allows plants and other living things to reuse them.

• For a weaker bleach disinfecting solution (to clean toys, eating utensils, and other items handled by young children or put in the mouth): Add 1 Tbsp (15 mL) household bleach (5.25% sodium hypochlorite) to 1 gal (3.8 L) cool water.

• The ability of bacteria to degrade a variety of organic compounds is remarkable and has been used in waste processing and bioremediation.

• Do not mix bleach with other liquids or cleaners because the mixture can produce a toxic gas. Bleach should be mixed only with fresh tap water. Keep all chemicals out of reach of children.

• Bacteria capable of digesting the hydrocarbons in petroleum are often used to clean up oil spills. Fertilizer was added to some of the beaches in Prince William Sound in an attempt to promote the growth of these naturally occurring bacteria after the 1989 Exxon Valdez oil spill. These efforts were effective on beaches that were not too thickly covered in oil. • Germs can clean up crude oil spills from ocean-going tankers, pesticide runoff from rivers, and polluted wastewater before it is released into the environment.

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• Laundry hygiene pertains to the practices that prevent or minimize disease and the spreading of disease via soiled clothing and household linens such as towels. Items most likely to be contaminated with pathogens are those that come into direct contact with the body, e.g., underwear, personal towels, facecloths, nappies. Micro-organisms can also be transferred between contaminated and uncontaminated items of clothing and linen during laundering. Of

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DEFINITIONS cleanliness, therefore, has a social and cultural dimension beyond the requirements of hygiene for practical purposes. • The germ theory of disease, also called the pathogenic theory of medicine, is a theory that proposes that microorganisms are the cause of many diseases. Although highly controversial when first proposed, germ theory was validated in the late 19th century and is now a fundamental part of modern medicine and clinical microbiology, leading to such important innovations as antibiotics and hygienic practices. • Since cleaning processes (e.g., hand washing) remove infectious microbes as well as dirt and soil, they are often the means to achieve hygiene.

HUMAN-INDUCED SPREADING OF GERMS • People have adopted new behaviors, new methods of food production and processing, and new modes of transportation, all of which promote the transmission and spread of germs. • Advances in medical treatments and some new diseases have led to longer survival of patients with weakened immune defenses and greater vulnerability to infections. • Both the human pollution and the ease of global travel have increased greatly, leading to humans going to more places on the planet. • Urbanization, industrialization, and changes in farming and animal husbandry have led to humankind destroying some ecosystems and altering the ecologic relationships of many others. As a result, pressure is put on germs and this pressure causes them to evolve. • The overuse of antibiotics has contributed to a big problem in medicine because there are now difficult-to-treat infectious diseases caused by germs that have become resistant to antibiotics. • Increases in both the exotic animal trade and forest destruction have ed to greater opportunities for animals germs to jump to humans. When the combination of pressures is just right, a previously harmless germ can evolve into one that is pathogenic to humans, as likely happened with the viruses that cause AIDS, SARS, and avian flue. • Wars, natural disasters, and economic and political upheaval all affect the status of germs and infectious diseases. For example, economic and political changes changes in the early 1900s that brought about the collapse of public health systems in eastern Europe allowed dangerous diseases that had been quelled, like diphtheria, to resurface.

MISINFORMATION ABOUT GERMS • Some parents believe that antibiotics are a cure-call, other’s have misgivings about vaccines, and others fall prey to the wide promotion of products and ideas with no scientific backing. • In the United States, and in some European countries, more and more parents have stopped vaccinating their children. As a result, diseases that had almost disappeared, such as measles, pertussis (whooping cough), and mumps have now staged a comeback. • Five Second Rule: Almost everyone has dropped some food on the floor and still wanted to eat it. If someone saw you drop it, he or she might have yelled, “5-second rule!” This so-called rule says food is OK to eat if you pick it up in 5 seconds or less. - Scientists have tested the rule. We’re sorry to report it’s not necessarily true. Bacteria can attach itself to your food even if you pick it up super-fast. But will your dropped food contain enough bacteria to make you sick? It’s possible — and that’s why you shouldn’t eat food that has hit the floor. • Most people overlook the benefits of bacteria and focus on the “yuck factor.” • Inappropriate prescribing of antibiotics has been attributed to a number of causes, including: people who insist on antibiotics, physicians simply prescribe them as they feel they do not have time to explain why they are not necessary, physicians who do not know when to prescribe antibiotics or else are overly cautious for medical legal reasons. For example, a third of people believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold and the common cold is the most common reasons antibiotics are prescribed. • People use camphor-containing products like Vick’s Vapor Rubto help treat symptoms of a cold. Camphor can be toxic for the liver. Absorbing it through the skin has led to liver toxicity and seizures, particularly in babies and young children. Children have been poisoned accidentally by ingesting a large quantity of Vick’s Vapor Rub.they do not have time to explain why they are not necessary, physicians who do not know when to prescribe antibiotics or else are overly cautious for medical legal reasons. For example, a third of people believe that antibiotics are effective for the common cold and the common cold is the most common reasons antibiotics are prescribed.

WHAT ARE GERMS • A germ is a microscopic organism, or living thing. It can be an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form. • Germs are also called called microorganisms or microbes.

• As with any dietary supplement, be aware that probiotic supplements are regulated as foods, not drugs. Tell your doctor about everything you are taking, including the specific bacteria in your probiotic supplement. • Probiotics are live microorganisms thought to be beneficial to the host organism. According to the currently adopted definition by FAO/WHO, probiotics

• Germs are found all over the world, in all kinds of places.

are: "Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host".[1] Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and bifidobacteria are the most common types of microbes used as probiotics; but certain yeasts and bacilli may also be used. Probiotics are commonly consumed as part of fermented foods with specially added active live cultures; such as in yogurt, soy yogurt, or as dietary supplements.

CATEGORIES OF GERMS • The four major types of germs are: bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. They can invade plants, animals, and people, and sometimes they make us sick. • Bacteria are tiny, one-celled creatures that get nutrients from their environments in order to live. In some cases that environment is a human body. Bacteria can reproduce outside of the body or within the body as they cause infections. Some infections bacteria cause include sore throats (tonsillitis or strep throat), ear infections, cavities, and pneumonia. • Viruses need to be inside living cells to grow and reproduce. Most viruses can’t survive very long if they’re not inside a living thing like a plant, animal, or person. Whatever a virus lives in is called its host. When viruses get inside people’s bodies, they can spread and make people sick. Viruses cause chickenpox, measles, flu, and many other diseases. Because some viruses can live for a while on something like a doorknob or countertop, be sure to wash your hands regularly!But not all bacteria are bad. Some bacteria are good for our bodies — they help keep things in balance. Good bacteria live in our intestines and help us use the nutrients in the food we eat and make waste from what’s left over. We couldn’t make the most of a healthy meal without these important helper germs! Some bacteria are also used by scientists in labs to produce medicines and vaccines. • Fungi are multi-celled, plant-like organisms. Unlike other plants, fungi cannot make their own food from soil, water, and air. Instead, fungi get their nutrition from plants, people, and animals. They love to live in damp, warm places, and many fungi are not dangerous in healthy people. An example of something caused by fungi is athlete’s foot, that itchy rash that teens and adults some-

• Etymologically, the term appears to be a composite of the Latin preposition pro ("for") and the Greek adjective βιωτικός (biotic), the latter deriving from the noun βίος (bios, "life").[2] • At the start of the 20th century, probiotics were thought to beneficially affect the host by improving its intestinal microbial balance, thus inhibiting pathogens and toxin producing bacteria.[3] Today, specific health effects are being investigated and documented including alleviation of chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases,[4] prevention and treatment of pathogen-induced diarrhea,[5] urogenital infections,[6] and atopic diseases.[7]

• Other types of gut bacteria also help educate the cells of the babies’ immune system. They teach the baby’s cells to tell the difference between friendly microbes and disease-causing microbes.

• Types of Pathogens: - Viral: Pathogenic viruses are mainly those of the families of: Adenoviridae, bacteria Picornaviridae, Herpesviridae, Hepadnaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Paramyxoviridae, Papovaviridae, Polyomavirus, Rhabdoviridae, Togaviridae. Viruses typically range between 20-300 nanometers in length.

• Protozoa are one-cell organisms that love moisture and often spread diseases through water. Some protozoa cause intestinal infections that lead to diarrhea, nausea, and belly pain.

- Bacterial: Although the vast majority of bacteria are harmless or beneficial, a few pathogenic bacteria can cause infectious diseases. Bacteria can often be killed by antibiotics because the cell wall in the outside is destroyed and then the DNA. They typically range between 1 and 5 micrometers in length.

PROBIOTICS • Probiotics are bacteria that help maintain the natural balance of organisms (microflora) in the intestines. The normal human digestive tract contains about 400 types of probiotic bacteria that reduce the growth of harmful bacteria and

- Fungal: Fungi comprise a eukaryotic kingdom of microbes that are usually

promote a healthy digestive system. The largest group of probiotic bacteria in the intestine is lactic acid bacteria, of which Lactobacillus acidophilus, found in yogurt with live cultures, is the best known. Yeast is also a probiotic substance. Probiotics are also available as dietary supplements.

saprophytes but can cause diseases in humans, animals and plants. Fungi are the most common cause of diseases in crops and other plants. The typical fungal spore size is 1-40 micrometer in length. - Other parasites: Some eukaryotic organisms, such as protists and helminths, cause disease.

• It has been suggested that probiotics be used to treat problems in the stomach and intestines. But only certain types of bacteria or yeast (called strains) have been shown to work in the digestive tract. It still needs to be proved which

- Prionic: Prions are infectious pathogens that do not contain nucleic acids.

probiotics (alone or in combination) work to treat diseases. At this point, even the strains of probiotics that have been proved to work for a specific disease are not widely available.

Prions are abnormal proteins whose presence causes some diseases such as scrapie, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) and Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. - Animal pathogens: Animal pathogens are disease-causing agents of wild and domestic animal species, at times including humans. • Transmission of pathogens occurs through many different routes, including airborne, direct or indirect contact, sexual contact, through blood, breast milk, or other body fluids, and through the fecal-oral route.

• A decrease in beneficial bacteria may also lead to other infections, such as vaginal yeast and urinary tract infections, and symptoms such as diarrhea from intestinal illnesses. • Probiotics may also be used to:

- Help prevent infections in the digestive tract. - Help control immune response (inflammation), as in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). - Probiotics are being studied for benefits in colon cancer, skin infections, and

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- Washing or laundering at 60°C or above - Washing or laundering at 30-40°C using a bleach-based product: This produces decontamination of fabrics by a combination of physical removal and chemical inactivation. However, some types of fungi and viruses that are harder to inactivate, may not be removed. • Washing at temperatures of 40°C or below with a non-bleach product is considered to carry a risk of inadequate decontamination.

IN PUBLIC SPACES • Be aware of higher risk of germs in public areas. Avoid exposing your child to a large crowd if he or she has been ill recently or has an otherwise weakened immune system, especially when a contagious illness is going around. Also, it may be helpful to have a hand sanitizer and disposable wipes on hand to clean

• Most probiotics are like what is already in a person's digestive system. Some

• There are things you can do while shopping to help prevent food poisoning. - Put raw meat, poultry, eggs, fish, and shellfish in separate bags, and do not mix them with other food items. - Do not buy meat or poultry that has a tear in the package or is leaking. - Pick up your refrigerated and frozen items at the end of your shopping trip, so they are unrefrigerated for a shorter period of time. - Drive directly home after finishing so you can store all foods properly. If you have a long drive, consider getting an ice chest for perishable foods. - Do not buy food past the "sell by" or "use by" dates. - Do not buy canned foods if they are dented, leaking, bulging, or rusting.

- Wash your hands before and after using exercise equipment to rid your hands of germs. - Spray disinfectant provided by the gym on any exercise equipment you use both before and after you use the equipment. - Bring two different-colored towels with you to the gym. Wipe your own sweat with one towel and use the second towel to wipe down the surface of

PREPARATION • In food preparation microorganisms are reduced by preservation methods (such as the addition of vinegar), clean utensils used in preparation, short storage periods, or by cool temperatures. If complete sterility is needed, the two most common methods are irradiation and the use of an autoclave, which resembles a pressure cooker. • There are several methods for investigating the level of hygiene in a sample of food, drinking water, equipment, etc. Water samples can be filtrated through an extremely fine filter. This filter is then placed in a nutrient medium. Microorganisms on the filter then grow to form a visible colony. Harmful microorganisms can be detected in food by placing a sample in a nutrient broth designed to enrich the organisms in question. Various methods, such as selective media or PCR, can then be used for detection. The hygiene of hard surfaces, such as cooking pots, can be tested by touching them with a solid piece of nutrient medium and then allowing the microorganisms to grow on it. • There are no conditions where all microorganisms would grow, and therefore often several different methods are needed. For example, a food sample might be analyzed on three different nutrient mediums designed to indicate the presence of ™total∫ bacteria (conditions where many, but not all, bacteria grow), molds (conditions where the growth of bacteria is prevented by, e.g., antibiotics) and coliform bacteria (these indicate a sewage contamination).

CLEANING • Culinary hygiene pertains to the practices related to food management and cooking to prevent food contamination, prevent food poisoning and minimize the transmission of disease to other foods, humans or animals. Culinary hygiene practices specify safe ways to handle, store, prepare, serve and eat food. • Culinary practices include: - Cleaning and disinfection of food-preparation areas and equipment (for example using designated cutting boards for preparing raw meats and vegetables). Cleaning may involve use of chlorine bleach, ethanol, ultraviolet light, etc. for disinfection. - Careful avoidance of meats contaminated by trichina worms, salmonella, and other pathogens; or thorough cooking of questionable meats. - Extreme care in preparing raw foods, such as sushi and sashimi.

- Washing of hands thoroughly before touching any food. - Washing of hands after touching uncooked food when preparing meals. - Not using the same utensils to prepare different foods. - Not sharing cutlery when eating. - Not licking fingers or hands while or after eating. - Not reusing serving utensils that have been licked.

the exercise equipment you want to use. - Wear water shoes or flip-flops when walking in the shower or sauna so you can avoid contracting athlete's foot. - Place a towel on the sauna seat before sitting down to avoid contact with the surface, which may contain fungi. - Fill up a water bottle at home and bring it with you to the gym. Avoid putting your mouth or your empty water bottle anywhere near a gym water fountain or water cooler. Germs pass easily from a water bottle to the fountain tap and back to another bottle if people hold their bottles against the tap when filling them. - Shower immediately after you finish exercising. Showering allows you to avoid getting sick from the germs you were exposed to while working out.

WITH PRODUCTS PEOPLE USE DAILY • Because antibacterial soaps do not appear to lower the frequency of household infections and because they carry the theoretical risk of promoting antibiotic-resistent germs, the U.S. public health authorities recommend using plain soaps, plain detergents, and plain cleaning products at home, not ones with antibacterial action. • Antibacterial products usually contain either triclosan or triclocarban, which are chemicals with antibacterial action that are considered antibiotics. • A recent study compared household using antibacterial soaps, detergents, and cleaning agents with household using plain, non-antibacterial products and found no difference in the frequency of infections in family members over the course of a year. This result is not surprising because most infections are caused by viruses, not bacteria, and antibacterial soaps and cleaning products do not work against viruses.

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- The effect of travel is most dramatically illustrated by the rapid spread of the AIDS virus from Africa to Europe and the Americas in the late 1970s. - In 1996, the World Health Organization estimated that more than 1 million people were being infected daily. About 60% of these infections occur in young people <25 years of age, and of these 30% are <20 years. Between the ages of 14 and 19, STDs occur more frequently in girls than boys by a ratio of nearly 2:1; this equalizes by age 20. An estimated 340 million new cases of syphilis, gonorrhea, chlamydia and trichomoniasis occurred throughout the world in 1999.

GERMS THAT BENEFIT PEOPLE’S HEALTH

- Commonly reported prevalences of STIs among sexually active adolescent girls both with and without lower genital tract symptoms include chlamydia (10–25%), gonorrhea (3–18%), syphilis (0–3%), Trichomonas vaginalis (8–16%), and herpes simplex virus (2–12%). Among adolescent boys with no symptoms of urethritis, isolation rates include chlamydia (9–11%) and gonorrhea (2–3%). At least one in four U.S. teenage girls has a sexually transmitted disease, a CDC study found. Among girls who admitted ever having sex, the rate was 40%.

• The benefits we receive from bacteria far outweigh the harm. • Microorganisms are used in brewing, winemaking, baking bread, pickling and other food-making processes. • Germs used to control the fermentation process in the production of cultured dairy products such as yogurt and cheese. The cultures also provide flavour and aroma, and inhibit undesirable organisms. • Bacteria, often lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, in combination with yeasts and molds, have been used for thousands of years in the preparation of fermented foods such as cheese, pickles, soy sauce, sauerkraut, vinegar, wine and yogurt

- AIDS is the single largest cause of mortality in present-day Sub-Saharan Africa. The majority of HIV infections are acquired through unprotected sexual relations between partners, one of whom has HIV. - Approximately 1.1 million persons are living with HIV/AIDS in the United States, and AIDS remains the leading cause of death among African American women between ages 25 and 34.

• Some bacteria help turn milk into yogurt. The bacteria eat the milk sugar lactose and produce lactic acid. The lactic acid combines the milk’s proteins. The once-liquid milk turns into a thick and tangy yogurt.

- Hepatitis B is also classed as a sexually transmitted disease because it can be passed on sexually. The disease is found globally, with the highest rates in Asia and Africa and lower rates in the Americas and Europe. Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the virus.

• Bacteria are also used to make buttermilk, cheese, pickles, sauerkraut, vinegar, and soy sauce. • A steak or a glass of milk results from the digestion of grasses by anaerobic bacteria in the rumen of cattle.

- Prevention is key in addressing incurable STIs, such as HIV & herpes. Sexual health clinics fight to promote the use of condoms and provide outreach for at-risk communities.

• Evidence of winemaking from alcohol-producing bacteria dates to 6000 BCE Mesopotamia and probably started earlier. • Hebrew, Chinese and Inca cultures perfected yeast fermentations for wines and beers, but retained bacteria for fermenting crops to make sauerkraut, pickets, wine, soy sauce, silage, and other foods that lasted longer with an aside preservative than in fresh form.

• FOOD POISENING - Foodborne illness is caused by eating or drinking food that contains disease causing agents. The most common causes of foodborne diseases are bacteria, viruses, and parasites. Foods containing toxic chemicals can cause foodborne diseases as well.

• The first commercial use of genetic engineering was human insulin made by bacteria. in the past, insulting was purified from pigs or other animals. It was expensive, and some people had bad reactions to the animal insulin. In 1978, a scientist named Herbert Boyer made a verion of human DNA insulin gene, spliced it into the bacterium Escherichia coli (E. coli), and grew the bacteria in the lab, creating a ready-made insulin factory.

- The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates that around 80 million people a year in the U.S. alone contract food poisoning or other foodborne diseases. - There are over two hundred types of bacteria, viruses and parasites that can cause foodborne diseases. Reactions to these germs can range from mild gastric discomfort to death. The easiest way to prevent foodborne illness is to properly handle and cook foods. This includes washing your hands and utensils carefully and cooking meat thoroughly. - The World Health Organization (WHO) estimate that in 2004, infectious diseases were responsible for over 10 million deaths worldwide, making infections the primary cause of fatalities in the world.

• Germs are the cause of many infectious diseases. • Pathogenic bacteria can cause diseases such as plague, tuberculosis and anthrax.

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- Institutional dish sanitizing by washing with soap and clean water.

• How to Avoid Germs at the Gym

- In many cultures, changing sexual morals and oral contraceptive use have eliminated traditional sexual restraints, especially for women, and both physicians and patients have difficulty dealing openly and candidly with sexual issues. Additionally, development and spread of drug-resistant bacteria makes some STDs harder to cure.

GERMS THAT HARM PEOPLE’S HEALTH

probiotics have been used for a very long time throughout history, such as in fermented foods and cultured milk products. These don't appear to cause illness. But more study is needed on the safety of probiotics in young children, the elderly, and people who have weak immune systems.

hands and to wipe off shopping carts or other shared items in public places. • Poor hand hygiene by hospital staff has been associated with the spread of resistant organisms and an increase in hand washing compliance results in decreased rates of these organisms.

- STD incidence rates remain high in most of the world, despite diagnostic and therapeutic advances that can rapidly render patients with many STDs noninfectious and cure most.

• A theory called the hygiene hypothesis proposes that our immune systems need a certain level of germs in the environment to be “educated” not to overreact to environmental stimuli. The proponents of this theory claim that a lack of germs, because of either a high level of hygiene or the excessive use of antibiotics and vaccinations, may have caused immune systems to become misguided and confused, resulting in the appearance of more allergies and autoimmune disorders in Western societies. in other words, the war that we declared against germs may have caused collateral damage.

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• Two processes are considered suitable for hygienic cleaning of clothing:

- Sexually transmitted infections (STI), also previously referred to as sexually transmitted diseases (STD) and venereal diseases (VD), are illnesses that have a significant probability of transmission between humans by means of human sexual behavior, including vaginal intercourse, oral sex, and anal sex.

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).

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indirect contact with contaminated objects such as towels, sheets and sports equipment seem to represent the mode of transmission.

• STDS

- Genetically engineered microbes have since been used to produce improved antibiotics and other useful human proteins. These include interferon (used to treat some forms of cancer and other disease) and human growth hormone. Hepatitus A and B vaccines made from genetically engineered heart cells have been approved for use in the United States. By the end of the year 2000, there were 84 “biotech medicines” approved for use in Noth America and Europe, benefit about 250 million people.

- Help with other causes of diarrhea.

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concern are the new “community” strains of MRSA. Experience in the USA suggests that these strains are transmissible within families, but also in community settings such as prisons, schools and sport teams. Skin-to-skin contact and

• Pathogenic viruses and bacteria can cause diseases such as influenza, yellow fever, or AIDS.

• The body’s immune system helps us to survive in the sea of microbes by learning, in infancy, to differentiate harmless and harmful bacteria.

• There is almost no oxygen in the gut. When gut microbes break down carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen, we say they are fermenting. The average person farts about ten to fifteen times a day. One of the waste products of fermentation is gas. It’s a sign that your gut bacteria are happy and well fed.

• There are several ways pathogens can invade a host; the principal pathways have different episodic time frames, but soil contamination has the longest or most persistent potential for harboring a pathogen.

• Fungi can cause diseases such as ringworm, candidiasis or histoplasmosis

• The human intestinal tract is covered by almost 100 trillion bacteria.

• When your body is getting infected with harmful germs, it sends out signals for white blood cells to come to its aid. White blood cells are part of humans’ immune systems and can kill bacteria.

• A pathogen (Greek: πάθος pathos, "suffering, passion" and γενής genēs (-gen) "producer of") or infectious agent — is a microbe or microorganism such as a virus, bacterium, prion, or fungus that causes disease in its animal or plant host.

• Protozoa can cause diseases such as malaria, sleeping sickness and toxoplasmosis

• About 100 billion bacteria live on our skin, and another 100 billion in our mouth.

PATHOGENS

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• One beneficial kind of gut bacteria, bactericides thetaiotaomicron, helps blood vessels grow in babies. These blood vessels carry nutrients from the gut to the rest of the body.

• To date, the European Food Safety Authority has rejected most claims that are made about probiotic products, saying they are unproven.[8

times get between their toes.

• Many people use probiotics to prevent diarrhea, gas, and cramping caused by antibiotics. Antibiotics kill "good" (beneficial) bacteria along with the bacteria that cause illness. A decrease in beneficial bacteria may lead to digestive problems. Taking probiotics may help replace the lost beneficial bacteria. This can help prevent diarrhea.

GERMS ON THE HUMAN BODY

- Proper storage of food so as to prevent contamination by vermin. - Refrigeration of foods (and avoidance of specific foods in environments where refrigeration is or was not feasible). - Labeling food to indicate when it was produced (or, as food manufacturers prefer, to indicate its "best before" date). - Proper disposal of uneaten food and packaging.

MEDICAL urine. Children and the elderly can get dehydrated very quickly and should be watched closely. Pregnant women should always call a doctor if they think they may have food poisoning. • Germs can get into food when: - Meat is processed. It is normal to find bacteria in the intestines of healthy animals that we use for food. Sometimes the bacteria get mixed up with the parts of those animals that we eat. - The food is watered or washed. If the water used to irrigate or wash fresh fruits and vegetables has germs from animal manure or human sewage in it, those germs can get on the fruits and vegetables. - The food is prepared. When someone who has germs on his or her hands touches the food, or if the food touches other food that has germs on it, the germs can spread. For example, if you use the same cutting board for chopping vegetables and preparing raw meat, germs from the raw meat can get on the vegetables. • Because most food poisoning is mild and goes away after a few days, most people do not go to the doctor. You can usually assume that you have food poisoning if other people who ate the same food also got sick.

• Food poisoning is an illness caused by eating foods that have harmful organisms in them. These harmful germs can include bacteria, parasites, and viruses. They are mostly found in raw meat, chicken, fish, and eggs, but they can spread to any type of food. They can also grow on food that is left out on counters or outdoors or is stored too long before you eat it. Sometimes food poisoning happens when people do not wash their hands before they touch food. • Most of the time, food poisoning is mild and goes away after a few days. All you can do is wait for your body to get rid of the germ that is causing the illness. But some types of food poisoning may be more serious, and you may need to see a doctor. • The first symptom of food poisoning is usually diarrhea. You may also feel sick to your stomach, vomit, or have stomach cramps. Some food poisoning can cause a high fever and blood in your stool. How you feel when you have food poisoning mostly depends on how healthy you are and what germ is making you sick. • If you vomit or have diarrhea a lot, you can get dehydrated. Dehydration means that your body has lost too much fluid. Watch for signs of dehydration, which include having a dry mouth, feeling lightheaded, and passing only a little dark

ALISON KIM | MICROVERSEPROJECT.COM

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• Immunization shots, or vaccinations, are essential. They protect against things like measles, mumps, rubella, hepatitis B, polio, diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis (whooping cough). Immunizations are important for adults as well as for children. Here’s why. • A vaccine is a biological preparation that improves immunity to a particular disease. • A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism, and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body’s immune system to recognize the agent as foreign, destroy it, and “remember” it, so that the immune system can more easily recognize and destroy any of these microorganisms that it later encounters. • Your immune system helps your body fight germs by producing substances to combat them. Once it does, the immune system “remembers” the germ and can fight it again. Vaccines contain germs that have been killed or weakened. When given to a healthy person, the vaccine triggers the immune system to respond and thus build immunity.

- If you think you have food poisoning, call your local health department to report it. This could help keep others from getting sick.

• Before vaccines, people became immune only by actually getting a disease and surviving it. Immunizations are an easier and less risky way to become immune.

- Call your doctor if you think you may have a serious illness. If your diarrhea or vomiting is very bad or if you do not start to get better after a few days, you may need to see your doctor.

• The twentieth century saw the introduction of several successful vaccines, including those against diphtheria, measles, mumps, and rubella. Major achievements included the development of the polio vaccine in the 1950s and the eradication of smallpox during the 1960s and 1970s. Maurice Hilleman was the most prolific of the developers of the vaccines in the twentieth century. As vaccines became more common, many people began taking them for granted. However, vaccines remain elusive for many important diseases, including malaria and HIV.

- If you do go to the doctor, he or she will ask you about your symptoms (diarrhea, feeling sick to your stomach, or throwing up), ask about your health in general, and do a physical exam. Your doctor will ask about where you have been eating and whether anyone who ate the same foods is also sick. Sometimes the doctor will take stool or blood samples and have them tested. • In most cases, food poisoning goes away on its own in 2 to 3 days. All you need to do is rest and get plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration from diarrhea. Drink a cup of water or rehydration drink (such as Pedialyte) each time you have a large, loose stool. Soda and fruit juices have too much sugar and should not be used to rehydrate. Doctors recommend trying to eat normally as soon as possible. When you can eat without vomiting, try to eat the kind of foods you usually do. But try to stay away from foods that are high in fat or sugar. • Antibiotics are usually not used to treat food poisoning. Medicines that stop diarrhea (antidiarrheals) can be helpful, but they should not be given to infants or young children. You should not take antidiarrheals if you have a high fever or blood in the diarrhea, because they can make your illness worse. • If you think you are severely dehydrated, you may need to go to the hospital. And in some severe cases, such as for botulism or E. coli infection, you may need medical care right away. • You can prevent most cases of food poisoning with these simple steps: - Clean. Wash your hands often and always before you touch food. Keep your knives, cutting boards, and counters clean. You can wash them with hot, soapy water, or put items in the dishwasher and use a disinfectant on your counter. Wash fresh fruits and vegetables. - Separate. Keep germs from raw meat from getting on fruits, vegetables, and other foods. Put cooked meat on a clean platter, not back on the one that held the raw meat. - Cook. Make sure that meat, chicken, fish, and eggs are fully cooked.

POISENING

VACCINES

- Chill. Refrigerate leftovers right away. Don't leave cut fruits and vegetables at room temperature for a long time. - When in doubt, throw it out. If you are not sure if a food is safe, don't eat it. • The most common ways that harmful organisms are spread are: - During food processing. It is normal to find bacteria in the intestines of healthy animals that we use for food. If bacteria come in contact with meat or poultry during processing, they can contaminate the food. Campylobacter, salmonella, and E. coli are often spread in this way. - During food growing. Fresh fruits and vegetables can be contaminated if they are washed or irrigated with water that is contaminated with animal manure or human sewage. Staph food poisoning, E. coli, and shigellosis are often spread through contaminated water.

• Many bacterial diseases can be prevented withe vaccines. Others can be treated with bacteria-killing drugs called antibiotics.

ANTIBIOTICS • Antibiotics are medicines that kill bacteria. Bacteria can cause infections such as strep throat, ear infections, urinary tract infections, and sinus infections (sinusitis). • There are many types of antibiotics. Each works a little differently and acts on different types of bacteria. Your doctor will decide which antibiotic will work best for your infection. • Antibiotics are powerful medicines, but they cannot cure everything. Antibiotics do not work against illnesses that are caused by a virus. They do not help illnesses such as: - Common colds. - Influenza (flu). - Most cases of acute bronchitis. - Most sore throats not caused by strep. - Runny noses. - These illnesses usually go away by themselves. Ask your doctor what you can do to feel better. • If you take antibiotics when you do not need them, they may not work when you do need them. Each time you take antibiotics, you are more likely to have some bacteria that the medicine does not kill. Over time these bacteria change (mutate) and become harder to kill. The antibiotics that used to kill them no longer work. These bacteria are called antibiotic-resistant bacteria. - These tougher bacteria can cause longer and more serious infections. To treat them you may need different, stronger antibiotics that cost more. A stronger antibiotic may have more side effects than the first medicine. • Antibiotic-resistant bacteria also can spread to family members, children, and fellow workers. Your community then will have a risk of getting an infection that is harder to cure and costs more to treat. Some antibiotics that doctors prescribed in the past to treat common infections no longer work. • Taking antibiotics you do not need will not help you feel better, cure your illness, or keep others from catching your infection. But taking them may cause harmful side effects. Common side effects include:

- During food handling. Food can be contaminated when an infected person handles the food or if it comes in contact with another contaminated product. For example, if you use the same cutting board for both chopping vegetables and preparing raw meat, you risk contaminating the vegetables.

- Nausea.

- Through the environment. Many harmful organisms that are commonly found in dirt, dust, and water can find their way into the foods we eat.

- Antibiotics also can cause Clostridium difficile colitis (also called C. difficile colitis), a swelling and irritation of the large intestine, or colon. This happens

- Diarrhea. - Stomach pain.

because the antibiotics kill the normal bacteria in your intestine and allow the C. difficile bacteria to grow. This problem can cause diarrhea, fever, and belly cramps. In rare cases, it can cause death. • Women may get vaginal yeast infections from taking antibiotics. In rare cases, antibiotics can cause a dangerous allergic reaction that requires emergency care. • Always ask your doctor if antibiotics are the best treatment. Explain that you do not want antibiotics unless you need them. • Avoid pressuring your doctor into prescribing antibiotics when they won't help you feel better or cure your illness. Ask your doctor what else you can do to feel better. • Do not use antibiotics that were prescribed for a different illness or for someone else. You may delay correct treatment and become sicker. • Questions you can ask your doctor include: - Why do I need antibiotics? - What are the side effects of this antibiotic? - Can I do anything to prevent the side effects? - How do I take the antibiotic? Do I take it at a certain time of day? Do I take it with food? - Will the antibiotic interfere with any other medicines? - Will anything happen if I take this with other medicines, certain foods, or alcohol? - Do I need to refrigerate antibiotics? Are there any special storage instructions? • If you need to take antibiotics, always tell your doctor or pharmacist about other medicines or dietary supplements you are taking. Be sure to talk about any special diet you may be following, any food or drug allergies you may have, and any health problems you have. And make sure your doctor knows if you are pregnant or trying to get pregnant. • When your doctor prescribes an antibiotic: - Take it exactly as directed. - Take it for as long as prescribed. You need the full prescription to get rid of those bacteria that are a bit stronger and survive the first few days of treatment. Bacteria that an antibiotic cannot kill (antibiotic-resistant bacteria) can develop if you (and many other people) take only part of an antibiotic prescription. • Antibiotics generally are safe. But it is important to watch for side effects. Common side effects include nausea, diarrhea, and stomach pain. In women, antibiotics can lead to vaginal yeast infections. • In rare cases, antibiotics can cause a dangerous allergic reaction that requires emergency care. If the antibiotic causes side effects that really bother you, call your doctor to ask if there is another antibiotic that will work as well but not cause these effects. Or ask your doctor if you need treatment to deal with the side effects. Some minor side effects are hard to avoid, but if they are more severe, discuss them with your doctor.

ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE • The widespread use of antibiotics both inside and outside of medicine is playing a significant role in the emergence of resistant bacteria. Although there were low levels of preexisting antibiotic-resistant bacteria before the widespread use of antibiotics, evolutionary pressure from their use has played a role in the development of muiltidrug resistance varieties and the spread of resistance between bacterial species. • In some countries, antibiotics are sold over the counter without a prescription, which also leads to the creation of resistant strains. In human medicine, the major problem of the emergence of resistant bacteria is due to misuse and overuse of antibiotics by doctors as well as patients. • Other practices contributing towards resistance include the addition of antibiotics to livestock feed. • Household use of antibacterials in soaps and other products, although not clearly contributing to resistance, is also discouraged (as not being effective at infection control). • Unsound practices in the pharmaceutical manufacturing industry can contribute towards the likelihood of creating antibiotic-resistant strains. • The volume of antibiotic prescribed is the major factor in increasing rates of bacterial resistance rather than compliance with antibiotics. • A single dose of antibiotics leads to a greater risk of resistant organisms to that antibiotic in the person for up to a year.

ALISON KIM | MICROVERSEPROJECT.COM

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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

o p p o rt u n i t y

ga p

After seeing a plethora of confusing, text heavy, and visually unappealing germ books and posters, I saw the opportunity for fun, simple and visually appealing germ educational tools.

a. a sn a p s h ot o f s o m e o f m y v i sua l an d c o g n i t i ve re s e arch

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section_ R E S E A R C H

The more research I did, the more I realized that there is a need for better designed and aesthetically pleasing germ education materials. There was a lack of that in the books, posters and Web sites about germs that I came across. The germ materials out there were also text heavy and hard to read. I decided that my thesis would be the opposite of these things; MICROVERSE would provide fun, friendly, visually appealing and easy-to-understand educational germ materials.

i felt that creating a visually appealing germ education system would help people want to learn more about germs.

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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

au d i e nc e

My target audiences are parents with young children and children between two to six-years-old. My audience also extends to anyone who takes care of children, including pre-school teachers, nannies, and pediatricians.

a. the si s o u t l i n e s , m a ppi n g o u t m y t h e s i s co m p o n e n t s an d e x plo ri n g au d i e n c e s

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section_ R E S E A R C H

I first began with a broad audience, but later narrowed it to a specific group of people. My target audiences are parents of children from the age of two to six, and their children. I wanted to focus on parents and children who live in the United States, and who have the time to read and enjoy an educational book for fun with their children. I thought this would be a good audience because parents want to make healthy decisions for their children, and they want their children to make healthy decisions as well, especially when there is no adult supervision. My audience can also include child caretakers or anyone who takes care of young children, like nannies, pre-school teachers, and pediatricians.

i originally started out with a wide audience because everyone is affected by germs.

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THESIS

MAI N PA R TS

COMPONE NTS

_030 7C

6E

7G 5H

5I

1B

6 2A

2C

2F

H 2G 2 2I

2C

1B

2D

starting to be at risk for STDs

little understanding of germs

DELIVERABLES OVERVIEW

vulnerable to infection

learning responsibility share cosmetics, clothes, and food

learning new habits

need guidance on what is safe

preparation and home cleaning

lack knowledge about food

and effective

want to know what cleaning and hygiene products are safe

do not want their students to become infected with germs

(of students from ages 5 to 17)

TEACHERS

4A

4F

students on staying healthy

4A

2C

want a fun way to educate their

1B

2I

their children healthy

7G 6I

1H

concerned with how to keep

1H

2E 4F

6G

learning how to live on their own

1D

6E

MEDICAL

PARENTS

1B

E

FOOD

(of children from ages 0 to 17)

4A

2D

HYGIENE

(ages 18 to 30)

3G 4H

1F

ENVIRONMENT

YOUNG ADULTS

3I

3 3F

2D

HEALTH

TEENS

4D

E

DEFINITIONS

(ages 11 to 17)

7C

HABITS

A G UIDE TO E V E RY DAY DE C IS ION-M AKING

(ages 5 to 10)

1B

MARKETING

I N F O R M ATI O N O N TH E P R OS A N D CO N S O F G E R M S

CHILDREN

3A

HISTORY

HOW G E RM S E FF EC T SOC IET Y

Germs have a negative public image in our society, even though many play vital roles in keeping people healthy. In my thesis, I will investigate the beneficial and harmful ways germs effect our daily lives. My goal is to provide information that will aid people in making healthy day-to-day decisions.

THESIS OVERVIEW

THESIS PROJECT OUTLINE

MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

AUD I E NCE

MICROVERSE KIM


DELIVER ABLES

P L ACE ME N T

PROD UCTI ON

R E SE ARCH

they effect people:

• in public places: - gyms - restaurants - cafes - schools - grocery stores - trains - airplaines

• history

• USG for printing and binding

BUDGET

• $0 to $500

• USG for printing and binding

BUDGET

• $0 to $500

• $30 to $100

BUDGET

• Andrew B.

VENDORS

PRIORITY 2

ALISON KIM | MICROVERSEPROJECT.COM

• Germs break down wastes

• Cleaning

• Antibiotic Resistance

• Vaccines • Antibiotics

MEDICAL

ENVIRONMENT • Germs help regulate the climate • Germs help plants grow

HABITS

• Hygiene • Sanitation

• Preparation • Cleaning • Poisening

HEALTH • Germs on the human body • Germs that benefit people’s health • Germs that harm people’s health

MARKETING

• The fear of germs • Negative public image • Antibacterial products

FOOD

HYGIENE • At home • In public spaces • With products people use daily

DEFINITIONS • What are germs • Categories of germs • Probiotics and Pathogens

HISTORY

• Evolution • Discovery of germs • How major diseases have changed history

• $0 to $500

BUDGET

• USG for printing

VENDORS

PRIORITY 3

• grocery stores

• schools

• • • • •

• UC Berkeley • UCSF

• CDC • Insurance Companies

HEALTH GROUPS

• Pediatricians • GI Speciallists

DOCTORS

• school • community

LIBRARIES

• middle to upper middle class • suburbs and cities

PARENTS, TEENS, YOUNG ADULTS

• elementary schools • middle schools • high schools

TEACHERS & SCHOOLS

BOOKS

MICROBIOLOGISTS

• Lynda.com

ONLINE TUTORIALS

• PRO QUEST • iTUNES U

• NPR • NY TIMES

ARTICLES/AUDIO

• govenment sites • science and health sites

WEBSITES

• public health • microbiology • bacteria

COLLEGE TEXTBOOKS

by microbiologists by doctors children’s books book publishing creating websites

TEXT/VIDEO/ AUDIO

• $0 to $200

BUDGET

• USG for printing and mounting

VENDORS

PRIORITY 3

• gyms

• public transportation

• public restrooms

• schools

• illustrated instructions

VISUALS

campgrounds

• beaches and

• grocery stores

• gyms

• schools

• restaurants and cafes

• public transportation

• public restooms

guides for public spaces:

Safe hygiene practice

CONTENT

SIGNAGE

PEOPLE

RESEARCH / SOURCES

microverseproject.com

• illustrations

• infographics

• patient waiting rooms

• illustrations

- books VISUALS

• infographics

- posters

• store:

VISUALS

• antibacterial products

• blog with news articles and facts about germs

• vaccines

• antibiotics

• sanitation

• hygiene

• health

and bad germs

• facts about good

CONTENT

PAMPHLETS

• hygiene guides

• pros and cons of germs

• infographics

and photographs

• deliverable descriptions

& overview

• project introduction

CONTENT

WEBSITE

A GUIDE TO EVERYDAY DECISION-MAKING

• small

BUDGET

BUDGET • $0 to $500

• none

VENDORS

PRIORITY 2

• health and science blogs

• Vimeo, YouTube

High Schools

• Elementary, Middle and

in After Effects

• 2D Animation created

VISUALS

• hygiene

• environment

• food

• health

• history

overview about germs:

A 1 to 2 minute animated

CONTENT

SHORT FILM

• none

VENDORS

PRIORITY 1

• gallery

• cafe bulletin boards

THE PROS AND CONS OF GERMS

VENDORS

HOW GERMS EFFECT SOCIETY

PRIORITY 1

• libraries & bookstores

VENDORS

• on the street

• homes

• patient waiting rooms

PRIORITY 1

• public libraries

• patient waiting rooms • patient waiting rooms

• elementary schools • school classrooms

• illustrations

• infographics

VISUALS

the environment

people’s health and

• libraries & bookstores

• illustrations

• infographics

VISUALS

from harmful germs: - hygiene - sanitation

• how to protect oneself

germs in: - people’s health - the environment

harmful effects of

• the beneficial and

• how germs effect

• homes

• illustrations

• infographics

VISUALS

• at home: - kitchen - bathroom - laundry - cleaning products - pets

What germs are and how

How to safely live with germs:

• definitions of germs

CONTENT • definitions of different

CONTENT

CONTENT types of germs

POSTER SERIES

PICTURE BOOK

GUIDEBOOK

section_ R E S E A R C H

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3 p ro c e s s


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

v i s ual i n s p i rat i on

My thesis visuals were inspired by mid-century design and illustration, specif ically in childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s story and science books. My main inspirations were the work of Mary Blair and Charley Harper.

a. a sn a p s h ot o f s o m e o f m y m a i n vi s ual i n s p i rat i o n s

_034


section_ P R O C E S S

From almost the beginning of this project, I was inspired by mid-century design and illustration. I thought that it would complement my project well. I came across some children’s mid-century science books that were visually awesome, and knew that a similar stylistic approach would work well with my thesis. Mary Blair and Charley Harper were huge illustration influences. I love Mary Blair’s playful characters and cheerful use of color. I have always admired Charley Harper’s clean, simple and elegant lines.

julia rothman’s visual guidebook, fa r m a n ato m y , was also a big influence on my thesis’ visuals.

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MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. sna psh ot s o f m i d - c e n t u ry d e si gn i n s p i rat i o n pag e s f ro m m y n ot e b o o k

_036

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ P R O C E S S

I had a lot of fun collecting mid-century design visual information and putting them into my notebook. They were great reference pieces for when I started experimenting with my designs and illustrations. I collected images and designs from mid-century advertisements, books and magazines. These included photographs and illustrations.

_037


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

s k e t c h i ng & p rac t i c i ng

There was a lot of illustrative exploration and practicing before I found an illustration style that worked well with my thesis.

a. sna psh ot s o f a b o o k f i l l e d wit h m y i n i t i al i l lu st rat i o n s , w hich i cr e ate d d u ri n g m y f i rst d irect e d stu dy w i t h m i c h ae l ki lg o r e

_038


section_ P R O C E S S

This thesis helped me strengthen my skills in illustration. In the beginning, I did not know what kind of style I wanted. Later, when I figured out the style I wanted, what I drew on paper and put into the computer did not look good. To solve this, I just practiced different styles of drawing, and when I created something I liked, I tried to make it better. It was a big repetitive process of exploring and practicing, until I found a style that worked well with my project.

my advisor , michael kilgore gave me many helpful drawing tips.

ニ段g. a

_039


MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. m y i nit i al i l lu st rat i o n s , which i cr e ate d d u ri n g m y f i rst d irect e d stu dy w i t h m i c h ae l k i lg o r e

_040

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ P R O C E S S

_041


MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. cha rac t e r s k e tc h e s a n d e x p lo rat i o n s

_042

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ P R O C E S S

After my first Directed Study with Michael Kilgore, where I learned a lot about illustration, I started exploring and practicing illustration even more. I wanted my visuals to look friendly and approachable, so I pushed myself to explore different ways that could be achieved. It was a fun process that helped me find an illustration style that worked well with my thesis.

_043


MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. i llu strat i o n s an d s ke tc h e s fro m m y n ot e b o o k

_044

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ P R O C E S S

_045


MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. tr e e e x p lo rat i o n s b. ge r m c h arac t e r s ke tc h e s c. pla n t e x p lo rat i o n s d. hou se e x p lo rat i o n s

_046

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

ニ段g. b


section_ P R O C E S S

It was important for me to learn how to draw different environments and things other than people and germs because germs are everywhere. I wanted to communicate that even though they are invisible to the naked eye, germs exist all around us.

ニ段g. c

ニ段g. d

_047


MICROVERSE

ニ段g. a

a. ho use s ke tc h b. k i tche n s ke tc h c. com m o n are a s k e tc h

_048

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

ニ段g. b


section_ P R O C E S S

Since parents and children spend a lot of time at home, I wanted to show different ways to handle germs in various areas of the home, such as the kitchen or the yard. The mid-century images of homes I collected in my notebook were especially helpful in helping me figure out what these environments could look like.

ニ段g. c

_049


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

l o go de v e l o pm e n t

I created my logo after I developed the typographic and illustrative style for M ICROV ERSE. This way I could make sure that my logo ref lected the project well.

a. ha nd lo g o s k e tc h e s b. com pu t e r lo g o s k e tc h e s

_050


section_ P R O C E S S

Wanting my logo to pair well with the overall aesthetic of my thesis, I decided to work on my logo after I determined the visual style and specific content of my project. While developing the logo, I knew I wanted to keep it simple, yet also reflect the microscopic nature of my thesis topic, without being too literal. I played around with the idea of zooming into details and examining things underneath a microscope.

i explored many variations of the logo, through hand and computer sketches.

ƒig. a FDCBETA

M I C ROV E RS E

FDCBETA

M I C ROV E RS E M I C ROV E RS E FDCBETA

FDCBETA

N

N

O

O

M

M

M

M

M M

M M

M

N

_051

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SE

OV ICR ER

SE

OV ICR ER

SE

SE

SE E S

SE E SE S

OV ICORVERER R C I OV ICR ER

N

N

MM

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N

O

N

O

N

O

N

O

O

M

M

N

M

M

N

O

O

N O O N N

N

M

O

M

M

M

M

N

N

O

M

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TI I M E M DUCA E D U C AT R I M E D U C AT

R

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MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

de s i gn organ i zat i on

I was doing multiple things at once, so char ts helped keep me on track and stay organized. I updated them almost every week.

a. a sn a p s h ot o f s o m e of m y gan t t c h art s

_052


section_ P R O C E S S

There were a lot of little parts and pieces to my thesis, so it was important to stay organized. A big part of keeping my time and work organized was creating and following my thesis timeline gantt charts. I updated them almost every week because new things would come up that I needed to account for all the time. The gant charts helped me see how much time I had to do something and gave me an overall picture of my time frame.

the gant charts were designed to reflect the visuals of my thesis.

ニ段g. a

_053


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

MICROVERSE

DELIVERABLES

THESIS DEVELOPMENT TIMELINE GUIDEBOOK: finish illustrations

RESEARCH

GUIDEBOOK: finish book

CH

JUNE 2012 WEEK 19

WEEK 20

WEEK 21

WEEK 22

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• potential interviews

• potential interviews

• potential interviews

• potential interviews

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

• guidebook

• guidebook

• guidebook

• guidebook

have scientists/doctors review deliverable content

WEBSITE: create mockups SEPTEMBER 2012 WEEK 31

WEEK 32

WEEK 33

WEEK 34

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

• books

• books

• books

• posters

• posters

• posters

• website

• website

• website

THESIS REFINEMENT • refine deliverables INTERVIEW • interviews with docters

GUIDEBOOK & CHILDREN’S BOOK: refine, finish and send to printer/binder

POSTERS: refine, finish & print DECEMBER 2012 WEEK 43

WEEK 44

WEEK 45

WEEK 46

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

• posters

• posters

• guidebook

• guidebook

• website

• website

• children’s book

• children’s book

have all deliverables refined and tweaked MARCH 2013

WEEK 55

a. o ne o f m y f i rst the si s t i m e l i n e s

_054

WEEK 56

WEEK 57

WEEK 58

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• practice presentation

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

• final touches on deliverables

• final touches on deliverables

• final touches on deliverables

• final touches on deliverables

ƒig. a


section_ P R O C E S S

THESIS REFINEMENT

INTERVIEWS

DESIGN

PRODUCTION

POSTERS: start creating designs

HILDREN’S BOOK: start creating mockup

CHILDREN’S BOOK: finish mockup

JULY 2012

POSTERS: finish designs AUGUST 2012

WEEK 23

WEEK 24

WEEK 25

WEEK 26

WEEK 27

WEEK 28

WEEK 29

WEEK 30

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

INTERVIEW

• interviews with microbiolosts

• interviews with microbiolosts

• interviews with microbiolosts

• interviews with microbiolostis

• interviews with microbiolosts

• interviews with docters

• interviews with docters

• interviews with docters

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

• children’s book

• children’s book

• children’s book

• children’s book

• children’s book

• posters

• posters

• posters

• posters

• posters

• posters

PAMPHLET: create mockups

have scientists/doctors review deliverable content

SIGNAGE: create mockups

OCTOBER 2012 WEEK 35

PAMPHLET: finish & print

SIGNAGE: finish & print

NOVEMBER 2012

WEEK 36

WEEK 37

WEEK 38

WEEK 39

WEEK 40

WEEK 41

WEEK 42

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

DESIGN

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

• books

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• posters

• signage

• signage

• signage

• signage

• signage

• signage

• signage

• website

• website

• website

• website

• website

• website

• website

• website

WEBSITE: finish and launch

r

POSTERS: place in target locations

PAMPHLET: place in target locations FEBRUARY 2013

JANUARY 2013 WEEK 47

WEEK 48

WEEK 49

WEEK 50

WEEK 51

WEEK 52

WEEK 53

WEEK 54

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

• refine deliverables

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

• website

• website

• website

• website

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• pamphlet

• final touches on deliverables

• posters

• posters

• posters

PREPARE FOR PRESENTATION

HAVE EVERYTHING FINISHED BY APRIL 15 th & PRACTICE PRESENTATION APRIL 2013

WEEK 59

WEEK 60

WEEK 61

WEEK 62

WEEK 63

WEEK 64

WEEK 65

WEEK 66

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

RESEARCH

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• books/news/magazines/web

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

• identify skills required

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

THESIS REFINEMENT

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

• practice presentation

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

PRODUCTION

• final touches on deliverables

• final touches on deliverables

• final touches on deliverables

• get deliverables ready

• get deliverables ready

• have all deliverables completely finished

_055


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

ニ段g. a

ニ段g. b

ニ段g. c

ニ段g. d

_056


section_ P R O C E S S

Creating detailed outlines of color, typography and illustration specifications helped me work more efficiently. These outlines also helped me make sure that all of these elements worked well together as a system.

a. c o lo r pal e t t e s p ec i f i c at i o n s b. t y p o g rap h y specificat io ns c. t y p o g rap h y specificat io ns f o r c h ap t e r o pene rs d. i l lu st rat i o n s pecificat io ns c o n tai n i n g a list o f t hing s t h at n e e d to b e cre at ed

_057


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

Sticky notes were helpful in creating layouts for my book deliverables. I moved them around a lot until I found an order that worked well.

a. sti ck y n ot e l ayo u t s f o r a pa r e nt g e rm g u i d e b o o k

_058


section_ P R O C E S S

ニ段g. a

_059


MICROVERSE

a. thu m b n ai l s f o r a pare n t ge r m g u i d e b o o k

_060

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

ニ段g. a

KIM


section_ P R O C E S S

Thumbnails of my thesis book deliverables helped me a lot in identifying what worked and what did not. They helped me see if something was missing, if the pacing needed adjustment, or anything else that needed to be fixed. I printed out thumbnails before printing out full spreads so that I made sure that the big picture worked well before I started focusing on the little details.

_061


4 s o lu t i o n s


MICROVERSE

f i nal

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

m ark

My marks were inspired by the petri dish and mid-century science books. There are two marks, one to place on larger formats, and one to place on smaller areas.

a. the m i c rove rs e m ark f o r la rge r are as b. the m ic rove rs e m ark f o r sm a lle r are as

_064


section_ S O L U T I O N S

The final logo and mark are inspired by magnified germs in petri dishes. I was also inspired by mid-century science books, and wanted to reflect their visual style. The typeface, Hellenic Wide, was chosen to reflect the style and feeling of these books. I created two marks, one to place on larger formats, and a monogram to place on smaller areas.

i wanted to create an abstract version of germs in my logo, which are reflected in the small and large circles.

ニ段g. a

ニ段g. b

_065


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

ge rm . a . p e d ia

This is a germ guidebook for parents and child caregivers. This book is fun to read and educational. It can also be used as a tool to help teach children about germs.

_066


section_ S O L U T I O N S

GERM•A•PEDIA is a germ guidebook for parents with young children. Included is information on what germs are, basic hygiene, and how to live safely with germs in the home, at school and in public places. The book is meant to be fun to read and look at, but also educational. It is heavily visual, for it is meant to be a guide that parents or child caregivers can quickly reference or look through when they have time.

this book can be used as a tool that parents can educate their children about germs with.

navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

alison kim m i c r ov e r s e

c las s ro om

_067


MICROVERSE

_068

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_069


MICROVERSE

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mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

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KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_073


MICROVERSE

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mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_075


MICROVERSE

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mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_077


MICROVERSE

_078

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_079


MICROVERSE

_080

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_081


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

a chi ld’s ge rm . a . pe d ia

This ser ves as a companion piece for GERM•A•PEDIA. Containing more simplif ied information, it is a picture book that young children can read on their own or with adults.

_082


A CHILD’S GERM • A • PEDIA is a children’s picture book that serves as a companion piece to GERM • A • PEDIA. This picture book provides simplified information about what germs are and how to safely live with germs in one’s daily life. It is a book that children can read on their own or with their parents. In this book, germs talk to you. There are good germs and there are bad germs. Throughout the book, the good germs give the reader tips on how to handle the bad germs at home, in school and in public places.

this book can be sold individually or as a set with g e r m • a • p e d i a . it is also a hardcover book.

a child’s

a child’s germ•a•pedia

germ•a•pedia by alison kim

alison kim

ut th

section_ S O L U T I O N S

m i c r ov e r s e

c las sro om

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MICROVERSE

_084

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_085


MICROVERSE

_086

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_087


MICROVERSE

_088

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_089


MICROVERSE

_090

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_091


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

e d u cat i o nal p o s t e rs

There are two series of posters. The first series contains fun facts about germs. The second series contains cool tips when it comes to handling germs. They were designed for hospital waiting rooms and childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s classrooms.

_092


section_ S O L U T I O N S

There are two series of educational posters. One series is about fun germ facts, and the second one is about cool tips regarding safely handling germs. These posters were designed to be placed in classrooms or in hospital settings. The posters are meant to give people quick insights into the world of germs. The posters are 17 ̋ x 24̋ so that they would be large enough to view easily, but also small enough so that at least one poster could fit in a space with existing wall artwork, which is common in elementary or preschool classrooms and waiting rooms.

ƒig. c

these posters are printed on newsprint to reflect children’s educational materials like lined writing paper made of newsprint.

ƒig. c

_093


MICROVERSE

_094

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM


section_ S O L U T I O N S

_095


m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

fun fact

# 003

MICROVERSE

_096

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N KIM


did you know that t h er e are germs t hat he lp p l an ts grow and stay healt h y ?

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

There are germs that live in the soil that protect plants from bad diseases and pests. Germs also help convert good nutrients, like nitrogen, into forms that plants need to grow and stay healthy.

section_ S O L U T I O N S

_097


mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

MICROVERSE

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

did you know that germs are u s e d to h e l p c l e a n u p o il s p i ll s ?

fun fact

# 007

There are germs, like Alcanivorax borkumensis bacteria, that help clean up oil spills. These germs eat and break down oil, cleaning up the oil in the sea or on land.

m ic r ov erse .co

_098

KIM

g e r m e d u c at i o n

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

d id yo u k now t hat g er m s help m ak e d elicio u s cheese t hro u g h f er m entat io n?

f un fac t

# 01 2

Yeasts and bacteria aid in the proces of fermentation, which is a chemical process where sugars are converted into ethanol. Fermentation is used to make a variety of food, including cheese.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n


section_ S O L U T I O N S

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

did yo u k n ow t h at th e r e i s e n o u g h b ac t e r i a i n yo u r body to fill a big soup can?

fun fact

# 016

There are more than 100 trillion bacteria in the human body, which can add up to five pounds of bacteria. Most of the bacteria in the human body are harmless and many help keep people healthy.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

d id yo u k now t hat t her e ar e g er m s in yo u r sto m ach t hat help yo u d ig est f o o d ?

f un fac t

#02 1

There are bacteria in our stomaches and intestines that break down food and release important nutrients that give us energy. Without these bacteria, the nutrients in food would pass through our bodies and be lost as waste.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

_099


m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

cool tip

# 0 18

MICROVERSE

_0100

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N KIM


sneeze or cough i n to the upper part of your arm, not into your han d s

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

Good hygiene etiquette is an important and simple way of helping control the spread of harmful germs to you and other people. Sneezing into the upper part of your arm can help decrease the spread of harmful germs and infections.

section_ S O L U T I O N S

_0101


mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

MICROVERSE

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

wash your hands with soap and water af ter touching any an imal , inc luding p e ts

cool tip

# 003

Animals, including your adorable pets, can carry harmful germs that can cause infections. So it is important to wash your hands thoroughly after touching them, with soap and water, which can help prevent infections.

m ic r ov erse .co

_102

KIM

g e r m e d u c at i o n

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

do not shar e f oo d or dr inks w it h ot her p eop le

cool t ip

# 022

Harmful germs can spread from person to person through the sharing of food and drinks. To prevent this, do not share your food and drinks with other people.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n


section_ S O L U T I O N S

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

do not s hare p e r s o nal i t e m s l i k e to ot h b r us he s and tow els w it h ot hers

cool tip

# 00 9

Harmful germs can spread through the sharing of personal items, including toothbrushes, toothpaste and towels. To prevent this from happening, do not share your personal items with others.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

vaccinat io ns can help p rot ec t you f rom har m f u l ger ms and inf ec t io ns

cool t ip

# 024

A vaccine provides immunity against a type of disease. Vaccines contain weakened or inactivated forms of the viruses they are used to create immunity against.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

_103


mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

MICROVERSE

m i c rOv e rs e

KIM

c las s rO O m

did you know that the fir st an tibiotic, penic illin , is made from fungus?

fun fac t

Hundreds of drugs found today were actually derived from chemicals first found in germs. Germs, like the fungus Penicillium, have helped cure illnesses and save many peopleâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s lives.

m ic r ov erse .co

_104

# 02 5

g e r m e d u c at i o n


section_ S O L U T I O N S

m i c rOv e rs e

c las s rO O m

washing your han ds with soap is a g r eat way to prevent i n fectio n s

cool tip

# 011

Washing your hands is an effective way to prevent getting infected with harmful germs that can cause illness. Be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.

m ic r ov erse .co

g e r m e d u c at i o n

_105


MICROVERSE

mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

KIM

m i c r ov e r s e c l as s ro om

T he books and posters are online exclusives only available through the M ICROV ERSE CLASSROOM. This is the one-stop resource for all things germ education. It provides a germs 101 over view, a store, and a blog.

_106


section_ S O L U T I O N S

The MICROVERSE CLASSROOM is a one-stop resource for all things related to germ education. It is a Web site for parents and child caretakers that provides basic information about germs and how to safely live with germs in one’s daily life. This site also includes a store that sells GERM • A • PEDIA, A CHILD’S GERM • A • PEDIA, and the educational posters. It also includes a blog that features the latest information about germs in the news.

the microverse classroom is located at microverse.co.

The

m i c r Ov ers e c las s r o om

GER MS 1 0 1

Shop

bloG

abo u t

Learn about germ safety in the home Learn about germ safety in the home GEt ouR nEwSlEttER

e-mail address

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fRiEnd uS

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expLore ExploRE microverse

microverse Microverse cl UniversiTy Assroom is Here here To to answer Answer yoUr your qUesTions questions aBoUT About GerMs. germs. Learn leArn aBoUT About Good good GerMs, germs, Bad bAd GerMs germs and And Tips tips on sTayinG stAying HeaLTHy. heAlthy.

leArn something

featurednews news featured

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nEw new to the thE shop Shop

GERM•A•PEDIA   - 

navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

alison kim

germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

by aLison kim m i c r ov e r s e

Microbes can microbes cAn Benefit hAveMore benefits beyond Than Just the the Gut gut

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mApping The Mapping the of germ the Microbial mAke-up Make-Up of heAlthy of Healthy humAns Humans

c las sro om

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_107


mfa thesis_ A L I S O N

MICROVERSE

KIM

The

m i c r Ov ers e c las s r o om

GERM S 1 0 1

Shop

bloG

abou t

Learn about germ safety in the home Learn about germ safety in the home GEt ouR nEwSlEttER

e-mail address

SubScRibE

GERM germ education Educat ion

fRiEnd uS

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microverse Microverse cl UniversiTy Assroom is Here here To to answer Answer yoUr your qUesTions questions aBoUT About GerMs. germs. Learn leArn aBoUT About Good good GerMs, germs, Bad bAd GerMs germs and And Tips tips on sTayinG stAying HeaLTHy. heAlthy.

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GERM•A•PEDIA   - 

navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

alison kim

germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

by aLison kim m i c r ov e r s e

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mApping The Mapping the of germ the Microbial mAke-up Make-Up of heAlthy of Healthy humAns Humans

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the microverse cl assroom is here to answer quest ions abou t germs. learn about good germs, bad germs and tips on stay ing healthy.

what GERMS aRE

GERM Saf Et y

Good GERMS

bad GERMS

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Bacteria are tiny, single-celled creatures that get their nutrients from the environments bacteria reside in, in order to live and grow.

f unGi

Fungi are multi-celled organisms that love to live in warm and damp environments. They are plant-like, but cannot make their own food.

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GERM Saf E t y

p Rot Ec t ion MEaSuRES

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p rotozoa

When you cough or sneeze, be sure to cover your nose and mouth with a tissue.

v iRu SE S

Viruses contain genetic material made from DNA or RNA. Viruses need to be inside living cells in order to grow and also reproduce.

Cough or sneeze into the upper part of your arm if you do not have tissues.

Be sure to stay away from others who are sick or if you are sick or feeling ill.

t ip S f oR waS hinG youR handS

Wash your hands with soap and water. Create a lather with your hands and continue rubbing for 20 seconds. Rinse your hands thoroughly with water and dry them thoroughly with a clean towel.

p Rotozoa

Protozoa are tiny, single-celled organisms that act like animals. They move on their own and eat other organisms in order to survive.

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there are simple ways you can protect yourself from getting infected from harmful germs in your daily life. this section provides an overview of some different ways one can protect oneself from harmful germs and the infections these germs may cause. germ safety can be simple.

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a germ is a microscopic organism or living thing. a germ can be an individual animal, plant, or single-celled life form. germs give off waste, reproduce, take in food, grow, and die. many germs are not harmful and can benefit people. harmful germs can cause illness and can be deadly.

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there are many good germs. many billions of years ago, germs actually converted the earth’s atmosphere from nitrogen-based to oxygen-based, which made it possible for life to evolve. without germs, the earth would basically look like the moon, empty, with no animals, humans, or plants.

there are many germs that are good, but there are germs that can be harmful to humans and also to animals. harmful germs can give people harmful infections that make us quite sick. bad germs can make us sick, give us skin infections, or even lead to death. they can cause a lot of pain.

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There are germs that live in the soil that protect plants from the harmful diseases and pests. Germs also help convert good nutrients, such as nitrogen, into forms that plants need to grow.

hEalthy p Eopl E

There are germs in your body that help keep you healthy. There are bacteria in your gut that help you digest the food you eat.

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There are germs that aid in the process of fermentation, which helps make delicious food like yogurt, cheese, bread, and pickles.

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E Rpe MS d 1 0i1a s t Ore t h e Ge rmG •a• welcome to the germ•a•pedia store. this is the place to go f or fun and educat ional mat erials about germs. bookS

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navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

alison kim

m i c r ov e r s e

germ•a•pedia by alison kim

alison kim

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a child’s

a ch i ld ’s g e r m•a•p e d ia is a germ germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about guidebook. Learn about good germs, bad good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places. germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

alison kim

m i c r ov e r s e

navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

by alison kim a child’s germ•a•pedia

a child’s germ•a•pedia

a ch i ld ’s ge rm•a•p e d ia is a germ germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about guidebook. Learn about good germs, bad good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places. germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

alison kim

germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

germ•a•pedia

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f un fac t S fun fac t #003 m i c rOv e rs e

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d id you k now t hat t her e ar e germs t hat he l p pl ants grow and stay healt hy ?

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There are germs that live in the soil that protect plants from bad diseases and pests. Germs also help convert good nutrients, like nitrogen, into forms that plants need to grow and stay healthy.

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d i d you kn ow th at th er e a r e g er m s i n you r stom ach that h el p you d i g est f ood ?

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There are bacteria in our stomaches and intestines that break down food and release important nutrients that give us energy. Without these bacteria, the nutrients in food would pass through our bodies and be lost as waste.

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d i d you kn ow th at g er m s h el p m a ke d el i ci ou s ch eese th rou g h f er m en tati on ?

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Yeasts and bacteria aid in the proces of fermentation, which is a chemical process where sugars are converted into ethanol. Fermentation is used to make a variety of food, including cheese.

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d i d you kn ow th at th er e i s e n o u g h b ac t e r i a i n yo u r body to fill a big soup can?

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There are more than 100 trillion bacteria in the human body, which can add up to five pounds of bacteria. Most of the bacteria in the human body are harmless and many help keep people healthy.

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was hing yo ur hand s wit h s oap is a gr eat way to pr e ve nt infec t io ns

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Washing your hands is an effective way to prevent getting infected with harmful germs that can cause illness. Be sure to wash your hands with soap and water.

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sn eez e or cough i n to the upp er part of your arm, n ot i n to your h a n d s

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Good hygiene etiquette is an important and simple way of helping control the spread of harmful germs to you and other people. Sneezing into the upper part of your arm can help decrease the spread of harmful germs and infections.

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wash your hands with soap and water af ter touching any an imal , inc lud ing p e ts

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Animals, including your adorable pets, can carry harmful germs that can cause infections. So it is important to wash your hands thoroughly after touching them, with soap and water, which can help prevent infections.

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do not shar e f ood or dr in ks w i th oth er p eop l e

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Harmful germs can spread from person to person through the sharing of food and drinks. To prevent this, do not share your food and drinks with other people.

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E RM S 10 1 t h e Ge rmG s t Ore welcome to the germ•a•pedia store. this is the place to go f or fun and educat ional mat erials about germs. bookS

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GERM•a•pEdia This is a fun, fully illustrated germ guidebook for parents. It guides you through what germs are, basic germ protection, and how to safely live with germs at home, school and in public places.

navigating a germ-filled world • by alison kim

• dimensions: 6.75” x 9.25” • paperback: 92 pages qt y: 1

$16.00

alison kim

germ•a•pedia is a germ guidebook. learn about good germs, bad germs, and how to live safely with germs at home, at school and in public places.

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© micr Over se 2013

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t h e Ge rm s t Ore welcome to the germ•a•pedia store. this is the place to go f or fun and educat ional mat erials about germs. bookS

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S h ipp i nG p ol ic y

it is important to us that all packages are shipped with care and that you are satisfied with the order you receive. feel free to contact us with any questions about your order.

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All orders are packaged with care in our office and shipped within 2-3 business days of the order confirmation. US orders are shipped using Priority Mail. Shipping costs (as well as sales tax for California residents) are calculated at checkout.

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in tERnat ional

All International orders are shipped via First Class Air Mail. International buyers are responsible for any applicable customs and taxes. If you would like to pay for rush shipping on an order, please feel free to email us at hello@microverseproject.com.

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E RlMOSG1 0 1 t h e Ge rmGb the germ blog features the l at est news about germs.

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MicRobES can havE GERM SafEty bEnEfitS bEyond thE Gut

hyGiEnE baSicS

It is becoming more known that bacteria keeps the human gut healthy, but recent studies do suggest that bacteria can also keep your sinuses healthy as well. Studies that appear in the journal Science Translational Medicine, have suggested that people with less sinus problems have a larger variety of bacteria living inside their sinuses.

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t h e Ge rmGE bRM l OSG101 the germ blog features the l at est news about germs.

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MicRobES can havE bEnEfitS bEyond thE Gut

It’s becoming more known that bacteria keeps the human gut healthy, but recent studies suggest that bacteria can also keep your sinuses healthy as well. Studies that appear in the journal Science Translational Medicine, have suggested that people with less sinus problems have a larger variety of bacteria in their sinuses. In these studies, the mice who sniffed bacteria up their noses had healthier sinuses then the mice that did not. This research suggests that a bacterial spray may be an option for de-congesting sinuses, instead of saline rinses and steroid sprays.

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about

GE RM Se101 a b Ou t m ic rOv rs e o uR Mi S S ion

the goal of microverse is to provide parents and children with the tools they need to learn about germs and to live healthily in a germ-filled world. our goal is to help make the daily lives of people healthier, safer whatand aRE GERMS hyGiEnEwith baSicS GERM SafEty happier when it comes to living and handling germs in their lives.

t hE oRiGinS o f Mic Rov ERSE

microverse started as an mfa thesis project by alison kim. confused and concerned about the right way to handle germs in one’s daily life, she decided to explore the world of germs and help educate others about the topic. alison’s other design projects can be viewed at alisonkim.com. Good GERMS

bad GERMS

fun factS

con tac t uS

feel free to contact us with any questions, comments, or just to say hello. hello@microverse.co

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Books Alcamo, Edward, Lawrence M. Elson. The Microbiology Coloring Book. New York: Benjamin Cummings, 1996. Print. Ames, Gerald, Rose Wyler. The Golden Book of Biology: An Introduction to the Wonder of Life. Illus. Charley Harper. New York: Golden Press, 1967. Print. Anderson, Rodney. The Invisible ABCs: Exploring the World of Microbes. Washington: ASM Press, 2006. Print. Balkwill, Fran. Germs Zappers. Ilus. Mic Rolph. Long Island: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 2002. Print. Balkwill, Fran. Cell Wars. Ilus. Mic Rolph. London: William Collins & Sons Co Ltd, 1990. Print. Berberich, Ralph, Anne Parker. The Available Pediatrician: Every Parentâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Guide to Common Childhood Illnesses. New York: Pantheon Books, 1988. Print. Bishop, Agnieszka Biskup. Understanding Viruses with Max Axiom Super Scientist. Illus. Nick Derington. Mankato: Capstone Press, 2009. Print. Bishop, Agnieszka Biskup. The Surprising World of Bacteria with Max Axiom Super Scientist. Illus. Tod G. Smith and Anne Timmons. Mankato: Capstone Press, 2010. Print. Brown, Jordon. Micro Mania. Watertown: Publisher, 2009. Print.

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Burlage, Robert. Principles of Public Health Microbiology. Sudbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012. Print. Capeci, Anne. The Magic School Bus: The Giant Germ. New York: Publisher, 2009. Print. Dexter Dyer, Betsy. A Field Guide to Bacteria. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2003. Print. Dunn, Rob. The Wild Life of Our Bodies. New York: Harper Collins, 2011. Print. Engelkirk, Paul, Janet Duben-Engelkirk. Burtonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Microbiology for the Health Sciences. Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2011. Print. Eveleigh, David. The Story of Domestic Sanitation. Sparkford: Sutton Publishing, 2002. Print. Heller, Stephen, Marshall Arisman. Inside the Business of Illustration. New York: Publisher, 2004. Print. Kornberg, Arthur. Germ Stories. Illus. Adam Alaniz. Sausalito: University Science Books, 2008. Print. Kourtis, Athena. Keeping Your Child Healthy in a Germ-Filled World: A Guide for Parents. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press, 2011. Print.

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Latta, Sara. The Good, the Bad, the Slimy: The Secret Life of Microbes. Berkeley Heights: Enslow Publishers, 2006. Print. Maczulak, Anne. Allies and Enemies: How the World Depends on Bacteria. Upper Saddle River: FT Press, 2011. Print. Mogilner, Alijandra, Tayopa Mogilner. Children’s Writer’s Word Book. Ontario: Writer’s Digest Books, 2006. Print. Nye, Bill. Bill Nye’s the Science Guy’s Great Big Book of Tiny Germs. Illus. Bryn Barnard. New York: Hyperion Books for Children, 2005. Print. Oetting, Judy. Germs. Illus. Tad Herr. New York: Scholastic, 2006. Print. Rabe, Tish. Inside Your Outside: All About the Human Body. Illus. Aristides Ruiz. New York: Random House, 2003. Print. Rowan, Kate. I Know How We Fight Germs. Illus. Katharine McEwen. London: Walker Books, 2009. Print. Snedden, Robert. The Benefits of Bacteria. Chicago: Heinermann Library, 2007. Print. Snyder Sachs, Jessica. Good Germs, Bad Germs: Health and Survival in a Bacterial World. New York: Hill and Wang, 2007. Print.

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Spellberg, Brad. Rising Plague. Amherst: Prometheus Books, 2009. Print. Stewart, Martha. Homekeeping Handbook: The Essential Guide to Caring for Everything in Your Home. New York: Clarkson Potter Publishers, 2006. Print. Tierno, Philip. The Secret Life of Germs. New York: Atria, 2001. Print. Walker, Richard. Epidemics & Plagues. Boston: Kingfisher Knowledge, 2006. Print. Walker, Richard. Microscopic Life. New York: Kingfisher Knowledge, 2004. Print. Weeks, Benjamin. Alcamoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Microbes and Society. Sadbury: Jones & Bartlett Learning, 2012. Print. Whitford Paul, Anne. Writing Picture Books. Ontario: Writerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Digest Books, 2009. Print.

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Online Deng, Chao. “Babies’ First Germs Depend On Type Of Birth.” NPR. n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2010/06/21/127988586/babies-first-bacteria>. “Triclosan.” 2009. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/biomonitoring/pdf/Triclosan_FactSheet.pdf>. “Cover Your Cough.” 2010. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/flu/protect/covercough.htm>. “Double Dipping Spreads Germs.” Weekend Edition Sunday. Hosted by Liane Hansen. NPR, 03 Feb. 2008. NPR.org. Web. Feb. 2011. “Germs.” Talk of the Nation. NPR, 20 Feb. 2004. NPR.org. Web. Feb. 2011. “Handwashing: Clean Hands Save Lives.” 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/handwashing/>. “Healthy Pets Healthy People.” 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/healthypets/>. “Food Safety.” 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/>. Knox, Richard. “Scientists Bag Small Game In Bathroom Germ Safari.” NPR. n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2011/11/23/142720314/scientists-bag-small-game-in-bathroom-germ-safari>.

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Levy, Stuart. “Antibacterial Household Products: Cause for Concern.” 2001. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/7/7/01-7705_article.htm>. “Mom’s Tackle Germs.” Tell Me More. Interview by Michel Martin. NPR, 22 Sep. 2009. NPR.org. Web. Feb. 2011. “Overview of Hepatitis Viruses.” 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdcnpin.org/scripts/hepatitis/index.asp>. “Stopping Super Germs.” Morning Edition. Hosted by Richard Knox. NPR, 27 Mar. 2002. NPR.org. Web. Feb. 2011. “Vaccines & Immunizations.” 2012. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/>. “Where Germs Lurk in Grade School.” Morning Edition. Hosted by Allison Aubrey. NPR, 05 Oct. 2005. NPR.org. Web. Feb. 2011. Wyckoff, Whitney. “What You Eat Shapes The Germs In Your Guts.” NPR. n.d. Web. 02 Feb. 2012. <http://www.npr.org/blogs/health/2010/08/02/128930801/bacteria-italy-africa>.

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ac k now l e d ge m e n t s

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Thank you for your constant support and inspiration. I am so lucky to have each one of you in my life. advisers

Thank you to my awesome advisors Dave Gottwald and Michael Kilgore for their guidance and advice. Michael helped me set the foundations of my thesis, made sure I researched every aspect of germs, and also gave me helpful drawing lessons. Dave helped me get my thesis in a place I wanted it to be. His support and awesome advice made a huge difference in my project. I could not have gotten to this place without him. Thank you also to Dr. Ralph Berberich, who took time out of his busy schedule advise me on my thesis content. He gave me insightful tips and helped make my thesis content better. i n s t r u c t or s

Many thanks to Phil Hamlett, Jeremy Stout, and Hunter Wimmer for all of the awesome guidance, advice, feedback and support since the beginning of this thesis project.

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