ECOTOURISM IN UZBEKISTAN: A CONCEPT OF SOCIAL AND ECONOMICAL DEVELOPMENT, 2004-2006 Alisher Taksanov, Ph.D. (Economics), National coordinator for Uzbekistan, 2005-2006, Tashkent EuropAID West Tien Shan Interstate Biodiversity Project for Central Asia INTRODUCTION. Tacis West Tien Shan Interstate Biodiversity Project (WTSBP) provides supports for the GEF Central Asia Biodiversity Conservation Project in the West Tien Shan. The emphasis of the Tacis project is upon sustainable social and economic development in the buffer zones. The project has 3 Objectives: - to reinforce, harmonise and support the implemntationof the legal frmewor relevant to environmental conservation in the three parner countries - to carryout a programme of treining andprofessional development to increase the skills and knowledge of the stake holders, inoorder to protect the biodiversity andlandscape of the West Tien Shan (WTS) and to ensure sustainable and economic devleopmetn, and - to develop mechanisms and to implement plans to enable cross=order cooperation among protected areas (PAs), forestry and local authoriteees to create an integrated approach to the management and monitoring of the territories of the WTS. The expected results of the project are: - Recommendations to introduce necessary changes into the national legislation related to biodiversity conservation in the three countries. - Productive cooperation with local communities, staff of the specially protected areas, local administrations, regional government agencies and NGOs. - Increased opportunities for economic activity and employment of local communities. - Reduced dependence o the communities on resources of the specially protected areas. - Improved pubic awareness on relationship between the environment and economic and social situation of local communities. Tourism is one of the components of the project as a means of improving the economic and social conditions in the local communities around the protected areas of the West Tien Shan. The biodiversity of the region is a major potential attraction for visitors to the area upon which to develop a thriving tourism industry. The project has identified the tourism resources and markets, and undertaken training and provided technical support to persons in the local communities around the protected areas and to stakeholders involved in the development of tourism through a series of workshops in the region an from the project base in Bishkek. The project has also supported the preparation of a number of leaflets, booklets and other material for publication the which give information and advice for tourists, tour operators and entrepreneurs providing accommodation and other tourism facilities and services, particularly at the community level. The project team put forward the following objectives for the development of tourism in the West Tien Shan region: - Conservation and enhancement of the environment and heritage of the WTS - Development of small scale ecotourism on the basis of the natural and cultural attractions of the WTS - Promote community based tourism (CBT) in the communities of the WTS - Provide training and advice to raise the capacity of local people to participate in ecotourism in the WTS.
- Improve the quantity and quality of tourist facilities to attract higher paying tourists from abroad - This document provides and introduction to the context for development of ecotourism in the WTS and makes recommendations on the way forward particularly in the areas around the Ugam-Chatkal National Nature Park and Chatkal Zapovednik. TOURISM TERMS: Tour operator. An organisation specialised in preparing product packages sold either directly (a 'direct seller') or through travel agents to the customer Travel agent. An organisation selling mainly package tours from tour operators and transportation tickets to the customer Destination. Country, region or location visited by tourists for a holiday or other purposes (i.e. business, research) Domestic tourism. Domestic tourists are inhabitants of the destination country but not of the destination area Product. A natural, cultural or human quality made accessible for tourists with the help of certain facilities or services Product package. A tourist product such as a tour or a complete arrangement, as published in a travel brochure. Usually a combination of transport, accommodation, food and activities / excursions Incoming or inbound tour operator. A tour operator at a destination who receives tourists from an outgoing tour operator in the source country Outgoing or outbound tour operator. A tour operator in the tourist source country sending tourists to a foreign destination ECOTOURISM TERMS: Sustainable tourism. This can be defined as tourism that meets the needs of tourists and host regions while protecting and enhancing opportunities for the future. It is envisaged as leading to management of all resources in such a way that economic, social and aesthetic needs can be fulfilled while preserving social and cultural integrity, essential ecological processes, biological diversity and life support systems. Sustainable tourism is a management approach applicable to both mass tourism and small-scale ecotourism. Nature-based tourism. Tourism that occurs in a natural setting and often focuses on activities in this specific natural setting, such as walking, safari trips, climbing, rafting, horse riding, ski trekking etc. Ecotourism. Nature based tourism in relatively undisturbed natural areas that involves education on and awareness of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically sustainable Ecotourism industry. That sector of the tourism industry directly involved in ecotourism operations, the development of ecotourism operations and/or the provision of services for ecotourism operations Natural areas. Existing in, or formed by nature; not artificial; also incorporates cultural aspects Region. An area which surrounds a protected area with boundaries considered relevant for sustainable tourism development. The region should be based on the unique characteristics and identity of an area and offer recognisable ecotourism products and services. Existing and future tourism supply (transport, accommodation and activities) will have to be identified, including points of attraction, natural and cultural heritage. Ecotourism region. An ecotourism region is the combination of physical, biological, social, cultural and managerial conditions that give value to a place. A region includes qualities provided by nature (vegetation, landscape, topography, scenery), qualities associated with ecotourism use (intensity and types of use) and conditions provided by management (development, access, regulations). By combining variations of these qualities and conditions, a variety of ecotourism opportunities can be provided in each of the different regions
Carrying capacity. The number of visitors/tourists that an area can receive within a determined span of time (day, year, season) without causing negative ecological, socio-economic cultural and, psychological impacts. The psychological capacity safeguards the quality of the tourism product as perceived by the tourist, and refers to negative impacts on the perception of the tourist/ visitor, including crowding, conflicts between different user groups. Ecological carrying capacity includes avoiding negative impacts on ecosystems, habitats, species and geomorphology. Socio-economic carrying capacity includes avoiding negative impacts on the quality of life of communities and their social structure (conflicts, social division), on the economic structure (negative impacts on local ownership and control, diversification of economy, employment etc.). Cultural carrying capacity includes avoiding negative effects on the identity and way of life of communities, on their religion, and, their cultural heritage etc. Stakeholders. All parties (communities, institutions, government organisations, nongovernment organisations (NGO)), enterprises, organisations representing economic and social sectors and persons) whose participation and/or support can be considered necessary and/or useful in order to realise the conservation goals of the protected area and to guarantee the success of the sustainable tourism development strategy. SWOT analysis. An analytical tool that helps to differentiate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a proposed development strategy Zoning. The division of a territory into specific zones for specific purposes, based on an evaluation of the area's physical and social carrying capacity and its tourism potential. Zones in which no or only a limited level of development is allowed, ensure optimal environmental conservation DEFINING ECOTOURISM. Ecotourism is often used interchangeably with other terms such as nature-based tourism, sustainable tourism, green tourism, responsible tourism and soft tourism. While some elements of these different tourism types are the same, the terms are neither synonymous nor mutually exclusive. Ecotourism is a subset of nature-based tourism - tourism that occurs in a natural setting. Some ecotourism experiences may include the activities of other naturebased tourism types such as adventure tourism in which the focus is on the activity, e.g. trekking on horseback or canoeing. The following ecotourism definition is most commonly used: "Ecotourism is nature-based tourism that involves education and interpretation of the natural environment and is managed to be ecologically, socially and culturally sustainableâ€? This definition recognises that 'natural environment' includes cultural components and that 'ecologically sustainable' involves an appropriate return to the local community and long-term conservation of the resource. It notes that ecotourism, like any other type of tourism, should be ecologically sustainable, provide visitor satisfaction, local benefits and be 'appropriate' to its environmental and cultural setting. 'Appropriate' means being compatible in style, sizes and type of operation with the scale and character of the landscape and in tune with the local inhabitants. Interest in ecotourism has arisen from a combination of increasing demand for authentic tourist experiences and increasing interest in environmental conservation. Ecotourism occupies a specialist niche within tourism. It includes forms of tourism that are consistent with natural, cultural and community values and that promote cultural and environmental interaction in authentic natural settings. Ecotourism is at the leading edge of the overall 'greening' of tourism in which environmental aspects are a high priority. In some cases, it may need only a small shift of focus for a nature-based tourism operation to become an ecotourism operation. A major benefit for encouraging ecotourism is that it integrates tourism and conservation thus providing an economic incentive for environmental protection. Also beneficial is the value of increasing awareness and appreciation of the relationship between natural settings and the diverse range of cultural perspectives of the community. A key challenge is to ensure balance so that the ecotourism industry can be commercially viable, ecologically sustainable and culturally responsible. The term â€˜ecotourismâ€™ has been open to misinterpretation by planners, operators, managers, marketers and the media, with the result that it has been used to describe a range of products that do not fall within the above definitions. This broad use of the term has led to debate throughout the
industry and receiving communities and has led to the creation of other terms, including ‘sustainable’, ‘minimal impact’, ‘community based’ and ‘responsible’ tourism. None of these definitions or alternative terms provides a discrete test that will precisely distinguish ecotourism from other forms of tourism. ELEMENTS OF ECOTOURISM. All tourism should be sustainable - ecologically, socially, culturally and economically. Ecotourism differs from other forms of tourism by its dependence on the protection of natural ecosystems so that they, and their associated cultural values, can be visited and interpreted. The challenge for the tourism industry is to develop ecotourism capacity and the quality of its product without adversely affecting the environment on which it depends. This involves ensuring that the type, location and level of ecotourism use do not harm the natural areas and that management is adequate to sustain appropriate levels of ecotourism. Revenue raised from ecotourism should be used to maintain ecological sustainability by providing supporting infrastructure, which will avoid damage to the natural environment for example boardwalks, toilets, and camping grounds. Infrastructure can also educate visitors about minimising impacts on the natural environment (e.g. interpreted walks and interpretation centres). Managers of natural areas need to consider the requirements of ecosystems, allowable activities under the form of tenure and management regimes and the appropriate locations for various ecotourism activities, as well as the social needs of visitors (e.g. crowding, presentation of the area). Different management techniques such as permit conditions, infrastructure provision and styles of presentation can allow for maintaining or increasing visitor use of an area. However, limiting access to and use of sensitive environmental areas for ecotourism ventures may be required at times to avoid overuse, preserve biodiversity and ensure opportunities exist for different types of ecotourism. Following are some of the main elements and principles of sound ecotourism: The natural environment Ecological and cultural sustainability Contribution to conservation Education and interpretation Provision of local benefits and participation Visitor satisfaction Responsible marketing Natural environment. Ecotourism relies on use of the natural environment and includes a focus on biological and physical features. Ecotourism occurs in and depends on the natural setting and may include cultural elements where they occur in largely natural settings. The conservation of natural areas and natural resource management is therefore essential to the planning, development and management of ecotourism. Many natural areas have significant ethnic and cultural values. Although the focus of ecotourism is on the natural values of an area, it is impractical to separate the natural and cultural components of ecotourism. Therefore, for the purposes of this project, the term 'ecotourism' can embrace the sustainable use of cultural as well as natural assets.
Ecological and cultural sustainability. Tourism activity that degrades the environment, adversely affects the local community or fails to return worthwhile economic benefits is not sustainable in the long term. Ecotourism is managed to avoid or minimise negative impacts and to confer benefits on host communities and environments for present and future generations. Ecotourism can involve active participation by tourists and tour operators in the conservation of an area. For example, visitors may participate in scientific monitoring or rehabilitation projects, or may contribute financially to the management of an area. Planning for ecotourism is based on resource constraints. When an area exceeds its capacity to absorb the impacts of uses to which it is put, or if its biodiversity and physical appearance are altered significantly. The impacts of ecotourism can be managed through the recognition and application of sustainable practices. For example, environmental impacts can be managed using facility design, equipment and waste management practices that minimise impact, both at the site of the activity and in terms of broader resource use. Contribution to conservation. Ecotourists and ecotourism operators can contribute to conservation in a variety of ways. The form of contribution must first be negotiated between natural resource managers and ecotourism operators to provide the greatest benefit for conservation within the means of the operators. Ecotourism operator contributions could include, but would not be limited to, participating in or supporting research and monitoring of wildlife or the impacts of visitation, assisting in management of the natural resource or returning a percentage of revenue for the management of the natural area. Examples of how independent visitors and members of the local community could contribute to conservation include: adhering to visitor codes of practice and exercising minimal impact techniques, participating in management surveys, reporting inappropriate behaviour to managers and rangers, picking up litter on route and participating in organised community service activities in the area such as cleanups, weeding and scientific research on wildlife. Education and interpretation. Ecotourism's educative characteristic is a key element, which distinguishes it from other parts of nature-based tourism. Environmental education and interpretation are important tools in creating an enjoyable and meaningful ecotourism experience. Ecotourism attracts people who wish to interact with the environment and, in varying degrees, develop their knowledge, awareness and appreciation of it. By extension, ecotourism should ideally lead to positive action for the environment by fostering enhanced conservation, environmental and cultural awareness. Environmental education can influence visitor, community and tourism industry behaviour and assist in the long-term sustainability of tourism activity in natural areas. Environmental education and interpretation help visitors see the big and little picture of the environment. It acknowledges the natural and cultural values of the area, resource management needs and the complexity and interdependence of the natural environment. It is one of the tasks of the Ecotourism operators to provide an appropriate level of environmental and cultural interpretation, usually through the employment of appropriate qualified guides and the provision of information prior to and during the trip. The level and type of education will depend on the interests and expectations of the visitor and will include a broad range of educational opportunities through interpretation, interactive approaches and the use of various media. This educational or interpretative component may acknowledge the natural and cultural values of a destination and could also address issues such as resource management and the role and attitude of the host community. Local benefits and participation. The benefits of ecotourism should be equitably distributed with significant benefits accruing to the local community, even though ecotourism businesses may be based in other communities or involve national or multinational ownership. Local benefits may accrue from the use of locally based operators, the employment of local guides and use of specialised local knowledge, the purchase of provisions and services and the use of local facilities. These benefits should outweigh the cost of ecotourism to the host community and environment, although the benefits and costs are difficult to measure. Ecotourism generally returns
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revenue or other benefits for resource conservation and management, as well as bringing social and cultural benefits to locals and visitors alike. It therefore offers a positive approach to tourism development in these areas. The involvement of local communities may benefit communities and the environment while improving the quality of the visitor experience. Local communities can be involved in ecotourism operations and help provide knowledge, services, facilities and products that, in turn, can provide employment. The benefits of ecotourism should outweigh any cost to the host community and environment. Ecotourism should also generate income for resource conservation and management to help maintain environmental values that are important to the community. Visitor satisfaction. Visitor satisfaction with the ecotourism experience is essential to the ecotourism industry's long-term viability. The ecotourism experience should match or exceed visitors' realistic expectations. Client service and satisfaction, an integral part of the product, should be second only to the conservation and protection of each area visited. Visitor enjoyment will be facilitated by: quality assurance and best practice; an ecotourism accreditation system; a broad range of ecotourism products suitable for different styles of ecotourism, land tenures and management regimes; adequate and environmental sensitive infrastructure which does not compete with the natural environment; adequate consideration of the needs of local communities; responsible marketing which gives realistic expectations of ecotourism experiences in each natural area; and appropriate planning and management. Responsible marketing. Realisation of ecotourism opportunities relies to a large extent on marketing - making potential visitors aware of the available opportunities and matching demand with supply. In the field of ecotourism, marketing can often be a challenge since: the industry includes many small operators who, on their own, do not have the necessary resources to market on the national or international level; and operators may be based in relatively remote locations where they do not have ready access to necessary marketing skills and resources. Visitors need to have realistic expectations and understanding of the tourism experiences on offer to help them choose a product suitable for their needs and the experiences they desire. In terms of ecotourism, responsible marketing will inform potential visitors of the type of activities available and appropriate in particular areas. The 'Growth-Peak-Decline' Cycle. Tourism in an area often suffers from what has been called the 'growth-peak-decline' model first proposed by Butler (1980). He identified that, as destinations or attractions become popular, they proceed through a cycle of growth, peak and decline. This process describes a 'cycle of evolution' with tourist locations passing through distinct stages. Each stage of the cycle is characterised by different environmental perceptions and uses. By providing the impetus for small-scale development in areas valued for their environmental and cultural attributes, ecotourism may be followed by additional development to accommodate increasing visitor numbers. The long-term outcome of this process could be a fundamental change in the quality of the visitor experience, including the destruction of the values that initially attracted the visitors and a loss of value of investments. There are many examples around the world notably in beach-based tourism. Planning for sustainable tourism requires long-term approaches aimed at establishing the location and scale of appropriate infrastructure and mechanisms for its careful management. Ecologically sustainable management practices will avoid the growth-peak-decline process. Styles of Ecotourism. In planning for and managing ecotourism, it is important to be aware of the different styles of ecotourism. These may vary considerably in the:
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types of natural settings required; extent of direct experiences and interaction with the natural environment; group sizes involved; use and extent of personal interaction with tour guides; reliance on mechanised transport and supporting infrastructure; and types of visitor experience. For the purpose of the WTS project, three broad ecotourism styles have been identified which need to meet the principles of ecotourism identified earlier. The various characteristics of each style are outlined in the following table № 1. Table № 1. The various characteristics of each style are outlined in the following Criteria Self-reliant ecotourism Small group ecotourism Popular ecotourism Main methods of Non-motorised travel Non-motorised or Motorised high capacity travel during by foot, horse or motorised low-capacity transport such as larger bus ecotourism mountain bike transport such as car, activity 4WD, mini bus or mountain bikes Supporting Only those structures Roads, toilet facilities, Full range of facilities infrastructure and facilities needed campgrounds and generally expected of high needs for public safety, interpretative displays quality recreation tourism environmental Possibly permanent protection or accommodation facilities interpretation and some site hardening in popular areas Group sizes Generally 10 or fewer Generally 30 or fewer No clear limit Degree of self- High Moderate/low Low reliance required Level of Moderate/high Moderate/low Little knowledge and skills knowledge/skills knowledge and skill knowledge and skills base required to enjoy the required base required to make base required to make opportunity most of the opportunity most of the opportunity Style of Primarily an off-site A mixture of on-site and A high degree of obvious management style of management off-site management on-site management through environmental techniques education and information Likely nature of Very much a 'hands An increased A general introduction to outcomes on' experience where understanding and the area’s ecosystems and participants learn knowledge of the some of their special about the intricacies of environment of the area characteristics biological and cultural which is probably systems unfamiliar to the visitor Examples of Walking in nature with Interpreted tours in the High capacity educational activities/settings an environmental forest; self guided trips; guided bus trips tours educational focus; yurt mountain drives or to various attractive sites. camps, guided horse walks; interpretation of trekking, and bird flora and fauna watching study groups ecosystems; guided bird watching tours; guided visit to traditional ‘shepherd’ camps
understanding their interaction with / impact on the natural environment
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There are also other nature-based tourism activities which are related to ecotourism and can complement an ecotourism experience, but which are not within the definition of ecotourism. Examples of such activities include: visitor centres and ex situ displays of native flora and fauna; aquarium displaying native marine life and vegetation; native plant collections and botanical gardens; Collections of native fauna and zoos; Designed nature-based theme parks; and virtual reality experiences. While all these examples can have substantial environmental educational and interpretative components and similar objectives to ecotourism, they do not occur in and depend on a natural setting and are therefore not considered as ecotourism. Supporting infrastructure availability. While the ecotourism experience tends not to make great demands on services or generally require major infrastructure, the participants in ecotourism have: transport needs both into and within the ecotourism area; accommodation needs; and demands for retail and other products during their visit. Stakeholders. The following ecotourism stakeholders can be identified, each of them having a range of potential roles in ecotourism: Tourism industry Ecotourism industry Visitors National government Regional government Local government Natural resource managers (including property owners) Nature conservation groups and organisations Local communities Educational and research institutions and other professional interest groups. Conditions for sustainable ecotourism development and management. The following principles and recommendations for ecotourism development should relate to the West Tien Shan region. 1. Ecotourism should assist to protect and improve nature areas and support sustainable development of adjoining territories and local communities. 2. Ecotourism requires implementation of the special policies, strategies and programs for the whole country and each region and area. 3. Ecotourism requires practical and effective coordination systems between stakeholders, including governments, private enterprises and local communities. 4. Ecotourism planning should include clear criteria of area zoning, including zapovedniks and low and medium impact zones. 5. Physical planning and design of ecotourism sites, especially hotels and other accommodations, restaurants, national park information centers, car parks and other facilities for ecotourism activities, should be developed so that any negative impact on natural or cultural
environment is avoided or minimized. Local construction materials, architectural styles, furniture and settings should be used, as well as energy sources not polluting the environment. 6. Similarly, transportation and communication means used in ecotourism regions should have low level of impact and minimize pollution. Sports using noisy or heavily polluting types of transport should be strictly prohibited in areas for ecotourism. 7. Ecotourism activity in the national parks and protected areas should be performed strictly in accordance with the rules of conduct in such areas. 8. Management plans should be prepared for areas used for ecotourism such as national parks and protected areas to ensure development and organization of tourist activities meet the requirements of sustainability. 9. Proper legal and organizational mechanisms should be established aimed to assist the effective involvement of local communities in the whole ecotourism development process, including policy identification, planning, management and monitoring. 10. Organizational, financial, tax and other mechanisms should be established, which would allow local communities to keep the larger part of the income generated from ecotourism and use it to protect nature and invest in improvements to ecotourism infrastructure. 11. Ecotourism should be beneficial, economically sustainable and profitable business. If there are no perspectives for getting profit, private entrepreneurs would not make investments nor take risks. 12. All ecotourism business related parties should recognize and meet the costs required to minimize potential negative impacts. These costs to the investor and wider community should be included into feasibility studies and financial analysis of all ecotourism projects before investments are approved. 13. In ecotourism development it is necessary to ensure strict observance of tourist standards and codes, and control and monitoring requirements and apply sanctions to violators. Selfregulating and local initiatives related to ecological, social and cultural sustainability of ecotourism should be encouraged, but necessarily checked. Advice and explanatory campaigns among entrepreneurs and tourists and training of service providers can assist in ensuring compliance. 14. Certification systems for ecotourism sites and activities should be considered. Certification should be related to international standards in Central Asia and Europe in order to ensure consistency of their quality to the principles of sustainability. Accreditation of the existing local certification systems should be also considered to improve their image among customers and foreign tour operators. 15. Education and professional training is the basis of sound ecotourism management. Managers and their staff, as well as the local population, need training on general and specific aspects of ecotourism, and this training should be targeted to the requirements of each category. In particular, ecotourism requires highly qualified guides, preferably natives from the local area. 16. Ecotourists need detailed and specialist information before and during the trip. Provision of full information is one of the elements differentiating ecotourism from traditional tourism, and this information may be provided in various forms, including booklets, guidebooks, maps, information centers, eco-museums, designated tracks and local guides. 17. Promotional materials on ecotourism should contain sufficient information on tourist attractions, including flora, fauna, relief, geology, ecosystem. They should also include accurate information on accommodations and catering facilities, as well as recommendations what tourists can and cannot do in the local area. This information would allow potential customers identify the difference between real ecotourism operators before buying an eco-tour. 18. Both marketing channels and promotional materials should correspond with the type of tourism offered to a customer and the type of eco-tourists being targeted. Two diagrams follow, the first showing Ecotourism Products and the second Product Development Issues. The information is relevant to the analysis of the resources and conditions for tourism in the West Tien Shan later in Section 3 onwards.
Spectacular landscapes. Western Tien-Shan in the Uzbekistan territory covers two specially protected territories – Ugam-Chatkal National Park (576.0 km2) and Chatkal Nature Reserve (conservation area) (22 000 hectares). They present a unique area where different species of flora and fauna showing all biodiversity of Central Asia are concentrated. According to the experts evaluation there are 2.2 thousand species of flora from Turan desert to Pamir-Alai high mountains 2.15 thousand of them are angiosperms. Fauna includes 280 species where 44 are mammals, 200 – birds, 16 – reptiles, 2 – amphibians, 20 - fish. The most prevailing and famous fish in mountain rivers – marinka which lived in hollows and scours of the rivers. Most of Pisces – immigrants which acclimatized and accident removal. Green frog be found in river valleys up to snowfields but lake frog – only in warm lakes and on the river banks. In the foothills and hills reptiles - gray gecko, colored poloz, desert gologlaz, water grass-snake, jeltopuzik. Poloz (patterned, cross-striated, colored) to be found in middle mountains. Also shitomordnik and gray adder be found. There is a preserved national-culture area which includes the synthesis of mountain and steppe life of different ethnic groups, such as Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs, Tatars, Kazakhs. Some isolation and conservatism of rural life allowed preserving everyday life style of local people, who revere the customs of forefathers and national traditions, rules of common life and relation to environment as to the source of life. Probably due to such circumstances this nook of the republic differs by the depth and uniqueness of human and nature unity through ethnographic relations. And at the same time villagers are hospitable and friendly and any explorer is welcomed and every person is ready to offer services. From 60-s of the last century an industry of rest and travel has been built in Bostanlik region part of which is included in Western Tien-Shan, which was of the USSR-Republican importance. More than 100 tourism objects, including winter ski resort Chimgan were functioning here to 1990; number of visitors amounted to 1 million including 30% of visitors from another republics of exUSSR. Tourism potential has been saved to present. Moreover tourism has got a possibility of new develop through government support, private sector investments, support of non-government and corporate institutions. Only Ugam-Chatkal National park is opened to visits; all routs in this territory are agreed with the administration and are certificated by tour operators in National company “Uzbektourism”. Unique Protected Area’s. The territories of Ugam-Chatkal National Park and Chatkal Nature Reserve are protected by the government. The laws “About Nature Protection” and “About Specially Protected Nature Territories” approved by the Parliament, Cabinet of Ministries Resolution on creation of tourism centers in Chimgan-Charvak area and Resolution of the Tashkent region hokim allow to strengthen the status and importance of this area and preserve the uniqueness of landscape, flora and fauna, rural life, national traditions. The government increases ecological significance of local economy by limiting industrial and agrarian production, investing in tourism infrastructure development (roads, bridges, energy, waste disposal, water-supply, canalization, hotel building, communication services) and improving well-being of peoples through revival of crafts, folklore, hospitality industry sustainability and private economies development. During the last years a chain of guesthouses, tourism bases, rest houses, children health camps, tapchans, campings (20% of total visits) has been created in Uzbek part of Western Tien-Shan. Most part of services is rendered by local people (80% of total visits). Non-organized tourism prevails, but in the meantime o there is a tendency of organized and planned visits through tour operators. Ancient cultural heritage. There are monuments of ancient culture were preserved in the territory of Ugam-Chatkal National Park, in particularly these are the following: remains of ancient settlement (Ak-tepa – VI-XV, Djaudjurbek-tepa – VII-XII, Iskander-tepa and Kadovat-tepa IIIXV), fortresses (Anaulgen – VIII-XII, Djilga-tepa – VI-XII), petroglifs (more than 200), ancient peoples sites (Aktash – 40-25 thousands years B.C., Obi-Rahmat grotto – mustie, 100-40 thousands years B.C., Neanderthal people, Gouhona - paleolith), burial mounds (more than 300), cult objects (Sheikh Doud, Umar Vali Bogustani, Hazratti-mullo, Ungur-mazar, Zarkent-bobo mazars), caravansarai (IV-VI centures) and others.
Until now there are archeological dig is conducted and discoveries are made. Scientists say that the bigger part of historical heritage is not studied and needs special protection and cautious treatment by tourists. There are many caves without names with the tracks of ancient people, burial mounds, site of ancient settlements, which are in bad conditions because of time, nature and anthropogenic influence. But there are working mosques, cultural institutions, ancient houses available for tourists, there are tracks to sites of ancient settlements and holy sites made. Community Based Tourism. From the beginning of 2000 years and in the framework of EuropeAid Project in the territory of Bostanlik region which is part of Western Tien-Shan there were three ecotourism areas formed – Chimgan-Beldersai (center – Chimgan village), HumsanAktash (Humsan village) and Brichmulla-Nanai (Brichmulla village). Within these area organized groups – tourism service providers (CBT – Community Based Tourism) started to function. These are families or physical persons who have special resources (accommodation resources, food, transport, horses, guide features, language knowledge, knowledge of territory, craftsmen, folklore) and who have also received training, which allows them to render quality service through common technological chain and standards. They work in cooperate with tour operators and Ugam-Chatkal National Park and local administrations what gives them official status and necessary support from different organisations interested (investors, banks, government institutions, social funds, international structures, NGOs, diplomatic missions, etc.). From one side that increases the level of service and safety provided by local communities, from another side it makes rural tourism more comfortable and easy for visitors. Benefits from this cooperation are shared by all tourism process participants. CBT controls the volume and quality of services from personal providers, contacts with government bodies in solving border and police issues, medical aid and safety services, arrange for advertising and cooperation with tour operators, support nature protection. Tourists participate in national festivities (weddings, holidays, events), buy artisans crafts, try gastronomy and village language, live in home comfort and care. Information about accommodation, service, providers can be obtained in Informational Centers located in the Chimgan, Humsan, Brichmulla villages. CBT service: - accommodation and food, - route accompaniment, - swimming tools, horses, transport rent, - show-presentations, folklore, crafts sale, - fishing and medicinal herbs collecting, - local sights (houses, mosques, ancient settlements, monuments, nature), - leisure (billiards, discothèque). Hiking and Rafting. Mountainous part of Western Tien-Shan attracts many amateurs of foot and horseback riding routes as well as ecological routes. CBT having prepared experts through seminars and trainings, render guide services to Small and Big Chimgan mountains, Giza plateau, Pulathan, to the Kulosya gorge and Melovoy pass, Kizil-jar precipice, waterfalls Paltau, Kalasai, Kattasai, caves Gormozor, Jurchashaya, Lailokcha, grotto Obi-Rahmat, to the geological outcrops Devonasai and Arkutsai, lakes Goluboe and Airik, Chashma spring. Tourists get guide-interpreters, experts in flora and fauna and folklore who provide all necessary information and services along the route. If the traveling is a horseback ridding tour then grooms and cooks serve tourists. Explorers can also take snapshots, study nature, traditions and villages life, fish within the limits of quota and collect medicinal herbs. Rafting fans get a pleasure when traveling on rafts along the rivers Pskem and Ugam which have the 6 category of difficulty. But in this case it is necessary to work with experienced providers – tour operators which are specialized in sport tours.
Climate. Climatic conditions of the villages Chimgan, Brichmulla, Humsan are predestinated by location in Chatkal Mountains, partly – in a valley and also near water reservoir (Charvak reservoir and rivers). Climate there is continental and it is marked by fluctuations during seasons and during Alpine mountains save snow and coolness up to the middle of summer. The highest temperature is in June - July - beginning of August, rain time is in spring and autumn, rich snowfalls are in winter – that allows to develop ski tourism (first snows come at the end of October – beginning of November), steady snow stays for about 4-5 months, its cover is 2 meters. Average daily temperature of the warmest month (July) fluctuates from 20 to 35 degrees Celsius. Average norm of annual precipitation – 450 mm. Duration of frosty period – 170 days. The best time for beach tourism – July – August, for horseback and hiking routes - end of April – beginning of October. Winter time can be interesting for people who like to ski in Chimgan and for those who like silence and peace of rural life, romanticism in snow in the Humsan and Brichmulla. Besides that there are special winter routes. NOTE ON ESTABLISHMENT OF CBT GROUP. During 2004-2005 local groups of CBT were formed on the territory of Bostanlik district (Tashkent region, Uzbekistan) in the villages of Chimgan, Burchmulla, and Humsan. They are mainly represented by families, which provide services for tourists, have certain infrastructure (accommodation facilities, meals) and also have some social influence – formal and informal on local communities. 3-4 families usually form the core of these groups. Representatives of these particular families participated in the trainings and seminars of the Project; they organized different events (festivals, exhibitions, presentations). Two travel agencies “Elena-Tour” and “Asia-Raft” work in particularly with them for the last time and “Ecosan-Tour” and other travel agencies intent to cooperate with them in future. In Chimgan CBT is represented by 3 main families/households (accommodation services and meals) and 4 of those who participate in decision-making and provide services in technological tourism chain (horse rent, grooms, meals, folklore). The leader here is Bahtiyar Redjepov who at the same time is the Leader of Rural Community (several settlements) and has an authority and administrative power. It should be noted that B.Rejepov is a key figure, who attracts people interested. This is also due to the fact that Chimgan is the most developed part of tourism area in Bostanlik district and therefore local people have certain wish to work in cooperation with each other. But here there is one specific point – nepotism, what is the peculiarity of oriental mentality and way of communal life in Uzbekistan. First of all the CBT group managed by B. Radjepov is a group of close relatives, colleagues and friends. But this has its positive point: this does allow them to concentrate resources, work out mutually acceptable decisions and positions not creating conflict situations in CBT and not separating some members from others. This also ensures members responsibility because the results of the work are evenly impact everyone and in the circle of relatives this is very important. Therefore such tendency should be taken into account and not ignored, moreover shall be adapted to the process of CBT establishing and development. CBT group in Burchmulla has not been set up for a long time, as this settlement is located in the border zone where there is a strict police regime. Any public organization (official and nonofficial) is controlled by the bodies of security services and local government (khokimiyat). In this context we have to note that Burchmulla people were not confident and were cautious to the Project as they were concerned about direct contacts with foreign organizations and potential problems with local administration. Besides that some of them saw only private profits from Project participation, they aimed to spend resources to solve selfish problems. By summer of 2004 the situation improved. The Director of the school Riski Rakhimova was elected and CBT leader with Djura Odinaev, the leader of rural council, providing necessary cooperation and support. Currently the core of the CBT is two families and five families in cooperation, including forestry employees. CBT group arranges contacts with guesthouses and local travel agency “Chatkal Mountains”, those
who provide services to visitors. There are no family relations among members of the CBT group as in Chimgan, but these are established friendly relations, based on oriental principles. CBT group in Humsan is based on three key families and five ones in cooperation. The Leader is Parida Akramova and her partner – leader of rural council, Salahitdin Ashurov. Spiritual leader – mullah of the local church, employee of the Ugam-Chatkal National Park, and schoolteacher provides certain authority for the CBT group. This is also a union of partners. СВТ members participated in trainings and seminars, some of them provided by the Rabat Malik Association of Travelers; they also went to the World Forum of Food Communities in Turin (Italy) in October 2004. There they represented pollution-free local production of foodstuff, folklore, national traditions, points of interest. That allowed them to acquire an authority as one team with clearly tourism orientation. Therefore we can report that an informal CBT structure in the settlement has been established. Participants have clear understanding what CBT is, what are its goals and objectives and they have an intention to develop it. In the process of establishing of CBT groups the Project faced some problems, which are not solved yet, and which are the key to the development of the local CBT groups. The following are the main problems: 1) In the beginning not all the members of the CBT groups realized themselves as one solid team, which has one common goal and therefore the number of members varied during a year and a half. Sometimes there were disagreements about resources, distribution of responsibilities, bringing other people into the sphere of work. Currently CBT members want to work with full understanding and voluntary integrating and cooperating with each other. 2) Not all local people understand the benefits of CBT. They are concerned that CBT group will distribute the profits irrationally and not fair (this thinking is based also on the specifics of oriental mentality). Local population tends to solve present problems and get “one second” profit, instead of planning the future without proven guaranties for the perspective. In the meantime the СВТ can not provide them with such conditions. Moreover CBT groups themselves have not solid corporate relations with local and international tour operators, who could ensure loading of local tourism capacities. The point is that according to the studies the most part of the visitors are uncoordinated tourists, who have no contacts with travel agencies, who visit the region by themselves. That is why local people do not see the relation of the visitors with travel agencies and therefore the need to integrate with the CBT group. People to large extent are separated by their own interests; they do not want to share their “bread” (land, profit, clients) with the others until they see direct economic benefit. 3) СВТ is a group of people providing services to tourists. According to current legislation such a group shall have the status of legal entity. It is not clear which organizational-legal form it should take – as NGO/public organization or as economic entity. Registration as economic entity, for example, as LTD company or small enterprise is simple and already worked through. As NGO – this process is complicated and is not promising as limits the profits distribution. The economic subject providing tourism services shall receive a license from the government and shall certify the products. This procedure is not considered to be a simple one, several formalities should be gone through, including: - establishing Charter capital (fund), which amount is hardly visible for rural people involved in CBT; - one of the members of the CBT group should have high education on the subject (tourism) or work in tourism not less than three years – there are no such people in the settlements; - CBT is obliged to have concluded agreements with other service providers (travel agencies, transport organization, hotels, insurance agencies), and this is possible only in a time when they are confident in the valid status of the CBT. CBT having official status, shall pay taxes while those service providers not involved in CBT work illegally and therefore in contradiction with tax legislation of Uzbekistan. This is much more profitable, as tourism in the region is of seasonal nature and that means that there is no need to have official permission and then during the year report to different government bodies.
Therefore current CBTs and people not involved are in a “shadow” when providing services to tourists. But not involved are in a better position as they can pay off for one time in the case of unexpected inspections whereas CBT (in case of having an official status) are subject of official planned, off-schedule and cross inspections from many of controlling bodies (tax inspection, electricity inspection “Energonadzor”, local authorities commission, fire inspection, Ministry of Internal Affairs inspection, border inspection, construction inspection, etc.). In the meantime we can recommend CBT as a group of people having work contracts with travel agencies for certain type of activities (services) or patent for private business activities and to provide services within the framework of contract or patent. But with that it is better to avoid official acknowledgement of them as providers of tourism services as this right is not extended for physical persons according to the legislation. Providing services as a guide or tour guide requires certification from National Company “Uzbektourism” (there such a document can be obtained only after graduating four-months course in the training center), organization of cultural entertainment license from Concert Company “Uzbeknavo”. Providing accommodation services, horse rent, boats, meals, retail trade (without acknowledging that these services are provided exclusively for tourists) do not require this special authorisation. 4) CBT currently could not certify tour products as: - certification of one route will cost about 150USD by the prices of the NC Uzbektourism and this is significant amount for local people taking into account that as minimum three routes have been developed in each of the villages; - this right is given only to travel agencies (having license) although in the majority tourism providers in Ugam-Chtkal park work using uncertified routes violating the legislation. The other point is that control bodies, park administration and NC Uzbektourism have not started to check this. Meanwhile within the agreements with local people travel agencies can involve them into the system of services for tourists thereby legalizing their activities. CBTs will become essential structures in the villages if they could involve big number of service providers from local people from advertising the region, village, area, joint work with travel agencies, local holiday centers, tour bases, sanatoriums and participating in fair profit sharing. Within the framework of the Project we recommend to apply for certification of 1-2 routes, which will use CBT services so it could be officially advertised in the Internet, in tourism fairs and to facilitate them through mass media. Assessment of potential for cooperation with islamitic church. On the territory of Humsan-Oktash and Brichmulla-Nanay zones are graves which are Islamic religious values, holy sites, particularly it are mazars (graves) of sheikh Umar Vali Bogustani, sheikh Doud (David), sepulchral mounds between the Nanay and the Bogustan villages, graveyards Hazrati-mullo and Yalovik-mazar nearby Sidjak village. That is allow to develop religious tourism. At the present it are in non-organized order, palmers by themselves visit those sites. Usually it 1-2 days visiting of mazars in summer period. To hear from Leaders of Rural Communities on summer period per month are 20 tourists – not local people, spring/autumn – about 10 tourists, winter – 2-3 tourists. All that tourists visit in non-organized order, without official (commercial, social) structures. At the present time tour operators abstain from those tours because it concerned with certain complexities (political) and absence of need from Uzbek citizens. REVIEW OF UZBEKISTAN LEGAL DOCUMENTS TO EXPAND COOPERATION IN ECOTOURISM WITHIN WESTERN TIEN-SHAN. Tourism in Uzbekistan and in the Ugam-Chatkal National Park is regulated by the normative-legislative acts. They have to be taken into account when agreeing itineraries and the presence of foreign and local travelers in specially protected areas, in particularly in transboundary bio reserve of the Western Tien Shan, which is being set up. As is well known this region covers three states – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan and their relations are being formed on the level of national legislation and international law.
Uzbekistan legislation in particularly concerns the aspects of physical persons (residents and non-residents of the republic, foreign citizens from neighboring and distant countries) traveling and fulfilling necessary procedures. There are also issues of tourism companies’ activities in the territories of nature reserves, payment for resources, etc. In this regard several aspects should be taken into account for tourists, visiting Uzbekistan and for economic subjects, who arrange for such visits: Legislation on entry, transit and crossing of the state, customs, sanitary border: Resolution “Regulation on the Exit and Entry Procedure for Tourists in the RoU”. The document is registered by the Ministry of Justice of the RoU from November 3, 2004 No 1421. It stipulates the order of composing tourist groups, visa application and crossing of the state border; Regulation “On Medical (Sanitary) Control in the State Border Check-Points of the RoU”. The document is registered by the Ministry of Justice from May 22, 1999 No 927. It stipulates the procedure of checking of citizens who have symptoms of hazardous illnesses at the entry to Uzbekistan. It also includes a number of limitations and stipulates the responsibility for spreading of an epidemic; Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from November 21, 1996 No 408 “Rules of Transit Passage through the Territory of Uzbekistan for Foreign Citizens and Persons Without Citizenship”. It regulates the issues of transit crossing for foreign citizens, forced stay or residence, need for registration; Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from November 21, 1996 No 408 “Rules of Entry to the RoU and Exit from the RoU for Foreigners and Persons Without Citizenship”. The document stipulates the rules of visiting Uzbekistan by foreigners, applying for visa; “Procedures of Interacting between National Company of Uzbektourism and State Customs Committee of the RoU on Customs Clearance for Tourists Crossing Customs Border of the RoU” – approved by the National Company (NC) Uzbektourism and State Customs Committee of the RoU on July 20, 1993. It sets the system of relations between tourism companies and tourists with customs bodies at the crossing of customs border, fulfilling necessary procedures including entering goods, currency and valuables; Regulation for Permits for Physical Persons-Residents for Taking Foreign Currency in Cash Abroad Being Provided by the Central Bank of the RoU. Registered by the Ministry of Justice on July 3, 2003 No 1253 from June 21, 2003 No 535. The document sets the procedure of getting the permit for foreign currency to be taken out of the country by citizens of Uzbekistan; Regulation on the Exit-Entry Procedure of National Cash Currency of Uzbekistan. Approved by the Board of the Central Board and the State Customs Committee from March 1, 2004 No 249-В, 01-02/19-16. It regulates the aspects of exit-entry of Uzbek Soums for both national citizens and foreigners; Law of the RoU “On Exit-Entry of Cultural Values” from August 29, 1998 No 678-I. It regulates the issues of entry-exit of the subjects being of cultural value. Tourists shall know what can be purchased in the country for further taking out of the country; Regulation “On the Procedures for Entry-Exit of Cultural Values”. Approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from March 23, 1999 No 131. It stipulates procedures and mechanism for the assessment of cultural values and providing permits for foreigners and local citizens for taking cultural values out of the Republic of Uzbekistan; Law of the RoU “On the State Border of the RoU” from August 20, 1999 No 820-I. It regulates aspects of crossing border; border, customs, sanitary, police points and legal procedures of exit-entry of physical persons, checks, procedures for providing permits to enter the territories being limited for visits by foreigners and local citizens; “The Rules of Traveling Abroad for Citizens of the RoU”. Approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers (CoM) No 8 from January 6, 1995. Sets obligatory procedures for getting a permit to leave the country for Uzbek citizens; Regulation “On the Procedures of Registration and Providing a Certificate for Citizens of the RoU Who Did not Reach 16 Years Age”. Approved by the Resolution of the CoM of the RoU
from December 30, 2000 No 519. It stipulates the procedure of providing documents for under aged for their leaving the country. “Instruction on Providing Certificates for Returning to the RoU” which was registered by the Ministry of Justice on June 17, 1998 No 448. It foresees the procedure of providing a document for returning to the country for citizens of Uzbekistan from other countries in case of their national passport is lost; Regulation “On Passport System in the RoU”. Approved by the Presidential Decree of the RoU from February 26, 1999 No УП-2240. It describes the system of issuing passport, introducing certain notes, including permission for exit and registration at the place of residence (propiska); Standard Instruction on the Order of Border and Customs Control in Automobile, Train, Avia and River Checkpoints at the State Border of the RoU. Registered by the Ministry of justice from July 6, 1999 No 765. The document sets the order of power and controlling authorities’ arrangements at the checkpoints of the state border; Criminal Code and Administrative Code of the RoU set the norms of punishments for current legislation violations in the sphere of crossing border, registration of documents for exitentry, performing of nature protection rules. Documents, regulating tourist activities: Regulations about Licensing of Tourist Activities. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from November 11, 2003 N 497 stipulates the procedure and rules for receiving the license for tourist activities for legal persons; The Order of Certification of Tourist Services. It is registered within the Ministry of Justice on March 18, 2000 N 911. It stipulates the mechanism of applying for certification of different tourist services. About Approval of the Regulations on Exit-Entry of Tourists to the Republic of Uzbekistan. The Regulations are registered by the Ministry of Justice on November 3, 2004 N 1421. It stipulates the coordination of actions undertaken by the National tourism administration and tour operators with the controlling bodies in arranging foreigners’ traveling in the territory of the RoU and national travelers at the exit from the Republic. The Rules for Hunting and Fishing in the Territory of Uzbekistan. Registered by the Ministry of Justice of the RoU No 337 from May 1, 1997 on April 15, 1997. It sets the procedure for getting permits, hunting and fishing for foreign and local citizens. About Measures for Nature Resources Protection and Ensuring Comprehensive and Systemic Approach to the Development of Chimgan-Charvak Zone. Resolution of the CoM from March 10, 2000 No 83 directed to rehabilitation and development of Bostanlyk rayon, which is in part located in Western Tien Shan; About Regulation of Radical Use of Natural Resources, Improving Environmental Status in the Territory of Rayon, People Entertainment and Entry of Automobile Means to the Territory of Rayon. The document is approved by khokim of Bostanlyk rayon from July 27, 2001 № 458, and sets the procedures for use and consumption of nature resources of Ugam-Chatkal National Park and other nature areas of the rayon; About Additional Measures on Improving Recreation System and Preservation of Nature Resources of Health Resort – Recreation Zone Chimgan-Charvak. This Resolution of the CoM of the RoU from September 06, 2001 № 362 brings amendments into the development of the tourist zone in the territory of Western Tien-Shan; Regulation on entry-exit of transport means and people on vacation as well as rational use of natural resources in the territory of Ugam-Chatkal National Park from January 10, 2002 № 9. The document is approved by khokim of Tashkent oblast. Its major objective to set up fees for the entry to specially protected area. Exemptions provided by the government for tourism business: Legislation sets exemptions for enterprises involved in tourism. For example, Tax Code specifies:
Article 92. Privileges under the property tax of legal persons. The tax is not imposed on the property of the following legal persons: - newly created, engaged in tourist activities in the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent, for the period from the moment of creation before receiving first profit, but for the term of not more than three years from the moment of their registration. In case of liquidation of these legal persons before the expiration of one year after establishment of a grace period, the amount of tax is withdrawn in full size for the whole period of their activities. Article 102. The tax bearers exempted from the payment of land tax. The following legal persons are exempted from the payment of land tax: - newly created, engaged in tourist activities in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent cities, for the period from the moment of creation before receiving first profit, but for the term of not more than three years from the moment of their registration. In case of liquidation of these legal persons before the expiration of one year after establishment of a grace period, the amount of tax is withdrawn in full size for the whole period of their activities. According to the Resolution of Approving Instruction on Calculation and Payment of VAT for goods (works, services) produced and sold, which is enforced from May 9, 2003, services of sanatoriums and health resorts rendered above the price of a vaucher to these organizations are exempt from the VAT. Tourist-excursion services include services of guide organizations included in the cost of the voucher for tourist services. Tourist services include transport service, accommodation, meals, excursion service, cultural, sports programs and other services recorded in the Contract on Providing Tourist Services. The given privilege is also applied to additional tourist-excursion services rendered by the specified organizations to tourists over the services included in the contract. About the Measures to Facilitate Participation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Revival of the Great Silk Route and to Develop International Tourism in the Republic. The decree of the President of the Republic Uzbekistan from June 2, 1995. The document stipulates the following: To exempt from all kinds of taxes newly formed tourist agencies and the enterprises of these cities for the period from the data of their establishment till the date of receiving the first profit, but no more than three years from the date of registration; The specified organizations and enterprises in the first year of receiving the profit shall pay 50 % of the profit tax, in the second year â€“ 75 %, starting from the third year â€“ 100 %; To exempt foreign investors which set up joint ventures in the sphere of tourism in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent from the payment of exported profit tax for the period of 5 years in addition to the privileges granted. At present in Uzbekistan exist standards: State, in particular, for the tourism this: - GOST 30385-95. Facilities to the population. Terms and determinations; - GOST 28681.1-95. Tourist-excursing service. Designing the tourist services; - GOST 28681.2-95. Tourist-excursing service. Tourist facilities. General requirements; - RST 918-98. Tourist-excursing service. Categorization of hotels; - GOST 28681.3-95. Tourist-excursing service. Requirements on ensuring safety of tourists and excursions. - GOST 28681.4-95. Tourist-excursing service. Categorization of hotels; - A Management ISO/MEK 2 1996. "General terms and determinations in the field of standardizations and adjacent types of activity"; - RD Uz 51-026-94. National system of certification Republic Uzbekistan. Order of consideration of appeals; - RD Uz 51-053-96. National system of certification of Republic Uzbekistan. Certification of Services. Main positions; - RD Uz 51-061-97. National system of certification of Republic Uzbekistan. Certification of Services. Order of undertaking.
Private, which are recommended by the Association of travelers Rabat Malik for СВТ for servicing the visitors. They are described in corresponding scholastic material. Documents, which regulate relations in tourist sphere between RoU and neighbouring countries: Agreement between the government of the RoU and the government of the Republic of Kazakhstan on deepening cooperation in the sphere of culture, health, science, education, tourism and sport from January 10, 1994. Declares commitment to cooperation and establishes business relations between the countries, including in tourism; Agreement between the government of the RoU and government of Kyrgyz Republic on deepening cooperation in the sphere of culture, health, science, education, tourism and sport from January 16, 1994. Declares commitment to cooperation and establishes business relations between the countries, touches upon tourism as important part of humanitarian and economic partnership; Agreement between governments of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tadjikistan and Republic of Uzbekistan on cooperation in the area of sanatorium, health resort and tourist organizations and enterprises from June 8, 2000, Astana city. Article 1 stipulates that “Parties will facilitate cooperation in the area of sanatorium, health resort and tourist organizations and enterprises to create the most favourable conditions for improving population health in the countries, deepen familiarization with the culture, nature and places of interest as well as historical monuments and national traditions of people of four countries”. Besides that it is foreseen that there will be cooperation in the area of exchange of citizens, who are in need of sanatorium or health resort treatment and rest on the basis of equality and mutual benefit. To increase the number of such people the Parties will fulfill measures on streamlining customs procedures, share the lists of tour companies, sanatoriums, health resorts and other recreation facilities. The governments engage to create favourable, mutually acceptable economic and legal conditions to implement the present Agreement. Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Uzbekistan and the Government of Kyrgyz Republic about cross-visits from July 2, 2000 is directed to the regulation of order and conditions of cross-visits of citizens of both countries. In particularly “citizens of the state (one Party), holders of valid diplomatic and service passports, who suppose to stay in the territory of the other country not more than thirty days shall enter, exit and stay in the territory of the other Party country without visa”. The rule is valid for the holders of national passports, visiting within official national and government delegations, public officials in the rank of not lower than heads of divisions of the ministries and agencies, as well as local governments on the basis of national passports, service certificates and business trip certificates (Table № 2). These people who intend to stay in the territory of the other state no more than thirty days are issued visas without consular fee upon written request of diplomatic service or consular office. Citizens who permanently live in bordering Uzbekistan and Kyrgyz Republic rayons and cities can enter, exit and stay in the territories of bordering rayons and cities without visa for no more than five days. The place of stay is defined on the basis of the registration in passport (propiska). Their stay for more than five days shall be made on the basis of visa, which is issued in stipulated order. The Agreement foresees: “Citizens of one Party who travel to rest houses, sanatoriums, health resorts and other recreation facilities, located in the territory of the other Party, enter, exit and stay in the territory of this Party without visa on the basis of valid national passports and sanatorium vouchers and other documents”. They are to live the country of stay within three days after validity of their voucher. Citizens enter, exit and transit through the points, set for crossing the border in compliance with the procedures. Table № 2. List of documents for entry, exit and traveling of citizens of Uzbekistan in the territory of Kyrgyz Kyrgyz Republic in the territory of Republic Uzbekistan
19 1. 2.
Diplomatic passport of the RoU. National passport of the RoU. Birth certificate (for children younger than 16 years old). Certificate for returning to the RoU.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
Rayons of Uzbekistan, which border KR Andijan oblast 1. Andijan town 2. Izboksan rayon 3. Marhamat rayon 4. Djalalkuduk rayon 5. Pahtaabad rayon 6. Kurgontepa rayon 7. Bulokbashi rayon 8. Hujaabad rayon Namangan oblast 1. Pap rayon 2. Chust rayon 3. Kasansay rayon 4. Yangikurgan rayon 5. Chartak rayon 6. Uchkurgan rayon 7. Uychin rayon Fergana oblast 1. Rishtan rayon 2. Fergana rayon 3. Kuvasay rayon 4. Kuva rayon 5. Altaarik rayon 6. Uzbekistan rayon 7. Soh rayon Tashkent oblast 1. Bustanlik rayon Consular fees for citizens of RoU and KR
Diplomatic passport of the KR. Service passport of the KR. National passport of the KR. Passport of the former USSR format with the registration of citizenship KR – before January 1, 2003 (for citizens who are the subject of the Article 5 of the Agreement). Birth certificate (for children younger than 16 years old). Certificate for returning to the KR.
Rayons of KR, which border RoU Batkent oblast 1 Kyzyl-kiya town 2. Batkent rayon 3. Kadamjay rayon Osh oblast 1. Osh town 2. Nookat rayon 3. Aravan rayon 4. Karasuu rayon 5. Uzgen rayon Djalal-Abad oblast 1. Djalal-Abad town 2. Kok-Yangak town 3. Mailuu-Suu town 4. Tash-Kumyr town 5. Suzak rayon 6. Bazar-Korogon rayon 7. Nooken rayon 8. Ak-Syi rayon 9. Ala-Buka rayon 10. Chatkal rayon Tallas oblast 1. Kara-Bura rayon
Issue of multiple entry visa: • For one month - 4 USD • For 6 months - 10 USD • For one year - 20 USD Visa extension tariffs are the same as for the issue of visa. Children under 16 are exempted from the consular fee
There is no visa regime between Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyz Republic, but it is hard for Uzbek citizens to cross Kazakhstan border as national border service requests invitation letters and other documents certifying the need for the presence of these citizens in the territory of neighbouring country. There are no publicly available legal documents on this procedure issued by the Committee on Border Control within the National Security Service of the RoU and this could allow to suppose that these measures have political and not criminal, economic character. At the same time practice shows that tourist voucher works as a reason for Uzbek citizens to cross the border of Kazakhstan. Therefore it is necessary for Uzbekistani tourists have such documents in transboundary tours. Documents of the RoU, Streamlining Tourist Formalities: About Simplification of Visa Procedures for Citizens of Italian Republic, France, Latvia, Great Britain, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Japan, Germany and Belgium. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from February 19, 2003 N 85 issued in order to facilitate political, trade,
economic, scientific, technical and cultural cooperation between Uzbekistan and other countries, to improve procedures for granting visa to foreigners, visiting the Republic with business and tourism objectives. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan is entrusted to issue multi-entry visas for one year to foreigners visiting Uzbekistan with business purposes within 2 working days in the foreign offices of the Republic with a waver of presenting invitation letter from inviting legal entity in the RoU to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the RoU; multi-entry visas for one month to tourists visiting Uzbekistan within 2 working days with a waver of presenting tourist vouchers of the NC Uzbektourism or other tourist organizations. These documents allow citizens of these countries get visas in facilitated order and travel within the territory of Uzbekistan including Ugam-Chatkal National Park. Streamlining of formalities facilitates tourist visits to Western Tien Shan. Proposals to Improve Visa Regime for Tourists, Visiting Transboundary Bio-Reserve “Western Tien Shan”: It is to issue unified standard visa (Western Tien Shan) for tourists wishing to visit BioReserve Western Tien Shan, which is located in the territories of three countries. This visa shall be valid and recognized by authorities in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan. The prototype of such visa could be a Shengen zone visa in Europe or Mekong in South-East Asia. From one side it streamlines the procedure of getting permit documents, reduces the costs for consular and other fees and saves time from formalities. From the other side it facilitates the recording of travelers’ interest to ecological and sport tours and creation of common database of visitors. It should be noted that not all countries of the world have all three diplomatic missions of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan, but in one of them there will be a possibility to obtain “Western Tien Shan” visa to visit all three republics. For example, French citizen applies to the Embassy of Uzbekistan and within tourist program purchases the tour and visa “Western Tien Shan”. Those allow him to enter Uzbekistan, stay there for certain time, travel to nature reserve areas and then cross the border through official checkpoints to Kyrgyz Republic and after some time – to Kazakhstan. In this way tourist chain is maintained and services are provided from country to country. “Western Tien Shan” visa could be used within the framework of the abovementioned fourparties interstate Agreement on cooperation in using health resorts, recreation zones, as there are such objects in the territory of Western Tien Shan functioning at present. That can also stimulate the intensity and volumes of cross visits. NOTE ON ESTABLISHMENT OF CBT GROUP Selection of CBT service providers. The selection of CBT groups, which provide services to visitors in villages and adjacent territories, was conducted by the following criteria: 1. Personal wish of the person and his/her family to participate in project of ecotourism development in the village, strengthening relations inside the community and also with partners from other villages and tour operators; 2. Presence of necessary conditions, in particularly: - material resources – topchans and guesthouses which are accommodated for tourists, kitchen/dinning room for cooking, workshop of souvenirs and handicrafts, horses and cars for rent; - necessary knowledge – foreign languages, history of the area, culture history, biology, geography. - minimal experience in tourists service – as guide, cooking in mountain conditions, providing first aid, knowledge how to teach fishing, rescue in water, in mountains, in forest; - psychological abilities – hospitality, kindness, good-fellowship, ability to mitigate conflict situation, decency and honesty, responsibility with client; - good references from village leaders, lack of criminal history; - ability to work with border service, police, etc.
3. Participate in educational programs in tourism what is the evidence of knowledge and abilities; 4. Work in services for more than one year (as a minimum). All those factors allowed making the first selection among local people as CBT service providers. In future, experts from Association of Explorers “Rabat Malik”, Europe Aid project and tour operators “Elena-tour” and “Azia-raft” made a selection of providers who are already in a position to provide tourist services at high level. During 2004-2005 local groups of CBT were formed on the territory of Bostanlik district (Tashkent region, Uzbekistan) in the villages of Chimgan, Burchmulla, and Humsan. They are mainly represented by families, which provide services for tourists, have certain infrastructure (accommodation facilities, meals) and also have some social influence – formal and informal on local communities. 3-4 families usually form the core of these groups. Representatives of these particular families participated in the trainings and seminars of the Project; they organized different events (festivals, exhibitions, presentations). Two travel agencies “Elena-Tour” and “Asia-Raft” work in particularly with them for the last time and “Ecosan-Tour” and other travel agencies intent to cooperate with them in future. In Chimgan CBT is represented by 3 main families/households (accommodation services and meals) and 4 of those who participate in decision-making and provide services in technological tourism chain (horse rent, grooms, meals, folklore). The leader here is Bahtiyar Redjepov who at the same time is the Leader of Rural Community (several settlements) and has an authority and administrative power. It should be noted that B.Rejepov is a key figure, who attracts people interested. This is also due to the fact that Chimgan is the most developed part of tourism area in Bostanlik district and therefore local people have certain wish to work in cooperation with each other. But here there is one specific point – nepotism, what is the peculiarity of oriental mentality and way of communal life in Uzbekistan. First of all the CBT group managed by B. Radjepov is a group of close relatives, colleagues and friends. But this has its positive point: this does allow them to concentrate resources, work out mutually acceptable decisions and positions not creating conflict situations in CBT and not separating some members from others. This also ensures members responsibility because the results of the work are evenly impact everyone and in the circle of relatives this is very important. Therefore such tendency should be taken into account and not ignored, moreover shall be adapted to the process of CBT establishing and development. CBT group in Burchmulla has not been set up for a long time, as this settlement is located in the border zone where there is a strict police regime. Any public organization (official and nonofficial) is controlled by the bodies of security services and local government (khokimiyat). In this context we have to note that Burchmulla people were not confident and were cautious to the Project as they were concerned about direct contacts with foreign organizations and potential problems with local administration. Besides that some of them saw only private profits from Project participation, they aimed to spend resources to solve selfish problems. By summer of 2004 the situation improved. The Director of the school Riski Rakhimova was elected and CBT leader with Djura Odinaev, the leader of rural council, providing necessary cooperation and support. Currently the core of the CBT is two families and five families in cooperation, including forestry employees. CBT group arranges contacts with guesthouses and local travel agency “Chatkal Mountains”, those who provide services to visitors. There are no family relations among members of the CBT group as in Chimgan, but these are established friendly relations, based on oriental principles. CBT group in Humsan is based on three key families and five ones in cooperation. The Leader is Parida Akramova and her partner – leader of rural council, Salahitdin Ashurov. Spiritual leader – mullah of the local church, employee of the Ugam-Chatkal National Park, and schoolteacher provides certain authority for the CBT group. This is also a union of partners. СВТ members participated in trainings and seminars, some of them provided by the Rabat Malik Association of Travelers; they also went to the World Forum of Food Communities in Turin (Italy) in October 2004. There they represented pollution-free local production of foodstuff,
folklore, national traditions, points of interest. That allowed them to acquire an authority as one team with clearly tourism orientation. Therefore we can report that an informal CBT structure in the settlement has been established. Participants have clear understanding what CBT is, what are its goals and objectives and they have an intention to develop it. In the process of establishing of CBT groups the Project faced some problems, which are not solved yet, and which are the key to the development of the local CBT groups. The following are the main problems: 1) In the beginning not all the members of the CBT groups realized themselves as one solid team, which has one common goal and therefore the number of members varied during a year and a half. Sometimes there were disagreements about resources, distribution of responsibilities, bringing other people into the sphere of work. Currently CBT members want to work with full understanding and voluntary integrating and cooperating with each other. 2) Not all local people understand the benefits of CBT. They are concerned that CBT group will distribute the profits irrationally and not fair (this thinking is based also on the specifics of oriental mentality). Local population tends to solve present problems and get “one second” profit, instead of planning the future without proven guaranties for the perspective. In the meantime the СВТ can not provide them with such conditions. Moreover CBT groups themselves have not solid corporate relations with local and international tour operators, who could ensure loading of local tourism capacities. The point is that according to the studies the most part of the visitors are uncoordinated tourists, who have no contacts with travel agencies, who visit the region by themselves. That is why local people do not see the relation of the visitors with travel agencies and therefore the need to integrate with the CBT group. People to large extent are separated by their own interests; they do not want to share their “bread” (land, profit, clients) with the others until they see direct economic benefit. 3) СВТ is a group of people providing services to tourists. According to current legislation such a group shall have the status of legal entity. It is not clear which organizational-legal form it should take – as NGO/public organization or as economic entity. Registration as economic entity, for example, as LTD company or small enterprise is simple and already worked through. As NGO – this process is complicated and is not promising as limits the profits distribution. The economic subject providing tourism services shall receive a license from the government and shall certify the products. This procedure is not considered to be a simple one, several formalities should be gone through, including: - establishing Charter capital (fund), which amount is hardly visible for rural people involved in CBT; - one of the members of the CBT group should have high education on the subject (tourism) or work in tourism not less than three years – there are no such people in the settlements; - CBT is obliged to have concluded agreements with other service providers (travel agencies, transport organization, hotels, insurance agencies), and this is possible only in a time when they are confident in the valid status of the CBT. CBT having official status, shall pay taxes while those service providers not involved in CBT work illegally and therefore in contradiction with tax legislation of Uzbekistan. This is much more profitable, as tourism in the region is of seasonal nature and that means that there is no need to have official permission and then during the year report to different government bodies. Therefore current CBTs and people not involved are in a “shadow” when providing services to tourists. But not involved are in a better position as they can pay off for one time in the case of unexpected inspections whereas CBT (in case of having an official status) are subject of official planned, off-schedule and cross inspections from many of controlling bodies (tax inspection, electricity inspection “Energonadzor”, local authorities commission, fire inspection, Ministry of Internal Affairs inspection, border inspection, construction inspection, etc.). In the meantime we can recommend CBT as a group of people having work contracts with travel agencies for certain type of activities (services) or patent for private business activities and to provide services within the framework of contract or patent. But with that it is better to avoid
official acknowledgement of them as providers of tourism services as this right is not extended for physical persons according to the legislation. Providing services as a guide or tour guide requires certification from National Company “Uzbektourism” (there such a document can be obtained only after graduating four-months course in the training center), organization of cultural entertainment license from Concert Company “Uzbeknavo”. Providing accommodation services, horse rent, boats, meals, retail trade (without acknowledging that these services are provided exclusively for tourists) do not require this special authorisation. 4) CBT currently could not certify tour products as: - certification of one route will cost about 150USD by the prices of the NC Uzbektourism and this is significant amount for local people taking into account that as minimum three routes have been developed in each of the villages; - this right is given only to travel agencies (having license) although in the majority tourism providers in Ugam-Chtkal park work using uncertified routes violating the legislation. The other point is that control bodies, park administration and NC Uzbektourism have not started to check this. Meanwhile within the agreements with local people travel agencies can involve them into the system of services for tourists thereby legalizing their activities. CBTs will become essential structures in the villages if they could involve big number of service providers from local people from advertising the region, village, area, joint work with travel agencies, local holiday centers, tour bases, sanatoriums and participating in fair profit sharing. Within the framework of the Project we recommend to apply for certification of 1-2 routes, which will use CBT services so it could be officially advertised in the Internet, in tourism fairs and to facilitate them through mass media. Marketing via CBT network. Local community (CBT – Community Based Tourism), which started to develop tourism as one of the economic activities, shall be based on data from market research. Having quantitative and actual/empiric results it is possible to plan current and future processes, define tasks on improving quality and increasing volume of service. Those are also the basis for future investment of private or loan funds into infrastructure development. During a month (August 15 – September 15, 2005) there has been market research of tourist visits and system of service conducted on the territory of three villages – Humsan, Chimgan and Brichmulla, where CBT functions. 38 households, which have accommodation facilities and actively involved in providing services have agreed to provide data. They have provided services for total number of 355 guests and 48% of this number were served in Chimgan. Moreover the largest number of foreign tourists, who were covered by the research, came to Chimgan. From the total number of tourists 22 were from Europe and 56 were from CIS countries (60% of them were from Kazakhstan). So, citizens from neighbouring countries are also consumers of local providers’ services and Uzbek tour operators who wish to develop contacts with Central Asia partners should be oriented on this market. Duration of average stay ranged from 1.3 to 4.1 days. Citizens of Tashkent preferred to have a rest in daylight time on Saturday or Sunday. 300 guests (or 84,5%) came with a group (friends, family, colleagues), 55 (15,5%) - by themselves. There was not analysis for the age of tourists made but experts said, that families are mainly over 35 with children, companies – young people under 27, colleagues – from 25 to 50. Young people like active rest (hiking, special tours, swimming), colleagues are mainly come for picnics, families – to have water entertainment, sun-bathes, gastronomy, folklore. From the total number of tourists 86% received food services from guesthouse holders in Humsan, 57,8% - in Chimgan, 85% - in Brichmulla. One can make a conclusion that visitors receive not only accommodation services but they can also order meals and this service is in demand. Only small part of tourists preferred to cook themselves, probably to show the friends their talent in cooking. However, the most part of tourists ordered food when they stayed indoors (guesthouses), whereas there were less such tourists on tapchans and tents. Experts noted that tourists who stayed on tapchans were bringing food with themselves.
Table №3. Indicators of CBT services in 3 villages of Bostanlik rayon Indicator Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % Families provided data, from 12 31,5 9 23,6 17 44,7 them: - topchans and tents 4 36,3 2 18,1 5 45,5 - guesthouses, indoors 8 29,6 7 25,9 12 44,4 Number of guests serviced, 64 18,02 171 48,1 120 33,8 total: - from foreign countries 3 13,6 12 54,5 7 31,8 (Europe) - CIS citizens 14 25 31 55,3 11 19,4 Number of arrivals: - by themselves 16 24,6 30 46,1 19 29,2 - with a group 48 16,0 141 47,0 111 37,0 Average duration, days: - on topchans and tents 1,9 1,3 1,7 - indoors 4,1 3,8 3,3 Number of those who received 55 19,7 121 43,5 102 36,6 food service from families: - on topchans 10 15,6 22 34,3 32 50,0 - indoors 41 19,5 99 47,1 70 33,3 As table № 4 shows, 59 guests took excursion services, including 33 horseback ridding tours to environs what is an evidence for the interest to this type of tours. It shall be noted, that horseback ridding tours are popular in Chimgan and Humsan, but for Brichmulla it is foot routes to the mountains (this factor is also defined by the following reason: there are only few cartage owners in Brichmulla). But 100% of guests in Brichmulla were taking water procedures near Charvak reservoir whereas in Chimgan thre were only 4% of such guests and 32% in Humsan. Most of all noted were the facts of crafts buying in Humsan, collecting medicine herbs, herbariums, and natural honey bought in Chimgan, interpretation into foreign languages and fishing in Brichmulla. Table №4. Volume of CBT services provided for tourists Number of tourists: Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Received excursion services, 10 16,9 29 49,1 20 33,8 in total: - from them trekking 2 7,6 4 15,3 20 76,9 - horseback ridding tour 8 24,2 25 75,8 2. Tourists interested in folklore 16 20,5 22 28,2 40 51,2 3. Crafts 33 61,1 10 18,5 11 20,3 4. Campers near water 59 31,5 8 4,2 120 64,1 5. Collecting herbs, herbariums 15 31,9 21 44,6 11 23,4 and honey buyers 6. Fishing 1 25,0 3 75,0 7. Interpretation services 2 14,2 5 35,7 7 50,0 Experts who were collecting data in the villages noted an increased number of tourists who visited this region this season as compared with the last years. It can be related to the construction and rehabilitation of highways, bridges, engineering services in Charvak-Chimgan tourism area in the context of government decisions and government investments. Though it should be mentioned
that the number of visitors declined by half in the beginning of September number due to cool weather in the mountainous part of Bostanlik rayon. Therefore 80% of all answers are taken in the second part of August. According to the data from table №5, 32 households (84.3%) wished to work with organized tourists, i.e. those who are organized by special agencies – trade unions, tour operators, private enterprisers, educational establishments. 100% of all households in Chimgan have expressed the preference to work with organized tourists. According to their answers this allows them to be prepared for the number of tourists and quality of service, purchase food stuff, expand accommodation places, plan activities beforehand. From the other side, 6 respondents (15.7%) said that it is better to enter the market by themselves because it gives oneself a freedom of choice and activities, and does not bind them with obligations. One of the respondents gave an example when tour operator sends 3 guests to his house with 10 accommodation places but at the same time there are 7 people from the “street” with the same request. In such a case the profit is more evident and there is no need to share the profit with tour operator. However 33 households (86.8%) are ready to cooperate with tour operators in case they will promote their services in tourism markets. Brichmulla expressed the preference to provide services to foreign tourists and respondents noted that foreign tourists have easier character, paying ability and higher culture. Humsan was in favor of Uzbek citizens (one half of respondents) with a reason that they order additional services. Table № 5. Questions about CBT relation to tourism process Indicators Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Do tourism bases, holiday centers, sanatoriums compete with CBT? - «Yes» 2 16,6 8 66,6 2 16,6 - «No» 9 36,0 1 4,0 15 60,0 2. Which types of tourism they wish to work with? - organized (tourists sent by 8 25,8 9 29,03 14 45,1 firms and enterprises) - non-organized (spontaneous) 3 50,0 3 50,0 3. Number of households who wish to cooperate with tour operators - ready to cooperate 10 30.3 8 24,2 15 45,4 - do not wish 2 40,0 1 20,0 2 40,0 4. Which tourists do households prefer to accept? - foreign citizens 2 12,5 3 18,7 11 68,7 - Uzbekistan citizens 7 46,6 6 40,0 2 13,3 - no difference 1 20,0 4 80,0 5. Relations to activity legalization - do not wish work officially 4 40,0 2 20,0 4 40,0 - wish to register activity 2 28,5 5 71,5 - have not decided 6 28,5 7 33,3 8 38,09 6. Tourism – for families (communities) is - main source of well-being 2 40,0 3 60,0 - additional source of income 10 30,3 9 27,2 14 42,4 Cost of accommodation varied depending on quality of building, facilities and therefore it was difficult to rank the services. The difference reached from 6$ per person or 30$ for a cottage per day in Chimgan village, to 20$ per one person or 100$ for cottage per day in Brichmulla village, from 3$ to 10$ per topchan (depending on location to sights, trees, water, rock, landscape view). Concerning the total amount of profits received from accommodation - families were not happy to share this information reasoning that this is commercial secret. But one may suppose that in
average the income amounted to more than 300$ per month per one household. Cost of meals varied from 3$ to 10$ per day. The secrecy of information is related not only to competition but to the unwillingness of being known by controlling structures (tax committee, border control and police) because for such type of activities one should have official permission from authorities and pay taxes to government from the income. So, 26% of respondents do not want to work openly but 55% have not yet decided how to work - in “shadow” or legally. This is also determined by the fact that tourism is a seasonal activity for the time being, which is not the main source of income for the family budget. So 33 (or 86,8%) of households consider tourism as additional item of income of their family budget. Survey has shown the following: households representatives think that the following knowledge is needed to work in tourism: - basics of hospitality (35 responses); - standards of services (29); - foreign languages (13); - basics of accounting, economics, marketing and management (38); - jurisprudence, cookery, construction (31). All respondents agreed that investments into households and into infrastructure of the villages are needed for the development of the tourism services. It is quite possible that CBT could become facilitators to providers of services, the base for legalization and improving effectiveness of their activities. But in the first place there should be a status of CBTs defined. Quality service marketing in three villages of Bostanlik rayon. Project activities together with the CBTs of Humsan, Chimgan, Brichmulla in the context of marketing research showed that local communities can collect and present primary data on tourists visits to the villages and services provided by villagers. I it necessary to note that this information will be incomplete because the number of visits during one day can reach from 500 to 1000 visitors, from this number villagers accept about 20%. Therefore marketing has been conducted in certain places (accommodation facilities), owners of which agreed to cooperate. Meanwhile, CBTs can not analyze data obtained and develop recommendations, as special professional skills and qualification is necessary for that. Therefore the Project took this marketing aspect to itself. As a result of primary data processing, summarization and grouping the following was revealed (research from 15 August to 15 September 2005): From 355 tourists who provided answers to questionnaires 64 were visiting Humsan, 171 Chimgan and 120 - Brichmulla. 76-78% of respondents said that this region is attractive for tourism and its potential needs to be developed and just 8.3-15.2% said that this area does not have tourism value. Meanwhile, visitors are confident about the need to develop tourism infrastructure in Bostanlik rayon (see table №6). It needs to take into account that the respondents did not make a distinction between the village, Ugam-Chatkal National park and rayon by itself but generalized everythink into one perception of environment. So all 100% and 92% from Humsan said that promotion and private investments are needed to strengthen recreation capacities of this area. 91% from Chimgan said that government support is needed and 64% from Brichmulla said that it should be support from international organizations and 74% local villagers should cooperate with tour operators. As one can see from these answers – there are some hints for those who intend to develop tour product and provide services to visitors. 95% respondents from Brichmulla said that they are able to come to the village by themselves – that means no intermediaries (tour operators, trade unions) are required, but about 18% from Chimgan are ready to use tour operators services. 5% of respondents from Humsan will never come to this area. And here the issue is not in the quality of service but in the visitors preference to travel to new places (this was mainly related to foreign tourists) and Uzbekistan possess another sights in another territories.
Table № 6. Respondents-tourists opinion about tourism potential of three villages of Bostanlik rayon/Western Tien-Shan Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Are this village attractive from the tourists point of view? - Yes 50 78,1 130 76,0 92 76,6 - No 8 12,5 26 15,2 10 8,33 - Without answer 6 9,37 15 8,77 8 6,66 2. What is necessary to develop tourism infrastructure in region/village? (allow few answers) - private investments 59 92,1 91 53,2 101 84,1 - government investments 45 70,3 124 72,5 85 70,8 - advertising 64 100 139 81,2 57 47,5 - local villagers cooperating with tour 24 37,5 111 64,9 89 74,1 operators - government bodies assistance 36 56,2 156 91,2 93 77,5 - international organizations support 12 18,75 74 43,2 77 64,1 3. Will you come here next time? - by myself 45 70,3 78 45,6 114 95,0 - by tour operators 5 7,81 30 17,5 6 5,0 - do not come again 3 4,68 4 2,33 - without answer 11 17,1 59 34,5 Speaking about the quality of service - the larger part of tourists is satisfied with the conditions locally provided (table №7). So, 59% of respondents in Brichmulla and 89% in Humsan were satisfied with accommodation conditions in private guesthouses. 18.7% in Humsan and 16.3% in Chimgan but only 2% in Brichmulla were not satisfied with food treated by villagers. 57% in Brichmulla expressed dissatisfaction with the beds comfort. Tourists in Chimgan noted lack of care and attention but in Humsan – lack of entertainment and folklore and keeping with sanitation standards. Nevertheless these disadvantages are not very serious to be a reason for tourists not to come to this area. Many of them have defined special features of the villages. For example, 83% of respondents noted that Brichmulla shall be oriented to sport tourism in particularly rock-climbing, trekking, and 100% of tourists are sure that rest in the beach is the best type of service for the village. From the other side about 80% of respondents say that Humsan shall specialize in hunting and fishing. Horseback routes - this is a special feature of Chimgan and villagers need to develop exactly this type of service. There is a large part of those who consider that there is a perspective for ecological routes in this region (73-89%) and ethnographic tourism (57-95%). Table № 7. Tourists-respondents opinion about CBT service Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Are accommodation conditions in guesthouses acceptable for you? - Yes 57 89,0 140 81,8 71 59,1 - No 6 9,37 25 14,6 30 25,0 - Without answer 1 1,56 6 3,50 19 15,8 2. What is lacking in local villagers service? (allow for several answers) - good food 12 18,7 28 16,3 2 1,66 - care, attention, respect 3 4,68 31 18,1 15 12,5 - comfortable bed, fresh bed-clothes 31 48,4 43 25,1 69 57,5
- entertainment, folklore 40 62,5 104 60,8 49 - excursions 25 39,0 59 34,5 80 - sanitation standards 29 45,3 42 24,5 10 3. Which type of tourism is necessary to develop? (allow for several answers) - extreme/sport 12 18,7 133 77,7 100 - ethnographic 61 95,3 98 57,3 115 - fishing and hunting 51 79,6 56 32,7 90 - beach+sun 34 53,1 19 11.1 120 - ecological 47 73,4 150 87,7 107 - horseback 31 48,4 138 80,7 35
40,8 66,6 8,33 83,3 95,8 75,0 100 89,1 29,1
Table № 8 reflects the factors of nature and social impact. So there is a high percent of those who claim that there are excessive barriers set by border control authorities and police. Certainly everyone has to remember that this particular village is close to state border. The same problem has been noted in Humsan. The claims related to foresters and Park employees should not be taken seriously into account as they work within their stipulated norms and rules – their objective is to protect nature resources and here there would be inevitable conflicts with local people and visitors. The major part of visitors noted ill-disposed relation towards tourists and they were worried about medical services. This probably relates to the lack of medical points in the villages and to the fact that quality medical service could be obtained only in the other places. Natural features are also of concern to tourists. Many of tourists are afraid of landslides and mudslides, which appear in spring and autumn, when it is cold and strong water flows. But existing rayon maintenance services timely clean up the roads from mudflows and landslides, provide rescue services. Table № 8. Tourist problems in villages, visitors’ opinions Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Which public problems you face in villages? - border control authorities do not allow 11 17,1 45 37,5 visiting picturesque sites - police overwhelmingly carping, demand 2 3,12 14 8,18 31 25,8 documents of every kind - foresters are carping to any tourist 4 6,25 7 4,09 25 20,8 activities in rest and fishing places - local people are not that welcoming to 1 1,56 15 8,77 2 1,66 tourists - it is difficult to get medical service 16 25,0 5 2,92 2 1,66 2. Which natural problems are of your concern? - landslides, mudslides 37 57,8 21 12,2 8 6,66 - earthquakes 23 35,9 3 1,75 7 5,83 - rains, cold 19 29,6 12 7,01 22 18,3 - strong water flows 24 37,5 3 1,75 43 35,8 It is necessary to note that this marketing report is made in summer season when the demand for local services for tourists is very high. It will be necessary to conduct such a research in winter period, when these tourist centers will be in another economic and climatic-natural conditions. Then we would see a great difference in winter infrastructure development among Chimgan, being a ski resort, and Humsan and Brichmulla, where this type of services had been underdeveloped because of many factors (for example, lack of infrastructure). From the other side when doing this
study one can reveal the other perspective directions in tourism industry, which would become principal ones in CBT activities in between seasons. DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCTS. As a rule, ecological paths are trodden on the territory of buffer, recreational zones located in the vicinity of national parks and reserves. In exceptional cases, however, they may run across such reserves, on condition that the influence on their ecosystems is minimal. What is more, a group of tourists moving along such routes should be accompanied by a special guide, representing local authorities of the particularly protected territory. Protected zones. Ecological tourism encompasses routes that lay across natural areas with unique flora and fauna, as well as through the settlements of native people. As a rule, such territories are conferred a certain status. The particularly protected areas comprise state reserves, national, historical-natural and memorial parks, preserves, natural monuments, botanical and zoological gardens, arboretums, as well as animals and plants entered in both the International Red Book and the Red Book of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Under the stateâ€™s particular protection are health resorts and recreation zones, areas, in which surface and underground waters originate, including river valleys, submontane boulder trains etc., deposits of rare and precious metals, water-protection zones (strips) of water installations, buffer zones of protected natural territories, restricted areas of forests and other zones specified in conformity with both national legislation and international agreements. Local authorities may stipulate other categories of restricted areas and protected natural territories and installations. Protected natural territories are areas of land sand water surface (defined areas of water) in their natural or altered condition, which are withdrawn, partially or fully, on a permanent or temporary basis, from economic exploitation, and which are of priority ecological, scientific, cultural, esthetic , recreational and sanitary importance for one or another country. A special protection and utilization regime is established for such areas. There is no doubt that visiting these zones by tourists requires a special legal framework. It should be observed here that both the stay of unauthorized persons and economic activity in preserves are banned. However, tourism may well be developed in other categories of protected areas mentioned above. In practice, ecological tourism is interpreted as visitation of natural territories, provided that strict rules of behavior are observed there. Such rules are introduced in a move to minimize the tourism-related influence on the environment. Table 1 shows the legal framework and specificity of tourist route organization in natural areas. Requirements imposed on ecological routes. Ecological routes that lay across the particularly protected natural territories should be coordinated by tourist organizations with administrative bodies of these zones, on the one hand, and the State Committee on the Environment of the Republic of Uzbekistan, on the other. In addition, these routes should undergo certification with the Uzbektourism National Company or the Uzstandart Agency. For an ecological route to be certified, the following documents should be presented: - a route scheme, including its indication on the map of a corresponding area, with the indication â€˘ of all stops for rest, cooking, staying overnight and other essential peculiarities; â€˘ a route description, including its length, the number of stops, rules of behavior, seasons, timing and the number of tourists. When developing a tourist route, the law requires that its organizers compile information on natural peculiar features, the most interesting objects of nature (caves, rocks, lakes, steams etc.), as well as on flora (medicinal and rare herbs, poisonous plants, lichens etc.) and fauna (animals entered in the Red Book and insects). One should add at this point that when selecting an ecological route, it is necessary to take into consideration not only the type of landscape, but also a possible recreational load. Members of ecological tourist groups should be reminded of the need to observe all environmental requirements. Any ecological route is planned in such a way that the habitats of rare species of flora and fauna, especially those protected by the state, be avoided. Tourists should sign their names in a special book , in confirmation of the fact that they have been instructed about
the safety measures, the rules of behavior in such zones and the administrative/criminal responsibility imposed for their infringement. There are the following directions of ecological routes : • linear; • circular; • semi-circular etc. By their purpose, economic routes can be classified as follows: 1. cognitive-pleasure; 2. cognitive-tourist; 3. training-excursion; 4. sporting; 5. recreational etc. When you develop cognitive-pleasure routes, which are sometimes called “the weekend paths”, the following requirements should be borne in mind: • length – ranging from 4 km to 8 km; • start from the entrance to the particularly protected zone; • united into one group and accompanied by a special guide, tourists should be able to travel the entire route unhurriedly for 3-4 hours, while acquainting themselves with the beauties of nature and historical and cultural monuments en route and listening to the guide’s lectures. Peculiarities of cognitive-tourist routes are as follows: • their length varies from tens to hundreds of kilometers; • they start from the entrance to the particularly protected territory; • their duration varies from 1-2 days to several weeks; • tourists are united in groups and accompanied by a guide and serving staff (including cooks, stablemen etc.); • tourists are allowed to travel along a given route independently. However, in cases where the route runs through a reserve, they should be accompanied by a representative of a given territory’s administration; • if tourists travel independently, they should be provided with all necessary materials and instructions about the safety measures and rules of behavior in protected zones; • tourists are obliged to have a receipt, certifying the fact that the established entry fee has been paid, as well as a permit to enter a given protected area. Training ecological tourist routes are characterized by the following peculiarities: • such routes are developed exclusively for the purposes of ecological education, and therefore, are intended, in the first place, for school children and students of lyceums, colleges and higher educational establishments; • their themes should be intelligible enough and interesting for any visitor; • their length should not exceed 2 kilometers, which can be covered for 3 hours; • such routes should start from the entrance to the particularly protected area; • visitors travel under control of guides or teachers. Sporting and recreational routes are developed taking account of tourist potentialities of one or another zone, including the availability of mountainous lakes and rivers (rafting, diving, sailing etc.), mountain peaks (Alpinism and rock-climbing), beaches (recreation), salt caves (treatment) etc. Such routes are developed by specialist firms, with appropriate experience and permission to carry out this activity. Journeys in such areas may be pedestrian (unmounted) or mounted. As an exception, on some sections the use of motor vehicles may be allowed (on condition that a park’s administration gives its consent). Each route should contain three major ingredients:
attractiveness – means the possibility to visit protected areas by various age groups, to accomplish certain procedures, to observe the established rules, as well as proximity of these zones to transport links; • informative character – means the capacity of such routes to meet tourists’ cognitive demands in geography, biology, geology, ecology etc., i.e. in all the aspects that distinguish an ecological route from a common tourist one. The route itself should not be too difficult (i.e. without steep slopes, long screes, sheer rocks, numerous cold fords etc.) Otherwise, all these natural obstacles may noticeably complicate the route, making it impossible, in the long run, to adequately perceive the beautiful landscape, or lower the tourists’ striving for the acquisition of new information. Experts involved in the development of such routes usually propose to include the main attraction, or in other words, the most beautiful or interesting place or monument, which may be the ultimate goal to be reached at the end of each route. The administration of a particularly protected area should place an information stand at its entrance. Intended for tourists and other visitors, such stands should be well designed and informative enough in order to generate a sufficient deal of interest in tourists for the routes offered. In the first place, the stand should contain: • detailed information on all the routes, including their length, degree of complexity, main reference points, duration and seasonal character; • a list of species representing local flora and fauna, particularly those protected by the state; • rules of behavior; • entry fee; • the requirement to be accompanied by a specialist/guide/conductor; • photographs and drawings of the most attractive places; • historical and geographical data on a given protected area, contact telephones and a list of personnel. Although both materials and design of such information stands may be selected at will, they should meet the following three main requirements: simplicity, convenience and durability. The requirements imposed on the organization of tourist routes oblige their organizers to set pointers at places where tourists will rest, eat and stay overnight. It is advisable that each route has its own symbol, color and number, for tourists to be able to unerringly spot their location with the help of such booklets. Furthermore, the indication in such booklets of the distance to one or another notable object and the time needed to cover this distance is also strongly recommended. Additionally, it is desirable to arrange spots of vision along the ecological paths. Natural rising grounds on the waterside ledges, which provide a wide panorama of the surroundings are ideal locations for this purpose. One must bear in mind, however, that the spots of vision should not be organized near the places where representatives of local fauna reside and reproduce. That’s why, in order to stave off any negative effects on the environment, it is required to determine the daily load (number of visitors per day) for each tourist route. In doing so, the organizers should take into consideration such factor as negative influence on the natural component, including the trampling down of topsoil, deterioration of its fertility, reduction in the number of insects, animals and plants there etc. With a view to avoiding such dismal prospects, the following technical norms should be observed: For paths: • length and twisting character; • safety and complexity; • capacity of spots of vision; • width of the sound vision and influence; • For stopping places: • comfortable and well-equipped;
spacious; availability of firewood need to make a fire. The route organizers should remember that maintenance of paths in appropriate condition is to be given priority attention. To maintain them in a workable state as far as possible, it is recommended to start with a small load – 2-3 tourists a day. Gradually increasing the daily load (up to 10 tourists and 2-4 groups), the organizers should keep their eye on how it affects the environment. In the event of a discernable deterioration in the condition of one or another section along the route, the load should be lowered to a safe level. At the same time, the authorities of such particularly protected territories are obliged to fix certain places, where tourists may cook, rest and stay overnight. As well as that, they need to organize the regular removal of sweepings and cleaning of the tourist paths running across their areas. Rules of behavior for tourists taking part in ecological tours. Any person who visits a particularly protected natural zone, must observe the established rules of behavior. Their aim is to preserve the latter’s biodiversity and landscape in the primordial shape. These rules are not complicated, but, if observed, they help to avoid any damage to the environment from the tourist activity, as well as to prevent any violation of the law. In particular, movement along the paths should be quiet enough in order not to frighten animals. Strange sounds, generated by tourists, such as shouts, music, noise etc., may force animals to leave their permanent habitats. For this reason, the following actions are prohibited on ecological routes: • to use radio-receiving sets and tape-recorders (with the exception of listening to natural sounds and short news during long journeys); • to take dogs, whose barking could also negatively affect the local populations of animals and birds; • to pick any ground or water flowers and plants; • to saw, to fell, to break or otherwise damage trees and bushes; • to take natural souvenirs from the tourist path, including stones, insects, snags etc.; • to fish and to hunt; • to smoke and to make fires at places other than those specifically established for these purposes; • to litter, to use non-decaying materials, such as cellophane, glass, cans etc. • to go outside the path and to violate the regime of stay in the particularly protected natural area. Special measures should be taken by tour operators in the habitats of rare and almost extinct species of animals. For the purpose of lighting a camp-fire, it is permissible to utilize only firewood prepared by the park’s employees and stored in special places. Development of trans-border cooperation. In Uzbekistan, national parks and preserves represent 34.6 per cent and 38.4 per cent, respectively, of the total area occupied by particularly protected territories. The national preserves enjoy great potentialities for the development of ecological tourism (See Table 2). Without doubt, the role played by these zones in the preservation of the Republic’s biodiversity, as well as the extent to which they are vulnerable to anthropological influence differ substantially across the Republic. It is well known that all preserves, specialized installations and natural monuments are supervised by the State Committee on the Environment , while national parks – by the Tashkent Province Khokimiyat and the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Management and reserves – by the State Committee on the Environment, the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Management (6), the State Committee on Geology (1) and the Province Khokimiyat (1). All environmental organizations and tourist agencies should work efficiently to ensure the harmonious development of the territories they supervise. It should be noted that almost 54 per cent of these installations has been created during the period of Uzbekistan’s independence. Moreover, for the time being , the establishment of a number of new national parks and reserves is under way. For instance, the Nuratau –Kyzylkum bio-spherical reserve is being created with the
assistance of PROON and GEF. Tourist activity is stipulated there, but only in buffer and transitional zones. Besides, over the past few years, three republics of Central Asia – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzsatn and Uzbekistan have been working on the establishment of a trans-border bio-reserve, which contains a number of particularly protected areas of these countries. Experts contend that the unique forests have survived sown to the present day in the region covered by the reserve. These include huge areas under nut-trees, wild fruit-trees, junipers, fir-trees, spruces, broad-leaved and riparian woodland etc. There are upwards of 3,000 species of mushrooms growing in the region (by the way, only one-third of them have been studied so far), hundreds of species of water-plants, lichen and moss (with no more than 50 per cent of which being studied). Superior plants are represented by more than 2,500 species, 673 varieties and 109 families. As for endemic plants, they account for 12 per cent of the total number of local vegetation. Rare species included in the Red Book of these states make up 125. The local vertebrates comprise 61 species of mammals, 316 species of birds, 17 species of reptiles, 3 species of Amphibia and 31 species of fish. The extent to which the representatives of local fauna are studied varies from 15 per cent to 80 per cent. There are some 10,000 species of insects in the region. The availability of such a surprising biodiversity makes it possible to develop the following directions of tourist activity in the region: • natural history-associated tourism intended primarily for school children; • specialized tourism for scholars and students; • recreational and other types of rest and travel intended for all sections of the population. One should note in this context that the states involved in the project have repeatedly announced their desire to join hands in the field of nature preservation. On February 8, 1992, the CIS member-states signed the Moscow Agreement on Cooperation in the field of ecology and protection of the environment. The Protocol to this document was signed in Tashkent on May 28, 1992. On March 17, 1998, the Governments of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan met in Bishkek to sign the Agreement on Cooperation in the field of environment protection and rational utilization of natural resources. At the same meeting, one more document – the Agreement on Cooperation in the preservation of biological diversity in the West Tyan Shan was conferred a legal status. Tajikistan joined the document. Within the framework of the summit of heads of states – members of the Organization for Central Asian Cooperation held at the beginning of the current year, it was planned to sign an agreement on the creation of the West Tyan Shan trans-border biospherical reserve, but owing to the force of some circumstances, its signing was postponed. Among the objectives to be addressed by this reserve, it is necessary to mention, first and foremost, the stimulation of economic and human development, which is sustainable in both sociocultural and ecological aspects; development of ecological tourism as a means to foster the region’s overall progression; solidification of linkages between protected natural areas and communities. Table №9. Specificity of tourist organizations operating in particularly protected natural areas of Uzbekistan Main goals: Organizational principles Legal basis - attraction of foreign - exclusion of Law of the Republic of and domestic tourists; unfavorable influence Uzbekistan, “On tourism” - creation of new jobs; on biodiversity in one dated August 20, 1999; - raising of the people’s or another protected Law of the Republic of living standards; territory on the part of Uzbekistan, “On nature - preservation of visitors and tourists; conservation” dated December biodiversity; - ensuring that the 9, 1992; - creation of new natural established rules of Resolution of the Tashkent zones using the behavior in the Province Khokimiyat receipts from tourism; protected zone are Overall, as many as 15 laws of
termination of the use by local inhabitants of natural resources and creation of alternative sources of profit generation for them; an increase in financing of natural zones at the expense of off-budget resources; ecological education of the population, improvement of their relationships with nature; creation of conditions for the citizens’ cognitive rest; promotion of socioeconomic development in separate regions.
strictly observed ; economic efficiency of tourist activity carried out on the territory of one or another natural zone; achievement by visitors/tourists of the highest cognitive effect from their trips to the protected areas; participation in natural protection measures and actions.
environmental character and more than 550 legislative acts, standards and resolutions, bearing directly on nature preservation, are currently in force in the Republic of Uzbekistan.
Table №10. Particularly protected territories in the West Tyan Shan and in Uzbekistan Particularly Located in the West Located in Uzbekistan protected territories Tyan Shan Number Thou ha State reserves 5 9 209.1 National and natural 3 2 598.7 parks Preserves 21 (of which 4 – 10 1506.8 hunting; 5 – forest; 8 – botanical and 3 – complex preserves) Specialized 1 7.12 organizations Natural monuments 4 3.08 Table 11. Ecoproducts in Ugam-Chatkal National nature park Brichmilla
ALONG PATHS OF KULOSII RIVER 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to Burchmulla village (120 km, 2 hrs.). Accommodation in guesthouse or tent. Rest on the Charvak lakeside. 2 day. Early start of the route. Simple ascent to Teksai pass 1560 м., 1 h. 30 min. Panoramic view of Charvak water reservoir, peaks of Aukashka (Hunter), Big Chimgan (3309 м.), Small Chimgan (2099 м.). Descending by good pass of the left bank of Kulosii River to Burchmulla village (1 hour, 30 min.). Rest on the Charvak lakeside. Evening leaving for Tashkent (120 km. 2 hours). HORSE RIDE ALONG PSKEM RANGE (HORSEBACK RIDE ROUTE) 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to mountain village Burchmulla (120 km, 2 hours). Familiarity with с life of local people. Rest and swimming in Charvar water reservoir. Overnight stay in the local house in Yakkatut settlement (900 м). 2 day. Horse-back riding to upper stream of the Chavata River. Ascending to Kelenchek pass (2355м). Gorgeous panoramic view of Charvak water reservoir circled by mountain ranges of West Tien Shan. Descending to the Pskem river valley to Nanai village (880м). Stop in the local house. Evening leaving for Tashkent (120 km, 2 hours).
HORSEBACK RIDING ALONG KARJANTAU MOUNTAIN RIDGE. 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to the mountain village Khumsan located in the valley of Ugam river between Ugam mountain range and Karjantau mountain range of Western Tien-Shan (90 km, 2 hr). Accommodation in the house of local man. Walking around nearby surroundings. Rest by Ugam river. 2 day. Horseback riding from Dalya village (1000 m.) to the upper reaches of Urkutsay river. Panoramic view of the Chirchik river valley. Descending to Dalya village. Meeting a car. Leaving for Tashkent (90 km, 2 hrs.). KHUMSAN-PUSTONLYK 1 day. Evening travel from Tashkent to Khumsan village, situated in the picturesque valley of Ugam river at the junction of Ugam mountain range with Karjantau mountain range, Western TienShan (90 km, 1,5 hrs). Accommodation at home of local people. Dinner. 2 day. After early breakfast horseback riding along the gorge of Pustonlyk river to the place named Pustonlyk-bouva (7 km. 1,5 hrs). A walk to Kyrk-Kokyl waterfall (from Uzbek “KyrkKokyl” means “1000 braids”). Return to horses. Ride to Khumsan village. Lunch. Rest by the Ugam river shore. Evening leaving for Tashkent (90 km, 1,5 hrs.) TO THE SOURCE OF KANSAY RIVER (horseback riding) 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to the mountain village Dalya at the foot of Karjantau mountain range, Western Tien-Shan (90 km; 1 hr 30 min). Horseback riding along the left-bank slope of Kansay river to Kourgantash Pass (3 hrs.). Stop for lunch in the summer house of herdsmen near the source of Kansay river. Walking on the slopes and going out to panoramic points. Wonderful view of Ugam, Pskem, Chatkal mountain ranges of Western Tien-Shan, and Charvak and Khodjakent water reservoirs. After lunch descending along the flat right-bank range of Kansay river to Dalya village (2 hrs). Stop in the house of local man. After short rest with drinking tea, meeting a car. Evening leaving for Tashkent (90 km; 1 hr 30 min). AROUND BIG CHIMGAN 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to mountain-ski winter resort Beldersai, (80 km, 2 hours). Crossing along the Beldersai river ravine to the vicinity of the Chet-Kumbel pass. Overnight stay in tents in the picturesque meadow. Camp No1. 2 day. Short day. Crossing along good path to the upper reaches of the Beldersai River. Ascending to the Kumbel pass. Camp No2 next to the spring. 3 day. Tense day. Crossing along southern slopes of Big Chimgan Mountain 3309 м. to the Komsomoletz pass. Camp No3. 4 day. Descending from Komsomoletz pass to the Mazarsai River ravine. Crossing to the place “water pipe”. Camp No4 next to the spring. 5 day. Descending into the gorge of Gulkamsai River. Visiting Gulkam Canyon. After lunch crossing Gulkam pass (1830 м.) to the Chimgansai River Valley. Meeting a car. Leaving for Tashkent (90 km, 2 hours). FOOT ROUTE ALONG WESTERN TIEN SHAN 1 day. Travel from Tashkent through Galvasai village to the recreation area of “Chimgan” next to Chatkal mountain range of Western Tien Shan (100 km 1,5 hours 1300 m). Ascending using good footpath to the Pesochnii (Sandy) pass (1830 m). Descending to the gorge of the Gulkamsai River. After the rest in the birch wood - crossing of the most beautiful places in Uzbekistan mountains, Gulkam Kanyon. Rock crevice which sometimes shrinks up to 5 meters with plentiful small waterfalls, dishes, rock plugs and frequent wades is taking two hours to go through. At the exit of the canyon – lunch in the scenic grove. After the rest – crossing along the country road around Small Chimgam mountain (2100 m). From the road one can see the grand panorama of Ugam, Pskem and Koksu ranges of Western Tien Shan, which surround Charvak water reservoir. After three hours of the way – descending to Chimgan settlement. Meeting a car. Leaving for Tashkent through Charvak water reservoir.
36 HORSE-BACK RIDING AROUND CHIMGAN MOUNTAINS. 1 day. Pm. Transfer Tashkent- Chimgan settlement, where ethnic Kazakhs are the major population (90 km.). Accommodation in national house or in a cottage. Walking tour to Black Waterfall in the foothill of Big Chimgan. 2 day. Breakfast. Horseback crossing starts at 07:00. Tourists on the horses ascending the mountain range, which splits the rivers Chimgansai and Ishakkupriksai. Further way is along the range from where one would see majestic panorama of mountains, ravines and villages of Western Tien Shan. Tourists stop for rest in the surroundings of Kyzyl-Djar (Red Precipice) mountain with the local shepherds. They familiarize themselves with their life style, try fresh tea, see how kurt (dry curd) and kumys, national drink from mare’s milk, are made. After lunch tourists go around red precipice and descend to the foothill of Big Chimgam and leave for Tashkent. BELDERSAI RING: 1 day. Transfer to Beldersai River ravine to the junction of the Beldersai and the Mramornaya (Marble) Rivers (75 km, 2 hours). This is a starting point of the tour. Ascending along the left bank of the Mramornaya River, 2,5 – 3 hours. Stop in the birch grove. Camp. Rest and learning the surroundings. Acclimatization and preparation to the next day. 2 day. Breakfast. Ascending to the Urta-Kumbel pass, 1 hour. (1850 m. above sea level). Wonderful view from the pass of the Chirchik River ravine and Chet-Kumbel pass. Gently sloping brings to the small grove on the bank of the Beldersai River. After short rest – continue of the crossing to the anticline of the Chet-Kumbel pass. Camp. 3 day. After breakfast – 4-hour walk to petroglyphs. Return to the camp, dinner. Descending along the Beldersai River ravine to the road. Meeting a car. Transfer to Tashkent. TO THE UPPER REACHES OF BELDERSAI (horseback riding tour) 1 day. Travel from Tashkent to the Beldersai River ravine (80 km, 1,5 hour) to the mountain village of Kyzylora (1300 m). Meeting with the groom and horses. Horse riding through scenic groves and alpine meadows, along the Badamsai River to mountain range top of Maigashkan (2310 m). Grand panoramic view of the Chirchik River ravine. Descending through Toganbulak spring in Kyzylora village. Stay in the forester house. Familiarization with local life. 2 day. Hiking to rock dishes of the Badamsai River. Swimming. Rest. Walking around. After lunch – descending to Kyzylora village. Meeting a car. Evening leaving for Tashkent (80 km, 1,5 hours).
Assessment of potential for cooperation with islamitic church. On the territory of Humsan-Oktash and Brichmulla-Nanay zones are graves which are Islamic religious values, holy sites, particularly it are mazars (graves) of sheikh Umar Vali Bogustani, sheikh Doud (David), sepulchral mounds between the Nanay and the Bogustan villages, graveyards Hazrati-MULLO AND Yalovik-mazar nearby Sidjak village. That is allow to develop religious tourism. At the present it are in non-organized order, palmers by themselves visit those sites. Usually it 1-2 days visiting of mazars in summer period. To hear from Leaders of Rural Communities on summer period per month are 20 tourists – not local people, spring/autumn – about 10 tourists, winter – 2-3 tourists. All that tourists visit in non-organized order, without official (commercial, social) structures. At the present time tour operators abstain from those tours because it concerned with certain complexities (political) and absence of need from Uzbek citizens. In that case, in that direction don’t needed to do any movements it concern with government policy in religious factor. Tour operators can be accuse of Islamic fundamentalism building, etc.
SOCIOLOGICAL SURVEY UNDER EUROPEAID WEST TIEN SHAN BIODIVERSITY PROJECT (UZBEKISTAN, 2004)
TASHKENT TOUR OPERATORS POLL. The West Tien Shan is an area of diverse flora and fauna, very special landscapes (mountains, forests, rivers, and waterfalls), acceptable climate conditions, vivid traditions and cultures of local communities. Established during the Soviet period, tourist centers are now still functioning here. Today, the region is given
attention in terms of its biodiversity conservation, reforming the existing infrastructure and redirecting local communities towards other sustainable and environment friendly activities and livelihoods. Marketing surveys shows that 90 percent of all visitors to the Aktash-Khumsan zone are so called ‘unorganized’ tourists, who independently arrange and come to take a rest here. A great majority of them (over 60 percent) are citizens of the capital of Uzbekistan, about 30 percents arrive from the towns and districts of the Tashkent region, and remaining 10 percent includes tourists from the other parts of Uzbekistan, personnel of international organizations accredited to the country, and tourists from other states, particularly Kazakhstan, Russia and non-CIS countries. A tourist potential of Khumsan is influenced by many various factors such as affordable prices for services and tourist product, and region’s opportunities. In Khumsan, an average visitation rate is 10,000 persons per season, in the Khumsan-Aktash zone – no less than 120,000 including one-day visits. A gross revenue may reach US$ 4-8 millions. In the village Brichmulla, 80 percent of ‘unorganized’ tourist activity is exercised by citizens of the Tashkent, the rest falling mostly to the share of residents from the Tashkent region and other regions of the country. The share of foreigners is very marginal here and makes up less than one percent. The tourist capacity of the village is 30,000 – 50,000 people; 100,000 – 150,000 people per season stay for rest in the close vicinity of the village. The tourist activity in Chimgan has the following characteristic feature: - the main tourist flow (80-85 percent) falls at the summer period including later spring and early autumn; in winter, 15-20 percent of tourists come to enjoy winter sports and rest and/or celebrate a New Year holiday or other events; - a great majority of visitors are youth and people of mature age (90 percent); - foreigners make up about five percent; - preferences in rest are hiking, relaxation, skiing; - congress-tours and workshops are popular in spring and winter and normally short. This region is open for travelers spring through late autumn. A wide choice of pass complexity (from 2,000 to 4,000 m) enables to go on a hike or horseback ride, go rafting, or indulge in speleology, ornithology, botany, and many other active and cognitive forms of tourist activity and rest. The local fauna includes 44 mammal, over 200 bird, 16 reptile, two amphibian, and 20 fish species. Flora of the West Tien Shan consists of more than 2,200 plant species. An ascending traveler will cross five vegetation zones: 700-1,200 m – ephemeral, 1,200-1,500 m – deciduous-arboreal-shrubby; to 2,300 m – juniperous; to 2,800 m – thorny; and above 2,800 m – alpine vegetation. Some 650 plant species are used in medicine and 400 – in food industry. An evaluation of the national tour operators’ interests in ecological tourist routes is an urgent task for researchers, especially in terms of marketing and planning. Today, 400 firms have licenses to render tourist services in Uzbekistan. Under the EuropeAid Interstate biodiversity project in the West Tien Shan, involving Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, the Association of Travelers “Rabat-Malik” has conducted a 10 percent mechanical nonrepeated sampling of special organizations in Tashkent and the Tashkent region (according to the list presented by the National Company “Uzbektourism”), which are located near the Ugam-Chatkal national park. The questionnaires were distributed among 40 firms. 21 of them (51 percent) filled in the questionnaires and returned them; 10 firms refused to fill in the forms for their own reasons and other nine – for their non tour operator activity (hotel and transportation services). Therefore we have had the feedback from five percent of the total amount of firms involved in the tourist industry. First of all, the experts of “Rabat Malik” tried and evaluated technical capabilities of the operators. Table 1 demonstrates that half of the tour operators have been functioning since the year of 2000; that is they are relatively ‘young’ in the travel industry. Only about 24 percent of the respondents with more than 15-year experience are considered as ‘sharks’ in this business and perfectly know the market of tourist services. Over 67 percent of the tour operators to have taken part in the questioning have staff consisting of three to 10 full-time employees, however, many more can be additionally contracted
as needed (as a seasonal, temporary staff). The firms “Sairam Tourism”, “UzIntour”, “Marco Polo Central Asia Travel”, “SharkIntour”, and “Ark_Osiyo” were noticed to have a big staff. Less than half of them believe it is no need for them to affiliate with any public professional organization. Eight respondents (or 66.6 percent of the affiliated firms) that answered the question positively have affiliated with the Uzbekistan’s Association of private tour operators, and, together with some other respondents, joint the Russian Association of Tourist Agencies (RATA) – two members; Japanese (JATA) – one; Russia’s Association of Business Tourism – one, the Pacific Association of Tourist Agencies (PATA) – two; and one firm joint the Great Silk Road Tour Operators Group. Table №12. General information about tour operators, in absolute values and % 1. Year of company’s foundation, quantity/percent Before 1991 1991-1995 1996-1999 After 2000 Total 5 23,8% 1 4,8% 5 23,8% 10 47,6% 21 100% 2. Number of full-time employees, persons/percent 1-2 persons 3-5 persons 5-10 persons Over 10 persons Total 1 4,8% 6 28,5% 8 38,8% 6 28,5% 21 100% 3. Affiliation with any associations/unions Yes No Total 12 57,2% 9 42,8% 21 100% In general it can be said that small tourist firms (in terms of staff and material and technical basis) predominate in the tourist industry in Uzbekistan. This fact seems to have predefined their scope of capacities, as a majority of visits to the Ugam-Chatkal national nature park is ‘unorganized’. At present, local enterprises engaged in the leisure and travel industry are not functioning spontaneously and chaotic. They have established certain relations and cooperation with many other elements of the technological chain of rendering services to the tourists as they travel. The point is how much supply satisfies a demand? Is national tourist product interesting for both domestic and foreign tourists? In table 13, the experts defined directions of the tourist product. The table shows that 95 percent of firms render tourist services within the country and one fifth of them are engaged in arranging country-side tours. Among the other types of cultural and cognitive tourism the respondents indicated excursions over the capital of Uzbekistan and active forms of leisure such as auto-tours, safaris, and picnics. A great interest was shown in the field of sanitary and recreation tourism. Since recently, this direction of tourism has become attractive among both the domestic clients and foreign tourists. Tour operators to render health-improving, relaxation and treatment services combined with ecological tours around the neighboring areas are becoming more lucrative.
Table № 13. National tourist product offered by the tour operators at the world and domestic markets (several answers allowed), in absolute values and % Types of tours Abs. values % Cultural and cognitive tourism - traveling over the Silk Road countries 19 90,4 - traveling within Uzbekistan 20 95,2 - country-side/rural tourism (under Community Based 4 19,04 Tourism) - other types 13 61,9 Active tourism - hiking/trekking 16 76,1 - horse/camel ride tours 13 61,9 - rafting 9 42,8
- mountain climbing - mountain skiing - ski jumping from helicopter - other 3
Resort tourism - sanitary/health improving (sanatoria, nursing house, pensions) - beach (relaxation, sun baths, sports – sailors, catamarans, boats) Other - hunting tours for foreigners - educational tourism/congress tours - nostalgic, ethnographic
8 10 8 8
38,09 47,6 38,09 38,09
5 12 2
23,09 57,14 9,5
In 2003, for instants, the company “Armant” arranged the beach tours in the Tashkent region for 400 tourists and health-improving tours (up to 18 days) for 200 tourists The firm has also developed a three days combined sporting tourist product for four tourists (hiking + horseback riding + rafting). Since 2004, the firm “Elena-tour” has begun to offer the following new tour packages over the West Tien Shan: “Around Chimgan” (trekking, five days, for four persons), “The Gulkan Canon” (hiking and horseback riding, one day, for three persons), “The Beldersay Ring” (trekking, three days, for one person). There is no doubt that an increase of tourist flow directly depends on the infrastructure conditions, particularly the accommodation facilities along the tourist routes. This is not only the matter of vacant rooms available but the quality of services rendered, and unfortunately tour operators do not sometimes distinguish between these aspects. It turns out that almost all tour operators of the city of Tashkent cooperate with big hotels, which is predefined by the availability of European standards (see Table №14). However, since recently, as private tourist sector has begun to develop and small inns and guest houses have begun to appear the clients have been accommodated there. Tent camps and yurtas are also popular among the amateurs of sporting and ethnographic tourism. Table №14. Facilities, where tour operators accommodate their clients Facilities Abs. value % Guest houses 15 71,0 Small inns, camp-sites and pensions with experienced staff 18 85,7 Big hotels and inns 21 100,0 Tent camps (sporting, scout’s) 11 52,3 Yurta camps (national spirit and way of life) 14 66,0 The Tashkent region has considerable wildlife resources and that is why client’s demand for professional services is very high. The respondents noticed that tour operators worked in certain areas of the West Tien Shan, particularly the Charvak water reservoir, canyon Khumsan, ChimganBeldersay zone, Ak-Bulak valleys, and the Angren Plateau, where they had already built appropriate infrastructure (accommodation facilities, transportation, trailing, guides, communication) or where local communities also rendered some services such as horse rental, guiding, food. It should be noticed that the most frequently used is the Chimgan-Charvak zone, where two-fifth of the total number of tourists from the Tashkent region arrive in summer. It is not surprising that tour operators aspire to work with professional institutions such as the administrations of parks and tourist centers, and children health-improving camps. Therefore, half of the tour operators dealing with the Uzbek segment of the West Tien Shan believe that Chimgan is more attractive area (see Table №15). The experts indicate that infrastructure that was
built here 20-30 years ago (road, communications, rescue and medical services, guarding, buildings and supply) has been preserved and fairly well maintained. Table №15. Ongoing or planned activities of tour operators within the West Tien Shan Ongoing Planned No answer Absolute value % Abs. value % Abs. value % 12 57,14 6 28,57 7 33,3 Of them by geographic coverage Of them be geographic coverage - Chatkal – 4 33,3 - Koksu – 4 66,6 - Chimgan – 6 50,0 - Akbulak – 1 16,6 - Charvak – 4 33,3 - Angren Plateau 16,6 –1 - Ugam – 2 16,6 - other countries – 16,6 1 - Beldersay – 5 41,6 - other directions - 3 25,0 A great majority of all services provided (three-fourth of all tour-operators responded) falls to the share of ecologic tours (see Table №16) – a fact that once again confirms the importance of ecologic component of the region. In spite of the fact that only few game preserves are available here the share of respondents willing to promote the service is 30 percent. Very popular are horseback ride tour routes and there is also a great potential in terms of it. Though almost 48 percent of tour operators accommodate their tourists in the tourist centers, 38 percent would like to offer accommodation in guest houses, too. There is also a great desire to offer the community based tourism services, and here it depends on tour operators’ capacity to provide a good quality services, and the presence of appropriate conditions. However, while five percent do not show any interest in it. Though there is no doubt that market of the Tashkent region is not entirely developed, the firms that will undertake to provide new forms and types of tourist products will become the leaders. For instance, the company “Yasmina-Tour” believes that creation of a trout hatchery in the West Tien Shan is a good prospective for the future. According to its experts, this is an interesting potential direction for rest and tourism, to say nothing about the profitability of such a hatchery. Table №16. Tours over the West Tien Shan (already offered or would like to be offered by companies), in absolute values and % Description of tour We offer We would like We are not No answer to offer interested Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Horse ride tours 9 42,8 8 38,09 4 19,04 Hunting tours 5 23,09 6 28,57 3 14,28 7 33,3 One day treks/horse ride 11 52,38 6 28,57 1 4,76 3 14,28 tours 2-5 days treks/horse ride 10 47,61 5 23,8 6 28,57 tours 5-14 days hiking and 8 38,09 5 23,8 8 38,09 horseback riding Rafting 8 38,09 5 23,8 1 4,76 7 33,3 Mountain climbing 7 33,3 4 19,04 2 9,52 8 38,09 Wildlife excursions 16 76,1 3 14,28 2 9,52 Community Based 3 14,28 8 38,09 1 4,75 9 42,8 Tourism
Accommodation in tourist centers Guest house
The tour product branded with the “West Tien Shan” logo is already used by Uzbek companies. For instance, the organization “KIP” (Culture. History. Travels) has been offering hiking tours (up to two days) to the mountain lakes and waterfalls and for groups of tourists not exceeding 50 persons, and have rendered services to 150 persons in this direction only since 2003. In 2003, the special firm “Asia-Raft” offered a trekking program over the Chimgan area for 380 visitors and rafting on the Chatkal river for 12 visitors. More over, the company “Oriental Express CA” arranges for the combined historical and archeological tours over Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan. The private firm “Baikal SayohService” is planning to launch the two days tour “In the spurs of the West Tien Shan” for 10 persons. And, in 2003, “Yasmina Tour” rendered ski jumping from helicopter and mountain skiing tours to 3,000 visitors in Chimgan and Charvak, by 20 persons at a time. Some firms, such as the International Center for Ecologic Tourism “Ecosan-Tour”, are specialized in arranging for wildlife tours. The programs include photo-hunting, general excursions in wildlife areas, botanic tours, and many others. 650 persons took so called Sunday tours over the Ugam-Chatkal national park in 2003. “Ecosan-Tour” emphasized they were promoting tourist products such as travels around ‘The Greater Chimgan’ (trekking, 5 days, for 2-8 persons), Beldersay-Altyntel-Kumyshkan (horseback riding, two days, for 2-5 persons), and these products are of demand. 10 tourists went on a hike to Paltau (the tour has been functioning since October 25, 2004) under the Chatkal mountains program. Table №17. Attitude to developing transboundary trails (Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan) Tourist firm’s opinion Abs. value % No, we are not interested Yes, we could consider it 8 38,09 Yes, we are interested but only if the visa related and frontier issues are 12 57,14 resolved No answer 1 4,7 Work at rural and specially protected natural areas should be implemented in cooperation with authorized bodies (village council, park’s administration), because otherwise there may arise some conflicts and contradictions that would deteriorate the whole atmosphere of tourism. Table №18 shows the answers concerning companies’ cooperation with administrations of specially protected natural areas: more than one third have established such relations including contacts though the Main Hunting Department under the Ministry of Agriculture and Water Resources of the Republic of Uzbekistan. Apart from the region of the West Tien Shan, Uzbek firms operate in other wildlife areas, such as Zaamin, Naratau-Kyzylkum, Zeravshan, Bakhara, Kizilkum. It can be seen the experts pay a special attention to the ties. Table №18. Do tourist firms cooperate with administrations of specially protected natural areas? Да Нет Нет ответа Absolute value % Abs. value % Abs. value % 8 38,09 6 28,57 7 33,3 - in particular - Ugam-Chatkal national park – 4 50,0 - Zeravshan nature reserve - 1 12,5
- Nuratau-Kizilkum biosphere reserve 2
On the other hand, potential opportunities of the areas need to be evaluated. In this concern the opinions of the respondents were ambiguous. It is well known that accessibility of the park is an integral part for the development of any tour. Some experts emphasized that not all of the sights in the park are logistically accessible (no access roads, tricky bridges). The location within the state frontier zone and excessive police control are the main reasons preventing tour operators from working there. At the same time, as was emphasized by an expert of “Yasmina-Tour”, the vicinity of the capital makes the area attractive for the citizens of Tashkent. The experts are slightly concerned about the mechanism of payment. The point is that the Ugam-Chatkal does not have only one special entrance point and is accessible from everywhere, which results in uncontrolled visitation and behavior of ‘unorganized’ tourists and local villagers. Earlier they began to collect ecologic tax from vehicles and persons to enter the park. Now this income item is removed and replaced with payment for entrance ticket to the park. Most likely it concerns the collection of fees for entering into the park from special parking lots. A representative of the tourist firm “Chatkal Mountains” believes that the fee rate is acceptable for him provided that financial discipline of the park’s administration is in place and financial information concerning the income and expenditures is available for general public. Speaking of access to information about natural features and rules of conduct in the UgamChatkal national park, almost two-third of the respondents mentioned that it was not always so easy for tour operators to obtain the information (see Table №19). It is suggested to publish the information booklets, broadcast TV and radio programs, and involve mass-media. “It is necessary to improve the educational approach to learning about home country from school. The ideology and real steps in this direction are lacking” emphasized an expert from the company “Sharkintour”. On the other hand, almost half of the respondents did not want to answer about hospitality of administration and staff of the parks. “We would rather communicate with out guest directly” said one respondent. It was noticed that negative impression was made by livestock wandering unattended over the village and excessive curiosity of law machinery staff and rangers. Table №19. Aspects of the tourist industry services in the Ugam-Chatkal national park Indicator
Good Medium Poor No answer We are satisfied We are not satisfied I don’t know No answer Accessible No always accessible Inaccessible
4 11 3 3
Mechanisms of payment for visiting
Information of features
19,04 52,38 14,28 14,28 5
47,61 9,5 1 14
Hospitability and quality of services provided by the administration Abs.v. %
Possibilities for hiking and horse ride tours Abs.v.
No answer Good Medium Not satisfied No answer Good Medium Not possible No answer
14,28 4 6 2 9
19,04 28,57 9,5 4,28 8 7 5
38,09 33,3 23,8
In many countries, tour operators have jointly developed and accepted the Code of Tourists’ Conduct in order to avoid negative pressure on wildlife and to support local social and economic structures. 90.47 percent of the questioned tour operators from Tashkent supported the idea but 14.28 percent of the respondents did not believe in a concept according to which it would be possible to develop community-based tourism. One of the respondents added that local people should be given special training in rendering services. Some experts noticed that proper relations with all the links of the tourist industry chain (administration, safety, road and municipal services, etc) should be established and properly maintained. Table № 20. Attitude of tourist firms to private aspects of ecologic movements Question Yes No No answer Abs.v. % Abs.v. % Abs.v. % Would you support the development of Code 19 90,47 2 9,52 of Tourists’ Conduct Do you believe in developing Community 17 80,95 3 14,28 1 4,76 Based Tourism The poll showed that 71.42 percent of the respondents made use of accommodation services provided by local communities, hired the villagers as guides and rented their horses. 47.61 percent made use of other services such as buying food stuff and medicinal plants. 4.76 percent of the firms did not make use of such services and 4.76 percent – did not answer. On the other hand, 100 percent of the respondents stated they were interested in community based tourism. The modern market reflects tendencies related to globalization and new technologies. In this context it is hard to compete with the world famous tour operators, which tune themselves to the processes and have considerable financial and material resources. But on the other hand, there are still available some ‘unknown’ countries – Terra Incognita – that have not yet undergone mass visitation. The national-esthetical and ecologic originality of the Central Asia region may attract visitors. In this respect, Uzbekistan has a good chance to occupy a worth place. No doubt it is not easy for Uzbek companies to promote their products and that is where commitment of the government and international organization is needed. The poll showed that 95.2 percents of the respondents were interested in assistance from the EuropeAid international biodiversity project in the West Tien Shan, particularly in developing routes/trails and improving community-based tourism services for clients from Europe and North America. The company “Yasmina-Tour”, for example, believes that a common policy and a single brand need to be developed. The advertising of the “Great Silk Road” brand is one of the ways to integrate the countries and tour operators and to establish the mechanisms of pricing. The fact that a representative office of the World Tourist Organization, one of the objectives of which is to assist in the international tourism development, was opened in Samarqand at the end of October, 2004, is important in itself. A great majority of firms was discovered to direct their efforts towards the inner tourism and this fact reflects the specifics of the tourist industry (see Table №21). Constrained by the economic hardship, local people can not afford to travel overseas and therefore they stay for rest at their home
land, which is rich in wildlife resources and has appropriate conditions. More than 50 percent of the respondents take into account the Central Asia region, though many tourist products get stuck in the various links of the technologic chain in Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Turkmenistan. At the same time, Europe and Asia (particularly Japan, China, and South Korea) remain one of the markets that buy tours to Central Asia. The experts of tourist firms noted that visitors from these countries were interested not only in history but wildlife – landscapes, biodiversity, ecologically pure products. Table №21. The geographic coverage of tour operators questioned Geography Absolute value % Domestic (inner) tourism 19 90,47 Regional tourism (Central Asia) 11 52,38 European tourists 16 76,19 American tourists (USA and Canada) 9 42,8 Other (Asia, Australia, etc.) 11 52,38 The poll shows that an effective way for Uzbek firms to deal with Europe and Central Asia countries is though an overseas middleman, and with American countries – through the Internet (see Table№22). In the meanwhile, 30 percent of the “Elena-Tour” firm’s contacts with European countries go through the office in Tashkent, 80 percent of “Mercury-Tour” company’s contacts with North America are made though the Internet, while “Ecosan” makes 60 percent of its contacts with Central Asia countries though their contact persons abroad. Therefore, each company has worked out its own way of dealing with customers and taking them over to the sights of the West Tien Shan. Table №22. Ways of dealing with foreign companies and tourists (several answers allowed) Foreign clients attracting Europe North America Central Asia No answer mechanisms Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Though an overseas partner 16 76,19 7 33,3 13 61,9 4 19,04 Through contact persons 10 47,61 6 28,57 9 42,85 11 52,38 abroad Through the Internet 15 71,42 11 52,38 12 57,14 7 33,3 Through the office in 13 61,9 8 38,09 12 57,14 7 33,3 Tashkent
VISITORS SURVEY IN THE UGAM-CHATKAL NATIONAL PARK. According to the peer review the four hotels/tourist centers/pensions “Chimgan-Oromgohi”, “Charvak Oromgohi”, “Gory Chatkala” and “Gornyak” located in the Bostanlyk district of the Tashkent region accommodate 300 visitors per month each (total of 1,200) during the summer period. In August 2004, the Association of Travelers “Rabat-Malik” conducted a study for ecotourism development under the EuropeAid Interstate biodiversity project in the West Tien Shan. The experts made a 10 percent sampling that made up 30 questionnaires for each of the facilities. But in reality the received answers made up 56.6 percent of the total. As a result, the answers of five percents of the tourists staying in these facilities were analyzed. The error of representativeness allows to state that obtained results are 92-95 percent true. It was defined that a major part of visitors to the tourist centers are citizens from the capital of Uzbekistan (over 56 percent of respondents), however their share is minor in some places (see Table №23). For instance, the visitors breakdown by regions for the “Gornyak” pension is as follows: 28 percent of respondents arrived from Uchkuduk and Namangan respectively, 32 percent – from Zeravshan, and four percent of visitors arrived from both Tashkent and the Tashkent region
respectively, and four percent - from other countries (this is because the pension is a property of the Navoi mining complex and the visitors are sent there by the trade union of the complex). Foreigners make up less than five percent of guests in the pension. The share of citizens from other regions of the country is over 38 percent but the majority of them are not from the Tashkent region. The poll showed that traveling to the Ugam-Chatkal national park and accommodation in the hotels/pensions was arranged at the expense of trade unions – so indicated 44 percent of the respondents in “Gornyak”. Only 15 percent of the respondents intended to travel abroad after the rest in the Bostanlyk district. More than 60 percent will come back home and about 25 percent could not express their opinion. Therefore the Ugam-Chatkal recreation zone is a final destination of the travel and is characterized as a domestic (inner) tourist facility. As to the purpose of the visits a majority of the respondents said they came to see the Charvak water reservoir (68.0 and 44.4 percent of respondents from “Gornyak” and “Chimgan Oromgohi”, respectively). 66.6 percent of the respondents in “Chimgan-Oromgohi” were interested in hiking, picnicking or just staying in the country-side for several days; other tourists visited the recreation zone in order to participate in scientific workshops, conferences, or to go fishing (68.4 percent of the respondent in “Gory Chatkala”). These tourist facilities render a wide range of services and therefore visitors stay here for more than 10 days (this was stated by 35.2 percent of the respondents, with the biggest share falling to “Gornyak”). However in “Chimgan-Oromgohi” the share of visitors to stay from five to ten days was 66.6 percent, from two to five days – 68.4 percent in “Gory Chatkala”, and for two days – 46.6 percent in “Charvak-Oromgohi” This is also because the visitors need to buy tickets for group tours and there is no need for visitors who would come here for one day to overnight – the share of five percent is characteristic for visitors from Tashkent. As to the type of rest 77.7 percent of visitors in “Chimgan-Oromgohi” go on a hike in the mountains (the hotel is surrounded by mountain ridges), 66.6 percent of visitors in “CharvakOromgohi” prefer bathing in Charvak (the beach is 100 m away), 89.4 percent of visitors in “Gory Chatkala” have other reasons including participation in workshops and conferences. To the hotels “Chimgan-Oromgohi” and “Charvak-Oromgohi” tourists normally get by public transport, most often scheduled bus; the clients of “Gornyak” are transported in an organized way by vehicles specially ordered for this purpose, while the clients of “Gory Chatkala” are taken by taxis or private cars arranged for them by the tour operators. Most of the visitors had learnt about the place (hotel and region) from their friends or had been here before. Table №23. Forms of rest and travels in four hotels/tourist centers located in the Bostanlyk district within the Ugam-Chatkal national park, in absolute values and %, tourists’ opinions «ChimganOromgohi» Abs.
«CharvakOromgohi/the Piramid» Abs. %
«Gory Chatkala» Abs.
1. Where did you come from? Tashkent 8 88,8 11 73,3 18 94,7 1 4,0 38 56,7 Other cities/towns of 1 11,2 1 6,66 1 5,3 23 92,0 26 38,2 Uzbekistan Other country 2 13,3 1 4,0 3 4,5 No answer 1 6,6 1 1,5 2. Are you also going to visit other countries during this travel? Yes 1 11,2 5 33,3 1 5,0 3 12,0 10 14,9 No 6 66,6 8 53,3 8 42,1 20 80 42 61,7 No answer 2 22,2 2 13,3 10 52,6 2 8,0 15 23,9 3. Why did you decide to visit the Ugam-Chatkal national nature park? (several answers allowed)
To see the Charvak water reservoir To hike To ride horse To picnic To study wildlife To spend several days away from the city To see your friends or relatives who live in the village Other
6 2 6 5 6
66,6 22,2 66,6 55,5 66,6
2 3 1 3 11
13,3 20,0 6,66 20,0 73,3
1 1 4
5,2 5,2 21,0
4 1 5 7 14
16,0 4,0 20,0 28,0 56,0
12 6 13 16 35
3 33,3 2 13,3 13 68,4 3 12,0 21 4. How long are you going to stay here? Only one day One day and night 1 11,1 2 13,3 3 4,41 Two days 7 46,6 5 26,3 12 17,6 Two to five days 1 11,1 5 33,3 13 68,4 1 4,0 20 29,4 Five to 10 days 6 66,6 1 6,6 2 8,0 9 13,2 Over 10 days 1 11,1 1 5,2 22 88,0 24 35,2 5. How do you spend your time here? (several answers allowed) Traveling over the 3 33,3 3 20,0 5 20,0 11 Ugam-Chatkal national park We learn and enjoy 3 33,3 4 26,6 1 5,2 3 12,0 11 rural life We ride horses 2 22,2 3 20,0 1 4,0 6 We hike in the 7 77,7 4 26,6 5 20,0 16 mountains We make up picnics 5 55,5 1 6,66 5 20,0 11 and rest We study wildlife 4 44,4 1 6,66 1 5,2 8 32,0 14 We make excursions 1 11,1 17 68,0 18 We have a 1 11,1 1 6,66 1 5,2 3 professional interest in visiting this village We bathe in Charvak 2 22,2 10 66,6 2 10,5 14 Other 1 11,1 3 20,0 17 89,4 3 12,0 24 No answer 1 11,1 1 6,66 2 6. Who helped you to arrange your travel? (several answers allowed) Tourist agency 3 33,3 3 20,0 9 47,3 4 16,0 19 I drove my own car 5 55,5 8 53,3 1 5,2 2 8,0 16 I took public transport 2 22,2 1 6,66 1 5,2 6 24,0 10 (bus) Other 2 13,3 9 47,3 11 44,0 22 No answer 1 6,66 2 8,0 3 7. How did you know about this place and the Ugam-Chatkal national park? (several answers allowed) From tourist agency 5 55,5 2 13,3 9 47,3 6 24,0 22 From NGO 2 8,0 2
Other tourists recommended me to visit the place I was here before From advertisement/booklet Read in guidebook By recommendation of friend from Uzbekistan No answer Total
However it should be mentioned that in “Charvak-Oromgohi” and “Chimgan-Oromgohi” 26.6 and 11.1 percent of the visitors respectively did not know the pension was located in the Ugam-Chatkal national park. While in “Gory Chimgana” 10.5 percent of guests said they got all services they expected to get during the visit. Table №24 shows that tourists have difficulties in terms of access to information about the area and place of their residence in their mother tongues. It is also very difficult to obtain professional guide services. (It is a common problem for “Chimgan-Oromgohi” – said 66.6 percent of respondents. While in “Gory Chatkala”, where guides are available, only 5.2 percent of respondents said so too.) However a considerable number of visitors indicated that an important component of the infrastructure such as a good restaurant or cafe is underdeveloped. It was mentioned in the questionnaires that prices for meals did not meet the quality. It is also important to emphasize that tourists had no leisure services and entertainment programs (e.g. folk-show, concerts, sporting games or competitions). By the way, many of the tourists suggested that sporting industry be developed in the Bostanlyk district. Almost 28 percent of respondents had rated provided information of culture and wildlife as ‘good’, over 20 percent – as ‘medium’, and 20 percent did not answer the question. 23.5 percent of the tourists had rated guide-boards and interpretation boards as ‘medium’, however 30 percent had no idea about it at all. The procedure of paying fees for entrance to the Ugam-Chatkal national park was deemed acceptable by 45 percent, while one-third of the respondent could not express their opinion as they never paid for their tour to the natural area. Two-third of the respondents was noticed to believe that hospitality of local people helped them have good rest and enjoy the outward things and only few respondents was slightly disappointed by the hospitality. A great majority of visitors – 70 percent of respondents – also noticed the amicability of hotel attendants and staff of the park’s administration, and only 33.3 percent of visitors in “Chimgan-Oromgohi” rated it as ‘medium’. The quality of accommodation in the four-star hotels was rated as ‘excellent’ and ‘good’ by 70 percent of the respondents. It means that after reconstruction of the hotels the quality of services therein provided has improved significantly. The transportation of a great majority of the tourists to the tourist centers, arranged by tourist agencies, was rated as acceptable by one-third of the guests. The visitors who arrived with public buses were not satisfied – almost 30 percent of them did not want to answer the question at all or expressed negative impression. Table №24. Tourists’ opinions in the Bostanlyk district within Ugam-Chatkal national park, in absolute values and % «ChimganOromgohi» Abs.
«CharvakOromgohi/the Pyramid» Abs. %
«Gory Chatkala» Abs.
1. What have not you got in this tourist center and the Ugam-Chatkal national nature park? (several answers allowed)
Information in the 3 33,3 1 6,66 1 5,2 2 8,0 7 mother tongue Professional guiding 6 66,6 6 40,0 1 5,2 5 20,0 18 services Horse rent 3 33,3 4 26,6 1 5,2 1 4,0 9 Transportation 5 55,5 1 6,66 1 5,2 1 4,0 8 services Accommodation (a place to overnight) Restaurant or cafĂŠ 8 88,8 3 20,0 2 10,5 6 24,0 16 with good cuisine Other 1 11,1 2 13,3 2 10,5 3 12,0 8 No answer 5 33,3 11 57,8 16 2. What do you evaluate the following aspects of your visit to the Ugam-Chatkal national park? Evaluation Information of wildlife and culture - excellent 3 20,0 3 15,7 2 8,0 8 11,7 - good 4 44,4 1 6,66 3 15,7 11 44,0 19 27,9 - medium 1 11,1 1 6,66 5 26,3 7 28,0 14 20,5 - so-so 1 11,1 1 6,66 3 12,0 5 7,35 - poor 1 11,1 4 26,6 2 10,5 1 4,0 8 11,7 - hard to answer 1 11,1 1 6,66 4 21,0 1 4,0 7 10,2 - no answer 1 11,1 4 26,6 2 10,5 7 10,2 Guide-board and interpretation - excellent 1 6,66 2 10,5 2 8,0 5 7,35 - good 1 11,1 4 26,6 1 5,2 4 16,0 10 14,7 - medium 4 44,4 2 13,3 3 15,7 7 28,0 16 23,5 - so-so 1 11,1 2 13,3 2 10,5 1 4,0 6 8,82 - poor 2 22,2 1 6,66 1 5,2 7 28,0 11 16,1 - hard to answer 2 13,3 5 26,3 2 8,0 9 13,2 - no answer 1 11,1 3 20,0 5 26,6 2 8,0 11 16,1 Procedure of payment of park entrance fees - excellent 5 33,3 3 15,7 1 4,0 9 13,2 - good 1 6,66 7 36,8 3 12,0 11 16,1 - medium 1 11,1 1 6,66 2 10,5 6 24,0 10 14,7 - so-so 3 33,3 1 6,66 2 10,5 2 8,0 8 11,7 - poor 1 11,1 1 6,66 4 21,0 6 8,82 - hard to answer 2 13,3 1 5,2 6 24,0 9 13,2 - no answer 4 44,4 4 26,6 7 28,0 15 22,0 Amicability of local people - excellent 1 11,1 4 26,6 7 36,8 5 20,0 17 25,0 - good 3 33,3 4 26,6 9 47,3 16 64,0 32 47,0 - medium 1 11,1 1 6,6 1 5,2 2 8,0 5 7,35 - so-so 2 22,2 1 4,0 3 4,41 - poor - hard to answer 1 11,1 1 6,66 1 5,2 3 4,41 - no answer 1 11,1 5 33,3 1 5,2 1 4,0 8 11,7 Amicability of tourist facility and park staff - excellent 2 22,2 5 33,3 10 52,6 7 28,0 24 35,2 - good 1 11,1 3 20,0 7 36,8 14 56,0 25 36,7 - medium 3 33,3 1 6,66 1 4,0 5 7,35
- so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer
1 1 1
11,1 11,1 11,1
- excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer
1 1 1 5 1
11,1 11,1 11,1 55,5 11,1
- excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer
1 1 5 2
11,1 11,1 55,5 22,2
- excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer
1 3 1 3 1
11,1 33,3 11,1 33,3 11,1
1 1 4
6,66 1 5,2 6,66 26,6 1 5,2 Place of Residence 5 33,3 13 68,4 6 40,0 5 26,3 1 6,66 3 20,0 1 5,2 Transportation services 1 6,66 5 26,3 5 33,3 6 31,5 2 13,3 1 5,2 1 6,66 1 5,2 2 13,3 2 10,2 4 26,6 4 21,0 Safety 2 13,3 10 52,6 5 33,3 5 26,3 1 6,66 1 6,66 1 5,2 1 6,66 1 5,2 1 6,66 1 5,2 4 26,6 1 5,2
1 1 1
4,0 4,0 4,0
3 2 2 7
4,41 2,94 2,94 10,2
19 4 1 1
76,0 16,0 4,0 4,0
37 16 3 6
54,4 23,5 4,41 8,82
3 10 5 1 1 1 4
12,0 40,0 20,0 4,0 4,0 4,0 16,0
9 26 8 3 7 5 14
13,2 38,2 11,7 4,41 10,2 7,35 20,5
4 15 2 1 2 1
16,0 60,0 8,0 4,0 8,0 4,0
16 26 6 4 5 4 7
23,5 38,2 8,82 5,88 7,35 5,88 10,2
The respondents correlated the improvement of services provided to visitors of the UgamChatkal national park with the performance of administration of the pension they were staying at. This is because most of the tourists were brought to the place of accommodation in an organized manner and the tours went on in accordance with programs earlier worked out. Therefore most of the comments concerned problems such as construction of new swimming pool in the hotel, improvement of food quality and sauna services, consumer services, social events and entertainments. One of the tourists showed bewilderment for some local people had â€˜privatizeâ€™ the beach and demanded fee for the entrance to the beach. The lack of proper hospitality of the park staff was also noticed. However the tourists would welcome information and services of guides residing in villages around the area. The pricing for local tourist product is also considered as a serious aspect that can stimulate or deteriorate a demand for the tourist infrastructure services and affect the share of the area within domestic tourist market. There was also suggested to build a new ropeway, to improve telephone communications and transportation between pensions and tourist center and sights. The anti-sanitary conditions of beaches, building freezes deteriorating the sceneries, high prices for products and services, and lack of newspapers and magazines had roused censure. The tourists asked why entrance fees are collected without following the relevant financial procedures and therefore are in conflict with the tax law. Table â„–25 shows what visitors think about the necessity to collect fees for the entrance to the specially protected natural area. Over 20 percent of the respondents either did not answer or believe that it is unnecessary to pay. 30 percent said the fee should be moderate and not exceed US$
1. About 34 percent believed it should range from US$ 2 to 5. In other words, they said the administration of the park should generate revenues and use the funds to increase ecologic awareness among the general public and youth and contribute to harmonization of human activities and wildlife. Table №25. Respondents’ answers to the question “Do you agree to pay fees for the entrance to the park if you are confident that fund so generated will be spent to increase environmental awareness among local school children?”, in absolute values and %. «ChimganOromgohi» Abs.
No No more than 500 Uzbek Soums (UZS) ($0,5) No more than 1000 UZS ($1) No more than 2000 UZS ($2) No more than 5000 UZS ($5) No answer
«CharvakOromgohi/the Pyramid» Abs. %
Table №26 describes the respondents and enables to judge about customers of tourist facilities. So, almost two-third of them is women. According to the experts this wonderful half of mankind is more inclined to travel and enjoy wildlife. Therefore it is recommended to widen the gender aspects of tourist programs and trails/routes. 53 percent are people aged 20-40, the most active age, who weight their incomes against financial opportunities and give traveling a preference. A great majority of people to visit the hotel/pensions come with their families or as a group of colleagues and friend. Only very few people come alone. Thus tour packages shall be developed for group visits to the sights of the Bostanlyk district. Table №26. Information of tourists staying in the pensions/hotels «ChimganOromgohi»
- male - female - no answer Age, total
3 6 9
- > 20 years - 20-29 years - 30-39 years - 40-49 years - 50-59 years < 60 years - no answer You came, total
4 1 3 1 9
100, 0 33,3 66,6 100, 0 44,4 11,1 33,3 11,1 100, 0
«CharvakOromgohi/the Pyramid» Abs. %
7 8 15 1 4 5 3 1 1 15
100, 0 46,6 53,4 100, 0 6,66 26,6 33,3 20,0 6,66 6,66 100, 0
8 11 19 8 2 5 4 19
100, 0 42,1 57,9 100, 0 42,1 10,5 26,3 21,0 100, 0
25 5 19 1 25 3 4 8 5 4 1 25
100, 0 20 76,0 4,0 100, 0 12,0 16,0 32,0 20,0 16,0 4,0 100, 0
23 44 1 68
33,8 64,7 1,47 100,0
4 20 16 16 10 2 68
5,8 29,4 23,5 23,5 14,7 2,9 100,0
- alone - with someone else - with friends - with your family - with a group of tourists - no answer
2 3 4 -
22,2 33,3 44,4 -
1 5 3 4 1
6,66 33,3 20,0 26,6 6,66
11 2 6
57,8 10,5 31,5
5 9 1 9 1
20,0 36,0 4,0 36,0 4,0
6 16 18 19 8
8,8 23,5 26,4 27,9 11,7
SURVEY OF VISITORS RESTING IN LOCAL COMMUNITIES (CBT). At present, there are five nature reserves, one national park, two nature parks, 21 sanctuaries (four of them are game preserves, five – forest sanctuaries, eight – botanic, one – zoological, and three – complex sanctuaries) in the region of the West Tien Shan. They play a different role in biodiversity conservation. However these areas are now being more and more involved in economic activity and suffer from anthropogenic pressure. In this respect the experts suggest to develop wildlife tourism, which, on the one hand, would generate funds to finance environment protection activities including the rehabilitation of flora and fauna populations, and, on the other hand, would create alternative livelihoods for local communities, who, for economic hardship, now have to explore wildlife resources, and would also help tourists learn more about wildlife and contribute to this process. Various sociological studies aimed to identify the conditions and quality of services rendered to visitors have been conducted in the Uzbek segment of the West Tien Shan (the Bostanlyk district) under the EuropeAid Interstate biodiversity project in the West Tien Shan that covers Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan. According to the experts from the Association of Travelers “Rabat-Malik” some 3,000 persons, 1,000 in each village, stay every day in Chimgan, Khumsan, and Brichmulla. For this purpose there was conducted a 10 percent questioning of tourists, who came to stay in private houses belonging to local people, or rented yards with trestlebeds, or were guests of some of local people, or stayed in private guest houses, tourist centers and tents in the villages. Of 100 questionnaires distributed among the visitors in the villages 83 percent were received in Chimgan, 94 percent – in Khumsan, and 97 percent – in Brichmulla, the total received being 91 percent from 300 distributed questionnaires. The three villages were selected because community-based tourism was being formed and began to function, there. That is having joint their means and efforts, local people take an active part in rendering services to visitors from other regions. Most of the answers came from visitors who rented orchards, land plots around, and yards with trestle-beds in the homesteads of local people (31.5 percent), and from visitors accommodated in private houses or apartments (17.5 percent). 31.1 percent of all answers received were given by visitors accommodated in special tourist institutions (hotel, tourist centers). (See Table №27.) The cheapest and most affordable were trestle-beds. They could be rented for US$ 5-15 per day depending on additional services available (e.g. cooking equipment, water supply, lavatory, proximity of lake/river, vegetation, etc.). The homesteads were offered by local people at a higher price that ranged from US$ 10 – 50 per day and depended on the level of comfort and services provided (washing, cooking, TV, sauna, pool, etc.). Visitor who came from other parts of the country or CIS to see their relatives or friends were accommodated irrespective of house conditions for they stayed for free. It was also free-of-charge to set up own tent near the sights but in the process of stay the tourists anyway would have to make use of local infrastructure services (buying food, safety, guides, horse rental, etc.) that also needed improvement. The hotels and tourist centers normally receive guests in an organized way, that is by referrals of tour operators or trade unions, and the prices are relatively high (from US$ 20 to 100), while a major part of the expenditures is paid from social funds (by trade unions or enterprises). There are also high-end customers that will readily pay in cash but their share within the entire tourist flow is low – one-two percent. Visitors arrived to the Bostanlyk district from different places and were unevenly distributed in the villages: from the capital of Uzbekistan over 73 percent arrived in Chimgan, over 88 percent
– in Khumsan, and less than 49 percent – in Brichmulla. The share of citizens from the CIS countries ranged from eight to 14 percent of the respondents, while that from other countries of the world made up to two percent. This is because of the fact that Chimgan and Khumsan have been the main destinations for visitors from Tashkent as they are closer to the capital city. The foreigners choose destinations recommended to them by tourist firms or friends/relatives. Therefore, the share of visitors from Tashkent and the Tashkent within the total number of tourists resting in the three villages of the Bostanlyk districts and in the Ugam-Chatkal national park was 69.7 and 10.6 percent, respectively. 11.3 percent came from the other parts of Uzbekistan, and 8.4 percent – from CIS and other foreign countries. So local people involved in community based tourism and tour operators shall pay more attention to visitors from Tashkent, take into account the specific of their taste and preferences. It is also important that the segment has a higher percentage of wealthy people in the country. Some data estimate that average annual income of the citizen of the capital is 2 – 2.5 times as high as the national average income per capita. Moreover, most of the ‘middle class’ people live in Tashkent. Table №27. Tourists’ poll segmentation by dislocation, in absolute values and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Accommodation Private house 12 25,0 12 25,0 24 50,0 48 100,0 Yard (trestle-bed) 22 25,5 47 54,6 18 20,9 86 100,0 At relatives’ 19 44,2 17 39,5 7 16,3 43 100,0 Tourist center 24 46,1 9 17,3 19 36,5 52 100,0 Hotel 9 27,3 24 72,7 33 100,0 Own tent 6 54,5 5 45,5 11 100,0 2. Visitors arrive from Tashkent 61 73,4 83 88,2 47 48,4 191 100,0 Tashkent region 8 9,63 5 5,31 16 16,4 29 100,0 Other regions of 2 2,40 5 5,31 24 24,7 31 100,0 Uzbekistan CIS countries other than 11 13,2 1 1,06 8 8,24 20 100,0 Uzbekistan Other foreign countries 1 1,20 2 2,06 3 100,0 Total 83 30,2 94 34,3 97 35,4 274 100,0 During the travel 18.9 percent of the respondents turned out to visit other countries, as well (see Table №28). Therefore, the Bostanlyk district is one of the destinations of the transboundary trips. However 74.8 percent of visitors were not going to leave the country as their goal was domestic tourism only. This is another evidence for the tour operators from Tashkent to keep on developing Uzbekistan’s tourist potential and take more active part in offering new proposals for the tourist market that would include the sights of the Ugam-Chatkal national park. 46.7 percent of the respondents were defined to hike in the mountains, 32.8 percent – to ride on horseback, 27.7 – to learn more about wildlife, 25.1 – to make excursions organized by local guides or guided by the staff of the tour operators. While 67.4 percent of visitors in Chimgan went in for trekking over the Greater and Small Chimgan mountain peaks and Kizil-Jara, 24.4 percent of visitors in Khumsan picnicked near river Ugam, and eight percent of guests in Brichmulla bathe in Charvak. As to duration of the stay within the special protected natural area 40.1 percent of tourists intended to stay no longer than five hours, 12.0 percent – from five to 10 hours, 23.7 percent – over 10 hours, and only 16.7 percent either did not plan to stay there or did not answer the question. In the villages, the share of respondents, who stayed there for more than a week, was 29.8 percent. It mainly concerned to those who stayed in the tourist centers “Krystal”, “Oltyn Yambi”,
“Khumsan”, and others. At the same time 16.7 percent of tourists stayed there only for two days – mostly week-ends. 70 percent of tourists stayed in the Bostanlyk district for four – seven days. However there was revealed a regularity, namely 62.0 percent of tourists were reluctant about visiting other villages and spent most of their time at the village they stayed at to overnight. In return, over 31 percent of visitors traveled over the Bostanlyk district, particularly to Sijak, Nanai, Yakkatut, Khojikent, and other settlements. Table №28. Segmentation of tourists’ polls by travels, in absolute values and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Do you visit other countries during your travel? Yes 20 24,1 8 8,51 24 24,7 52 100,0 No 58 69,9 84 89,3 63 64,9 205 100,0 No answer 5 6,0 2 2,12 10 10,3 17 100,0 2. How do you enjoy your stay? (several answers allowed) Traveling over the 22 26,5 11 11,7 23 23,7 56 Ugam-Chatkal national park Learning and enjoy rural 19 22,8 17 18,0 18 18,5 54 life Riding horses 39 46,9 22 23,4 29 29,8 90 Hiking in the mountains 56 67,4 36 38,2 36 37,1 128 Making up picnics and 36 43,3 23 24,4 8 8,24 67 rest Studying wildlife 36 43,3 17 18,0 23 23,7 76 Making excursions 17 20,4 27 28,7 25 25,7 69 I have a professional 10 12,0 2 2,12 8 8,24 20 interest in visiting this village We bathe in Charvak 1 1,20 17 18,0 8 8,24 26 Other 1 1,06 3 3,09 4 3. How many hours have you spent or are going to spent in the Ugam-Chatkal national park? 0 hours 26 31,3 12 12,7 3 3,09 41 100,0 two hours 9 10,8 44 46,8 16 16,4 69 100,0 Two - five hours 10 12,0 19 20,2 12 12,3 41 100,0 Five to ten hours 13 15,6 8 8,51 12 12,3 33 100,0 Over 10 hours 19 22,8 9 9,57 37 38,1 65 100,0 No answer 6 7,22 2 2,12 17 17,5 25 4. How many days/nights are you going to stay in the village? One day 8 9,63 2 2,12 3 3,09 13 4,74 One day and night 2 2,4 11 11,7 5 5,15 18 6,56 Two days 11 13,2 26 27,6 9 9,27 46 16,7 Three days 9 10,8 11 11,7 13 13,4 33 12,0 Four days 10 12,0 7 7,44 10 10,3 27 9,85 Five to seven days 16 19,2 15 15,9 12 12,3 43 15,6 Over seven days 25 30,1 21 22,3 35 36,0 81 29,5 No answer 2 2,4 1 1,06 10 10,3 11 4,01
5. Have you visited other villages in the Ugam-Chatkal national park? 24 28,9 38 40,4 24 24,7 86
No No answer
It is also important to know who arranges tours over the Bostanlyk district. The polls show that 49.2 percent of the respondents came by their own cars (‘unorganized’ tourists), almost 33 percent came by public transport (bus, private minivan), and 8.02 percent arrived with the train or vehicles heading to the area. The tourist agencies (including trade unions) transported their customers by car (see Table №29). Since the Bostanlyk district is a center of tourism that has been functioning at least 50 years, it is no surprise that 57.2 percent of the respondents already visited the area before, 35.4 percent – received information of the village from other tourists/friends from Uzbekistan. A low advertising effectiveness should be mentioned thereupon – only 3.28 percent of the respondents said they decided to go after they read the booklets and guide-books. Table №29. Segmentation of tourist’ polls by the organization of travel, in absolute values and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Who helped you organize your travel? (several answers allowed) Tourist firm 2 24,0 6 6,18 15 15,4 33 I drove my own car 44 53,0 47 48,4 44 45,3 135 I came by public 36 43,3 33 34,0 21 21,6 90 transport Other 2 2,4 6 6,18 14 14,4 22 No answer 2 2,06 7 7,21 9 2. How did you learn about the settlement? (several answers allowed) From tourist agency 4 4,81 2 2,12 7 7,21 13 From NGO 2 2,12 1 1,03 3 Other tourists 9 10,8 23 24,4 17 17,5 49 recommended me to visit the place I was here before 63 75,9 56 59,5 38 39,1 157 From 1 1,2 7 7,44 8 advertisement/booklet Read in guidebook 1 1,03 1 By recommendation of 16 19,27 6 6,38 26 26,8 48 friend from Uzbekistan No answer 1 1,06 6 6,18 7 The specific of service is an important component of community based tourism development. The respondents from Brichmulla expressed discontent at the overall village infrastructure, particularly poor conditions of the roads and beach near the Charvak water reservoir, the absence of natural gas supply and sports grounds, low culture of reception and poor services. Visitors of the “Oltyn Yambi” (“the nugget”) tourist center complained about the sanitary conditions of the center, problems with hot water and electricity, lack of sightseeing and leisure programs. And visitors of sanatorium “Khumsan” complained at the absence of playgrounds. An analysis of the answers showed that sanitary factor was an integral part of local service and should be taken into account (see Table №30). The washroom conditions in Chimgan was rated as ‘excellent’ or ‘good’ by some 52 percent of tourists, in Brichmulla – by about 54 percent, in Khumsan – by less than 74 percent; as to the toilets almost 40, 30, and 29 percent respectively rated it as ‘medium’; 30.1 and 27.1 percent rated shower rooms or bath-houses as medium’ and 20.6 percent – ‘so-so’. Apparently, this is what the members of community based tourism shall pay
attention to, notwithstanding the fact that over 43 percent of respondents appreciated sanitary conditions in the Bostanlyk district. 57 percent of the respondents said that meals cooked for tourists were ‘excellent’ or ‘good’; 35.0 percent of tourists rated beddings as ‘medium’ or ‘poor’, while 7.29 percent could not say anything at all about it. On the other hand, the villages of the region have the most valuable element of tourist industry – the hospitality and cordiality. It was clear from the answers of the visitors; 89.4 percent of them were touched by the kind atmosphere and amicability, tolerance and benevolence of local people. 87.2 percent of respondents emphasized the hospitality of landlords who provided them with accommodation and food. This contributed to the perception of total security: 72.2 percent of the respondents felt no threads and were very comfortable and only 20.4 percent did not fully agree wit this and 7.29 percent felt unsafe or did not answer the question. In the aggregate, 77.0 percent of tourists were satisfied with the rest and tourist infrastructure in the three villages, the highest share falling to the visitors of “Chimgan”. Table №30. Segmentation of tourists’ answers by the quality of services, in absolute value and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Washrooms - excellent 10 12,0 17 18,0 20 20,6 47 100,0 - good 33 39,7 53 56,3 32 32,9 118 100,0 - medium 27 32,5 18 19,1 10 10,3 55 100,0 - so-so 6 7,22 3 3,19 12 12,3 21 100,0 - poor 3 3,61 2 2,12 11 11,3 16 100,0 - hard to answer 1 1,2 1 1,06 2 2,06 4 100,0 - no answer 3 3,61 10 10,3 13 100,0 2. Toilets - excellent 5 6,02 13 13,8 2 2,06 20 100,0 - good 18 21,6 32 34,0 27 27,8 77 100,0 - medium 33 39,7 28 29,7 29 29,8 90 100,0 - so-so 15 18,0 18 19,1 11 11,3 44 100,0 - poor 6 7,22 3 3,19 18 18,5 27 100,0 - hard to answer 3 3,61 1 1,03 4 100,0 - no answer 3 3,61 9 9,27 12 100,0 3. Shower-room or bath-house - excellent 3 4,81 13 13,8 2 2,06 18 100,0 - good 19 22,8 39 41,4 22 22,6 80 100,0 - medium 25 30,1 26 27,6 17 17,5 68 100,0 - so-so 9 10,8 12 12,7 20 20,6 41 100,0 - poor 15 18,0 2 2,12 11 11,3 28 100,0 - hard to answer 7 8,43 2 2,12 11 11,3 20 100,0 - no answer 5 6,02 14 14,4 19 100,0 4. Bed-room - excellent 10 12,0 14 14,8 9 9,27 33 100,0 - good 42 51,8 44 46,8 27 27,8 115 100,0 - medium 10 12,0 30 31,9 36 37,1 76 100,0 - so-so 9 10,8 5 5,31 12 12,3 26 100,0 - poor 3 3,61 3 100,0 - hard to answer 4 4,81 1 1,06 3 3,09 8 100,0 - no answer 5 6,02 10 10,3 15 100,0 5. Sanitary conditions
- excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good
2 2,4 17 18,0 5 5,15 31 37,3 32 34,0 31 31,9 27 32,5 27 28,7 22 22,8 7 8,43 14 14,8 13 13,4 10 12,0 4 4,25 14 14,4 4 4,81 2 2,06 2 2,4 10 10,3 6. Climate in the village (amicability of local communities) 46 55,4 48 51,0 34 35,0 29 34,9 40 42,5 48 49,9 2 2,4 6 6,38 6 6,78 2 2,4 2 2,06 1 1,20 2 2,40 1 1,20 7 7,21 7. Food 16 19,2 10 10,6 13 13,4 47 56,6 28 29,7 44 45,3 11 13,2 11 11,7 14 14,4 5 6,02 2 2,12 4 4,12 1 1,20 1 1,03 7 7,44 4 4,12 3 3,61 36 38,2 17 17,5 8. Hospitality of landlords 34 40,9 38 40,4 43 44,3 42 50,6 45 47,8 37 38,1 2 2,40 9 9,57 3 3,09 1 1,20 2 2,12 3 3,09 1 1,20 2 2,40 1 1,20 11 11,3 9. Security in the village 25 30,1 13 13,8 17 17,3 46 55,4 43 45,7 54 55,6 7 8,43 28 29,7 10 10,3 1 1,20 6 6,38 4 4,12 2 2,40 2 2,12 1 1,20 1 1,06 1 1,03 1 1,20 1 1,06 11 11,3 10. Quality of beddings, towels 11 12,2 20 21,2 5 5,15 40 48,1 44 46,8 38 39,1 20 24,0 24 25,5 27 27,8 2 2,40 4 4,25 4 4,12 2 2,40 2 2,12 11 11,3 1 1,20 1 1,03 7 8,43 11 11,3 11. Presence of other guests nearby 14 16,8 20 21,2 7 7,21 45 54,2 48 51,0 48 49,4
24 94 76 34 28 6 12
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
128 117 14 4 1 2 8
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
39 119 36 11 2 11 56
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
115 124 14 6 1 2 12
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
55 143 45 11 4 3 13
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
36 122 71 10 15 2 18
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
- medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer - excellent - good - medium - so-so - poor - hard to answer - no answer
11 13,2 22 23,4 14 3 3,61 4 4,25 14 4 4,81 3 2 2,40 1 4 4,81 10 12. Satisfaction of visiting the village 34 40,9 32 34,0 20 35 42,1 46 48,9 44 7 8,43 14 14,8 10 2 2,40 2 2,12 4 2 2,40 10 3 3,61 2 7
14,4 14,4 3,09 1,03 10,3
47 21 7 3 14
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
20,6 45,3 10,3 4,12 10,3 2,06 7,21
86 125 31 8 12 5 7
100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0 100,0
In addition to improved quality of services it is important to widen the number of services provided, which is something to think about, so far. Though tourists came and expected to receive anything they might need, they however got sometimes disappointed as they faced the reality. Table №31 shows that in Chimgan it was a problem to find professional guide, who would accompany tourists during the tours and provide good interpretation of the sights; in Khumsan and Brichmulla a problem was the lack of horses for horseback rides in the mountains. And a major part of tourists (30.6 percent) showed bewilderment at the absence of a good restaurant or café in the tourist centers. Table №31. What kind of services you have not got in the village (several answers allowed), in absolute value and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Information in the 8 9,6 5 5,31 10 10,3 23 mother tongue Professional guiding 20 24,10 11 11,7 25 25,7 56 services Good horse for 11 13,2 19 20,2 26 26,8 56 horseback tours Reliable vehicle (off21 25,3 13 13,8 11 11,3 45 roader) Visit to the Chatkal 14 16,9 19 20,2 33 34,2 66 reserve Restaurant or café with 34 40,9 21 22,3 29 29,8 84 good cuisine Other 9 10,8 9 9,57 4 4,12 22 No answer 19 22,8 19 20,2 13 13,4 51 Tourists recommended that administrations of the settlements reduced the entrance fee to the national park, improved the sanitary conditions of natural areas, recreation zones and other tourist infrastructure (beaches, mountain trails, and catering infrastructure). It was suggested to invest more funds in the maintenance of communication infrastructure (roads, telephone communication), expand gas and water supply networks. Respondents also indicated that it was necessary to ensure good training of staff involved in providing services to the tourists. This concerns both members of community based tourism and employees of tourist firms. Though ecotourism and relaxation are more attractive for women rather than men, the experts, who visited the villages under study, did not find any numeral superiority of one gender
against another (see Table №32). It should be noticed that 50 percent of the respondents were aged 20-39, the most romantic group taking a great interest in outdoor resting. 21.5 percent were of mature age and 20.4 percent – the elderly people. Therefore such segmentation enables to create specific tourist products aimed to satisfy the elderly. Special programs including relaxation, beach, cognitive hikes (up to 2 km) should be offered to the tourists aged over 50. Of course, the hikes shall be affordable for them in terms of physical burden on the human body. It would be a mistake to ignore the quantitative aspects of tourists arriving in Chimgan, Khumsan and Brichmulla. Only 12.0 percent of them were loners and 27.3 percent - couples. The vicinity of the Bostanlyk district to the capital of Uzbekistan enables the citizens of Tashkent to rest in groups in summer: 57.6 percent – were groups consisting of more than two persons. Table №32. Segmentation of tourists’ polls by personal characteristics, in absolute value and % Chimgan Khumsan Brichmulla Total Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Sex Male 41 49,3 51 44 45,3 136 100,0 Female 42 50,7 42 46 47,4 130 100,0 No answer 1 7 7,21 8 100,0 2. Age < 20 years 11 13,3 5 5,31 6 6,18 22 8,02 20-29 years 18 21,7 24 25,5 21 21,6 63 22,9 30-39 years 18 21,6 25 26,5 31 31,9 74 27,0 40-49 years 17 20,5 20 21,2 22 22,6 59 21,5 50-60 years 19 22,8 17 18,0 7 7,21 43 15,6 > 60 years 3 3,19 10 10,3 13 4,74 3. You came Alone 7 8,43 21 22,3 5 5,15 33 100,0 Two 21 25,37 27 28,7 27 27,8 75 100,0 With friends 22 26,5 23 24,4 23 23,7 68 100,0 With family 33 39,7 19 20,9 33 34,0 85 100,0 As a member of tourist 4 4,25 1 1,03 5 100,0 group No answer 8 8,24 8 100,0 Quality service marketing in three villages of Bostanlik rayon. Project activities together with the CBTs of Humsan, Chimgan, Brichmulla in the context of marketing research showed that local communities can collect and present primary data on tourists visits to the villages and services provided by villagers. I it necessary to note that this information will be incomplete because the number of visits during one day can reach from 500 to 1000 visitors, from this number villagers accept about 20%. Therefore marketing has been conducted in certain places (accommodation facilities), owners of which agreed to cooperate. Meanwhile, CBTs can not analyze data obtained and develop recommendations, as special professional skills and qualification is necessary for that. Therefore the Project took this marketing aspect to itself. As a result of primary data processing, summarization and grouping the following was revealed (research from 15 August to 15 September 2005): From 355 tourists who provided answers to questionnaires 64 were visiting Humsan, 171 Chimgan and 120 - Brichmulla. 76-78% of respondents said that this region is attractive for tourism and its potential needs to be developed and just 8.3-15.2% said that this area does not have tourism value. Meanwhile, visitors are confident about the need to develop tourism infrastructure in Bostanlik rayon (see table №33). It needs to take into account that the respondents did not make a distinction between the village, Ugam-Chatkal National park and rayon by itself but generalized
everythink into one perception of environment. So all 100% and 92% from Humsan said that promotion and private investments are needed to strengthen recreation capacities of this area. 91% from Chimgan said that government support is needed and 64% from Brichmulla said that it should be support from international organizations and 74% local villagers should cooperate with tour operators. As one can see from these answers – there are some hints for those who intend to develop tour product and provide services to visitors. 95% respondents from Brichmulla said that they are able to come to the village by themselves – that means no intermediaries (tour operators, trade unions) are required, but about 18% from Chimgan are ready to use tour operators services. 5% of respondents from Humsan will never come to this area. And here the issue is not in the quality of service but in the visitors preference to travel to new places (this was mainly related to foreign tourists) and Uzbekistan possess another sights in another territories. Table № 33. Respondents-tourists opinion about tourism potential of three villages of Bostanlik rayon/Western Tien-Shan Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Are this village attractive from the tourists point of view? - Yes 50 78,1 130 76,0 92 76,6 - No 8 12,5 26 15,2 10 8,33 - Without answer 6 9,37 15 8,77 8 6,66 2. What is necessary to develop tourism infrastructure in region/village? (allow few answers) - private investments 59 92,1 91 53,2 101 84,1 - government investments 45 70,3 124 72,5 85 70,8 - advertising 64 100 139 81,2 57 47,5 - local villagers cooperating with tour 24 37,5 111 64,9 89 74,1 operators - government bodies assistance 36 56,2 156 91,2 93 77,5 - international organizations support 12 18,75 74 43,2 77 64,1 3. Will you come here next time? - by myself 45 70,3 78 45,6 114 95,0 - by tour operators 5 7,81 30 17,5 6 5,0 - do not come again 3 4,68 4 2,33 - without answer 11 17,1 59 34,5 Speaking about the quality of service - the larger part of tourists is satisfied with the conditions locally provided (table №34). So, 59% of respondents in Brichmulla and 89% in Humsan were satisfied with accommodation conditions in private guesthouses. 18.7% in Humsan and 16.3% in Chimgan but only 2% in Brichmulla were not satisfied with food treated by villagers. 57% in Brichmulla expressed dissatisfaction with the beds comfort. Tourists in Chimgan noted lack of care and attention but in Humsan – lack of entertainment and folklore and keeping with sanitation standards. Nevertheless these disadvantages are not very serious to be a reason for tourists not to come to this area. Many of them have defined special features of the villages. For example, 83% of respondents noted that Brichmulla shall be oriented to sport tourism in particularly rock-climbing, trekking, and 100% of tourists are sure that rest in the beach is the best type of service for the village. From the other side about 80% of respondents say that Humsan shall specialize in hunting and fishing. Horseback routes - this is a special feature of Chimgan and villagers need to develop exactly this type of service. There is a large part of those who consider that there is a perspective for ecological routes in this region (73-89%) and ethnographic tourism (57-95%).
Table №34. Tourists-respondents opinion about CBT service Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Total In % Total In % Total In % 1. Are accommodation conditions in guesthouses acceptable for you? - Yes 57 89,0 140 81,8 71 59,1 - No 6 9,37 25 14,6 30 25,0 - Without answer 1 1,56 6 3,50 19 15,8 2. What is lacking in local villagers service? (allow for several answers) - good food 12 18,7 28 16,3 2 1,66 - care, attention, respect 3 4,68 31 18,1 15 12,5 - comfortable bed, fresh bed-clothes 31 48,4 43 25,1 69 57,5 - entertainment, folklore 40 62,5 104 60,8 49 40,8 - excursions 25 39,0 59 34,5 80 66,6 - sanitation standards 29 45,3 42 24,5 10 8,33 3. Which type of tourism is necessary to develop? (allow for several answers) - extreme/sport 12 18,7 133 77,7 100 83,3 - ethnographic 61 95,3 98 57,3 115 95,8 - fishing and hunting 51 79,6 56 32,7 90 75,0 - beach+sun 34 53,1 19 11.1 120 100 - ecological 47 73,4 150 87,7 107 89,1 - horseback 31 48,4 138 80,7 35 29,1 Table № 35 reflects the factors of nature and social impact. So there is a high percent of those who claim that there are excessive barriers set by border control authorities and police. Certainly everyone has to remember that this particular village is close to state border. The same problem has been noted in Humsan. The claims related to foresters and Park employees should not be taken seriously into account as they work within their stipulated norms and rules – their objective is to protect nature resources and here there would be inevitable conflicts with local people and visitors. The major part of visitors noted ill-disposed relation towards tourists and they were worried about medical services. This probably relates to the lack of medical points in the villages and to the fact that quality medical service could be obtained only in the other places. Natural features are also of concern to tourists. Many of tourists are afraid of landslides and mudslides, which appear in spring and autumn, when it is cold and strong water flows. But existing rayon maintenance services timely clean up the roads from mudflows and landslides, provide rescue services. Table № 35. Tourist problems in villages, visitors’ opinions Humsan Chimgan Brichmulla Abs. % Abs. % Abs. % 1. Which public problems you face in villages? - border control authorities do not allow 11 17,1 45 37,5 visiting picturesque sites - police overwhelmingly carping, demand 2 3,12 14 8,18 31 25,8 documents of every kind - foresters are carping to any tourist 4 6,25 7 4,09 25 20,8 activities in rest and fishing places - local people are not that welcoming to 1 1,56 15 8,77 2 1,66 tourists - it is difficult to get medical service 16 25,0 5 2,92 2 1,66 2. Which natural problems are of your concern? - landslides, mudslides 37 57,8 21 12,2 8 6,66
- earthquakes - rains, cold - strong water flows
23 19 24
35,9 29,6 37,5
3 12 3
1,75 7,01 1,75
7 22 43
5,83 18,3 35,8
It is necessary to note that this marketing report is made in summer season when the demand for local services for tourists is very high. It will be necessary to conduct such a research in winter period, when these tourist centers will be in another economic and climatic-natural conditions. Then we would see a great difference in winter infrastructure development among Chimgan, being a ski resort, and Humsan and Brichmulla, where this type of services had been underdeveloped because of many factors (for example, lack of infrastructure). From the other side when doing this study one can reveal the other perspective directions in tourism industry, which would become principal ones in CBT activities in between seasons. National tourism development documents. As well as any branch of economy, tourism is regulated by laws and development programs. The appropriate normative-legal base which impacts the status of tourism was being formulated during 15 years in Uzbekistan. It is necessary to note, that simple search of documents related to tourism using the software "PRAVO" brought a result of 160 statutory acts. Those are not only laws and governmental decrees, but also the departmental norms approved by the Ministry of Justice, as well as international contracts and the agreements concluded by the Republic with other states. The analysis of documents allows to characterize a degree of tourism development by stages: The first is the organization of tourism as one branch of economy on the basis of enterprises being of different ownership type â€“ the State Committee of the USSR on Foreign Tourism, the Bureau of Youth Tourism "Sputnik" within the Komsomol, the trade-union organizations, etc. This period covers 1992-1995. Since this moment there started privatization of tourist objects, construction of small private hotels and it was a beginning of international tourist fair in Tashkent. The second â€“ documents which are directed on the development of tourism infrastructure, creation of nongovernmental corporate tourist associations. Within this period there were programmatic goals set such as the Program of Tourism Development till 2005. The second stage covers 1995-2000. There is a process of large investments into hotel networks, expanding of small hotels network, providing privileges to small and medium businesses. The third period covers the years since 2001 to the present. There is an on-going privatization process of enterprises from the National UZBEKTOURIZM Company. The Company itself is facing reorganization. The interdepartmental agreements are concluded to facilitate tourist procedures. The government attracts foreign investments and management companies into hotel business. National tourist administration has been instructed to develop draft Program of Tourism Development till 2010. We have to note, that legislation related to tourism, on one hand, provides favorable climate for this sector of economy, and on the other, can give privileges according to indirect attributes. For example, there are privileges for joint ventures and if the tourist firm is organized as the joint venture it can expect getting them. On the other hand, there are privileges for investors, and it relates to the sphere of tourism, too. Besides that there are norms to support private business, to develop joint-stock companies, microfirms, small and medium business, i.e. certain types of ownership and management. Let's make a review of some governmental documents which have primary importance for tourism. The Law on Tourism. Has been approved by the Oliy Majlis on August 20, 1999. Regulates state policy in the sphere of tourism, defines legislative norms for this sector of economy, including norms of relations between subjects and objects of tourism. The Regulations on the Order of Departure and Entrance of Tourists to the Republic of Uzbekistan. The appropriate provision has been approved in order to regulate the entrance of
foreign tourists into the Republic of Uzbekistan and departure of citizens of the Republic of Uzbekistan abroad as tourists, and to secure their safety. The Regulations are registered by the Ministry of Justice on November 3, 2004 N 1421. It was issued according to the Law of Republic Uzbekistan "About Tourism", Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Uzbekistan from July 28, 2004 N 360 "About Further Improvement of National Company " Uzbektourism" Activities” as well as in accordance with the other legislative acts. Regulations about Licensing of Tourist Activities. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from November 11, 2003 N 497 stipulates the procedure and rules for receiving the license for tourist activities various subjects of managing. The Order of Certification of Tourist Services. It is registered within the Ministry of Justice on March 18, 2000 N 911 and approved by the UzGosStandart. It contains general provisions, rules and procedures of carrying out obligatory certification of tourist services rendered by subjects of tourist activities and can be also used in carrying out voluntary certification. About Simplification of Visa Procedures for Citizens of Italian Republic. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from February 19, 2003 N 85. The Ministry for Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Uzbekistan is entrusted to issue multi-entry visas for one month to citizens of Italian Republic visiting Uzbekistan as tourists within 2 working days with a waver of presenting tourist vouchers of National company " Uzbektourism " or other tourist organizations. The note: the same procedure covers citizens of France, Latvia, Great Britain, Spain, Austria, Switzerland, Japan, Germany and Belgium. About Granting an Exemption from Customs Duties to Some Tourist Organizations. The Ministry of Finance (No04-02-04/11) and the State Tax Committee (No09-386 from January 12, 1996) in order to implement the Decree of the President of the Republic Uzbekistan from July 2, 1995 "About the Measures to Facilitate Participation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Revival of the Great Silk Route and to Develop International Tourism in the Republic" consider it possible to support the proposal of the National Company "Uzbektourism" regarding exemption of tourist agencies in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent cities from paying customs duties for importing vehicles for their own use. About the Measures to Facilitate Participation of the Republic of Uzbekistan in the Revival of the Great Silk Route and to Develop International Tourism in the Republic. The decree of the President of Republic Uzbekistan from June 2, 1995. The document stipulates the following: - To organize special open economic zones on international tourism in the cities of the Great Silk Route - Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva, and Tashkent; - At the airports and the railway stations of the specified cities introduce simplified order of customs clearance for foreign tourists, which corresponds to international norms, and also special customs areas for transit tourists; - To exempt from all kinds of taxes newly formed tourist agencies and the enterprises of these cities for the period from the data of their establishment till the date of receiving the first profit, but no more than three years from the date of registration; - The specified organizations and enterprises in the first year of receiving the profit shall pay 50 % of the profit tax, in the second year – 75 %, starting from the third year – 100 %; - To exempt foreign investors which set up joint ventures in the sphere of tourism in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent from the payment of exported profit tax for the period of 5 years in addition to the privileges granted. - To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the Ministry of Internal Affairs in two months term to identify common visa to foreign tourists, which is valid for the whole territory of the Republic, except for the objects defined by the legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan. - To recommend commercial banks to provide credits to businessmen for construction of private hotels and hotel infrastructure with the term of repayment not less than five years; - To establish Interdepartmental Tourism Council within the Cabinet of Ministers, having defined its primary goals as: deepening of economic reforms in the sphere of tourism; coordination
of the development of the network of small and medium hotels, motels and campings at a level of world standards; assistance to the development of modern entertainment business, cultural and fitness centers; organization of wide publicity and preservation of unique tourist potential and historical and cultural heritage; carrying out coordinated scientific, technical and investment policy in tourism; providing training and retraining of tourism personnel. The Order of Interaction of National Company "UZBEKTOURISM" and the State Customs Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan on Customs Clearance of Tourists Crossing the Border of the Republic of Uzbekistan. It is approved by the National Company "Uzbektourism" and the State Customs Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan from July 20, 1993. The State Customs Committee on a regular basis informs the National Company "Uzbektourism" about the following: - change of effective standards of permitting the goods, currencies, currency values, jewellery and other household goods from precious metals and stones across the border; - change of the norm of duty-free goods; - change in the rates of customs duties used in non-commercial circulation; - inventory of goods forbidden to export from Uzbekistan; - change about the customs control and registration of citizens crossing the border of Uzbekistan; - revealed facts of smuggling and infringement of customs rules by citizens of Uzbekistan, crossing border as tourists and processed by "Uzbektourism". Upon written applications from the agencies under "Uzbektourism" and on compensatory basis Customs Committee can carry out consultations of tourist groups on rules of customs control and imported goods. The National Company "Uzbektourism" on a regular basis is obliged to inform Customs Committee about: - setting new foreign tourist routes, planned places of crossing and customs registration of citizens; - organization of certain tourist groups departure with presentation of lists of persons to leave; - licenses given to republican and foreign organizations to conduct tourist activities in the territory of Uzbekistan; - long-term plans of tourism development in the territory of the Republic and estimated number of tourists. Upon the agreement with the heads of territorial managements of the State Customs Committee the representatives of "Uzbektourism" can stay in customs control zones during the time of customs registration of tourist groups. Instruction on the Order of Calculation and Payment of the VAT on the Goods (Works and Services) Produced and Sold (with amendments). Inured on May 9, 2003. It is registered by the Ministry of Justice of the Republic of Uzbekistan on April 29, 2003 No1238. The services of sanatoriums and health resorts rendered above the price of a vaucher to these organizations are exempt from the VAT. To tourist-excursion services include services of guide organizations included in the cost of the voucher for tourist services. Tourist services include transport service, accommodation, meals, excursion service, cultural, sports programs and other services recorded in the Contract on Providing Tourist Services. The given privilege is also applied to additional tourist-excursion services rendered by the specified organizations to tourists over the services included in the contract. National Program of Tourism Development in Uzbekistan for the Period Till 2005. The decree of the President of the Republic of Uzbekistan from April 15, 1999 NoUP-2286. The document stipulates:
- To exempt for the period of 3 years tourist organizations, irrespective of the form of ownership, from the payment of customs duties for technological and hotel equipment and vehicles for the purposes of tourism. - "Umid" Foundation to provide an annual sending of students to leading foreign countries for training in tourist industry specialties. - To the Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Ministry of Finance, Ministry of Culture of the RoU and National Company "Uzbektourism" to introduce a position of Cultural and Tourism Adviser in the embassies of the RoU in the USA, Japan, Great Britain, Germany, France and Italy. To take into account, that 50 percent of Adviser’s salary will be paid from the funds of National company "Uzbektourism". The Decree of the President of the RoU from April 15, 1999 NoUP-2286 «About the State Program of Development of Tourism in Uzbekistan for the Period Till 2005», have approved basic directions of activities in tourism. Part of these activities are already carried out, in particular, the Law on Tourism, entry-exit regulations for foreign citizens, simplification of customs and other procedures for tourists are approved, investment programs of the National Company "Uzbektourism" have been implemented. However marketing researches in tourism, standardization and certification of tourist services, publishing of specialized periodicals are weak. The Institute of the World Tourist Organization on improvement of professional skills of industry personnel has not been created, organization of vehicles rent to tourists has also not been implemented by "Uzbektourism", and the introduction of the statistics, allowing to estimate economic value of tourism, is one of stumblingblocks in the government system. This year it is planned to approve the Program of Tourism Development till 2010, which should become a new stage of Uzbek tourism industry. About Further Improvement of National Company "Uzbektourism”. This is a Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from July 28, 2004 No360. The primary goals of National company " Uzbektourism " are determined as the following: - to ensure common state policy in tourism, assistance in development of tourist services infrastructure; - realization of the state programs of tourism development, programs of protection and safety of tourists, inter-departmental and inter-regional coordination of tourist activities; - certification of tourist services; - realization of public awareness policy in tourism; - attraction of foreign credits and investments into the sphere of tourism development, development of long-term cooperation programs with foreign countries, and foreign companies; - realization of a complex of measures on training and retraining of professional skill of the staff for tourism - assistance to development of the knowledge of different branches of tourism. Financing of costs of central administration and regional branches of National Company "Uzbektourism" is made from the receipts from licensing, certification, own economic activities and other sources which have been not forbidden by the legislation. The off-budget fund for tourism development is being created, the source for its establishment is tourist fee from travel companies and hotel facilities. Tourist fee is collected from: - travel companies for each tourist leaving the RoU; - hotel facilities one time for each tourist irrespectively of the period of residing; - travel companies for each tourist not being the citizen of the RoU and entering the territory of the RoU. Payers of tourist fee pay tourist fee in national currency "sum" in the size equivalent to 1 US dollar for each tourist at the rate of the Central Bank of the RoU on the day of payment. Procedure of Simplified Registration of Transit Visas for Foreign Air Passengers of the National «Uzbekiston Havo Yullari» Airline. The order of the Minister for Foreign Affairs from July 11, 2001 № 639. The Instruction on one working day transit visas (till 72 o'clock) processing
to foreign air passengers–clients of National Company «Uzbekiston Havo Yullari» who transit through international airports of Uzbekistan to the third countries is approved. The Order on Entrance to and Departure from the RoU of Foreign Citizens and Persons without Citizenship. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from November 21, 1996, № 408. Foreign citizens, including citizens from CIS countries, and without citizenship can enter Uzbekistan and leave on the reasons of private and business affairs, as tourists, for rest, study, work, treatment and on a permanent residence. Entry, entry-exit and transit visas are issued by the consular officers. Multi-entry visas for the period of one year are issued by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs. About Measures to Develop Modern International Tourism Infrastructure in the RoU. The Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers from June 3 1995, N 210. According to the document: - National Airline "Uzbekiston Havo Yullari", the State JS railway company "Uzbekistan Temir Yullari", State Tax Committee together with the National Company "Uzbektourism" jointly with other related ministries and departments: (a) in one month are to develop and approve the order on granting privileges on avia-and railway transportation of tourists, and fare discounts for tourist groups for national and international lines; (b) in three-month term are to organize at the airports, railway stations of Tashkent, Bukhara, Samarkand and Urgench, and at the frontier railway stations special customs areas to service tourists, and equip them with modern customs technical equipment; - The State Concern " Uzavtodor ", State Corporation "Uzavtotrans", National Company "Uzbektourism", State Association "Uzbeksavdo", Uzbekbirlashuv, to the Ministry of Communications, Ministry of Health of the RoU, State Joint-Stock Company ”Uzgosnefteproduct", oblast and Tashkent city hokimiyats in a month time shall develop the comprehensive program for 1995-1998 on improvement, qualitative operation of roads and creation of services along the automobile route Tashkent - Samarkand - Bukhara - Urgench - Khiva to serve tourists; - The Ministry of Health together with the National Company "Uzbektourism" shall ensure on a contractual basis provision of high quality medical service to tourists; together with the Ministry of Finance and National Company "Uzbektourism" in one month to introduce proposals on medical insurance of national and international tourists; - The University of World Economy and Diplomacy together with the National Company "Uzbektourism" shall open education–industrial center "International Tourism" for training on a contractual basis highly qualified staff in international tourism; - National Company "Uzbektourism" shall open representation offices in the countries with which the Republic of Uzbekistan has direct air communications. The Tax Code of the RoU. According to the document: Article 92. Privileges under the property tax of legal persons. The tax is not imposed of the property of legal persons: - newly created, engaged in tourist activities in the cities of Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent, for the period from the moment of creation before receiving first profit, but for the term of not more than three years from the moment of their registration. In case of liquidation of these legal persons before the expiration of one year after establishment of a grace period, the amount of tax is withdrawn in full size for the whole period of their activities. Article 102. The tax bearers exempted from the payment of land tax. Legal persons are exempted from the payment of land tax: - newly created, engaged in tourist activities in Samarkand, Bukhara, Khiva and Tashkent cities, for the period from the moment of creation before receiving first profit, but for the term of not more than three years from the moment of their registration. In case of liquidation of these legal persons before the expiration of one year after establishment of a grace period, the amount of tax is withdrawn in full size for the whole period of their activities. TOURISM EDUCATION IN UZBEKISTAN. Tourism education - it is difficult to develop tourism without specialists. Their training, skills improvement and specialization is the main factor for improving quality of services and diversification of tourism. In Uzbekistan this task
is solved by state institutions and professional unions, enterprises, third sector. In total they build certain level of professionalism of the people who work every day wit tourists, explorers and excursionists. At the present time the training can be subdivided into three levels: Training for average employees of tourists companies, executors, medium level managers in vocational institutions; Training for medium level employees and manages of companies in the universities; Training and improvement of skills for the employees working in the production line of tourists companies and in educational centers or courses. According to the government resolution from 29 October 2003 № 473 “About additional measures for gradual transition to secondary and special vocational education” it is planned in six years period to put into operation four vocational colleges specialized in tourism and hotels management with capacity of 2010 students (table №36). Besides that there will additional capacities put into operation in other educational establishments being specialized in tourism associated services. Table №36. Putting vocational colleges which have tourism specialisation into operation in 2004-2009 in Uzbekistan Specialization. Quantity of academic Lyceums, vocational colleges/ number of Region
Karakalpakstan Andijan region Bukhara region Jizzak region Kashkadarya region Navoi region Namangan region Samarqand region Surkhandarya region Sirdarya region Tashkent region Fergana region Khorezm region Tashkent city
students. Trade and Culture public catering
National handicraft s
2/1200 2/1800 3/1500 3/1500 1/600 3/1950 1/600 4/2100
5/2400 3/1950 5/2700 4/1950 4/2550 1/600 5/3600 4/2250 8/4500
2/600 1/600 4/1350 1/450 1/450 2/975 -
1/450 1/600 1/450 1/600 5/2400 -
2/900 2/1200 3/1950 2/1200 1/450
1/450 3/1800 2/1050 4/1980
2/600 5/2550 4/2400 3/1650 2/900
1/300 1/300 5/2800
Tourism and hotels manageme nt
1/300 1/450 1/600 1/660
Tourism colleges will function or already function in Shakhrisabz and Khiva regions, Termez and Tashkent, Shakhrizyabz and Urgench, Bukhara and Samarqand. There are two special colleges in the capital of Uzbekistan – tourism college in Unus-Abad district and college of hotels management in Sergeli district. There are about 4000 students in those colleges in total. According to the Government Resolution from 14 August 2001 №338 “About measures for further development of material and technical base of academic lyceums and vocational colleges”, National company “Uzbektourism” at its own expense and attracted funds put two vocational colleges into operation in Bukhara region with the plan that those graduated from these colleges will work in tourism branch. At the same time some universities in Uzbekistan have received the right to train specialists in tourism. Two universities out of four specialized universities stopped training tourism professionals – Tashkent Institute of Culture and University of World Economy and Diplomacy. Training of specialists started from 1992 in Tashkent State Economy Institute but the faculty of
international tourism was formed in 1998 and at the present time there are three related subfaculties – “Tourism Service”, “Tourism Marketing” and “Tourism Management”. At the same time there are another universities in the republic where students of tourism related specialties are being educated and trained, such as, interpreters (Institutes of Foreign Languages), catering and restaurant business (Institutes of Food and Chemical Industry), Transport services (Institutes of Road, Railway, Aviation transport), communication (University of Information Technologies), public health (Medicine and Pharmaceutical Institutes), diplomacy (University of World Economy and Diplomacy), public security (Higher Schools of Ministry of Internal Affairs, National Security Service, Military Schools of Defense Ministry), advertising and mass media (faculties of journalism, philology of humanities institutes) etc. Table №37. Training of tourism specialties in the universities of Uzbekistan Institution Tashkent State Economic University
Samarqand Institute of Economy and Service
Tashkent Institute of Culture
Number of students Bachelor degree Masters degree Faculty of International 470 students. 30 students. Tourism/ specialties: Contract and Contract and tourism service, tourism budget grant. budget grant. marketing, tourism management Faculty of tourism and Education started Capacities will be service/ specialties: from 2004. 30 defined. Education international tourism, students per year, from 2008/2009. tourism management, 120 students during operator service business 4 years. Contract and budget grant. Received the right for Training has not been realized educating of tourism services from 2002. Faculty was not formed. Faculty of International Trained about 60 tourism. Abolished in 1999 students in total.
University of World Economy and Diplomacy Moscow State Representation office in Five year University of Service Tashkent. Accreditation. students.
As it was mentioned above, the Tashkent State Economy University took the main burden in educating personnel for tourism. But taking into account speed and dynamics of hospitality industry development in Uzbekistan and lack of qualified specialists, there was a decision made about formation of one more university. So by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministries from 26 March 2004 № 144 “About Establishing Samarqand Institute of Economy and Service”, new Institute was set a task to inter alia train specialists in International tourism area, tourism management, business of operators’ service. Besides that, starting from 2008/2009 educational year it is planned to organize education of Masters’ degree in “Tourism” and “Service”, having established proper material and technical base and prepare teaching staff capacity during this period. Current classifier of Bachelor and Masters degrees in higher education which was approved by the Decree of the Cabinet of Ministries of the Republic of Uzbekistan from 16 August 2001 № 343 “State Educational Standards of Continuous Education of Uzbekistan” defined the specialty for the Masters degree of “Study of Local Lore and Tourism” – 5A440507. Besides that education and professional development of experts in tourism in Uzbekistan is conducted in other educational institutions and courses under some industrial enterprises, for
example, within hotels or district/ city labour exchanges (table № 38). More often this is an operational but not fundamental education, which are directly involved in tourist services. That is particularly important for those operating structures which need knowledge in modern tourism technologies, for example the use of digital system to reserve rooms, book tickets, servicing tourists, hotels fund, security and protection of objects, marketing and management. This allows to organize business better and more effectively distribute human and material resources. Table № 38. Education of specialists in other education/training centers Institution Specialization Number of students/ period of education/ document/ price of education Educational Center of National Company “Uzbektourism”
Private tourism company “Planetatour”/ Faculty of International tourism Tashkent State Economy University.
Tour guide, organization of operators and hotels activity, restaurant services, tourism accounting, professional development for management. Management of tourism companies, hotels-restaurant services, barmanwaiter high category.
Hotels “Intercontinental”, “Sheraton”, “Le Meridian”
Courses for own employees: waiters, administrators, and chambermaids.
Districts labour exchange Ministry of Labour and Protection Association of private organizations Association of Explorers Malik”
Tourism, hotels economy.
at the Social tourism “Rabat
Representative of International Institute of Association of German Universities (IIZ/DVV)/ Centers of tourism and business development in Bukhara, Khiva, Ferghana, Nukus, Samarqand. Representative of German Association of Technical Cooperation (GTZ) British Council Representation Office of Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA)
Seminars-trainings in different areas. Organize if necessary. Organization of ecological and ethnographic tourism. Scouting (young people). Education is in the context of grants programs. Education in the context of grant programs “Education for Adults”
Courses – 15, preparation courses – 50. Groups – 8–50 students. 800– 1000 students per year. Education – from 1 week to 2 months. License certificate. Price from 15$. Group 6-8 students. 100 students per year. Management of tourism companies – 3 months $70. hotelrestaurant services – 4 months $90, barman – 2 months $70. Diploma of Faculty of Tashkent State Economy University Depending on necessity and plan of professional development. Certificate of hotels chain. Depending on admission of groups. Labour exchange diploma. Free, grant payment. Certificate. Education is paid. Certificate. Education is Groups of 10-20 students.
Certificate of centre of tourism and business development. Free for invited. Groups of 15 students.
In the context of projects on professional education.
Education of teachers of tourism college.
Education of tourism in the context of projects. Education in the context of programs including training in Japan.
Active employees of tour companies are invited. Inviting specialists/ teachers of tourism in the context of programs.
One of the problems of educational process is small volume of education-methodical materials. Review which has been conducted by the experts of Association of Explorers “Rabat Malik” reveled that the great capacity of materials (textbooks) which are available in institutes of higher education and secondary vocational institutions were prepared in Russia (or in other countries of CIS). In the last years there is an increasing part of materials is prepared locally to reflect national features and specificity of tourism business and management and state priorities. Students get also some information from the Internet or books, which have indirect relation to
tourism (history, political science, geography) what allow expanding interests and knowledge (table № 39). The same important source of information are periodicals. So Uzbek newspapers “BisnessVestnik Vostoka” and “BVV Business Report” (private editions), “Delovoy partner” (Owner – Ministry of Foreign Economic Relations, Investments and Trade), “Chastnaya Sobstvennost” (Owner - State Property Committee), magazines “Economicheskoe Obozrenie” (UNDP and Centre of Economic Research), “Economicheskiy Vestnik Uzbekistana” (Ministry of Economy), “Uzbekistan Airways” (National Company “Uzbekiston Havo Yullari”) publish scientific, methodic and review-publicistic materials about tourism which could be used as educational materials. Table № 39. The Sources of Information for Tourism Education in % Education institutions Russian Own Internet, Indirect Textbooks Developments Literature in Publications Foreign (magazines, Languages video, newspapers, books) Institutes of Higher 60 30 5 5 Education Colleges, Lyceums 60 20 10 10 Specialized Educational 30 40 10 20 Centers Foreign centers in 10 60 20 10 Uzbekistan As some experts acknowledge currently the republic uses the working materials of soviet period, for example, for organizing excursions or tourist routes. Those materials are adapted to present conditions. Foreign centers prefer their own training materials or literature in English/ French/ German languages with some part of materials being adapted to local conditions (for example, translate into Russian or Uzbek languages, fit it national legislation). There are very few publications, which are related to tourism and published by polygraphic (industrial) method in Uzbekistan. Experts suppose that this is an essential lack in educational process. It's quite another matter that some universities print lecture and education-methodic materials, manuals in their own printing houses (rizografs, Xeroxes, printers) in limited volumes. Table № 40 presents the review of some of those publications. Table №40. Review of Some Tourism Materials from Different Educational Centers Published about 100 books, directly or indirectly related to tourism (economy, Publications, architecture, history, culture, ecology), including: published in - «West Tyan-Shan: Tour to Sources (guide-reference book)». V.A.Tsoy, S.A.Ashirov. printing houses Tashkent, publishing house named after G.Gulyamov, 2004;
Education materials/ manuals/ texts of lectures of Tashkent State
- «Economy of Big Tourism», N.Tuhliev, A.Taksanov, Tashkent, Milliy Enciklopediyasi, 2001; - «Comments on Some Issues Related to Administration of Legislation of the Republic of Uzbekistan which Regulate Business Activities in Tourism». Tashkent, Open Society Institute – Assistance Fund – Uzbekistan, 2003. - «Samarkand – asrlar gorrohasida», Tashkent, A.Kodiriy publishing house, 2001; - «Termez and Its Architecture». E.Nekrasova Tashkent, «Fan», 2001; - «Uzbekiston tarihida kadimgi Fargona». A.Anorboev, U.Islomov, B.Matboboev. Tashkent, «Fan», 2001. Prepared about 70 works, including: - «Transport service in tourism». O.Khamidov, TashSEU, 2004; - “Industry of hospitality”. O.Khamidov, TashSEU, 2005; - «Tourism and national heritage». S.Safaeva, TashSEU, 2005; - «Standards in service». D.Li, TashSEU, 2004;
Workings papers of Educational Center of the National Company “Uzbektourism” Workings of Association of Explorers “Rabat Malik” Educationmethodical manuals IIZ/DVV
- «Tourism economy». T. Toshmuratov, TashSEU, 2003; - «Tourism hukuki». M. Alieva, M.Mirzaev, M.Irmatov. Tashkent, Talkin publishimg house, 2003; - «Tourism iktisodi». T.Toshmuratov, A.Norgoev, E.Umarkulov. TashSEU, 2000; - «Turizimda sarmoya siesati». M.Alieva and others, TashSEU, 2002; - «Turizimda kommunikaciya ukuv kullanma». A.Karimov. TashSEU, 2003; - «Advertising and design in tourism». S.Safaeva, TashSEU, 2005; - «Halklaro tourism», T.Toshmuratov and others., TashSEU, 2003; - «Tourism marketingi». F.Komilova. Tashkent, Uzinkomcenter, 2003; - «Halkaro tourism bozori». F.Komilova. TashSEU, 2001; - «Management of hotels economy». T.Toshmuratov. TashSEU, 1998; - «Innovation policy in International tourism». M. Alieva, R.Nazarova. TashSEU - «Tourism iktisodi». T.Toshmuratov, A.Saidov, E.Umarkulov. Tashkent, Institute of Finance, 2000; - «Mehmonhona va restoran hujaligi marketingi». F.Komilova, M.Nurmuhamedov. TashSEU, 2002. Prepared about 50 works, including: - «Test text of review tour of Tashkent»; - «Education-methodic manual for guides-interpreters and guides», 2003; - «Historical-architectural monuments of Samarqand»; - «Historical-architectural monuments of Bukhara»; - «Historical-architectural monuments of Khiva»; - «Fergana. Pearl of Uzbekistan» etc. Prepared 10 works, including: - “Alphabet of ecotourism” A.Taksanov, Tashkent, 2005; - “Management and organization of tourism business”, V.Tsoy, A.Taksanov, T.Abdullaeva, Tashkent, 2005; - “National tourism models” T.Abdullaeva, Tashkent, 2005. Prepared works, including: - «Waiter work». L.Kuzminskaya, Bukhara, 2005; - «Hospitality». L.Kuzminskaya, Bukhara, 2005; - «Hotels economy». L.Imbaeva, Tashkent, 2005; - «Management and finance in tourism area», S.Lavrenko, Tashkent, 2005 - «Management of tourism companies». V.Tsoy, A.Taksanov, Tashkent, 2005; - «Alphabet of safety in tourism». A.Taksanov, T.Abdullaeva, Tashkent, 2005.
Education manuals and methodic materials, worked out for example by the Association of Explorers “Rabat Malik” or representation office of IIZ/DVV are intended for businessmen, guest house owners, hotels, restaurants, managers, and other specialists who work in tourism. They can also be useful for employees of nongovernmental and professional-corporate organizations, teachers and students of secondary, vocational and higher education institutions, students of additional professional education. The special feature of payment courses, which are created by the profile education centers, is that education is for all who wish to study. Students receive necessary volume of knowledge to work in tourism both as tourism company employees and as private businessman for example to rent house, car, horses, boat. Usually those are people who already have higher or secondary education (but not in tourism), and who wish to get a qualification in the work where they are involved. They can be hotel administrators, chambermaids, headwaiters, restaurant, café, hotel managers, craft production organizers, transport service organizers, concert and entertaining programs/ places organizers. As we were told in Educational Center of the National Company “Uzbektourism” 31 students graduated guide-interpreters courses in the first half year of 2005, 26 – tour operators courses, 204 - professional development, 93 – received guide-interpreters and tour operators retraining, 20 students were trained as stewards for tourists train “Shark”. Association of Explorers “Rabat Malik” conducted trainings for 29 local people of Humsan, Brichmulla and Chimgan villages in January-February 2005 in “Ecological Tourism and Hospitality” and “Village Development Plan”. The Representation Office of IIZ/DVV has organized 24 trainings for 240-260 people who are involved in tourism area (craft, education, service, management, marketing) this
year. 30 trainings for 300 peoples were organized in Centers of Tourism and Business Development in Khiva, Bukhara, Nukus, Samarqand and Fergana. There is a possibility for preparing specialists for tourism in Uzbekistan. It's quite another matter that the space for Educational centers should be increased. So new organizations servicing tourism are being established at present time within the national tourism structure. This is Community Based Tourism (CBT) – tourism, based on local community. Village people are being involved in tourism business because they have proper resources at their disposal: natural resources (mountains, meadows, plains, flora and fauna); specificity of vital activity (traditions, culture, folklore, crafts) accommodation facilities (houses), transport (cars, cartage) food services, guiding. And they naturally should have special skills and knowledge in tourism service. Training can be realized in the following directions: - service standards. The basics of hospitality; - safety in tourism; - work with tour operators, advertising; - marketing and management in tourism; - accounting and statistics in tourism. Those directions in particularly are to great extent necessary for village peoples. Taking into account that more and more people who live in the vicinity of closely protected natural territories, historical centers, find the source of work and means for living in tourism. Therefore a prognosis can be made that there will be an increasing demand for education in related educational institutions. This review shows that this is quite easy and possible: there is legislative base in place; there are educational manuals, education centers, and material resources. Distribution of education will be realized in the following aspects: young people – up to 18 years – will study in tourism colleges; young people – up to 27 years – in institutes of higher education; working young people from 20 to 30 years – on the courses of educational centers; people older than 30 years – on the courses of educational centers or in universities (in second specialty). ECOTOURISM NATIONAL BACKGROUND DOCUMENT Tourist marketing and development organizations 1. Marketing organizations a) CBT organizations There is no economic body or NGO, which unites CBT. Until now the СВТ of three villages have not yet received legal status (not legalized) and therefore their association into one structure does not seem visible. In the meantime there were employees selected and trained within the CBTs of Chimgan, Humsan and Burchmulla, who are able to conduct primary marketing in particularly on supply and demand of any of tourism services, volumes and intensity of tourists arrivals, studying their preferences and quality assessment from the part of CBT. б) Tour operators As of now there are 365 organisations that have license for tourism services in Uzbekistan. 22 tour operators of Tashkent and Tashkent oblast, which work in the sphere of ecological tourism and in particular organization of tours, were chosen from the list provided by the National Company “Uzbektourism”: - trekking and mountain climbing, rafting; - ornithology, botanics; - horse-back riding; - gastronomy and folklore; - beach tour, fishing, paragliding, heliski etc.
These 22 tour operators within the framework of agreements with the EuropeAid Project have agreed to participate in ecotourism development in Tashkent oblast. Note on protected area system. Current legislative and normative documents related to protection of native zones in Uzbekistan include: - Law of the RoU «On Nature Protection» from December 9, 1992. N 754-XII. It regulates relations in the sphere of nature protection and rational nature resources use in the RoU; - Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the RoU “On Measures to Protect Nature Resources and Ensure Comprehensive and Systematic Approach to Chimgan-Charvak Zone Development” from March 10, 2000 N 83. Regulates the process of development of touristrecreation zone in the territory of Ugam-Chatkal National park. - Administrative Code of the RoU. Section YIII. Administrative responsibility for violations in the sphere of nature protection and management and chemicals not suitable for use. Articles 65-96. - Criminal Code of the RoU. Section XIV. Crimes in the sphere of nature protection and management. Articles 193-204. Currently the draft law on “Specifically Protected Areas” is under discussion in the Parliament. The objective of the EuropeAid Western Tien-Shan Biodiversity Project is creation of the bio reserve in three states (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic and Uzbekistan), where flora and fauna are preserved, where local economy develops on the basis of ecotourism, and local people use natural resources effectively and revive national traditions, crafts and culture. Uzbekistan has fulfilled internal procedures on the agreeing of interstate agreement on the creation of Transboundary Bio-Reserve “Western Tyan-Shan”. The process of agreeing the issue between Uzbekistan and Kazakh and Kyrgyz side is on the way. Uzbek experts estimate its signing during 2006. The government and local authorities positively assess rural tourism development. Certain decisions have been taken to facilitate development of related infrastructure (roads, accommodation, energy, transport, trading facilities and catering), and investments to tourism sector made. At the same time the government put constrains to tourism in specially protected areas within the framework of current legislation as well as in the border areas where there is special military-police regime. Ugam-Chatkal National park is under the authority of Tashkent oblast khokimiyat. Khokim makes a decision on entry fee to the territory of the park. On January 10, 2002 he issued a regulation on entry-exit of transport means and people on vacation as well as rational use of natural resources in the territory of Ugam-Chatkal National Park № 41. In this regulation administration of Ugam-Chatkal National park,oblast internal affairs department and department of roads together with the khokimiyats of Akhangaran, Bostanlyk and Parkent rayons arrange for the control posts to regulate entry-exit of transport means and people to the nature areas. There were payment fees established for the use of natural resources, sanatoriums, rest homes in the territory of National Park as well as payment rates to be collected at the special control posts from people on holidays and from transport means entering the territory (Table № 38). At the same time it is stipulated that 50% of the funds collected at these posts shall be directed for the improvement of territory of UgamChatkal Park, creating the recreation facilities and nature protective measures (30% - are transferred to the off-budget account of khokimiyat of the current rayon and 20% - to the account of social development of Tashkent oblast khokimiyat. Table №41. Payment fees to be collected at the control posts from people and transport means entering specially protected area For the entry of transport means of the RoU For the citizens of the RoU and CIS and CIS countries а) autobuses and tracks - 400 soums; а) nationals of the RoU- 100 soums б) minibuses - 300 soums; б) for foreigners:
в) automobiles - 200 soums; г) motorcycles - 100 soums. The fee is not collected from the children not older than 14, living in this territory, employees of the law enforcement bodies, rayon and oblast khokimiyats (business trip), forestry, inspectors from the State Committee on Nature Protection and experts conducting research and working within the framework of international programs.
- for vehicles - $10; - for adults - $5. Note: 1. The fee from foreign citizens is collected in soums at the current exchange rate of the Central Bank of the RoU. 2. Citizens arriving with special tickets to the territory of National Park pay the above amount one time.
Besides that, according to the instruction of the khokim of Tashkent oblast “the volumes of payments collected for additional use of forests, sanatoriums, rest houses, located in nature protected areas” from August 19, 2002 №159 are defined on the basis of agreements concluded between the administration of Ugam-Chatkal National Park (except recreation zones and left bank of Charvak water reservoir, Bakachul to Burchmulla) and tourism and recreation agencies, taking into account that for each person (for one season) calculation is made in the amount of 50% from the minimal salary. Payment for ecotourism services, i.e. familiarization of people and students with flora and fauna, is set (except for the school children) as 10% from the minimal salary. The same fee is set for the entry to the natural museum of Chatkal nature reserve. SITUATION AND FUTURE NEEDS FOR BORDER CROSSINGS BETWEEN KYRGYZSTAN AND UZBEKISTAN FOR TOURISM Present situation. On 24 July 2004 the Governments of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan signed agreement "On check-points through the state border". This document defines three categories of check-points for citizens of the two republics and citizens of other countries. International check-points operate admission of persons, freights, goods, carriers, animals and other property of participating countries (Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan) and all other countries Double-ended (bilateral) check-points operate admission of persons, goods, carriers, animals and other property of only Kyrgyz and Uzbek citizens. Simplified (local) check-points operate admission of citizens of Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan which life in the region. The order of work of simplified check-points shall be established by agreement between border and customs agencies of participating countries. Moreover the appendix includes information on check-points and category of each checkpoint particularly there are the following check-points in our project area (table №42): Table №42. Situation on the check-points between Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan # Name of Place of Name of check- Place of checkStatus of Regime of check-point in check-point point in point in the checkwork Kyrgyz in the Republic of Republic of points Republic Kyrgyz Uzbekistan Uzbekistan Republic 1 Dostuk-roadOsh oblast, Dustlik-roadAndijan oblast, International Twenty-fourtransport
Djalalabad Madaniyat oblast, Nooken trans port rayon
road- Andijan oblast International Pahtaabad rayon
Djalalabad Kasansai oblast, Alabuka transport rayon
road- Namangan oblast, Double-ended Kasansai rayon
Djalalabad Karakurgan oblast, Alabuka trans port rayon
road- Namangan oblast, Simplified Chustski rayon
Djalalabad oblast, Nooken rayon
road- Namangan oblast, International Uchkurgan rayon
New crossings needed for tourism development. For international (e.g. rafting) and Tashkent region tourists it is important to open up the Sumsar border crossing in order to limit the transport distance (150 km) and travel time (4 hours) from Tashkent to Chatkal Valley. Uzbek government could establish a seasonal crossing point for rafters on Chatkal river near Brishmulla village. Special permits could be issued (seasonally) for crossing the boarder even on a certain time. The cost of extra border service could be included into the special permit. Skem boarder / for walking routes / Chatkal valley for pelgrims and other mountain from the Tashkent region (during Sowjet time this was a popular route) Procedure for new border crossings. The Agreement states that creation of new and closing existing check-points or alteration of their status and regime of work shall be done by diplomatic ways and registered in protocols that will be an integral part of the Agreement. The responsible authorities on execution of provisions of the Agreement are: The Kyrgyz Republic - Border Service of the Kyrgyz Republic and Department of Customs Service of the Committee on Income under the Ministry of Finance of the Kyrgyz Republic; The Republic of Uzbekistan - Committee on Protection of State Borders of the National Security Service of the Republic of Uzbekistan and State Customs Committee of the Republic of Uzbekistan. To solve the situation related to borders crossing by tourists visiting West Tien Shan and Chatkal Valley it is necessary: - to include articles on tourism development as important part of developing cooperation on West Tien Shan biodiversity conservation and Agreement on establishment of the Trans-boundary Biosphere Reserve. - after signing the Agreement to initiate the responsible authorities on creation of checkpoints of international importance on places of state border crossing with popular tourist routes.