Page 1


The Green House


Princeton Architectural Press New York

The National Building Museum Washington, D.C.

the

Alanna Stang and Christopher Hawthorne

g

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reen

use

New Directions in Sustainable Architecture


ACQUISITIONSEDITOR-ARK,AMSTER PROJECTEDITOR.ANCY%KLUND,ATER DESIGNTYPOGRAPHY0URE !PPLIED .9#

0UBLISHEDBY 0RINCETON!RCHITECTURAL0RESS %AST3EVENTH3TREET .EW9ORK .EW9ORK &ORAFREECATALOGOFBOOKS CALL 6ISITOURWEBSITEATWWWPAPRESSCOM ˆ0RINCETON!RCHITECTURAL0RESS !LLRIGHTSRESERVED 0RINTEDANDBOUNDIN#HINA &IRSTEDITION .OPARTOFTHISBOOKMAYBEUSEDOR REPRODUCEDINANYMANNERWITHOUT WRITTENPERMISSIONFROMTHEPUBLISHER EXCEPTINTHECONTEXTOFREVIEWS %VERYREASONABLEATTEMPTHASBEEN MADETOIDENTIFYOWNERSOFCOPYRIGHT %RRORSOROMISSIONSWILLBECORRECTEDIN SUBSEQUENTEDITIONS 4HISBOOKWASMADEPOSSIBLEBYA GENEROUSGRANTFROMTHE'RAHAM &OUNDATION

4

Copyright

SPECIALTHANKSTO.ETTIE!LJIAN .ICOLA "EDNAREK *ANET"EHNING -EGAN#AREY 0ENNY9UEN0IK #HU 2USSELL&ERNANDEZ *AN(AUX #LARE*ACOBSON *OHN+ING ,INDA,EE +ATHARINE-YERS ,AUREN .ELSON *ANE3HEINMAN 3COTT4ENNENT *ENNIFER4HOMPSON *OSEPH7ESTON AND$EB7OODOF0RINCETON!RCHITECTURAL 0RESS°+EVIN#,IPPERT PUBLISHER

,IBRARYOF#ONGRESS #ATALOGING IN 0UBLICATION$ATA 3TANG !LANNA ¯ 4HEGREENHOUSENEWDIRECTIONSIN SUSTAINABLEARCHITECTURE!LANNA3TANG AND#HRISTOPHER(AWTHORNE°STED PCM !CCOMPANIESANEXHIBITIONHELDATTHE .ATIONAL"UILDING-USEUMIN

7ASHINGTON $# )3".   ALKPAPER 3USTAINABLEARCHITECTURE° %XHIBITIONS%COLOGICALHOUSES° %XHIBITIONS )(AWTHORNE #HRISTOPHER))4ITLE .!3 ´´°DC 


For Andrรกs, Rachel, and Willa; and for architects, writers, and environmentalists to come

Dedication

5


contents

18

9 FOREWORD

10 INTRODUCTION

#HASE2YND %XECUTIVE$IRECTOR .ATIONAL"UILDING-USEUM Camera-Ready Green Design

City

20 P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Project

2OTTERDAM 4HE.ETHERLANDS 26 156 Reade Street

3TUDIO0ETRARCA

.EW9ORK .EW9ORK 30 Colorado Court

0UGH 3CARPA!RCHITECTURE

3ANTA-ONICA #ALIFORNIA 34 Viikki

6ARIOUSARCHITECTS

(ELSINKI &INLAND 38 1310 East Union Street

4HE-ILLER(ULL0ARTNERSHIP

3EATTLE 7ASHINGTON 42 Sea Train House

/F½CEOF-OBILE$ESIGN

,OS!NGELES #ALIFORNIA 48 The Solaire

52

Suburb

54 Solar Tube

62 Charlotte Residence

74 Little Tesseract

House -ARIN#OUNTY #ALIFORNIA 84 Naked House

6

!22!+!RKKITEDHIT 3TEVEN(OLL!RCHITECTS

+AWAGOE *APAN

Contents

!RKIN4ILT!RCHITECTS 3HIGERU"AN!RCHITECTS

+ENGO+UMA!SSOCIATES

3HUIGUAN "ADALING #HINA

106 R128

3CHWARZ!RCHITEKTUR

%BNET +APPEL 3WITZERLAND

100 Great (Bamboo) Wall

!CHENBACH!RCHITECTEN $ESIGNER

*EBENHAUSEN 'ERMANY 96 SolarHaus III

2HINEBECK .EW9ORK 80 Mill Valley Straw-Bale

7ILLIAM-C$ONOUGH 0ARTNERS

0ORI &INLAND

Mountainside

92 House with Shades

#HARLOTTE .ORTH#AROLINA 68 Villa Sari

'EORG$RIENDL!RCHITECTS

#ESAR0ELLI!SSOCIATES !RCHITECTS

.EW9ORK .EW9ORK

90

6IENNA !USTRIA

+ORTEKNIE3TUHLMACHER !RCHITECTEN

3TUTTGART 'ERMANY

7ERNER3OBEK)NGENIEURE


112

Waterside

114 Howard House

#OCKS#ARMICHAEL

-ERCER)SLAND 7ASHINGTON

,AKE&LATO!RCHITECTS

3AN!NTONIO 4EXAS

154 Loloma 5 Lofts

2ICK*OY!RCHITECTS

4UCSON !RIZONA

148 Giles Loft/Studio

/LSON3UNDBERG+UNDIG !LLEN!RCHITECTS

Desert

142 Tucson Mountain House

-ELBOURNE !USTRALIA

126 Lake Washington House

"RIAN-AC+AY ,YONS!RCHITECTS

7EST0ENNANT .OVA3COTIA

120 Swart Residence

140

7ILL"RUDER!RCHITECTS

3COTTSDALE !RIZONA

130 Walla WombaGuest House  !RCHITECTURE

4ASMANIA

134 McKinley House

6ENICE #ALIFORNIA

160

Tropics

162 Casuarina Beach House

,AHZ.IMMO!RCHITECTS

Anywhere

182 Glide House

-ICHELLE+AUFMANN$ESIGNS

&RANK(ARMONAND!SSOCIATES

3COTLAND#AY "AHAMAS

174 Casa de Carmen

180

+INGSCLIFF .EW3OUTH7ALES

168 Taylor House

$AVID(ERTZ!RCHITECTS 3YNDESIS

,EDDY-AYTUM3TACY!SSOCIATES

"AJA#ALIFORNIA -EXICO

188 FEATURED ARCHITECTS 190 RESOURCES

Contents

7


acknowledgments

7EAREDEEPLYGRATEFULTOTHE'RAHAM&OUNDATION FOR!DVANCED3TUDIESINTHE&INE!RTSFORITSEARLY ½NANCIALSUPPORTOFTHISPROJECT7ETHANK-ARK ,AMSTERFORSIGNINGONWHENTHEIDEASWEREJUST HALF BAKEDAND.ANCY%KLUND,ATERFORSMART CLEAR EYEDEDITS ASWELLASTHEIRCOLLEAGUESAT0RINCETON !RCHITECTURAL0RESS7E´REMOSTAPPRECIATIVEOF 0AUL#ARLOSAND5RSHULA"ARBOUROF0URE !PPLIED FORGIVINGTHEPROJECTSUCHA½TTINGFORM4HEIR GENEROUSTALENT KEENINSIGHT ANDTIRELESSPATIENCE MADETHEPROCESSASREWARDINGASTHEENDPRODUCT 7E´REALSOINDEBTEDTOOUREDITORIALASSISTANTS ONEITHERCOAST -ICHELLE-AISTOAND*ESSICA&INE +LEINMAN FORTHEIR½NERESEARCHANDGOODHUMOR TO%VE-+AHNAND0AUL'OLDBERGERFORTHEIR HEARTYENDORSEMENTSTO*EANNE7IKLER 2OBERT +LOOS *OHANNA,EMOLA AND*ARI3INKARIFORHELPING BRIDGETHEGAPTOARCHITECTSABROADASWELLASTO !NN!LTERAND(ARRISON&RAKER&INALLY WETHANK EACHOFTHEARCHITECTSANDPHOTOGRAPHERSWHOSE INSPIRINGWORKISFEATUREDHERE ALONGWITH THEIRSTAFFS !LANNA3TANGAND#HRISTOPHER(AWTHORNE

8

Acknowledgments


foreword

4HISBOOK ANDTHEEXHIBITIONOFTHESAMENAME ORGANIZEDBYTHE.ATIONAL"UILDING-USEUM ADVANCEANOBLEIFSLIGHTLYIRONICCAUSE°THATOF MAKING±GREEN²ARCHITECTUREUTTERLYUNREMARKABLE 4HEYDOSOBYPRESENTINGEXEMPLARYPROJECTS THATAREREMARKABLEASARCHITECTURE INWHICH ENVIRONMENTALRESPONSIBILITYISANINTEGRAL IFNOT ALWAYSOBVIOUS ASPECTOFTHEIRDESIGN !GENERATIONAGO THEPOPULARIMAGERYOF SUSTAINABLEHOUSINGINCLUDEDSTEEPLYSLANTED ROOFSBLANKETEDBYSOLARPANELS RUSTICWALLS PEEKINGOUTABOVEGIANTEARTHENBERMS ANDTHE OCCASIONALARCHITECTURALFOLLYCONSTRUCTEDOFA MOTLEYCOLLECTIONOFFOUNDITEMSRECYCLEDINTO VERNACULARBUILDINGMATERIALS-ANYSUCHOVERTLY ±%ARTH FRIENDLY²STRUCTURESWEREEASILYMOCKED BYARCHITECTURALPURISTS WHODECRIEDWHATTHEY SAWASTHETRIUMPHOFMUNDANEPROBLEM SOLVING OVERHIGH MINDEDAESTHETICS.ONETHELESS THESE PROTOTYPICALGREENHOUSESPLAYEDANIMPORTANT ROLEINRAISINGPUBLICAWARENESSTHATTHEBUILT ENVIRONMENTWASASIGNI½CANTCONTRIBUTORTOTHE PROFOUNDDEGRADATIONANDDIMINISHMENTOF LIMITEDNATURALRESOURCES !SWITHMANYSOCIOPOLITICALMOVEMENTS THISEARLYPERIODOFRADICALISM INWHICHEXPLICIT DISPLAYPLAYEDADECISIVEROLE WASFOLLOWEDBY ONEINWHICHBITSANDPIECESOFTHEPHILOSOPHY WEREASSIMILATEDINTOTHEMAINSTREAM ALBEIT OFTENINATOKENMANNER3OMEARCHITECTS APPROPRIATEDTHE±LOOK²OFENVIRONMENTALISM PERHAPSBYTOSSINGASUNSCREENONABUILDING BUT DIDSOWITHLITTLEREGARDFORITSSOLARORIENTATION /THERSACTIVELYREACTEDAGAINSTTHEMOVEMENT ESPECIALLYASHISTORICISMONCEAGAINGAINEDFAVOR AMONGARCHITECTSANDTHEGENERALPUBLICANDAS DEVELOPERS ATLEASTINTHE5NITED3TATES PROVIDED EAGERCUSTOMERSWITHINCREASINGLYGIGANTIC DETACHEDHOUSES

4HECONTENTSOFTHISBOOKANDEXHIBITION SUGGESTTHATTHESUSTAINABILITYMOVEMENT TOUSE ANOWPREVALENTTERM ISREACHINGMATURITY-ANY ARCHITECTS ENGINEERS PLANNERS DEVELOPERS AND CLIENTSHAVECOMETOTHINKMORESTRATEGICALLY ABOUTTHEENVIRONMENTALIMPLICATIONSOFBUILDING ESPECIALLYINTHEDOMESTICREALM-OVINGWELL BEYONDTHESIMPLISTICINCLUSIONOFAFEWGREEN MATERIALSORFEATURES THEYAREINCREASINGLY CONCEIVINGOFHOUSESASCOHERENT HOLISTICSYSTEMS WITHEXTENDEDLIFECYCLESTHATMUSTBECONSIDERED THROUGHOUTTHEDESIGNPROCESS%NVIRONMENTAL CONCERNSINFORMTHEARCHITECTURE OFCOURSE BUT THERESULTSCANBEASAESTHETICALLYRICHASEVEN THEMOSTABSTRACTORTHEORETICALOFPROJECTS 3USTAINABILITYTHUSASSUMESANOTHERDIMENSION BEYONDITSMEREPRAGMATICANDETHICALDIMENSIONS !TTHE.ATIONAL"UILDING-USEUM 4HE'REEN (OUSE.EW$IRECTIONSIN3USTAINABLE!RCHITECTURE ISPARTOFASERIESOFEXHIBITIONSABOUTSUSTAINABLE DESIGN4HE½RSTOFTHESE "IG'REEN4OWARD 3USTAINABLE!RCHITECTUREINTHEST#ENTURY WHICH WASPRESENTEDIN EXAMINEDSKYSCRAPERS ANDOTHERLARGE SCALESTRUCTURESTHATSUCCESSFULLY ADDRESSENVIRONMENTALCONCERNS4HEMUSEUM PLANSTOCONTINUETOORGANIZEEXHIBITIONSAND PUBLICPROGRAMSEXPLORINGTHISVITALTOPIC ANDTHEREBYTOADVOCATEAFUTUREINWHICHENVIRON MENTALSENSITIVITYMAYBESAFELYASSUMEDINALL WORKSOFARCHITECTURE #HASE72YND %XECUTIVE$IRECTOR .ATIONAL"UILDING-USEUM

Foreword

9


camera-ready green design ONE AFTERNOON SEVERAL MONTHS AGO,

we found ourselves waiting in the quiet, impossibly picturesque Swiss town of Domat/Ems to meet an architect named Dietrich Schwarz. Though still in his thirties, Schwarz has already earned a reputation as one of Switzerland’s leading practitioners of the environmentally friendly approach to architecture known as sustainable, or “green,” design. Using a combination of new, high-tech materials—some of his own invention— and old-fashioned architectural wisdom, he creates houses and other buildings that are snugly energy-efficient and sit lightly on the land. 7EHADARRIVEDABITEARLYFOROURAPPOINTMENTAT 3CHWARZ´SOF½CE WHICHTAKESUPONEHALFOFAPAIROF SHIMMERYSTEEL AND GLASSPAVILIONSHEDESIGNEDIN THEMID S NOTLONGAFTER½NISHINGARCHITECTURE SCHOOL!LTHOUGHITWASA3UNDAY ANDBEAUTIFUL OUT AFEWOF3CHWARZ´STWENTY SOMETHINGSTAFFERS WEREHARDATWORKINTHECOOL DARKINTERIOR THEIR FACESLITBYGLOWINGCOMPUTERMONITORS/NEOF THEMLEDUSOUTSIDETOASUNNYCOURTYARDBETWEEN THEBUILDINGS WHEREAMODESTFOUNTAINSPLASHED ANDWITHINACOUPLEOFMINUTES3CHWARZHIMSELF APPEARED4HOUGHHEHADDRIVENASHORTDISTANCE FROMHISNEARBYHOME HELOOKEDASTHOUGHHE´D COMESTRAIGHTFROM-ILAN(ISDARKHAIRWASARTFULLY MESSY0RECISELYEDGEDSIDEBURNSCURLEDACROSSEACH CHEEK(EWASWEARINGANIMPECCABLYTAILOREDDRESS SHIRT PERFECTLYFADEDJEANS ANDBLACKLEATHERSHOES WITHTHEALMOSTVIOLENTLYPOINTEDTOESTHATWERE JUSTTHENBECOMINGFASHIONABLE 3TANDINGINFRONTOFHISELEGANT NEO MODERNIST OF½CE 3CHWARZWASAPICTUREOFTHEUP TO DATE READYTOPOSEFORASPREADIN7ALLPAPEROR%LLE$ECOR !TTHESAMETIME ITBECAMECLEARONCEHEBEGAN TALKINGTHATHEWASN´TEMBARRASSEDBYTHEIDEA OFPASSIONATEENVIRONMENTALISM UNLIKEMANY ARCHITECTSWHOTHINKOFTHEMSELVESASOPERATING CLOSETOTHECUTTINGEDGEANDFASHIONTHEMSELVES ACCORDINGLY /NTHECONTRARYHISCHILDHOODIN

10

Introduction

THISIDYLLICPARTOFTHEWORLDHASMADEHIM COMMITTEDTOANARCHITECTURETHATDOESITSBESTTO PROTECTBOTHTHELOCALANDTHEGLOBALLANDSCAPE !NDBYHISOWNADMISSIONHEISAZEALOTWHENIT COMESTO½NDINGANDTESTINGTHELATESTSUSTAINABLE BUILDINGMATERIALS )TWASONTHATAFTERNOON°PROBABLYATTHE MOMENT3CHWARZLAUNCHEDINTOANENERGETIC DESCRIPTIONOF0OWER'LASS ATYPEOFSUPER EF½CIENTSOLARPANELINGFORWHICHHEHASRECEIVED APATENT°THATWEREALIZEDJUSTHOWQUICKLYTHE WALLSBETWEENGREENARCHITECTUREANDHIGHDESIGN WERECRUMBLING OPENINGUPNEWOPPORTUNITIESFOR CROSSOVERBETWEENTHETWOREALMS4HATNEWTRAF½C ISPARTICULARLYNOTABLEAMONGRESIDENTIALARCHITECTS 7HILEGREENDESIGNISALSOGROWINGQUICKLYINTHE PUBLICANDCOMMERCIALSPHERES HOUSESOFFERAN IDEALTESTINGGROUNDFORTHELATESTINSUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE2ELATIVELYSMALLANDSELF CONTAINED ANDOFTENFUNDEDBYPROGRESSIVEPRIVATECLIENTS ASOPPOSEDTOBOTTOM LINE¯ORIENTEDCOMMERCIAL ONES THEYALLOWFORAUNIQUEKINDOFARCHITECTURAL EXPERIMENTATION)NDEED MANYARCHITECTURAL MOVEMENTSANDBREAKTHROUGHSHAVEFOUNDTHEIR EARLIESTEXPRESSIONINRESIDENTIALWORKGREEN ARCHITECTUREISONLYTHELATEST 7HATWESOONDISCOVEREDISTHATALLOVERTHE WORLD°BUTPARTICULARLYINNORTHERN%UROPE


2 BY7ERNER3OBEK

#ANADA THE5NITED3TATES *APAN AND!USTRALIA° RESIDENTIALARCHITECTSARECOMBININGEYE CATCHING CONTEMPORARYARCHITECTUREWITHSUSTAINABILITY&ORA BOOKTHATWEBELIEVEISTHE½RSTOFITSKIND WESETOUT TOSELECTTHE½NESTEXAMPLESOFTHISNEWCON¾UENCE ANDEXPLAINHOWEACHOFTHEMCAMEINTOBEINGWHO COMMISSIONEDTHESEHOUSESANDAPARTMENTBLOCKS HOWTHEIRDESIGNSEVOLVED ANDHOWTHEIRARCHITECTS ANDBUILDERSMANAGEDTOBALANCEENVIRONMENTAL ANDAESTHETICCONCERNSSOEFFECTIVELY 4HEMOREWEBEGANTOSEARCHFORSUCHPROJECTS THEMOREWEREALIZEDNOTJUSTHOWMANYAREOUT THEREINDEED WEENDEDUPWITHMOREQUALI½ED PROJECTSTHANWEHADPAGESTOSHOWTHEMON BUT THEREMARKABLEREGIONALANDARCHITECTURALVARIETY THEYREPRESENT'REENHOUSESNOWRISEFROMTIGHTLY PACKEDCITYSTREETSASWELLASFROMLUSHHILLSIDESAND ROCKYSEASHORES4HEYARESINGLE FAMILYDWELLINGS ANDSUBSIDIZEDAPARTMENTS PRIMARYRESIDENCES ANDWEEKENDGETAWAYS4HEYARESHEATHEDIN GLASS INBAMBOO INSYNTHETICPANELSMADEFROM RECYCLEDNEWSPAPER4HEYTAKETHEIRAESTHETICCUES FROMPRIMITIVEDWELLINGS FROMORGANICFORMS AND SIGNI½CANTLY FROMARCHITECTURALPREDECESSORS WHOINCLUDETHEFOUNDERSOFTHE"AUHAUSASSURELY AS0AOLO3OLERIOR&RANK,LOYD7RIGHT)NFACT ITIS BECOMINGIMPOSSIBLETOIGNOREHOWMANYGREEN HOUSESARENOWBEINGDESIGNEDINTHESLEEK ORNAMENT FREESTYLETHATHASONCEAGAINBECOMETHE PREVAILINGARCHITECTURALAPPROACHAMONGHIGH END ARCHITECTS PARTICULARLYYOUNGERONESIN!MERICA AND%UROPE&ORTHE½RSTTIMEINTHEHISTORYOFTHE GREENDESIGNMOVEMENT SUSTAINABILITYISBEING EMBRACEDBYTHEVERYSAMEARCHITECTSWHOSETTHE ½ELD´SSTYLISTICANDTHEORETICALAGENDAS )NADDITIONTO$IETRICH3CHWARZ´SCORNEROF 3WITZERLAND OURSEARCHFORTHEHOUSESTHAT½LLTHE FOLLOWINGPAGESTOOKUSTOLOCATIONSALLAROUND THEWORLD/NTHEEDGEOF,AKE7ASHINGTON NEAR 3EATTLE WEDISCOVEREDANEWHOUSEBYTHEWELL KNOWN0ACI½C.ORTHWEST½RM/LSON3UNDBERG +UNDIG!LLEN)TSDESIGNISANCHOREDBYACURVING U SHAPEDWALLTHATISANENGAGINGSCULPTURAL ELEMENTAND°BECAUSEITBOTHCONDUCTSCOOLAIR INTHESUMMERANDBOUNCESSUNLIGHTBACKINTO THEINTERIORINWINTER°THEKEYTOITSREMARKABLE ENERGY EF½CIENCY$OWNTHECOASTIN-ARIN#OUNTY #ALIFORNIA WEMET-ICHELLE+AUFMANN WHOHAD RECENTLYLEFTAJOBIN&RANK'EHRY´SOF½CETOSTART HEROWN½RM+AUFMANNHASDESIGNEDTHEMODULAR 'LIDE(OUSE THE½RSTMASS PRODUCEDGREENHOME )TCANBECUSTOM ORDEREDANDTHENTRUCKEDDIRECTLY

TOABUILDINGSITETOBECONSTRUCTEDINAMATTEROF WEEKSITISALREADYONTHEMARKETFORROUGHLY PERSQUAREFOOT ABARGAINGIVENTHEHIGHQUALITY OFITSMATERIALSANDDESIGN !LITTLEFURTHERSOUTH WEWENTTOSEE#OLORADO #OURT AFORTY FOUR UNITLOW INCOMEAPARTMENT COMPLEXIN3ANTA-ONICADESIGNEDBYTHEWELL REGARDED½RM0UGH 3CARPA/NTHEOPPOSITE COAST WEFOLLOWEDTHEPROGRESSOF2AFAEL0ELLI´S GREENAPARTMENTTOWERIN-ANHATTAN4HE3OLAIRE ISTHE½RSTSUSTAINABLERESIDENTIALPROJECTOFITS SIZEORAMBITIONINAN!MERICANCITY!NDACOUPLE HOURSNORTHOF.EW9ORK#ITY WEDISCOVEREDTHAT 3TEVEN(OLL AMUCH LAUDEDARCHITECTWHOSENAME HASRARELY IFEVER BEENMENTIONEDINCONNECTION WITHGREENDESIGN HADDESIGNEDANADDITIONTO HISOWNWEEKENDHOMETHATINCLUDESALONGLIST OFSUSTAINABLEELEMENTS FROMSOLARPANELSTOAN INVENTIVENATURAL VENTILATIONSYSTEM )N%UROPE WEFOUNDSUSTAINABLEDWELLINGS WITHALEVELOFARCHITECTURALANDENVIRONMENTAL SOPHISTICATIONTHATPUTSMOSTGREENBUILDINGSIN THE5NITED3TATESTOSHAME)TISWELLKNOWNTHAT MANY%UROPEANCOUNTRIESHAVEBUILDINGCODES THATPAYSIGNI½CANTLYMOREATTENTIONTOISSUES OFSUSTAINABILITYTHANTHOSEINTHE5NITED3TATES ,ESSREMARKEDUPON ATLEASTINTHE!MERICAN PRESS HASBEEN%UROPE´SSUBSTANTIALINVESTMENTIN NEWHOUSINGTHATMEETSSTRINGENTSUSTAINABILITY BENCHMARKS#ITIESLIKE(ELSINKIAND3TOCKHOLM HAVEDEDICATEDHUGEANDVALUABLESWATHSOFLANDTO GREENDEVELOPMENTS SOMEOFWHICHCONTAINSEVERAL THOUSANDUNITSOFHOUSING .OTALLTHE%UROPEANPROJECTSTHAT½LLTHESE PAGESAREPUBLICLYSUBSIDIZED TOBESURE/NA STEEPHILLSIDEOVERLOOKING3TUTTGART WETOUREDTHE JAW DROPPING2 ASTEEL AND GLASSBOXDESIGNED BYTHE'ERMANENGINEER7ERNER3OBEKASHIS FAMILYRESIDENCE3INCETHEDAYSOF-IESVANDER 2OHE´S&ARNSWORTH(OUSEIN0LANO )LLINOIS ANDITS SEE THROUGHSIBLINGIN.EW#ANAAN #ONNECTICUT BY0HILIP*OHNSONBOTH½NISHEDAROUND THEGLASSHOUSEHASSTOODASTHEEPITOMEOFTHE MODERNISTAESTHETICUNFORTUNATELY SUCHDWELLINGS HAVEOFTENBEENBOTHUNCOMFORTABLETOLIVEINTOO HOTINSUMMER TOOCOLDINWINTER AND WITHTHEIR HIGHHEATINGANDCOOLINGBILLSANDINSENSITIVITYTO SITE HARDLYKINDTOTHEENVIRONMENTEITHER3OBEK SETHIMSELFTHESTIFFCHALLENGEOFSTARTINGWITH THEFAMOUSTYPOLOGYOFTHEGLASSHOUSEANDTHEN MAKINGITSUPREMELYENERGY EF½CIENT(ISDESIGN HASCERTAINLYBEENASUCCESSINTHATREGARDDURING Camera-Ready Green Design

11


MUCHOFTHEYEAR THESOLARPANELSONTHEROOF PROVIDEMOREELECTRICITYTHANHEANDHISFAMILYNEED TOOPERATETHEHOUSE4HEYSELLTHEEXCESSBACKTO THELOCALPOWERCOMPANY 3OBEKISNOTTHE½RST ARCHITECTTODESIGNAHOUSETHATCREATESMOREPOWER THANITUSES"UTTOCOMBINETHATEF½CIENCYWITH EXQUISITELYPROPORTIONED GLASS SHEATHEDMODERNISM MAKES3OBEK´SDESIGNALANDMARKINTHEHISTORYOF GREENARCHITECTURE &INALLY IN!SIAAND!USTRALIAWEUNEARTHED DESIGNSTHATOFFERARANGEOFINVENTIVERESPONSES TOLOCALANDREGIONALCONDITIONS)NTHESHADOW OFTHE'REAT7ALL ABOUTMILESNORTHOF"EIJING *APANESEARCHITECT+ENGO+UMATURNEDAHILLYSITE INTOASTUNNINGESSAYONTHESCULPTURALPOSSIBILITIES OFBAMBOO AHIGHLYSUSTAINABLEMATERIALGIVENHOW QUICKLYANDCHEAPLYITCANBEGROWN)N4ASMANIA A WEEKENDHOUSEBYTHE½RM !RCHITECTURETOUCHES DOWNINITSBUSHLANDSETTINGWITHREMARKABLELIGHT NESSANDGRACE)N*APAN 3HIGERU"ANTOOKAN UNUSUALREQUESTFORAFAMILYRESIDENCEWITHASLITTLE PRIVACYASPOSSIBLEANDPRODUCEDTHE.AKED(OUSE ANINEXPENSIVEANDIN½NITELY¾EXIBLEDESIGNWITHA FORMTHATECHOESTHEGREENHOUSESTHATSTANDNEARBY %VERYONEOFTHESEDESIGNSEASILYSATIS½EDOUR PRIMARYGOALTO½NDHOUSESTHATAREASAMBITIOUS ARCHITECTURALLYASTHEYAREINTERMSOFSUSTAINABILITY 7HILESOMEAREFUTURISTICANDOTHERSCHARMINGLYLOW TECH THEMAJORITYMIXNEWECO FRIENDLYSTRATEGIES WITHVERNACULARONES4AKENASAGROUP THESEHOMES SUGGESTTHATWHILETHEREISNOPARTICULARTEMPLATE THATGREENHOUSESMUSTADHERETO THEREISALSONORULE STATINGTHATTHEYCAN´THAVEPLENTYOFSTYLEORAIMFOR THEHIGHESTAESTHETICPLANE )NOTHERWORDS GREENARCHITECTUREIS½NALLYREADY FORITSCLOSE UP Standards and Practices 3OWHATDOESITMEAN EXACTLY TOSAYTHATAHOUSE IS±GREEN²)TISDIF½CULTTODE½NETHETERMWITH COMPLETEPRECISION&ORSTARTERS WELIKETHE STRAIGHTFORWARDSUGGESTIONFROMTHE$AVIDAND ,UCILE0ACKARD&OUNDATIONTHAT±ANYBUILDINGTHAT HASSIGNI½CANTLYLOWERNEGATIVEENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTSTHANTRADITIONALBUILDINGS²QUALI½ESAS GREEN-OREBROADLY THEKEY MOSTEXPERTSAGREE ISA ¾EXIBLEANDHOLISTICAPPROACHTHATINVOLVESMAKING CAREFUL ECOLOGICALLYCONSCIOUSDECISIONSATEVERY POINTINTHEPLANNING DESIGN ANDCONSTRUCTION PROCESSESWHILEKEEPINGINMINDTHATTHEIDEAL SOLUTIONMAYNOTALWAYSBEEVIDENT!NARCHITECT ORWOULD BEHOMEOWNERDECIDING FORINSTANCE

12

Introduction

BETWEENAKINDOFROO½NGMATERIALCREATEDINAN ENVIRONMENTALLYWASTEFULMANNERBUTAVAILABLE LOCALLYANDANECO FRIENDLYVARIETYTHATHASTO BETRUCKEDINFROM MILESAWAYWILLNOTBE HELPEDMUCHBYAUNIVERSALGREENDESIGNCHECKLIST )NGENERAL THOUGH THEREARESTEADYGUIDELINES TOBEFOLLOWEDANDPRIORITIESTOBEKEPTINMIND 2ESIDENTIALDESIGNSTHATAIMFORAUTHENTICGREENNESS SHOULD ATTHEVERYLEAST BE „ASSMALLASPOSSIBLE FORAHOUSETHATUSESEVERY SUSTAINABLETECHNIQUEUNDERTHESUNWILLNOT BEASKINDTOTHE%ARTHASPRACTICALLYANYHOUSE HALFITSSIZE „POSITIONEDTOTAKEADVANTAGEOFWINTERSUNAND SUMMERSHADE ANDTOMINIMIZEDAMAGETOTHE PLANTS ANIMALS SOIL ETCALREADYTHERE „LOCATEDASCLOSETOPUBLICTRANSPORTATION WORKPLACES SCHOOLS ANDORSHOPPINGAS REALISTICALLYPOSSIBLE 4HOSEARETHEBASICSIMPORTANTLY NONEOFTHEMNEED ADDANYCOSTTOTHECONSTRUCTIONOFANEWHOMESAVE FORTHEPOTENTIALLYHIGHERPRICESOFLANDINORNEARA CITY )NDEED FOLLOWINGTHE½RSTRULEWILLNECESSARILY LEADTOLOWERBUILDINGCOSTS "EYONDTHAT GREENNESSISGENERALLYAQUESTION OFTWOISSUES°ENERGYEF½CIENCYANDTHEECO FRIENDLINESSOFABUILDING´SMATERIALS°ALONGWITH ABROADERSENSEOFHOWANEWHOUSEORAPARTMENT BUILDINGTIESINTOITSLOCAL REGIONAL ANDGLOBAL CONTEXT/FTEN THESECONCERNSAREINTERTWINED BUTIN GENERALARCHITECTSCOMMITTEDTOSUSTAINABILITYWILL EMPLOYMANYANDINRARECASESALL OFTHEFOLLOWING „RECYCLEDMATERIALSANDEVENEXISTING FOUNDATIONSORBUILDINGSHELLS „WOODFROMSTOCKSTHATARESUSTAINABLYMANAGED „MATERIALSTHATARELOWINEMBODIEDENERGY° THATIS THEENERGYREQUIREDTOEXTRACTAND PRODUCETHEMASWELLASTODELIVERTHEMTOA BUILDINGSITE „NATURALMATERIALS SUCHASBAMBOO THATCANBE EASILYREPLENISHED „EF½CIENTLIGHTINGSYSTEMSTHATTAKEADVANTAGE OFDAYLIGHTTOREDUCEELECTRICITYNEEDSOR INCLUDESENSORSANDTIMERSTHATSHUTOFFLIGHTS WHENTHEYARENOTINUSE „WATERSYSTEMSTHATCOLLECTRAINWATERORTREAT SO CALLEDGRAYWATERFROMSINKSANDSHOWERS SOTHATITCANBEREUSEDFORGARDENSORTOILETS „STRATEGIESTOENSURETHATAHOUSEWILLHAVEA LONGLIFEBECAUSEITISCOMFORTABLETOSPENDTIME IN ARCHITECTURALLYSIGNI½CANT ORADAPTABLETO FUTUREUSES

'REAT"AMBOO 7ALL BY+ENGO+UMA

 4HE$AVIDAND,UCILE0ACKARD &OUNDATION "UILDINGFOR 3USTAINABILITY2EPORT /CTOBER  


.AKED(OUSE BY3HIGERU"AN

 .ATIONAL!SSOCIATIONOF(OME "UILDERS ±-ONTHLY(OUSING3TARTS ¯CURRENT ²ATWWWNAHBORG  +EVIN0RATT ±#ONSERVING(ABITATS ² !RTFORUM &EBRUARY 

„INSULATION GLASS ANDFACADESTHATAREENERGY EF½CIENTANDTHATPROMOTECOOLINGBYNATURAL VENTILATIONINSTEADOFBYAIR CONDITIONING „FEATURESTHATTAKEADVANTAGEOFTHESUN´SRAYS EITHERPASSIVELY USINGTHERMALMASSINGAND HIGH EF½CIENCYGLASS ORACTIVELYTHROUGH PHOTOVOLTAICPANELS TOTURNSUNLIGHTINTO ELECTRICITY „INTERIORMATERIALSAND½NISHES FROMCARPETSTO PAINTS THATMINIMIZECHEMICALEMISSIONSAND PROMOTEGOODAIRQUALITY !FTERMUCHTHOUGHTANDDISCUSSIONWITHVARIOUS LEADERSINTHE½ELD WEDECIDEDTOUSEANADMITTEDLY ¾EXIBLEDE½NITIONOFSUSTAINABILITYINTHISBOOK 4RUESUSTAINABILITY OFCOURSE MEANSAHOUSE THATPRODUCESASMUCHENERGYASITCONSUMES -ORETHANAFEWOFTHEHOUSESHEREWOULDFAILTO QUALIFYASGREENBYTHATSTANDARD&ORARCHITECTS ANDCLIENTSALIKE ITISNOTALWAYSREALISTICTO EXPECTPERFECTION4HEPOINTISTOMAKECAREFUL INFORMEDCHOICESFROMSELECTINGASITETOPICKING OUTTHECABINETRY!LONGWITHTHEIDEATHATGREEN HOUSESARENOWBEINGPRODUCEDBYMANYOFTHE WORLD´SMOSTTALENTEDARCHITECTS WHATWEARE INTERESTEDINCOMMUNICATINGHEREISTHENOTION THATSUSTAINABILITYISNOTEXOTICORBETTERLEFTTO SPECIALISTS BUTBASEDINTHEKINDOFCOMMONSENSE THATISCOMPREHENSIBLEFORANYPOTENTIALHOME BUILDER°ORHOME BUYER FORTHATMATTER )TISTRUETHATBUILDINGANEWHOUSEOFANYKIND WILLRARELYBEAPOSITIVEENVIRONMENTALGESTURE "UTNOMATTERHOWECOLOGICALLYPROGRESSIVEOUR SOCIETYBECOMES DEMANDFORNEWHOUSINGISNOT GOINGTODRYUPANYTIMESOON!BOUTMILLION SINGLE FAMILYHOMESWENTUPINTHE5NITED3TATES INALONE ACCORDINGTOTHE.ATIONAL!SSOCIATION OF(OME"UILDERS°THEVASTMAJORITYOFTHEM SADLY FOLLOWINGNOTASINGLEGREENDESIGNPRINCIPLE "UTMOREANDMORE ARCHITECTSARE½NDINGWAYSTO REDUCETHEMARGINBETWEENTHEAMOUNTOFRESOURCES CONSUMEDINTHECONSTRUCTIONANDOPERATIONOF AHOUSEANDTHOSESAVEDORREPLENISHED)NDEED BYCOMBININGANCIENTTECHNIQUESWITHTHE LATESTINSUPER EF½CIENTMECHANICALSYSTEMS ANDMATERIALS THEDESIGNERSOFTHEHOUSESWE´VE DOCUMENTEDHEREAREMANAGINGTOMAKETHAT MARGINASTONISHINGLYSMALL A Very Short History 0ERHAPSTHEMOSTIMPORTANTTHINGTOSAYABOUTTHE ORIGINSOFSUSTAINABLERESIDENTIALDESIGNSISTHAT THEYLIEINAGELESSVERNACULARARCHITECTURE THE

KINDOFCONSTRUCTIONTHATWASPRACTICEDFORMOST OFHUMANHISTORYANDCONTINUESTOBEPRACTICED INWHATWEINTHE7ESTCALLTHE4HIRD7ORLD 4HISAPPROACHRELIESONSIMPLE RENEWABLE AND NATURALLYINSULATINGMATERIALSSUCHASADOBE ANDPASSIVESTRATEGIESLIKESITING THICKWALLS AND NATURALVENTILATIONTOKEEPHOUSESCOOLINSUMMER ANDRETAINHEATINWINTER2OUGHLYONE THIRDOF THEWORLD´SPOPULATIONCONTINUESTOLIVEINSUCH ARCHITECTURE4HELESSONSITOFFERSFORBUILDING ENVIRONMENTALLYRESPONSIBLEANDENERGY EF½CIENT HOUSINGREMAINASVALUABLEANDEASYTOCOPYASEVER )NASTYLISTICSENSE TOOVERSIMPLIFYATLEASTA LITTLE 7ESTERNARCHITECTUREHASBEENDRIFTINGAWAY FROMTHOSETRADITIONSSINCETHE'REEKS3TILL THE DIVORCEBETWEENARCHITECTUREANDTHEENVIRONMENT WASNOTREALLY½NALIZEDUNTILTHEBEGINNINGOF THETWENTIETHCENTURY WHENTHEMODERNISTS´LOVE AFFAIRWITHNEWINDUSTRIALTECHNOLOGIES FROMTHE ELEVATORTOSTEEL FRAMECONSTRUCTION PRODUCEDAN ARCHITECTURETHATDIDITSBESTTOEXISTAPARTFROM NATURE)NDEED BYTHEEARLYDECADESOFTHETWENTIETH CENTURYTHEIDEALPIECEOFRESIDENTIALARCHITECTURE HADBECOMEARECTILINEAR PURE WHITEBOXSETOFFIN A½ELD4HEMODERNISTMASTER,E#ORBUSIERCALLED HISVERSION±AMACHINEFORLIVING ²ABUILDINGTHAT GAINEDITSUNDENIABLECHARISMAPRECISELYFROMTHE WAYITWASEVERYTHINGTHATTHE½ELDWASNOTHARD WHERETHE½ELDWASSOFT MONOCHROMATICINSTEADOF MULTIHUED CLOSEDINSTEADOFOPEN ITSEDGESFACTORY CUTINSTEADOFWEATHER SOFTENED 4HECRITIQUEOFMODERNISTARCHITECTUREASANTI GREENISBYNOWAFAMILIARONE ANDWETHINKITHAS SOMETIMESBEENOVERSTATED)TISWORTHPOINTING OUT FOREXAMPLE THATMODERNISMBEGANWITHTHE SAMEKINDOFREFORM MINDEDETHOSTHATNOWDRIVES GREENARCHITECTURE°ANDTHATSOMEOFTHE½GURES WHOHELPEDINSPIRETHESUSTAINABILITYMOVEMENT "UCKMINSTER&ULLERPROMINENTLYAMONGTHEM WEREBELIEVERSINMODERNISMWHOHOPEDTOHARNESS TECHNOLOGYTOIMPROVETHELIVESOFTHEAVERAGE FAMILY!S+EVIN0RATT ANARCHITECTANDCRITICBASED IN,ONDON HASPOINTEDOUT ±'REENDESIGNSPEAKS TOAYEARNINGFORTHEKINDOFTOTALIZINGAESTHETIC ANDIDEOLOGICALPROGRAMTHEMODERNISTSEMBRACED ;)T=ALSOSHARESWITHTHEMODERNISTPROJECTTHE RIGHTEOUSNESSOFACAUSEIMPROVINGTHEWORLD THROUGHREFORMOFITSMATERIALCULTURE²)NADDITION ASIGNI½CANTNUMBEROFGREENLANDMARKSOVERTHE LASTTWODECADESHAVEBEENDESIGNEDBYARCHITECTS LIKE"RITAIN´S(IGH4ECH'ROUP WHOSEAPPROACH ANDMETHODOLOGYGREWDIRECTLYFROMMODERNISM Camera-Ready Green Design

13


0RATTANDOTHERCRITICSHAVEGONESOFARASTOPREDICT THATSUSTAINABILITYWILLBETOTHETWENTY ½RST CENTURYWHATMODERNISMWASTOTHETWENTIETH°ITS DOMINANTARCHITECTURALMOVEMENT 9ETEVENWEFANSOFMODERNARCHITECTUREHAVE TOADMITTHEWISDOM°ANDTHEFORESIGHT°OFTHE WRITERSANDARCHITECTSWHOLINEDUPTOCOMPLAIN ABOUTITSSOMETIMESBLINDLYUNIVERSALAPPROACH AS WELLAS MOREGENERALLY THEDEHUMANIZINGEFFECTS OFRAPIDINDUSTRIALIZATION4HESECRITICSINCLUDED 7ILLIAM-ORRISAND*OHN2USKININ%NGLAND AND LATER &RANK,LOYD7RIGHTAND*ANE*ACOBSIN THE5NITED3TATES¯¯ADIVERSEGROUP TOBESURE WRITINGACROSSNEARLYACENTURY"UTWHATTHEYALL EXPRESSEDWASADEEPANXIETYABOUTTHEWAYSIN WHICHARCHITECTUREWASTURNINGAWAYFROMTHE SAMEBASICLESSONSOFTHEPROFESSION PASSEDDOWN FROMARCHITECTTOARCHITECTANDAMATEURBUILDERTO AMATEURBUILDER THATMAKEUPTHEFUNDAMENTALSOF GREENDESIGN°LESSONSABOUTHUMANSCALEANDHOW BUILDINGSRELATETOTHEIRNATURALSURROUNDINGSAND TOORGANICFORMSTHATCANBEAPPRECIATEDDAYTODAY SEASONTOSEASON ANDYEARTOYEAR4HEIRCRITIQUES BECAMEPARTICULARLYPERSUASIVEINTHES AS MODERNISMCAMETOSEDUCEURBANPLANNERSANDBIG CITYMAYORSASPOWERFULLYASITHADPRIVATECLIENTS 7HAT½NALLYALLOWEDSUCHMISGIVINGSTO COALESCEINTOAPROPERMOVEMENTWASTHE REALIZATIONDURINGTHESECONDHALFOFTHETWENTIETH CENTURYTHATHUMANACTIVITYWASBEGINNINGTO PUTTHEPLANETITSELFINPERIL4HISREALIZATION PROMPTED°ANDWASPROMPTEDBY°MANYSCIENTI½C ANDPOLITICALMILESTONES FROM2ACHEL#ARSON´S SEMINALBOOK3ILENT3PRINGINTOTHEINAUGURAL %ARTH$AYINTOASSESSMENTSLIKETHE#LUB OF2OME´SBOOK4HE,IMITSTO'ROWTH WHICH PREDICTED ALLTOOACCURATELY THATHUMANSWOULD SOONBEGINUSINGTHE%ARTH´SRESOURCESMOREQUICKLY THANTHEYCOULDBEREPLENISHED)TWASTHEOIL CRISISOFTHEMID S THOUGH THATPRODUCEDREAL ENVIRONMENTALURGENCYIN7ESTERNSOCIETIESFOR THE½RSTTIME!LLOFASUDDEN EVERYHUMANACTIVITY THATUSEDUPMORENATURALRESOURCESTHANCOULDBE REPLACEDBECAMESUSPECT7HATTHISCRISISMEANTFOR ARCHITECTUREWASTHATTHEDISMAYWITHHARD EDGED MECHANISTICDESIGNSEXPRESSEDBY2USKIN 7RIGHT ANDTHEIRHEIRSCOULDBEREGARDEDASMORETHANMERE AESTHETICDISSATISFACTION)TWASNOLONGERASIMPLE ARCHITECTURALARGUMENTABOUTWHETHERONE PREFERREDABUILDINGDRIPPINGWITHORNAMENTOR ABLANKFACADE4HEQUESTIONBECAMEWHETHER THOSERESPONSIBLEFORPUTTINGUPBUILDINGSWOULD

14

Introduction

HELPADDRESSTHEINCREASINGLYUNSTABLE UNHEALTHY RELATIONSHIPBETWEENHUMANCIVILIZATIONANDTHE NATURALWORLD "YTHES THEMOVEMENT½NALLYHADANAME FORITSGOALSUSTAINABILITY4HETERMWASBROUGHT INTOPOPULARUSEBYTHE"RUNDTLAND2EPORT A 5NITED.ATIONSDOCUMENTTHATDE½NEDSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTASMEETING±THENEEDSOFTHEPRESENT WITHOUTCOMPROMISINGTHEABILITYOFFUTURE GENERATIONSTOMEETTHEIROWN²4HECONCEPT PROVIDEDARCHITECTSWITHASENSEOFMEMBERSHIP INANIMPORTANTLARGEREFFORT AWAYOFDE½NING PRECISELYWHATTHEYHOPEDTOACCOMPLISHWITHTHEIR SOLARPANELSANDWALLSMADEFROMRECYCLEDTIRES %VENSO ITTOOKAWHILEBEFORETHECONCEPTOF SUSTAINABILITYMERGEDVERNACULARELEMENTSWITH ENERGY EF½CIENTBUILDINGPRACTICESTOCREATEWHAT WENOWCALLGREENARCHITECTURE!SAFORMALEFFORT THEMOVEMENTISYOUNGERTHANYOUMIGHTGUESS !SEARLYASTHEREWEREBOOKSLIKE2OBERT"ROWN "UTLER´S4HE%COLOGICAL(OUSEANDPROTO GREEN DEVELOPMENTSLIKE$AVIS #ALIFORNIA´S6ILLAGE (OMES BUTTHEYWEREISOLATEDEFFORTSTHATPREDATED ANYBROADSENSEOFECO FRIENDLYARCHITECTURE )NDEED 4HE'REEN2EADER ACOLLECTIONOFESSAYS PUBLISHEDINTHATADDRESSEDSUSTAINABILITY INAWIDEVARIETYOF½ELDS DIDNOTMENTION ARCHITECTUREATALL"UTCERTAINLYBYTHATYEARAND SOONAFTERTHEREWERENETWORKSOFARCHITECTSWHO HADBEGUNTOORGANIZETHEIRPRACTICESAROUNDAN ECOLOGICALLYSENSITIVEAPPROACHTOCONSTRUCTION 4HE!MERICAN)NSTITUTEOF!RCHITECTSCREATEDITS #OMMITTEEONTHE%NVIRONMENTIN4HE53 'REEN"UILDING#OUNCIL ANONPRO½TASSOCIATION WHOSEMEMBERSINCLUDEARCHITECTS DEVELOPERS ANDBUILDERS WASFOUNDEDIN4HE½RST COMPREHENSIVEBOOKSONTHESUBJECT SUCHAS -ICHAEL*#ROSBIE´S'REEN!RCHITECTURE!'UIDETO 3USTAINABLE$ESIGN BEGANAPPEARINGINBOOKSTORES OVERTHEFOLLOWINGFEWYEARS ANDBYTHEENDOF THEMILLENNIUMTHETERM±GREENARCHITECTURE²HAD SEEPEDINTOTHEPOPULARDISCOURSE A Movement’s Priorities !SGREENARCHITECTUREDEVELOPEDTHROUGHOUTTHE SANDS ITSLEADERSTENDEDTOPAYLITTLE IFANY ATTENTIONTOTHEHIGH DESIGNORACADEMIC CORNERSOFTHEARCHITECTUREWORLD)NSTEAD THEY RATHERSTUBBORNLYSAWGREENDESIGN´SPRIORITIESAS HIGHER MINDEDORSIMPLYMOREPRESSINGTHANSTYLE ORTHEORY4HEYWEREDETERMINEDTOPAYMOSTOF THEIRATTENTIONANDPERHAPSQUITERIGHTLY GIVEN

7ALLA7OMBA'UEST(OUSE BY !RCHITECTURE

 4HABO-BEKI ETAL ±7E#AN$O4HIS 7ORK4OGETHER ²)NTERNATIONAL(ERALD 4RIBUNE !UGUST


 !NDREW"LUM ±'EORGE7"USH "UILDSHIS$REAM(OUSE ²4HE.EW 9ORKER *ULY   "ARNABY*&EDER ±%NVIRONMENTALLY #ONSCIOUS$EVELOPERS4RYTO4URN 'REENINTO0LATINUM ²4HE.EW9ORK 4IMES !UGUST  )BID  "ARNABY*&EDER ±!$IFFERENT%RA FOR!LTERNATIVE%NERGY ²4HE.EW9ORK 4IMES -AY  %LIZA"ARCLAY ±06 46! -ULTIFUNCTIONAL %CO &RIENDLY "UILDING-ATERIAL ²-ETROPOLIS *ULY ONLINEEDITION AT WWWMETROPOLISMAGCOM  3USANNAH(AGAN ±&IVE2EASONS TO!DOPT%NVIRONMENTAL$ESIGN ² (ARVARD$ESIGN-AGAZINE 3PRING 3UMMER   1UOTEDIN#HRISTOPHER(AWTHORNE ±4HE#ASEFORA'REEN!ESTHETIC ² -ETROPOLIS /CTOBER 

WHOMAKESTHEDECISIONSABOUTHOWANDWHERETO BUILD ESPECIALLYINTHE5NITED3TATES TOCONVINCING CORPORATE!MERICATHATGREENDESIGNSHOULDBEA MAINSTREAMRATHERTHANAMARGINALORECCENTRIC PURSUIT )NTHATBATTLETHEYHAVEMADETREMENDOUSAND UNDENIABLEPROGRESS3USTAINABILITYADVOCATESCAN ½NALLYSAYWITHCON½DENCETHATTHEGOALSOFGREEN DESIGNHAVEBEENEMBRACEDBYAWIDEPUBLIC4HAT PUBLICMAYBEEVENWIDERTHANWESUSPECTTHOUGH THEYDONOTADVERTISETHISFACT EVEN'EORGE7"USH ANDHISWIFE,AURAHAVEBECOMEPATRONSOFGREEN ARCHITECTURE4HEIRRANCHHOUSEIN#RAWFORD 4EXAS DESIGNEDBY!USTINARCHITECT$AVID(EYMANNAND ½NISHEDTHESAMEYEAR"USHBECAME0RESIDENT HASA NUMBEROFSUSTAINABLEFEATURES INCLUDINGASYSTEM FORRECYCLINGHOUSEHOLDWATER 4HE'REEN"UILDING#OUNCIL´SSUSTAINABLE RATINGSYSTEMFORNEWBUILDINGS°KNOWNBY ITSACRONYM,%%$ FOR,EADERSHIPIN%NERGYAND %NVIRONMENTAL$ESIGN°HASACHIEVEDWIDECULTURAL CURRENCYSINCEITSFORMALINTRODUCTIONIN )TISNOTUNUSUALNOWEVENFORLARGECORPORATE CLIENTSTOPUSHTHEIRARCHITECTSTOACHIEVEA,%%$ RATINGBECAUSETHEYKNOWTHEPUBLICEQUATESTHOSE STANDARDSWITHENVIRONMENTALRESPONSIBILITY-ORE THAN BUILDINGSINTHE53HAVEEARNED,%%$ CERTI½CATIONORARESEEKINGIT°ROUGHLYPERCENT OFALLCOMMERCIALCONSTRUCTIONINTHISCOUNTRY WITHTHATPROPORTIONSURELYBOUNDTOINCREASEEACH YEAR!LREADY ROUGHLYONEIN½VEINSTITUTIONAL ANDGOVERNMENTBUILDINGSAREBEINGBUILTTO ,%%$STANDARDS !,%%$PROGRAMFORCOMMERCIAL INTERIORSWASLAUNCHEDIN ANDONEFOR RESIDENTIALARCHITECTUREIN /NEOFTHEBIGGESTDETERRENTSTOSUSTAINABLE BUILDINGHASBEENTHEPERCEPTIONOFADDEDEXPENSE !CCORDINGTOASTUDYCOMMISSIONEDBYTHESTATE OF#ALIFORNIA ,%%$BUILDINGSCOSTANAVERAGEOF MOREPERSQUAREFOOTTHANTYPICALCONSTRUCTION "UTOVERTWENTYYEARS THESTUDYSUGGESTS ±THEY WOULDGENERATESAVINGSOFASQUAREFOOT INCURRENTDOLLARS FORSTANDARD ANDSILVER CERTI½ED BUILDINGS ANDFORGOLD ANDPLATINUM CERTI½EDBUILDINGS²4OBEFAIR THEREISSOME GUESSWORKINVOLVEDINTHESEPROJECTIONSTHEYRELY ONASSUMPTIONSTHATGREENBUILDINGSWILLNOTONLY HAVELOWEROPERATINGCOSTSTHANTRADITIONALONESBUT ALSOTHATTHEYWILLBEMORECOMFORTABLETOWORKIN THEREBYINCREASINGEMPLOYEEPRODUCTIVITY -EANWHILE TECHNOLOGICALANDMANUFACTURING ADVANCESHAVEMADEMANYGREENDESIGNFEATURES

CHEAPERANDEASIERTOOBTAINTHANTHEYHADBEEN 3OLARPANELSDESIGNEDTOGENERATEELECTRICITY FOR EXAMPLE COSTABOUTPERWATTINTHEMID S THEYNOWSELLFORLESSTHANPERWATT ANDTHE PRICEISCONTINUINGTOFALL!NDNEWECO FRIENDLY BUILDINGMATERIALSAPPEARONWHATSEEMSADAILY BASIS#ONSIDER06 46 ANINVENTIVEVERSIONOFTHE SOLARPANELDEVELOPEDIN*APAN)TCANBEUSEDONTHE FACADEOFABUILDINGINTHREEWAYSATONCEASASOLAR COLLECTORTOGENERATEELECTRICITY ASATRANSPARENT PANETOALLOWSUNLIGHTINTOTHEINTERIOR ANDASA SCREENTODISPLAYVIDEOIMAGES !SGREENARCHITECTUREWASGAININGSUPPORTERS INTHEPOLITICALANDCOMMERCIALSPHERES HOWEVER ITWASUTTERLYFAILINGTOWINTHEMINTHEAESTHETIC REALM3USTAINABLEBUILDINGBECAMEASSOCIATEDIN THEPUBLICIMAGINATIONWITHEARNEST UNINSPIRED DESIGNSTHATPUTENVIRONMENTALCONCERNSFARAHEAD OFARTISTICONES CREATINGWHATSOMECRITICSDUBBED THECURSEOF±ECO BANALITY²)FINRECENTYEARSYOU ASKEDTHEAVERAGEREADEROFANARCHITECTUREOR HOME DESIGNMAGAZINE SAY TOCLOSEHEREYESAND DESCRIBEWHATCAMETOMINDATTHEMENTIONOF ±GREENDESIGN²OR±ECO ARCHITECTURE ²SHEPROBABLY WOULDHAVEMENTIONEDASAGGINGSODROOFORA CORPORATEOF½CEBUILDINGWITHSOMEENERGY EF½CIENT FEATURESBUTLITTLETORECOMMENDITARCHITECTURALLY 4HOSEARCHITECTSMOSTOFTENCOVEREDINTHE DESIGNANDPOPULARPRESS ESPECIALLYACADEMICSAND SELF STYLEDMEMBERSOFTHEAVANT GARDE WASTED FEWOPPORTUNITIESTODENIGRATESUSTAINABLEDESIGN &ORTHEM ASONEWRITERPUTIT GREENARCHITECTURE HAD±NOEDGE NOBUZZ NOSTYLE²)TWASNOTONLY ±POPULATEDBYTHESELF RIGHTEOUSANDTHEBADLY DRESSED²BUT±AHAVENFORTHEUNTALENTED WHERE ETHICSREPLACEAESTHETICSANDGETAWAYWITHIT² 4HEARCHITECT0ETER%ISENMAN LONGAMEMBER OFTHEARCHITECTURALVANGUARD HADTHISTOSAYON THESUBJECTASLATEAS±4OTALKTOMEABOUT SUSTAINABILITYISLIKETALKINGTOMEABOUTGIVING BIRTH!M)AGAINSTGIVINGBIRTH.O"UTWOULD) LIKETOSPENDMYTIMEDOINGIT.OTREALLY)´DRATHER GOTOABASEBALLGAME² 4HEREHAVEBEENMANYEXPLANATIONSPUTFORTH ABOUTWHYSOMANYOFTHEMOSTFAMOUSARCHITECTS INTHEWORLDSPENTTHELASTSEVERALYEARS¾EEING SUSTAINABILITYASQUICKLYASTHEIR0RADA CLADFEET COULDCARRYTHEM(ARRISON&RAKER DEANOFTHE #OLLEGEOF%NVIRONMENTAL$ESIGNATTHE5NIVERSITY OF#ALIFORNIAAT"ERKELEY SUGGESTSTHATTHEYHAVE FEAREDALLOWINGANYONETOPULLBACKTHECURTAIN ONTHEMYSTIQUETHATMAINTAINSANYKINDOF Camera-Ready Green Design

15


CELEBRITY%VENTHOSEFAMOUSARCHITECTSWHODESIGN ENVIRONMENTALLYCONSCIOUSBUILDINGS°&RAKER CITESTHEHIGHLYREGARDED3WISSDUO(ERZOG DE-EURONASANEXAMPLE°AREWEARYOFTHE±GREEN DESIGNER²LABEL±4HEYWORRYTHATTALKINGABOUTGREEN DESIGNWILLMAKEENVIRONMENTALISMTHECENTEROF THEIRPUBLICREPUTATION ² HEARGUES!NDTHAT IN TURN MIGHTDIMINISHTHEIRAPPEAL !DIFFERENTASSESSMENTCOMESFROM3USANNAH (AGAN WHORUNSAMASTER´SPROGRAMINSUSTAINABILITY ATTHE5NIVERSITYOF%AST,ONDONANDHASWRITTEN EXTENSIVELYONTHESUBJECT&ORHER THETRADITIONAL DISTANCEBETWEENTHEAVANT GARDEANDGREENDESIGN HASHADMORETODOWITHTHEFORMER´SPREOCCUPATION WITHTHEORYOVERMATERIAL4HOUGHTHESUSTAINABILITY MOVEMENTRESTSONAPHILOSOPHICALFOUNDATIONMADE UPOF½GURESASDIVERSEAS*OHN-UIR (ENRY$AVID 4HOREAU %DWARD!BBEY AND2ACHEL#ARSON ONA DAY TO DAYLEVELTHEPRACTICEOFGREENARCHITECTUREHAS MORETODOWITHHANDS ON PRACTICALCONSIDERATIONS THANITDOESWITHDEEPTHINKINGORDAZZLINGTHEORY)N THETHEORETICALWINGOFTHEARCHITECTUREPROFESSION (AGANSENSESWHATSHECALLS±ASOMETIMESEXPLICIT SOMETIMESSUBLIMINALRESISTANCETOARCHITECTURE AS MATTER²!NDFORSTARARCHITECTS THEIRCELEBRITY KEPTALOFTBYBUZZANDMYSTERY MATTERCANSEEM DANGEROUSLYCLOSETOMUNDANE The Damage Done 4HOSEARCHITECTS´COMPLAINTSABOUTGREENDESIGN´S LACKOFSTYLE OFCOURSE WERETHEDESIGN WORLD EQUIVALENTOF½DDLINGWHILE2OMEBURNED)NDEED FORANYONEWHOHASN´THEARDTHEMBEFORE THE STATISTICSONTHEAMOUNTOFDAMAGETHATTHEBUILDING INDUSTRIESDOTOTHEENVIRONMENTCANBESTAGGERING "YONERECENTMEASURE BUILDINGSUSEPERCENTOF ALLTHEENERGYCONSUMEDINTHE5NITED3TATESEACH YEARANDARERESPONSIBLEFORABOUTHALFOF!MERICAN GREENHOUSEGASEMISSIONS WHICHDRIVEGLOBAL WARMING-ORETHANONETHIRDOFTHEMATERIAL CLOGGING53LAND½LLSISPRODUCEDBYTHECONSTRUCTION ANDDEMOLITIONOFBUILDINGS7ORLDWIDE THE NUMBERSARENOTQUITESOBADBUTSTILLDRASTICALLY WORSETHANTHEYOUGHTTOBE ANDSOARINGPOPULATION GROWTHANDRAPIDINDUSTRIALIZATIONANDURBANIZATION IN#HINA )NDIA ANDELSEWHEREPROMISESTOWIPEOUT THEENVIRONMENTALPROGRESSBEINGMADEINBOTHTHE DEVELOPEDANDDEVELOPINGWORLD)NDEED #HINA NOWRANKSSECONDINTHEWORLD BEHINDONLYTHE 5NITED3TATES ASANEMITTEROFGREENHOUSEGASES ANDISLIKELYTOTAKEOVERTHETOPSPOTONTHATDUBIOUS LISTWITHINTHENEXTDECADE!NDWITHOUTADRASTIC

16

Introduction

GLOBALCOMMITMENTTOGREENARCHITECTURE THE SITUATIONPROMISESTOGETMUCHWORSE!CCORDING TO7ILLIAM#LARK APROFESSORAT(ARVARD´S+ENNEDY 3CHOOLOF'OVERNMENT ±/VERTHENEXTTWENTYTO FORTYYEARS BYANYOFTHEPREVAILINGDEMOGRAPHIC CALCULATIONS THEREWILLBEMOREURBANBUILT ENVIRONMENTCREATEDTHANINALLPRIORHISTORY² -UCHOFTHEENVIRONMENTALDAMAGEISTHE INDIRECTRESULT MANYGREENDESIGNADVOCATESSAY OFANARCHITECTURETHATHASINCREASINGLYALIENATED ITSUSERSFROMTHENATURALWORLD±/URCULTUREHAS ADOPTEDADESIGNSTRATAGEMTHATESSENTIALLYSAYS THATIFBRUTEFORCEORMASSIVEAMOUNTSOFENERGY DON´TWORK YOU´RENOTUSINGENOUGHOFIT ²SAYSTHE ARCHITECT7ILLIAM-C$ONOUGH AMONGTHEBEST KNOWNPRACTITIONERSOFSUSTAINABLEARCHITECTURE 7EMADEGLASSBUILDINGSTHATAREMOREABOUT BUILDINGSTHANTHEYAREABOUTPEOPLE 4HEHOPETHATGLASSWOULDCONNECTUSTOTHE OUTDOORSWASCOMPLETELYSTULTI½EDBYMAKING THEBUILDINGSSEALED7EHAVECREATEDSTRESSIN PEOPLEBECAUSEWEAREMEANTTOBECONNECTED WITHTHEOUTDOORS BUTINSTEADWEARE TRAPPED0EOPLEARESENSINGHOWHORRIFYING ITCANBETOBETRAPPEDINDOORS ESPECIALLYWITH THETHOUSANDSUPONTHOUSANDSOFCHEMICALS THATAREBEINGUSEDTOMAKETHINGSTODAY 'REENDESIGNEXPERTSHAVEPOINTEDOUTTHAT MOSTCONTEMPORARYARCHITECTUREISCONNECTED TOGLOBALIZATIONOFTHEMOSTDESTRUCTIVEORDER ±0HILLIPINEFORESTSARECLEAR CUTFORPLYWOODUSEDTO BUILDOF½CESIN*APAN ²NOTESTHE2OCKY-OUNTAIN )NSTITUTE´S0RIMERON3USTAINABLE"UILDING (OMESIN3OUTHERN#ALIFORNIAAREFRAMED WITHOLD GROWTHLUMBERFROM7ASHINGTON ANDPOWEREDBYBURNINGCOALSTRIP MINED FROM.AVAJOSACREDLANDSIN!RIZONA 5LTIMATELY THECOSTSOFPOORDESIGNARE BORNENOTSOLELYBYABUILDING´SOWNER ANDTHOSEWHOWORKANDLIVETHERE BUT BYEVERYONE )NTHEFACEOFSUCHSTATISTICS ITISEASYTODESPAIR ABOUTTHEPOSSIBILITYOFATURNAROUND ESPECIALLY ONELEDBYARCHITECTURE°AND MORESPECI½CALLY BYRESIDENTIALARCHITECTURE!FTERALL THENUMBER OFPRIVATEHOMESDESIGNEDBYARCHITECTSEACHYEAR AROUNDTHEWORLDISTINYCOMPAREDTOTHEMANY BUILDINGS FROMHOUSINGDEVELOPMENTSTOOF½CE PARKS THATARECONSTRUCTEDWITHOUTTHEBENE½TOF ADESIGNPROFESSIONAL7HAT´SMORE THOSE DESIGNEDBYTHEARCHITECTSONTHECUTTINGEDGEOF THEPROFESSIONWOULDSEEMTOHAVELITTLEDIRECT

  )BID   (AGAN ±&IVE2EASONS ²  #HRISTOPHER(AWTHORNE ±4URNING $OWNTHE'LOBAL4HERMOSTAT ² -ETROPOLIS /CTOBER   (AWTHORNE ±4HE#ASEFORA'REEN !ESTHETIC ²  ±#LIMATE#HANGE4HE"IG%MITTERS ² ""#.EWS *ULY ONLINE EDITION ATHTTPNEWSBBCCOUK  7ILLIAM#LARK ±7HAT#AN7E$O² (ARVARD$ESIGN-AGAZINE 3PRING 3UMMER   7ILLIAM-C$ONOUGH ±$ESIGN %COLOGY %THICS ANDTHE-AKINGOF 4HINGS ²%ARTH)SLAND*OURNAL 3PRING ONLINEEDITION AT WWWEARTHISLANDORGEIJOURNAL  $IANNA,OPEZ"ARNETT ETAL 0RIMER ON3USTAINABLE$ESIGN3NOWMASS #OLORADO2OCKY-OUNTAIN)NSTITUTE  


#HARLOTTE2ESIDENCE BY7ILLIAM -C$ONOUGH 0ARTNERS

 1UOTEDIN#ALVIN4OMKINS ±4HE 0IANO0RINCIPLE ²4HE.EW9ORKER !UGUST   %LIZABETH7ILHIDE %CO!N%SSENTIAL 3OURCEBOOKFOR%NVIRONMENTALLY &RIENDLY$ESIGNAND$ECORATION .EW9ORK2IZZOLI    $ANNY(AKIM ±!3HADEOF'REEN 356´S4RYTO3OFTEN)MAGE ²4HE.EW 9ORK4IMES &EBRUARY  (AWTHORNE ±4URNING$OWNTHE 'LOBAL4HERMOSTAT ²  (AWTHORNE ±4HE#ASEFORA'REEN !ESTHETIC ²

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ARCHITECTURAL°DEVELOPMENTS±!TTHEBEGINNING OFTHE;TWENTIETH=CENTURY TECHNOLOGYWASLIKEA BIGTRAINBREAKINGEVERYTHING AKILLINGMACHINE ² 0IANOHASSAID±)TWASREALLYANADVERSARYTONATURE "UTTODAYYOUCANBEGINTOSEETHATTECHNOLOGYAND NATUREARENOTSOFARAPART² 4OBESURE THEREISNOSHORTAGEINTODAY´SWORLD OFTHREATSANDSOURCESOFANXIETY FROMTERRORISM TOEMERGINGSTRAINSOFDISEASE"UTASTHEAUTHOR %LIZABETH7ILHIDEPOINTSOUTINHERRECENTBOOK %CO ±/FALLTHEDANGERSTHATTHREATENOURWORLD DAMAGETOTHEENVIRONMENTISONEMENACEWE CANALLDOSOMETHINGABOUT²!NDITMAKESBETTER SENSETHANWEMAYREALIZETOBEGINTHATEFFORTWITH ARCHITECTURE4HOUGHTHECONSTRUCTIONINDUSTRY AS WE´VESEEN DOESMOREDAMAGETOTHEENVIRONMENT THANANYOTHERSINGLESECTOROFSOCIETY ITSOMEHOW CONTINUESTOESCAPETHESORTOFPUBLICSCRUTINYOR SCORNTHATGREETSOTHERPOLLUTERS7HY FOREXAMPLE DOESTHE356CONTINUETOQUALIFYASTHEBoTE NOIRE OFENVIRONMENTALADVOCATES AS4HE.EW9ORK4IMES RECENTLYPUTIT WHENTHEBUILDINGTRADESDO ABOUTSIXTIMESMOREDAMAGETHANAUTOMOBILES INTERMSOFENERGYCONSUMPTIONANDCARBON DIOXIDEEMISSIONS )FWEBEGANTOLOOKATTHEDAMAGETHATISDONE BYTHEBUILDINGSWHEREWEWORK PLAY ANDLIVE WE MIGHT½NDAMOREAPPROPRIATEPLACETOATTACHOUR WORRYANDBEGINTODOTHESLOW PERSISTENTWORK OFTURNINGTHEENVIRONMENTALSITUATIONAROUND )NDEED ITISPRECISELYBECAUSE!MERICANHOMES ANDOTHERBUILDINGSARESOWASTEFULOFENERGY THATTHEYREPRESENTSUCHATREMENDOUSPOTENTIAL FORNEWFOUNDSAVINGS*USTTOPICKONEEXAMPLE OFINEF½CIENCY EVERYYEARBILLIONWORTHOF ENERGYINTHEFORMOFHEATEDORCOOLEDAIRESCAPES THROUGHCRACKSANDHOLESINRESIDENTIALBUILDINGS INTHE5NITED3TATESALONE%VENIFWEARENOT HOMEOWNERS OURRESIDENCEREMAINSTHEONEPLACE WHEREWECONTROLTHEINSTITUTIONALBEHAVIOR ASIT WERE!NDFORTHOSEOFUSLUCKYENOUGHNOTJUSTTO BUYBUTTOBUILDOUROWNHOMES THELEVELOFCONTROL SHOOTSWAYUP(OMEISWHEREGREENARCHITECTURE BEGINS°ORATLEASTWHEREITOUGHTTO

Camera-Ready Green Design

17


city

Cities have been around for more than six thousand years, drawing successive waves of new residents with their blend of commerce, culture, energy, and opportunity. The first city to surpass a population of one million was Baghdad, thirteen centuries ago. London topped five million in 1825; New York exceeded ten million a hundred years later. The metropolitan area around Tokyo surpassed twenty million in 1965 and is now closing in on thirty. !TTHESTARTOFTHETWENTIETHCENTURY THEREWERESIXTEENCITIESWITHONEMILLION INHABITANTSBYTHEENDOFIT THEREWERENEARLYFOURHUNDRED4ODAY´S±MEGA ²OR ±HYPERCITIES²HAVEBECOMECHOKEDWITHPEOPLE"OMBAY 3jO0AULO -EXICO#ITY ,OS!NGELES 3HANGHAI AND"UENOS!IRESALLHAVEPOPULATIONSINEXCESSOFTENMILLION &ORTHE½RSTTIMEINHUMANHISTORY MOREPEOPLELIVEINCITIESTHANOUTSIDEOFTHEM &ORALONGTIME CITIESHADAHORRIBLEREPUTATIONWHENITCAMETOTHEENVI RONMENT4HEYWERETHOUGHTTOBECONCRETEJUNGLESWHERERESIDENTSWERECUT OFFFROMGRASS TREES ANDFRESHAIRANDLIVEDOUTOFECOLOGICALBALANCE3OMEOF THATREPUTATIONISDESERVEDCITIESTODAYCONSUMEMORETHANPERCENTOFTHE WORLD´SRESOURCES ALTHOUGHTHEYTAKEUPAMEREPERCENTOFITSLANDSURFACE"UT RECENTLYAMORECOMPLEXASSESSMENTOFTHERELATIONSHIPBETWEENURBANISMAND SUSTAINABILITYHASEMERGED&IRST CITIESHAVEBECOMEMORELIVABLE THANKSTO FALLINGCRIMERATESANDINCREASEDATTENTIONTOISSUESLIKEAIRQUALITY3ECOND CITIES AREINHERENTLYDENSE ANDDENSITYCANGREATLYREDUCEASOCIETY´SOVERALLDRAINON NATURALRESOURCES!NAPARTMENTDWELLERWHOOCCUPIESLESSTHAN SQUARE FEET HASNOLAWNTOWATER SHARESAHEATINGSYSTEMWITHHISFELLOWTENANTS AND USESPUBLICTRANSPORTATIONISFARKINDERTOTHEENVIRONMENTTHANHISCOUNTERPARTIN THESUBURBSWHODRIVESEVERYWHEREANDLIVESINASINGLE FAMILYHOUSEONITSOWN LANDSCAPEDPLOT 4HE MOST SUCCESSFUL GREEN PROJECTS IN CITIES ARE SMALL AND MODERATELY DENSE SUCHASAPARTMENTSCLUSTEREDINSTRUCTURESOFLESSTHANSIXSTORIES"UTLOW IMPACT

18

City


MATERIALSANDTECHNOLOGIESAREALSOINCREASINGLYCOMMONINRESIDENTIALHIGH RISES WHICHTAKEADVANTAGEOFGREENCONSTRUCTIONMETHODSDEVELOPEDFORCOMMERCIAL BUILDINGS"UILDERSHAVEMADEGREATSTRIDESINREDUCINGENVIRONMENTALIMPACTBY USINGHARVESTEDLUMBERANDRECYCLEDMATERIALS THEINSTALLATIONOFNON TOXICAND ENERGY EF½CIENTINSULATIONSYSTEMS ANDTHESELECTIONOFBUILDINGSITESTHATTAKE MAXIMUMADVANTAGEOFSOLARANDWINDPOWERASWELLASACCESSTOPUBLICTRANS PORTATION)TISWORTHNOTINGTHATONEOFTHEMOSTPOPULARTYPESOFURBANCONSTRUC TION°CONVERTINGINDUSTRIALBUILDINGSINTORESIDENTIALPROPERTIES°ISINTRINSICALLY GREEN2ECYCLINGANDRENEWINGOLDSTRUCTURESAREAMONGTHEBESTWAYSTOMINI MIZEWASTEANDPRESERVERESOURCES #ITIESLARGEANDSMALLHAVEDEPLOYEDSUCCESSFULPROGRAMSTOHALTSPRAWLWITH THE HELP OF TAX BREAKS AND OTHER INCENTIVES FOR INNER CITY DEVELOPMENT 3OME HAVE BEGUN TO REDEVELOP THEIR WATERFRONT DISTRICTS INTO CULTURAL AND RESIDENTIAL ZONES RENOVATINGTHEIREXISTINGSTOCKOFBUILDINGSINTHEPROCESS0LANNERSAREALSO NARROWINGCOMMUTINGDISTANCESBETWEENCOMMERCIALANDRESIDENTIALAREASAND DESIGNING EVER MORE SOPHISTICATED SYSTEMS OF TRANSPORTATION WITHIN RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTS-ANYARCHITECTSANDPLANNERSARETHINKINGMOREBROADLYABOUTTHE ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTOFTHEIRBUILDINGMETHODS FOREXAMPLE BYINCLUDINGTRANS PORTATIONCOSTSINTHEIRCALCULATIONSABOUTTHESUSTAINABILITYOFDIFFERENTMATERIALS 7ITHITSRECYCLABLERESOURCES EXISTINGINFRASTRUCTURE ANDDENSITYOFSUPPLIERS THE CITYTURNSOUTTOBEAPOTENTIALLYECO FRIENDLYSITEFORHOMECONSTRUCTION 5RBAN CONSTRUCTION OFFERS NUMEROUS OPPORTUNITIES FOR SECURING BUILDINGS AGAINSTENERGYLOSS-ANYSTRUCTURES ESPECIALLYINDENSEURBANCORES AREERECTED BETWEEN EXISTING BUILDINGS AND THEREFORE EXPOSED TO THE ELEMENTS ON ONLY TWO SIDES!ND INCREASINGLY CITIESARETURNINGBUILDINGTOPSINTO±ECO ROOFS ²PLANTED WITHSODORNATIVEGRASSES WHICHHELPLOWERASTRUCTURE´SENERGYUSEBYPROMOTING NATURALEVAPORATIONINSUMMERANDPROVIDINGINSULATIONINWINTER'REENROOFS AREAPPEARINGATATIMEWHENWEAREREALIZINGTHATCITIESRESEMBLENATUREMORE CLOSELYTHANWEONCEADMITTED°ANDVICEVERSA!S*ANE*ACOBSWROTEINA ARTICLEFOR4HE.EW9ORK4IMES-AGAZINE ±)NITSNEEDFORVARIETYANDACCEPTANCE OF RANDOMNESS A ¾OURISHING NATURAL ECOSYSTEM IS MORE LIKE A CITY THAN LIKE A PLANTATION 0ERHAPS IT WILL BE THE CITY THAT REAWAKENS OUR UNDERSTANDING AND APPRECIATIONOFNATURE INALLITSTEEMING UNPREDICTABLECOMPLEXITY²

City Urban

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20

City


P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. project

LOCATION

Rotterdam, the Netherlands

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Korteknie Stuhlmacher Architecten

Rien Korteknie and Mechthild Stuhlmacher

2001

!T½RSTGLANCE IT´SHARDTOTELLWHATTHEANGULARBUILDING PAINTEDASHADEOFLIGHTGREENBORDERINGONCHARTREUSE IS DOINGATTACHEDTOTHEROOFOFAWAREHOUSENEARTHE-AAS 2IVERIN2OTTERDAM)TLOOKSASTHOUGHITCOULDBEASCULPTURE ORTEMPORARYARTWORK ORAPIECEOFARCHITECTUREPRODUCED ASALARK!CTUALLY THEBUILDINGISAPROTOTYPEFORANENTIRELY NEWKINDOFURBANHOUSING ONETHATMIXESPRAGMATISM ANDSUSTAINABILITYWITHADESIGNSENSIBILITYTHATISFARMORE SOPHISTICATEDTHANITINITIALLYAPPEARSTOBE

:4HE½RST0!2!3)4%PROJECT

APROTOTYPEFORASUSTAINABLE OPPORTUNISTICKINDOFURBAN HOUSING ISATTACHEDTOASTAIRWELL ATOPARENOVATEDWAREHOUSEIN THE$UTCHCITYOF2OTTERDAM

4HISISTHE0!2!3)4%PROJECT DESIGNEDBY APAIROF$UTCHARCHITECTSNAMED2IEN+ORTEKNIE AND-ECHTHILD3TUHLMACHER)TISTHE½RST REALIZEDPROJECTINASERIESOFEXPERIMENTALSMALL HOUSESDEVELOPEDTOCOINCIDEWITH2OTTERDAM´S DESIGNATIONASTHE%UROPEAN#ULTURAL#APITAL IN4HEIDEAWASTOENLISTYOUNGARCHITECTS TODESIGNPROTOTYPESFORHOUSINGTHATMAKE PARASITICUSEOFEXISTINGURBANINFRASTRUCTURE !STHEPROGRAM´SMATERIALSPUTIT THESITESFOR THESEPROJECTSAREMEANTTOBE±ALLKINDSOFURBAN LOCATIONSTHATAREUSUALLYREGARDEDASBEING UNSUITABLEFORPERMANENTINHABITATION SUCHAS FORMERINDUSTRIALSITES THE¾ATROOFSOFEXISTING BUILDINGS LOCATIONSONTHEWATER ²OROTHER ±DISUSED²SPOTSINTHECONTEMPORARYCITY4HE ACRONYM0!2!3)4%STANDSFOR0ROTOTYPEFOR !DVANCED2EADY MADE!MPHIBIOUS3MALL SCALE )NDIVIDUAL4EMPORARY%COLOGICALDWELLING 4HEBUILDINGSITEFOR+ORTEKNIEAND 3TUHLMACHER´S0!2!3)4%PROJECTISTHETOP OFAWAREHOUSEIN2OTTERDAMCALLED,AS0ALMAS WHICHHASBEENRENOVATEDANDNOWSERVESASAN EXHIBITIONSPACEFORARTSHOWS DESIGNEXHIBITIONS ANDOTHEREVENTS4HEIRPROTOTYPEISDESIGNEDTO EXPLORETHEPOTENTIALOFNEWARCHITECTURALSYSTEMS THATCOMBINESUSTAINABILITYANDPREFABRICATION )NTHISCASE THEARCHITECTSUSEDLARGE LAMINATED PANELSCALLED,ENO4ECTHATAREMADEOF%UROPEAN

WASTEWOODANDCANBEUSEDFORWALLS ¾OORS ANDEVENROOFS4HEPANELSARELOAD BEARINGAND INSULATINGATTHESAMETIME THOUGHINSOME CLIMATESADDITIONALINSULATIONMAYBENEEDED 4HEPROJECT´SMOSTSUSTAINABLEFEATUREISTHE WAYITRELATESTOTHECITY4HESTRUCTURESUGGESTS ATYPEOFHOUSINGTHATWOULDTAKEADVANTAGEOF EXISTINGANDOFTENUNDERUSED WATERANDHEATING SYSTEMSINOLDINDUSTRIALBUILDINGS)TWOULDALSO TIEDIRECTLYINTOURBANTRANSPORTATIONSYSTEMSAND ADDTOTHEDENSITYOF%UROPEANCITIES CUTTINGBACK THENEEDFORRESOURCE DRAININGSUBURBANSPRAWL )NDEED THEDESIGNOFTHIS2OTTERDAM0!2!3)4% OFFERSSOMETHINGOFACRITIQUE THEARCHITECTSSAY OFHOUSINGPOLICYINTHE.ETHERLANDS ACOUNTRY THATHASSTRUGGLEDTOCONTROLDEVELOPMENTINTHE SUBURBANAREASBETWEENITSBIGGESTCITIES7HAT THEYPROPOSEISASTYLISHNEWKINDOFURBANIN½LL ATYPEOFCITYAPARTMENTTHATDOESN´TREQUIREAN EMPTYLOTORTHEDEMOLITIONOFANEXISTINGBUILDING +ORTEKNIEAND3TUHLMACHERDESIGNEDTHEHOUSE WITHADVANCEDCOMPUTERMODELINGSOFTWARE 4HEYUSEDTHESAMEPROGRAMTORUNTHEMILLING MACHINESINTHE,ENO4ECFACTORYASTHEYUSEDTO DESIGNTHEPANELS4HEPANELSWERETRUCKEDTOTHE SITEANDBASICASSEMBLYWASCOMPLETEDINJUSTFOUR DAYS4HE0!2!3)4% JUSTUNDER SQUARE FEETINTOTAL WASBUILTFORABOUTPERSQUARE FOOT°LESSTHANHALFTHEAVERAGECOSTFORARCHITECT DESIGNEDHOMESINTHE5NITED3TATES WHICHRUN ROUGHLYPERSQUAREFOOTANDUP &ROMTHEOUTSIDE THEBUILDINGMAYLOOK TEMPORARYANDEVENFRAGILE BUTINSIDEITFEELS SURPRISINGLYPERMANENTAND½NISHED4HESPACES AREBEAUTIFULLYANDINTELLIGENTLYPROPORTIONED ANDOFFERDRAMATICVIEWSOF2OTTERDAM INCLUDING MOSTPROMINENTLY 5.3TUDIO´SHIGHLYACCLAIMED %RASMUS"RIDGE 4HISATTENTIONTODETAILISALSOPARTOFTHE ARCHITECTS´COMMENTARYONTYPICALRESIDENTIAL CONSTRUCTIONINTHE.ETHERLANDS PARTICULARLYIN THESUBURBSWHILESOMEOFTHECOUNTRY´SBEST KNOWNARCHITECTSHAVEBEENHIREDTOPRODUCE NEWSUBURBANDEVELOPMENTS THEYHAVETENDED

P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Project

21


TOLAVISHMORECAREONTHEEXTERIORARCHITECTURE THANONTHEINTERIORS MAKINGFORCOMPLEXESTHAT LOOKGREATINMAGAZINESPREADSBUTDON´TALWAYS PLEASETHEIRRESIDENTS4HE0!2!3)4%PROJECT ISDESIGNEDWITHDIFFERENTPRIORITIES4HOUGHTHE HOUSELOOKSAD HOCFROMTHEOUTSIDE MOSTVISITORS GIVENTHEOPPORTUNITYTOTOURTHEINTERIORMAKE EXACTLYTHESAMEPRONOUNCEMENTTHEYWOULDN´T MINDLIVINGHERETHEMSELVES

22

City

<&ACTORY BUILTPANELSMADEOF

WASTEWOODWERESHIPPEDTOTHE SITEANDASSEMBLEDONTHEROOF OFTHEWAREHOUSEBEFOREBEING RAISEDINTOPLACE 9!BIRD´S EYEVIEWOFTHE

½NISHEDHOUSEREVEALSITS PARASITICUSEOFTHEINFRASTRUCTURE OFTHEBUILDINGUNDERNEATH


Urban

23


24

City


<\<%LEVATIONSILLUSTRATEHOWTHE

HOUSEPERCHESATOPTHEEXISTING BUILDING´SSTAIRWELL ;4HE¾OORPLANSHOWSINTERIOR

STAIRSLEADINGFROMASINGLEROOM ONTHELOWERLEVELTOALIVING SPACEANDTERRACEUPSTAIRS

:!LONGSTAIR BOTTOMLEFT

LEADSTOTWO¾OORSOFINTERIOR SPACEANDATERRACE4HEROOMS LOOKUN½NISHEDBUTACHIEVEA SURPRISINGLYSOPHISTICATEDFEEL

P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E. Project

25


26

City


156 READE STREET

LOCATION

New York, New York

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Studio Petrarca

John Petrarca

2001

)TISEASYTOSEEWHYHURRIED-ANHATTANITESMIGHTOVERLOOK THEARCHITECTURALUNIQUENESSOF2EADE3TREET7HILETHE SIX STORY4RIBECATOWNHOUSEBOASTSASTRIKINGGLASS AND STEEL FACADE ITSSCALEANDGROUND ¾OORFENESTRATIONINTENTIONALLY ECHOTHENEIGHBORHOOD´SHISTORICCAST IRONLOFTBUILDINGS"UT EVENSLOW PACED INQUISITIVEPEDESTRIANSANDARCHITECTURE BUFFSWILLFAILTONOTICETHEMOSTASTONISHINGFEATUREOFTHE STRUCTURE SINCEITISHIDDEN FEETUNDERGROUND

: 0REFABRICATEDINALOCAL

BRIDGE BUILDINGSHOP THESOUTH FACINGSTEELFACADEOF*OHN 0ETRARCA´S4RIBECATOWNHOUSE WASASSEMBLEDONTHESTREET ANDTHENLIFTEDINTOPLACEIN WHATHEDESCRIBEDASAN±URBAN ADAPTATIONOFABARNRAISING² < 4HE½RE ENGINEREDSTAIRWELL

FEATURESASTAINLESS STEELMESH DRAPEANDGLASSTREADS

3TANDINGONASMALL SHALLOWLOT ONLYFEET WIDE THEBUILDINGISHEATEDANDCOOLEDWITHA GEOTHERMALPUMPTHATISNEARLYASDEEPASTHE %MPIRE3TATE"UILDINGISTALL4HEWATERUNDER .EW9ORK#ITYHASACONSTANTTEMPERATUREOF DEGREES7ITHANETWORKOFHEATEXCHANGERS ANDCHILLERS THEPUMPSYSTEMCAPITALIZESONTHE EARTH´SOWNHEAT USINGUPTOPERCENTLESSENERGY THANCONVENTIONALHEATINGSYSTEMSBECAUSEOF THERELATIVELYSMALLDIFFERENTIALBETWEENTHE DEGREEWATERTEMPERATUREANDACOMFORTABLEROOM TEMPERATURE4HESYSTEMALSOPRODUCESNOAIR POLLUTIONAND OVERTIME SAVESONCOSTS%ACH¾OOR INTHEHOUSEHASITSOWNTHERMOSTAT ALLOWINGFOR TARGETEDCLIMATECONTROL WHICHFURTHERREDUCES ENERGYDEMAND)NTHESUMMER THEPUMPOPERATES INREVERSE SUCKINGHEATOUTOFTHEHOUSEAND CIRCULATINGCOOLWATER 4HEGEOTHERMALPUMPISJUSTONEOFSEVERAL ENVIRONMENTALLYPROGRESSIVEFEATURESTHATTHE LATEARCHITECT*OHN0ETRARCAINTEGRATEDINTOTHE HOMEANDOF½CEHEDESIGNEDFORHIMSELFANDHIS FAMILY3ADLY HEONLYLIVEDINITBRIE¾YBEFORE SUCCUMBINGTOLUNGCANCERIN ATTHEAGEOF  !CCORDINGTO2OBERTA7OEL¾ING WHOWASAN ASSOCIATEOF0ETRARCA´SWHILEHEWASWORKINGON THEPROJECT ±HISGOALWASTOMAKETHEHOUSEAS ENVIRONMENTALLYSENSITIVETOITSINHABITANTSASIT WOULDBETOTHE%ARTH²!LLTHEINTERIORANDEXTERIOR MATERIALS ° FROMTHESTEELOFTHEFACADETOTHE CONCRETEWALLSANDNATURALWOOD½NISHES ° WERE CHOSENFORTHEIRNON TOXICANDLOW IMPACT

PROPERTIES4HEHOUSEFEATURESAVENTILATIONSYSTEM THATPROVIDESANUNUSUALLYHIGHLEVELOF½LTRATION ANDFRESHAIR FREEOFPOLLEN MOLD ANDPARTICULATE .EITHERTHECABINETRYNORTHEWOOD¾OORING CONTAINSFORMALDEHYDE ANDANYTHINGWITHVINYL ORVARNISHWASSTRICTLYOFF LIMITS0ETRARCAWAS ±ALWAYSLOOKINGFORGREENSOURCES LOCALSOURCES ANDFORWAYSTOCONSERVEFUELANDELECTRICITY ² 7OEL¾INGSAYS 0ETRARCA WHOBECAMEINTERESTEDIN½NDING CREATIVESOLUTIONSTOLOCALPROBLEMSDURINGA STINTINTHE0EACE#ORPSAFTERCOLLEGE DEVISEDAN ENVIRONMENTALLYSENSITIVECONSTRUCTIONPROTOCOL &ORTHEPOUREDCONCRETEWALLS HEUSED3TYROFOAM FORMSTORAISEENERGYEF½CIENCYANDCONSERVE MATERIAL4HEFOAMPROVIDESEXTRAINSULATIONAND UNLIKESTANDARDWOODFORMS WHICHARETYPICALLY DISCARDED ITSTAYSINPLACEANDBECOMESPARTOF THESTRUCTUREITSELF4HE TONSTEELFACADEWAS PREFABRICATED ° ANOTHERENVIRONMENTALLYEF½CIENT SOLUTION ° BYA.EW*ERSEYBRIDGE BUILDINGSHOP ANDASSEMBLEDON SITEIN4RIBECA !NOPEN PLANLIVINGAREAONTHEFOURTH¾OOR TAKESADVANTAGEOFTHENATURALLIGHT¾OWINGIN THROUGHTHELARGE SOUTH FACINGWINDOWS"ENEATH THEFAMILYROOM´S FOOT HIGHCEILING RICHLY MARBLEDWALNUTPANELINGWHICH0ETRARCAFOUND THROUGHASERVICETHATRE PURPOSESTREESPEOPLEHAVE CUTDOWNFORONEREASONORANOTHER WARMSUPTHE LIVINGAREA4HATSPACEISFURTHERDISTINGUISHEDBY A#HINESEQUARTZITESTONE½REPLACEWALLANDRADIANT HEATEDLIMESTONE¾OORS!½FTH ¾OORMEZZANINE HANGINGOVERTHELIVINGROOMOFFERSDESKSPACEAND ALOUNGEFROMWHICHTOADMIRETHESWEEPINGVIEWS OFLOWER-ANHATTANANDTHE(UDSON2IVER!BOVE ITISTHEPENTHOUSEGUESTROOM WHICHINCLUDES ABALCONYANDKITCHENETTE4HEMASTERBEDROOM SUITEENCOMPASSESTHEENTIRETHIRD¾OORAND INCORPORATESASPLIT FACEDMARBLEMASTERBATH4HE SECOND¾OOR WITHTWOBEDROOMSANDAPLAYROOM ISTHECHILDREN´SREALM/NTHEGROUND¾OORISA GENEROUSSTORAGESPACEANDWHAT0ETRARCA´SWIDOW 3ARAH"ARTLETT CALLS±THEENGINEROOM ²WHERETHE CONTROLSFORTHEPUMPANDITSMONITORINGDEVICES AREHOUSED

156 Reade Street

27


28

City


::4HEGROUND ¾OORENTRYWAY

ISPANELEDINRECLAIMEDWALNUT ANDINCORPORATESTWOCAST IRON COLUMNSFROMTHESITE´SORIGINAL BUILDING



:/NTHE½FTH ¾OORMEZZANINE

LARGESOUTH ANDWEST FACING WINDOWSOFFERSWEEPINGVIEWS





::4HELIVINGROOM WHICH





EXTENDSOFFTHEDININGAREA HAS A FOOT¯HIGHWALNUT PANELED CEILING ALIMESTONE¾OOR AND A#HINESEQUARTZITE½REPLACE SURROUND



:"ELOWTHEMEZZANINE THE





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3ECTION  0ENTHOUSEGUEST  'UESTBATHROOM  0ANTRYLAUNDRY  3TUDY  ,IVINGROOM  +ITCHENDINING  -ASTERBATHROOM  $RESSINGROOM





 -ASTERBEDROOM 0LAYROOM  "ATHROOM  +ID´SBEDROOM  (OMEOF½CE  #ONFERENCEROOM  3TORAGE  7ORKSHOP

HOUSEHASBECOMEATECHNOLOGICALTEACHINGTOOL SINCEHERHUSBAND´SDEATH±)NEVEREXPECTEDTO BELIVINGHEREWITHOUTHIM BUTNOWTHAT)AM )´VELEARNEDALOTABOUTHOWALLTHESYSTEMSWORK ,UCKILY *OHNLABELEDEVERYTHINGANDLEFTEXTENSIVE DOCUMENTATION°HEWASOBSESSIVETHATWAY ²SHE SAYS±!T½RSTITALLSEEMEDABITOVERWHELMING° )HADNOCLUEABOUTTHINGSLIKEMONITORINGTHE CHILLERS°AND)THOUGHTABOUTLEAVING"UTHOW COULD)GO-YKIDSGETSUCHAPSYCHICBENE½TFROM BEINGHERE)KNOWIT´SAGOODPLACETOLIVE²

156 Reade Street

29


30

City


LOCATION

Colorado Court

Santa Monica, California

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Pugh + Scarpa Architecture

Angela Brooks

2002

4HEMOSTADVANCEDSUSTAINABLEPROJECTSTENDTOSERVEHIGH ENDCLIENTS WHETHERTHEYAREWEALTHY FAR SIGHTEDINDIVIDUALS WILLINGTOPAYEXTRATOPUSHTHEBOUNDARIESOFGREENDESIGN ORDEEP POCKETEDCOMPANIESBANKINGONTHELONG TERM BENE½TSANDPOSITIVEPUBLICITYTHATCOMEALONGWITH ENVIRONMENTALLYEF½CIENTARCHITECTURE6ERYFEWCOMMERCIAL CLIENTSWHOARESCRAMBLINGTOMAKEENDSMEETDECIDETO INVESTAGGRESSIVELYINSUSTAINABLEDESIGN!NDMOSTLANDLORDS ARENOTABOUTTOINSTALLSOLARPANELSORRECYCLEDWATERSYSTEMS JUSTSOTHEYCANHELPLOWERTHEIRTENANTS´UTILITYBILLS"UT ATTHECORNEROF&IFTH3TREETAND#OLORADO!VENUEIN3ANTA -ONICASTANDSAMONUMENTTOADIFFERENTKINDOFGREEN THINKING ITSGRIDOFBLUESOLARPANELSRE¾ECTINGTHEBRIGHT 3OUTHERN#ALIFORNIASUNSHINE#OLORADO#OURT A½VE STORY

FORTY FOUR¯UNITAPARTMENTCOMPLEXTHATWELCOMEDITS½RST TENANTSINEARLY ISTHE½RSTLARGERESIDENTIALCOMPLEXIN THE5NITED3TATESTOCOMBINEADVANCEDSUSTAINABILITYWITH LOW INCOMEHOUSING)TWASNAMEDONEOFTHE4OP4EN'REEN 0ROJECTSOFBYTHE!MERICAN)NSTITUTEOF!RCHITECTS

: 4HEFORTY FOUR¯UNIT#OLORADO

#OURTCOMPLEXISCOVEREDWITH DEEPBLUEPHOTOVOLTAICPANELSAND GRACEDBYOPEN AIRWALKWAYSTHAT ALLOWRESIDENTSTOENJOYBREEZES FROMTHENEARBY0ACI½C/CEAN

$ESIGNEDBYTHE3ANTA-ONICA½RM0UGH 3CARPA #OLORADO#OURTPRODUCESENOUGHENERGY TOSATISFYPERCENTOFITSPOWERNEEDS!NDIT INCLUDESALISTOFSUSTAINABLEFEATURESASLONGAS ANYBUILDINGIN!MERICA FROMAGE OLDGESTURESLIKE NATURALVENTILATIONTORECYCLEDMATERIALS)TALSO MAKESANEFFORTTO½GHTSPRAWLBYKEEPINGITSLOW INCOMETENANTSWITHINWALKINGORBIKINGDISTANCE OFTHEIRJOBSANDSHOPPING 4HEREISNODOUBTTHATRESIDENTSOF3ANTA-ONICA ARE½NDINGTHEMSELVESSQUEEZEDWHENITCOMESTO AFFORDINGAPLACETOLIVE)NTHEYEARSBETWEEN AND ACCORDINGTOONEESTIMATE THEAVERAGE

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WHICHWASDONATEDBYTHECITY ° WASFUNDEDBYA COMPLICATEDMIXTUREOFSOURCESANDCOORDINATED BYITSDEVELOPER THENONPRO½T#OMMUNITY #ORPORATIONOF3ANTA-ONICA$IRECTGRANTSWERE COMBINEDWITHTAXBREAKSTOGETTHEBUILDINGOFF THEGROUND4HEARCHITECTSESTIMATETHATTHEGREEN FEATURESADDEDABOUT TOTHECOSTOFEACH UNIT ORJUSTOVER INTOTAL &ROMTHEBEGINNING ITWASIMPORTANTTOTHE ARCHITECTS WHOWORKINTHEMODERNISTVEIN THAT THEBUILDINGHAVESOMEARCHITECTURALPANACHE 4HOUGHTHEYBEMOANSOMEOFTHE±RATHER PRIMITIVE²WAYSINWHICHTHECONTRACTORTRANSLATED THEIRDESIGNINTOTHREE DIMENSIONS THEBUILDING ISNONETHELESSQUITEUNUSUALAMONGLOW INCOME PROJECTSFORITSCLEAN CONTEMPORARYAESTHETICAND BOLDSENSEOFCOLOR

Colorado Court

31


32

City


9\994HEPHOTOVOLTAIC

PANELSCOVERINGTHEFACADEAND PORTIONSOFTHEROOF REPRESENT ARAREEFFORTTOTURNSOLARPOWER INTOANAESTHETICVIRTUE4HE BY ¯INCHPANELSGENERATEMORE THANPERCENTOFTHEBUILDING´S ELECTRICITYNEEDS

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THEBUILDING3OMETIMESTHEARCHITECTSWOULD MEETWITHONECITYORUTILITYOF½CIALANDBEGIVEN POSITIVENEWS ONLYTOHAVEITREVOKEDBYADIFFERENT OF½CIALAFEWWEEKSLATER&UNDINGANDAPPROVAL FORTHEGAS POWEREDMICRO TURBINEGENERATOR ONTHEROOF DESIGNEDTOSUPPLEMENTTHESOLAR GENERATION WEREPARTICULARLYTOUGHTOSECURE ,OOKINGBACK "ROOKSSAYS ±!LOTOFTHEHURDLES WEHADTOGOTHROUGHHADNOTHINGTODOWITHTHE ACTUALSYSTEMSORMATERIALSTHEMSELVES°THOSE WERERELATIVELYEASYTO½GUREOUTANDDEALWITH "UTWEHADRESISTANCEFROMTHEUTILITYCOMPANY THEBUILDINGDEPARTMENT SUBCONTRACTORS THE SOLARPANELCOMPANYAND SURPRISINGLY OUROWN ENGINEERS²)NTHEEND THOUGH THELEGACYOF #OLORADO#OURTISNOTLIKELYTOBETHEDIF½CULTIES THATTHEARCHITECTSFACEDINGETTINGITBUILTBUT RATHERHOWDRAMATICALLYITHASRAISEDTHEBAR FORGREENPROJECTSOFITSSIZEANDDEGREEOFSOCIAL CONSCIOUSNESS

Colorado Court

33


34

City


Viikki

LOCATION

Helsinki, Finland

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

YEAR

Various architects

Ongoing

4HE6IIKKISECTIONOF(ELSINKIISSTILLSEVERALYEARSAWAYFROM COMPLETION BUTITALREADYRANKS EASILY ASTHELARGESTAND MOSTAMBITIOUSGREENHOUSINGDEVELOPMENTINTHEWORLD ,OCATEDINTHEGEOGRAPHICALCENTEROFTHECITYANDABOUT½VE MILESNORTHEASTOFDOWNTOWN ITINCLUDESAPPROXIMATELY  UNITSASOFTHISWRITING WITHABOUT TOCOME)TIS HOMETOASATELLITECAMPUSOFTHE5NIVERSITYOF(ELSINKIAND ABIOTECHNOLOGYINCUBATOR ASWELLASPUBLICSCHOOLSSCATTERED THROUGHOUTITSSTREETS%VENTUALLYITWILLACCOMMODATE  JOBSAND STUDENTSTOGOALONGWITHITS RESIDENTS 4HEORETICALLY ITWILLBEPOSSIBLEFORACHILDBORNTOAFAMILY LIVINGTHERETOGOTHROUGHPRIMARY SECONDARY ANDUNIVERSITY EDUCATION ANDTHENBEGINWORKINGWITHINITSCON½NES ALL WITHOUTHAVINGTOLEAVETHENEIGHBORHOOD

: 6IIKKI´SRESIDENTIALAREAS

INCLUDETOWNHOUSESBY&INNISH ARCHITECT+IRSTI3IVENTHATOPEN ONTOPRIVATEGARDENSANDGRAVEL WALKINGPATHS

4HEPROJECTISESSENTIALLYAPROVINGGROUNDFOR ANYNUMBEROFGREENBUILDINGSTRATEGIES FROM MIXED USEDEVELOPMENTTOINNOVATIVEENERGY GENERATION4HEIDEAISTOPUTSUSTAINABILITYTOTHE TESTOFACTUALCONSTRUCTIONANDOCCUPATIONANDSEE WHATWORKSANDWHATDOESN´T ANDTHENAPPLYTHOSE LESSONSTOBUILDINGCODESTOCONTROLRESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENTTHROUGHOUTTHECOUNTRY PARTICULARLY INPUBLICLYFUNDEDPROJECTS4HEREAREAVARIETYOF APPROACHESTORENEWABLEENERGYONVIEWIN6IIKKI FROMWINDTURBINESTOSEVERALKINDSOFACTIVESOLAR COLLECTION2AINWATERISCOLLECTEDTHROUGHOUTAND USEDFORGARDENING WHILEGRAY WATERSYSTEMSRECYCLE WATERFROMSINKSANDBATHTUBSFORUSEELSEWHERE INTHEDEVELOPMENT 4HEMASTERPLANFOR6IIKKIANDITSEARLYHOUSING BLOCKSWERESELECTEDVIACOMPETITION BEGINNING IN%NTRIESWEREJUDGEDONATHIRTY FOURPOINT SCALEINTHEFOLLOWING½VECATEGORIESHOWWELL THEYLIMITED POLLUTIONAND THEUSEOFNATURAL

RESOURCES HOWMUCHTHEYPROMOTED HEALTHINESS AND BIODIVERSITY AND THEEXTENTTOWHICHTHEY PROVIDEDOPPORTUNITIESFORRESIDENTSTOGROWTHEIR OWNFOOD4HEGENERALGUIDELINESWERESLIGHTLYLESS STRICTBUTWERESTILLGOVERNEDBYSUSTAINABILITYAT EVERYTURNTHEYREQUIREDAPERCENTREDUCTIONIN CARBONDIOXIDEEMISSIONSFROMBUILDINGMATERIALS ANDPUREWATERCONSUMPTION PERCENTLESSWASTE ONBUILDINGSITESDURINGCONSTRUCTION ANDA PERCENTCUTINTHEAVERAGEMIXEDREFUSEPRODUCED BYEACHRESIDENTANNUALLY4HEBIGGESTSAVINGSARE INTHEAREAOFHEATINGENERGY WHERESOLARPOWER

PRIMARILY ISHELPINGREDUCECONSUMPTIONBY PERCENTPERYEAR)NADDITION 6IIKKIISCLOSELYTIED TOPUBLICTRANSPORTATION REACHABLEBYSEVERALBUS LINESANDBY(ELSINKI´SSUBWAY 7ALKINGAROUND6IIKKI IT´SEASYTOGETASENSE OFTHOSEPRIORITIESINACTION)T´SNOTJUSTTHESOLAR PANELSSHIMMERINGONTHEFACADEOFARCHITECT2EIJO *ALLINOJA´SEIGHT STORYAPARTMENTBLOCKNEARTHE MAINENTRANCEBUTALSOTHEGARDENSFULLOFFRUITS ANDVEGETABLESTHATSTRETCHBETWEENBUILDINGSTHE SOUNDSOFCHILDRENPLAYINGONSCHOOLYARDSECHOING THROUGHOUTANDTHEFACTTHATMARSHLANDANDEVEN GRAZINGAREASFORLIVESTOCKHAVEBEENPRESERVED INTHEMIDSTOFBRAND NEWARCHITECTURE ALLOWING FORREMARKABLYWIDE OPENVIEWS ° GIVEN6IIKKI´S URBANLOCATION ° FROMSOMEOFTHEAPARTMENTS !SWITHANYPROJECTOFTHISSIZE THEARCHITECTURE IN6IIKKIISAMIXEDBAG"UTATLEASTAHALF DOZEN OFTHEDEVELOPMENT´SAPARTMENTBLOCKSSTAND OUTASMODELSOFAESTHETICASWELLASSUSTAINABLE EXCELLENCE4HESEINCLUDE+IRSTI3IVEN´SDETACHED TOWNHOUSES COMPLETEDIN ANDAWOOD AND GLASSMIXED USEBUILDINGBY-IKKO"ONSDORFF THATWOULDN´TLOOKOUTOFPLACEIN0ORTLANDOR 3EATTLE4HOUGH6IIKIIREMAINSLITTLE KNOWN AMONGARCHITECTSANDPLANNERSOUTSIDEOF &INLAND ITDESERVESTOBEANOBJECTOFENVYFOR THECOMPREHENSIVE FORWARD LOOKINGWAYITTREATS URBANGROWTH)TAIMSTOBENOTHINGLESSTHANA FULLYSELF CONTAINED SUSTAINABLECOMMUNITY AND ISNOTFARFROMREACHINGTHATAMBITIOUSGOAL

Viikki

35


:4HE6IIKKIDEVELOPMENT

ISONEOFTHEMOSTAMBITIOUS EXPERIMENTSINSUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTUREANDURBANPLANNING INTHEWORLD WITHBUILDINGS DESIGNEDTOGENERATESOLARAND WINDPOWER DIRECTRAINWATER TOCOMMUNALGARDENS AND PRESERVEMARSHLAND°ALLINTHE GEOGRAPHICALCENTEROF&INLAND´S BIGGESTCITY

36

City

;!MONGTHEMOSTIMPRESSIVE PIECESOFARCHITECTUREISTHIS DESIGNBY-IKKO"ONSDORFF


;4HECOMPLEXISATESTINGGROUND FORARANGEOFEXPERIMENTSIN SUSTAINABILITYTHATINCLUDES SCHOOLS SUCHASTHISONEBY!2+ HOUSE!RCHITECTS ANDINCUBATORS FORVARIOUSINDUSTRIES ALONGWITH APROJECTED RESIDENTIAL UNITS

Viikki

37


38

City


1310 East Union Street

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

The Miller/Hull Partnership

David Miller

2001

7HENFORMERHIGH TECHEXECUTIVE,IZ$UNNDECIDEDTOSTART ANEWCAREER SHEREVISITEDHEROLDDREAMOFBECOMINGAN ARCHITECT!FTERTAKINGAFEWCLASSESINARCHITECTURE URBAN PLANNING ANDREALESTATEDEVELOPMENTATTHE5NIVERSITY OF7ASHINGTON SHEEMBARKEDONANAMBITIOUSPROJECT ° AREALESTATEVENTURETHATWOULDBLENDHIGHARCHITECTURAL ASPIRATIONSWITHENVIRONMENTALRESPONSIBILITY!LREADY ACOMMITTEDENVIRONMENTALACTIVIST SHEWASPARTICULARLY CONCERNEDABOUTTHECULTURALCAUSESOFENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION ESPECIALLYTHETENDENCYFORSUCCESSFUL EXECUTIVESLIKEHERSELF FOREXAMPLE TOCOMMUTETOWORK DAILYFROM$ISNEYESQUE-C-ANSIONSOUTSIDE3EATTLE

: 4HE½VE STORY MIXED USELOFT

BUILDINGIN3EATTLE´S0IKE0INE AREAHASALIMITEDNUMBEROF PARKINGSPACESANDISWITHIN WALKINGDISTANCEOFALIGHT RAIL STATION

4HAT´SHOWSHEHITUPONTHEIDEAOFTRANSIT ORIENTEDHOUSING ° ASOLUTIONTOTHEEVILTWINSOF SUBURBANSPRAWLANDGASOLINEEMISSIONS3HELOOKED FORALOCATIONTHATWOULDBECONVENIENTTOPEOPLE WHOUSEMASSTRANSPORTATION4HESITESHESELECTED TODEVELOP INTHE0IKE0INENEIGHBORHOODOF 3EATTLE´S#APITOL(ILL ISWITHINWALKINGDISTANCEOFA PROPOSEDLIGHT RAILSTATION/NEPARKINGSPACEIN THEEIGHT UNITBUILDING´SGARAGEISRESERVEDFORUSE IN3EATTLE´SSHAREDCARPROGRAM $UNNHIRED-ILLER(ULLTODESIGNTHEPROJECT 4HEAWARD WINNINGARCHITECTURAL½RMPRODUCES BUILDINGSCHARACTERIZEDBY±REGIONALMODERN ISM²° APLAINLYMODERNISTSTYLETHATEMPHASIZES CLOSENESSTONATURETHROUGHTHEUSEOFEXPOSED TIMBER LARGEWINDOWS ½NEDETAILING ECO FRIENDLY MATERIALS ANDOTHERDESIGNSOLUTIONSINSPIREDBY THENORTHWESTERNLANDSCAPE4HE½RMHASASTRONG REPUTATIONFORMATCHINGABUILDING´SSTRUCTURE WITHTHEPARTICULARCLIMACTIC PHYSICAL ANDCULTURAL DEMANDSOFITSSITE ,OCATEDONTHESITEOFAFORMERSEXSHOP THE   SQUARE FOOT ½VE STORYBUILDINGFEATURESEIGHT

Seattle, Washington

LOFTCONDOMINIUMS FROMTO SQUAREFEET INSIZETHEDESIGNALLOWSANYTWOUNITSONEACH ¾OORTOBEJOINEDINTOASINGLE SPACIOUSAPARTMENT  :ONEDFORBOTHRESIDENTIALANDCOMMERCIAL OCCUPANCY THEPROJECTISAMID RISE MIXED USE BUILDINGWITHLARGEOPERABLEOVERHEADDOORSAND STOREFRONTWINDOWSATITSBASE %SSENTIALLYA FOOT WIDEGLASSBOX THE STRUCTUREISHELDTOGETHERBYANEXPOSEDSTEEL FRAMETHATFEATURESAPROMINENT BRICK REDDIAGONAL X BRACINGTOPROTECTAGAINSTEARTHQUAKES4HE NORTHANDSOUTHSIDESAREFULLYGLAZEDTOALLOWFOR MAXIMUMSUNLIGHT,OW EMISSIONCOATINGAND !RGONGAS¯INFUSEDWINDOWSFROM(ARTUNG'LASS )NDUSTRIESENABLETHERESIDENTSTOENJOYPLENTIFUL NATURALLIGHTWITHOUTLOSINGMUCHHEAT-OSTUNITS AREDOUBLE HEIGHTALONGTHEWINDOWWALLS WITH BEDROOMSLOCATEDONAMEZZANINE4HE¾EXIBLE INTERIORSAREDESIGNEDINACHIC INDUSTRIALSTYLE

DETAILEDWITH EXPOSEDSTEELBEAMS CORRUGATED METALDECKINGATTHECEILINGS ANDSMOOTHCONCRETE ¾OORSTHATDOWNPLAYTHEBUILDING´SENVIRONMENTAL AGENDA7HENTHEIRWALL SIZEALUMINUM FRAMED GLASSGARAGEDOORSAREROLLEDUP THELOFT STYLE INTERIORSTAKEONTHEFEELOFACOVEREDTERRACE 3MALLBALCONIESANDALARGEROOFTOPGARDENPROVIDE ADDITIONALOUTDOORACCESS 4HE%AST5NION3TREETPROJECTISPARTOFA GROWINGTRENDTHATISLURINGSUBURBANITESBACKTO THECITY4HEBUILDINGALSOREPRESENTSANEFFORTON THEPARTOFTHEDEVELOPERTOBRINGSOMEOFTHEBEST %UROPEANDESIGNIDEASTOTHE5NITED3TATES&OR EXAMPLE SINCETHE  SQUARE FOOTPARCELWAS TOOSMALLTOACCOMMODATETHEEIGHTPARKINGSPACES REQUIREDBYTHENUMBEROFHOUSINGUNITSINTHE BUILDING THEARCHITECTSINSTALLEDHYDRAULICPARKING LIFTSTHATALLOWTWOMEDIUM SIZECARS ° THESPACE ISINTENTIONALLYTOOSMALLFOR356S ° TOBESTACKED VERTICALLYINASINGLESPACE%QUALLYINGENIOUSIS THEUSEOFTHEROOFASOUTDOORSPACE#ON½GURED ASASERIESOFDECKSANDACCESSEDBYMETALSPIRAL STAIRCASES THEROOFOFFERSPANORAMICVIEWSOF 0UGET3OUNDANDTHE/LYMPIC-OUNTAINS

1310 East Union Street

39


40

City


:$ESIGNEDFOR¾EXIBILITYOVER

TIME MOSTOFTHEUNITSAREDOUBLE HEIGHTWITHOPENMEZZANINESAND CANBEPARTITIONEDWITHPANELSOR FURNITUREARRANGEMENTSFORUSEAS WORKORLIVINGSPACEASNEEDED ::\:(ONEST UN½NISHEDMATERIALS SUCHASCORRUGATEDMETALDECKING ANDCONCRETEWEREUSEDFORINTERIOR ½NISHESASWELLASFOREXTERIOR CLADDING

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1310 East Union Street

41


42

City


sea train house

LOCATION

Los Angeles, California

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Office of Mobile Design

Jennifer Siegal

2003

7HEN2ICHARD#ARLSON A,OS!NGELESDEVELOPERWHOSPENDS SIXMONTHSOFTHEYEARTRAVELING DECIDEDTOBUILDANEW HOUSEFORHIMSELF THELASTTHINGHEHADONHISMINDWAS GREENDESIGN(EWANTEDAHOMETHATWOULD½THISRECENTLY SINGLE SEMI RETIRED GLOBETROTTINGLIFESTYLE(EALSOWANTED TOUSEUPSOMEOFTHEMATERIALSLYINGAROUNDTHE%AST,OS !NGELESSALVAGEYARDWHEREHISFAMILY OWNEDCONSTRUCTION ½RMSTOREDOLDEQUIPMENTANDOTHERRANDOMOBJECTS±) WASN´TTHINKINGABOUTSUSTAINABLEARCHITECTUREATALL ²HESAYS ±)TJUSTMADESENSETOBUILDWITHWHAT´SHEREANDTOUSETHE INDUSTRIALMATERIALS)´VEKNOWNANDWORKEDWITHALLMYLIFE²

: \< 7EDGEDINBETWEENASCRAP

METALYARDANDANINDUSTRIAL BUILDINGINAGRITTYSECTIONOF DOWNTOWN,! THELUSH TROPICAL GARDENFRONTINGTHE3EA4RAIN HOUSEAPPEARSLIKEANOASIS BEHINDTHEPROPERTY´SDECIDEDLY URBANFRONTGATE

4HERESULTISAHIDDENPATCHOFEMERALDRAINFOREST INTHEMIDDLEOFONEOFTHEMOSTINDUSTRIALNEIGH BORHOODSOFDOWNTOWN,OS!NGELES ° ANDEVENMORE SURPRISING ONEOFTHEMOREECOLOGICALLYSENSITIVE HOUSESCONSTRUCTEDINTHE5NITED3TATESINRECENT YEARS4HEREASONISSIMPLETHEHOMEISALMOST COMPLETELYRECYCLED.EARLYALLOFTHESTRUCTURAL ELEMENTSINTHE  SQUARE FOOTHOUSEWERE ALREADYONSITE 4HEVISIONFORTHEPROJECTWASPARTLY#ARLSON´S ANDPARTLYTHATOFHISARCHITECT *ENNIFER3IEGAL A DEVOTEEOFSUSTAINABLECONSTRUCTIONMETHODSAND OFBUILDINGSONWHEELSWHOALSOHASSOMERATHER UNCONVENTIONALIDEASABOUTHOUSES ° FOREXAMPLE SHEDISLIKES±THEIDEAOFWALLS²#ARLSONAND3IEGAL METINTHELATE S WHEN3IEGALWASEARNING HERDEGREEATTHE3OUTHERN#ALIFORNIA)NSTITUTEOF !RCHITECTUREANDLIVINGINTHE"REWERYLOFTCOMPLEX

WHICHISDIRECTLYACROSSTHESTREETFROM#ARLSON´S NEWHOUSE#ARLSONANDHISFATHERHADDEVELOPEDTHE LOFTS TURNINGAFORMER0ABST"LUE2IBBONBUILDING INTOARTISTS´LIVE WORKSTUDIOS±4HEYGAVEMEALOT OFFREEMATERIALS ²SAYS3IEGAL WHOFOUNDEDHER OWN½RM /F½CEOF-OBILE$ESIGN/-$ TODEVELOP DYNAMICSTRUCTURESTHATRESTLIGHTLYUPONTHELAND ±4HE½RSTTHINGTHEYDONATEDWASATRAILER4HATWAS

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Sea Train House

43


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44

City

SHADYLOWERSECTIONOFTHEROOFUPTOWARDTHE EXPOSEDHIGHEREND 3IEGALAND/-$SENIORDESIGNER+ELLY"AIR SLICEDOPEN EXTENDED ANDCONNECTEDTHESHIPPING CONTAINERSTOFORMAUNI½EDHOUSEWITHASERIES OFCLEARLYDESIGNATEDFUNCTIONS%ACHOFTHEORIGINAL TRAILERSHADITSOWNARCHITECTURALPROGRAM4HE MASTERBEDROOMFALLSUNDERTHEROOF´SHIGHEST SECTION CONNECTEDTOASKY LITBATHROOM5NDERNEATH ISAMEDIAROOMANDLIBRARY/NTHEOPPOSITESIDEOF THEHOUSE THETOPCONTAINERFUNCTIONSASANOF½CE ANDLOUNGEWHILETHEBOTTOMONEHOUSESMECHANICAL UNITS AGUESTBATHROOM ANDALAUNDRYROOM 4RANSLUCENTSLIDINGDOORSOFLAMINATEDGLASSSEPARATE THEUPPER LEVELSPACES#ARLSON´SFRIEND$AVID -OCARSKI PRINCIPALOFDESIGN½RM!RKKIT&ORMSAND APROFESSORAT!RT#ENTER#OLLEGEOF$ESIGNIN 0ASADENA DESIGNEDALLTHECUSTOMCABINETRYAND CHOSETHEINTERIORCOLORSTHROUGHOUTTHEHOUSE 4HEDE½NINGFEATUREOFTHEMAINLIVING KITCHEN DININGAREAISAWATERFALLBY2IK*ONESOF,IQUID

7ORKSTHATSUPPLIESRECYCLEDWATERTOANINDOOR FOUNTAIN HOMETOASCHOOLOFORNAMENTALKOIAND #HINESECARP#ARLSONWANTEDITFORCLIMATECONTROL HEPREFERSAHUMIDATMOSPHERETOTHETYPICALLY DRYDESERTAIROFDOWNTOWN,OS!NGELES BUTIT ALSOCREATESAVISUALANCHORTHATPULLSTHEHOUSE TOGETHER4HEPOOL ANDITSCOUNTERPARTINTHEGARDEN ONTHEOTHERSIDEOFTHEGLASSFACADE AREMADEFROM RECYCLEDPRODUCETRAILERS ALSOFROM#ARLSON´SYARD (EHADTHEWHEELSTAKENOFFANDADDEDLAYERSOF EPOXYINSULATIONBEFORESINKINGITINTOTHECHERRY WOOD¾OOROFTHELIVINGROOM #ARLSONISATIDYMANWHOTRAVELSALOT SOTHE PLACELOOKSIMPECCABLYCLEAN4HE:ENSIMPLICITYOF THEINTERIORFORMSAPERFECTCOMPLEMENTTOTHE ETHICOFPRACTICALYETBEAUTIFULSUSTAINABILITYTHAT INSPIREDTHESTRUCTUREINTHE½RSTPLACE±%VERYTHING WASHEREALREADY ²#ARLSONSAYS±7HAT*ENNIFERAND )DIDWAS½GUREOUTAWAYTOLEANITALLTOGETHER²


Green Features

ADA P T IVE RE -USE OF M AT ERIAL S

The house’s structural elements are old sea-going storage containers, some of which had been on site before the project began.

N AT UR A L L I GH T

R E C L A I ME D WO O D

NAT U R AL M ICR O CLIM AT E

With a glass curtain-wall facade and strategically placed exposures on the side and rear elevations, the house uses nothing but natural light during the day.

The massive Douglas fir crossbeams, which support the cantilevered roof, were reclaimed from a nearby construction site.

The lush front garden, which includes a stream fed by recycled water, generates cool breezes and fresh air, both of which are lacking in Sea Train’s asphalt-covered neighborhood.

Sea Train House

45


46

City


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Sea Train House

47


48

City


The Solaire

LOCATION

New York, New York

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Cesar Pelli & Associates Architects

Rafael Pelli

2002

7HILETHE-ANHATTANSKYLINEISFULLOFINSTANTLYRECOGNIZABLE ICONS THEDAYSWHENTHE"IG!PPLESTOODATTHEFORWARDEDGE OFARCHITECTUREARELARGELYINTHEPAST4HETALLESTSKYSCRAPERS ARENOWRISINGIN!SIA ANDTHELATESTTECHNICALENGINEERING INNOVATIONSAREMORELIKELYTOBEREALIZEDIN%UROPE5NTIL THEREDEVELOPMENTAT'ROUND:EROPROMPTEDARECENTSURGE OFPUBLICINTERESTINARCHITECTUREANDURBANDESIGN BOTTOM LINEPRESSURESANDPRESERVATIONSTRUGGLESTENDEDTODOMINATE DISCUSSIONSABOUTARCHITECTUREIN.EW9ORK#ITY

:< &ACINGWESTACROSSTHE

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The Solaire

49


:4WOPESTICIDE FREETERRACE

GARDENSPLANTEDWITHNATIVE GRASSESPROVIDEAPRIVATERETREAT FORTHERESIDENTSANDAMEANS OFNATURALINSULATIONFORTHE BUILDING

50

City


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The Solaire

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suburb

Suburbs are everywhere, everywhere cities are found. Conceived as a kind of utopia that would allow city workers to live in pastoral surroundings, the suburb, with its voracious appetite for open space and lowrise, low-density development, has turned out to be one of mankindâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more harmful intrusions on the environment. )NDEED THEBALLOONINGSIZEOFTHETYPICALNEWSUBURBANHOME°NOWAVERAGING MORE THAN   SQUARE FEET IN THE 5NITED 3TATES°AND THE IN½NITE REPLICATION OF LAWNS GARAGES SEPTIC TANKS HEATING SYSTEMS LAUNDRY ROOMS AND OTHER AMENITIES FOR EACH HOUSEHOLD HAS MADE THE SUBURB A CONVENIENT METAPHOR FOR WASTEFULNESS IN MODERN SOCIETY %VEN WEEKEND HOMES ON SITES OUTSIDE OF TRADITIONAL PLANNED SUBURBS°WHAT WEALTHY .EW 9ORKERS FOR EXAMPLE CALL ±THE COUNTRY²°ARE GETTING BIGGER AND MORE EXTRAVAGANT 0RIMARY RESIDENCE OR VACATIONRETREAT THESEHOUSES ATTHEIRMOSTWASTEFUL ARELESSABOUTLIVINGCLOSER TONATURETHANANARCHITECTURALPLOYTOHAVEONE´SCAKEANDEATITTOO°TOCOMBINE THECONVENIENCEOFANURBANAREAWITHTHEPRIVATEOPENSPACEOFTHECOUNTRYSIDE 7HILEARCHITECTSAREMAKINGGREATSTRIDESINBRINGINGSUSTAINABILITYTOTHE SUBURBS THEYCONTINUETOFACEUNIQUECHALLENGESTHERE!SITEFORAHOUSEINTHE DESERT CAN BE PICKED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRINCIPLES°FOR EXAMPLE ONTHESOUTHERNINCLINEOFAHILL INSTEADOFTHENORTHERN"UTATYPICAL QUARTER ACRESUBURBANPLOTPERMITSNOSUCH¾EXIBILITY)NLARGETRACTDEVELOPMENTS PROSPECTIVEHOMEOWNERSUSUALLYHAVENOSAYOVERWHATMATERIALSORCONSTRUCTION METHODSAREUSEDORHOWAHOUSEISSITED%COLOGICALSOLUTIONS HOWEVER CANBE INTRODUCEDDURINGSUBSEQUENTRENOVATIONS )F SUBURBS ARE TRULY TO GO GREEN PLANNERS MUST LOOK BEYOND THE CLASSIC STAND ALONE FAMILY HOUSE WITH PRIVATE GARAGE AND FRONT AND BACK YARDS 2EAL PROGRESS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY DEPENDS ON INCREASING DENSITY AND REDUCING INDIVIDUAL HOUSE SIZE 4HE EMBODIED ENERGY IN BUILDING MATERIALS ACCOUNTS FOR MOST OF THE ENERGY USED IN CONSTRUCTION SO SMALLER HOMES AND SEMI DETACHED

52


ORTOWNHOUSE STYLEBUILDINGSCANHELPTOREDUCEOVERALLECOLOGICALIMPACT3UCH DESIGNSALSOREDUCEHEATINGANDCOOLINGCOSTSANDALLOWFUNCTIONSSUCHASLAUNDRY STORAGE PARKING ANDGARDENSTOBESHAREDWITHNEIGHBORS 4HEREISNOSHORTAGEOFSUCCESSFULMODELSALONGTHESELINES,ONDON´S'ARDEN 3UBURBSOFTHESANDSPROVIDEDANEARLYEXAMPLEOFHOWTORETHINKTHE BALANCEOFINDIVIDUALANDCOLLECTIVESPACEINSUBURBANDEVELOPMENTS!NDFROMTHE 'ERMAN3IEDLUNGENOFTHESANDSTOPOSTWAR3CANDINAVIANEXPERIMENTS IN SUBURBAN DENSITY MOST NOTABLY BY !RNE *ACOBSEN AND *žRN 5TZON ARCHITECTS HAVELONGSOUGHTTOPROVIDEMODELSFORA±COMPRESSEDSUBURBIA²-ORERECENTLY THE .EW 5RBANIST MOVEMENT HAS RAISED VALID CONCERNS ABOUT SUBURBAN SPRAWL ANDNEIGHBORHOODSTHATARESCALEDFORCARSRATHERTHANPEOPLE /NE OF THE SUBURB´S MOST DAMAGING ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES°POLLUTION FROMRESIDENTS´LONGDAILYCOMMUTES°CANNOTBEMITIGATEDBYARCHITECTUREALONE "UTOTHERISSUES FROMENERGYEF½CIENCYTOTHEUSEOFRECYCLEDMATERIALSTODRIVE WAYSTHATUSEPERMEABLEPAVINGINSTEADOFASPHALT CANBEDIRECTLYADDRESSEDBY DESIGNERS!NDFORTHOSESUBURBANITESANDWEEKEND HOMEBUYERSLUCKYENOUGH TOBUILDFROMSCRATCH THEOPPORTUNITIESFORSUSTAINABLESOLUTIONSARELIMITEDONLY BYTHEIMAGINATION /FCOURSE NEWHOMESAREOFTENSUBJECTTOCOMMUNITYBUILDINGCODESTHAT DETERMINESIZE COLOR SETBACKDISTANCE ANDOTHERFEATURES"UTWITHINTHECON½NES OFEVENTHEMOSTRIGIDNEIGHBORHOODRULEBOOK NEWHOUSESCANBESITEDFOROPTIMAL SOLAREXPOSURE CONSTRUCTEDFROMLOCAL RENEWABLEMATERIALS ANDEQUIPPEDWITH MAXIMALLY EF½CIENT HEATING COOLING AND WASTE SYSTEMS !ND WHEN THE NEIGH BORSHEARHOWMUCHTHEOWNERSOFTHENEWSUSTAINABLEHOUSEDOWNTHEBLOCKARE SAVINGONTHEIRENERGYBILLS THEYMAYJUSTRALLYFORAGREENERSETOFCOMMUNITY PLANNINGREGULATIONS

Suburb

53


SOLAR TUBE

LOCATION

Vienna, Austria

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Driendl Architects

Georg Driendl

2001

4HEQUIETRESIDENTIALDISTRICTOF$yBLING ONTHENORTHWESTERN EDGEOF6IENNA ISNOTTHEKINDOFPLACEYOU´DEXPECTTO ½NDONEOFTHEMOSTSTARTLINGWORKSOFGREENARCHITECTURE BUILTINRECENTYEARS"UTNESTLEDINAHEAVILYWOODEDSITE INANEIGHBORHOODOFHIGH PRICEDSINGLE FAMILYHOMES THERE 'EORG$RIENDL´S3OLAR4UBEHOUSELOOKSLIKETHE STUFFOFSCIENCE½CTION!NDINAWAY ITIS5NCONVENTIONAL AESTHETICALLYANDENVIRONMENTALLY THEHOUSEPUSHESTHE STYLEANDSCIENCEOFSUSTAINABLEARCHITECTURETOTHEEXTREME

TRANSFORMINGASINGLE ENERGY SAVINGTECHNOLOGYINTOA DESIGNCONCEPTFORAWHOLEBUILDING

: 3TACKEDTHREE¾OORSHIGHONA

SMALL WOODEDLOT THE3OLAR4UBE ISARCHITECT'EORG$RIENDL´SIDEA OFATWENTY ½RST¯CENTURYTREE HOUSE

!±SOLARTUBE²ISASMALLLIGHT AND HEATCAPTURING DEVICETHATISTYPICALLYINSTALLEDONTHEROOFSOF HIGH EF½CIENCYHOMES)NTHEHANDSOFTHE6IENNA BASED$RIENDL!RCHITECTS ITHASSHAPEDTHEDESIGN OFTHEENTIREHOUSE5SINGTHEPRINCIPLESOFRADIANT HEATING THERMALMASSING ANDPASSIVESOLAR COLLECTIONTOGETHERWITHLARGEEXPANSESOFLOW EMISSIONTHERMALGLASS THEBUILDINGISDESIGNED TOMAINTAINATEMPERATUREOFTODEGREES &AHRENHEIT"OTHLIGHTANDHEATCOMEINTOTHEHOUSE THROUGHWHAT$RIENDLCALLS±ISOLATION²GLASS!TWO PLYGLAZINGWIDELYUSEDIN!USTRIA 'ERMANY AND OTHERMIDDLEANDNORTHERN%UROPEANCOUNTRIES THANKSTOPROGRESSIVELEGISLATIONTHATMANDATES ENERGYEF½CIENCY ITCONTAINSALAYEROFMETAL SANDWICHEDBETWEENTHETWOSHEETSOFGLASSTHAT CONDUCTSTHESHORT WARMINGRAYS WHILEDE¾ECTING THELONGER DAMAGING56RAYS4HEHOUSE´SCENTRAL COREOFREINFORCEDCONCRETEABSORBSANDSTORES THEWARMTH KEEPINGTHEWHOLEHOUSEWITHINA COMFORTABLETEMPERATURERANGE "UILTINONLY½VEMONTHS THE3OLAR4UBE EXEMPLI½ES$RIENDL´SCOMMITMENTTODESIGNINGFOR ENERGYANDCOSTEF½CIENCYDURINGTHECONSTRUCTION PROCESSASWELLDURINGTHELIFEOFTHEBUILDING (ISAFFORDABLEBUILDINGMETHODREVOLVESAROUND

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SEMI TRANSPARENTSLIDINGROOFINCREASESVENTILATION ANDTHEFAMILY´SPROXIMITYTONATURE/NTHEUPPER LEVELMEZZANINE EACHOFTHEFOURBEDROOMSENJOYS TWOEXPOSURES"ELOWTHESLEEPINGQUARTERS THE MAIN¾OORALLOWSFORANOPEN PLANARRANGEMENTOF KITCHEN LIVING ANDDININGAREAS!NDONTHEGROUND ¾OOR THEDESIGNACCOMMODATESALARGEFOYER A STORAGEROOM ANDANOF½CE4HANKSTOTEXTUREDGLASS

56

Suburb

¾OORSONTHETWOUPPERLEVELS THEHOUSEBECOMES ITSOWNATRIUM WITHTHETREE SHADEDROOFVISIBLEALL THEWAYFROMTHEGROUND¾OOR ±)LIKETOTHINKOFITASATRIBUTETOTHECHILDREN ² SAYS$RIENDL±&ORTHEM IT´SLIKELIVINGINATREE HOUSE7HATAGOODWAYTOTEACHTHEMABOUTTHE LOVEOFNATURE²

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Green Features

IS OLATION GLASS Dual-ply windows containing a thin metallic layer that attracts winter’s short rays while deflecting summer’s long ones help regulate interior temperatures.

58

Suburb

CO N CRET E C O R E A massive base of reinforced concrete serves as both structural anchor and passive solar collector, absorbing heat during the day and then slowly releasing it at night.

C H I MNE Y E F F E C T In the warm months of summer, the retractable glass roof provides a convenient escape hatch for rising hot air as well an easy ingress for cool breezes.

L O C A L MATER IALS Driendl used locally quarried granite as floor covering for both the first and second levels and maple wood grown in a neighboring forest for the custom cabinetry and furniture.


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60

Suburb






 



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Charlotte residence

LOCATION

Charlotte, North Carolina

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

William McDonough + Partners

Allison Ewing and William McDonough

2002

#HARLOTTE .ORTH#AROLINA ABANKINGCENTERANDONEOFTHE FASTESTGROWINGCITIESINTHESOUTHERN5NITED3TATESOVERTHE LASTCOUPLEOFDECADES HASAPOPULATIONOFMORETHANHALF AMILLION"UTYOU´DNEVERKNOWITFROMLOOKINGATTHE½VE ACREPIECEOFLANDFORWHICHTHE#HARLOTTESVILLE 6IRGINIA½RM 7ILLIAM-C$ONOUGH 0ARTNERS ° LONGALEADEROFTHEGREEN DESIGNMOVEMENT ° DESIGNEDTHISTWO STORY THREE BEDROOM HOUSE4HOUGHTHEHOUSESITSWITHINTHE#HARLOTTECITYLIMITS

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Charlotte Residence

63


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64

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Charlotte Residence

65


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66

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Charlotte Residence

67


suburb

Suburbs are everywhere, everywhere cities are found. Conceived as a kind of utopia that would allow city workers to live in pastoral surroundings, the suburb, with its voracious appetite for open space and lowrise, low-density development, has turned out to be one of mankindâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s more harmful intrusions on the environment. )NDEED THEBALLOONINGSIZEOFTHETYPICALNEWSUBURBANHOME°NOWAVERAGING MORE THAN   SQUARE FEET IN THE 5NITED 3TATES°AND THE IN½NITE REPLICATION OF LAWNS GARAGES SEPTIC TANKS HEATING SYSTEMS LAUNDRY ROOMS AND OTHER AMENITIES FOR EACH HOUSEHOLD HAS MADE THE SUBURB A CONVENIENT METAPHOR FOR WASTEFULNESS IN MODERN SOCIETY %VEN WEEKEND HOMES ON SITES OUTSIDE OF TRADITIONAL PLANNED SUBURBS°WHAT WEALTHY .EW 9ORKERS FOR EXAMPLE CALL ±THE COUNTRY²°ARE GETTING BIGGER AND MORE EXTRAVAGANT 0RIMARY RESIDENCE OR VACATIONRETREAT THESEHOUSES ATTHEIRMOSTWASTEFUL ARELESSABOUTLIVINGCLOSER TONATURETHANANARCHITECTURALPLOYTOHAVEONE´SCAKEANDEATITTOO°TOCOMBINE THECONVENIENCEOFANURBANAREAWITHTHEPRIVATEOPENSPACEOFTHECOUNTRYSIDE 7HILEARCHITECTSAREMAKINGGREATSTRIDESINBRINGINGSUSTAINABILITYTOTHE SUBURBS THEYCONTINUETOFACEUNIQUECHALLENGESTHERE!SITEFORAHOUSEINTHE DESERT CAN BE PICKED IN ACCORDANCE WITH SUSTAINABLE PLANNING PRINCIPLES°FOR EXAMPLE ONTHESOUTHERNINCLINEOFAHILL INSTEADOFTHENORTHERN"UTATYPICAL QUARTER ACRESUBURBANPLOTPERMITSNOSUCH¾EXIBILITY)NLARGETRACTDEVELOPMENTS PROSPECTIVEHOMEOWNERSUSUALLYHAVENOSAYOVERWHATMATERIALSORCONSTRUCTION METHODSAREUSEDORHOWAHOUSEISSITED%COLOGICALSOLUTIONS HOWEVER CANBE INTRODUCEDDURINGSUBSEQUENTRENOVATIONS )F SUBURBS ARE TRULY TO GO GREEN PLANNERS MUST LOOK BEYOND THE CLASSIC STAND ALONE FAMILY HOUSE WITH PRIVATE GARAGE AND FRONT AND BACK YARDS 2EAL PROGRESS TOWARD SUSTAINABILITY DEPENDS ON INCREASING DENSITY AND REDUCING INDIVIDUAL HOUSE SIZE 4HE EMBODIED ENERGY IN BUILDING MATERIALS ACCOUNTS FOR MOST OF THE ENERGY USED IN CONSTRUCTION SO SMALLER HOMES AND SEMI DETACHED

52


ORTOWNHOUSE STYLEBUILDINGSCANHELPTOREDUCEOVERALLECOLOGICALIMPACT3UCH DESIGNSALSOREDUCEHEATINGANDCOOLINGCOSTSANDALLOWFUNCTIONSSUCHASLAUNDRY STORAGE PARKING ANDGARDENSTOBESHAREDWITHNEIGHBORS 4HEREISNOSHORTAGEOFSUCCESSFULMODELSALONGTHESELINES,ONDON´S'ARDEN 3UBURBSOFTHESANDSPROVIDEDANEARLYEXAMPLEOFHOWTORETHINKTHE BALANCEOFINDIVIDUALANDCOLLECTIVESPACEINSUBURBANDEVELOPMENTS!NDFROMTHE 'ERMAN3IEDLUNGENOFTHESANDSTOPOSTWAR3CANDINAVIANEXPERIMENTS IN SUBURBAN DENSITY MOST NOTABLY BY !RNE *ACOBSEN AND *žRN 5TZON ARCHITECTS HAVELONGSOUGHTTOPROVIDEMODELSFORA±COMPRESSEDSUBURBIA²-ORERECENTLY THE .EW 5RBANIST MOVEMENT HAS RAISED VALID CONCERNS ABOUT SUBURBAN SPRAWL ANDNEIGHBORHOODSTHATARESCALEDFORCARSRATHERTHANPEOPLE /NE OF THE SUBURB´S MOST DAMAGING ECOLOGICAL CONSEQUENCES°POLLUTION FROMRESIDENTS´LONGDAILYCOMMUTES°CANNOTBEMITIGATEDBYARCHITECTUREALONE "UTOTHERISSUES FROMENERGYEF½CIENCYTOTHEUSEOFRECYCLEDMATERIALSTODRIVE WAYSTHATUSEPERMEABLEPAVINGINSTEADOFASPHALT CANBEDIRECTLYADDRESSEDBY DESIGNERS!NDFORTHOSESUBURBANITESANDWEEKEND HOMEBUYERSLUCKYENOUGH TOBUILDFROMSCRATCH THEOPPORTUNITIESFORSUSTAINABLESOLUTIONSARELIMITEDONLY BYTHEIMAGINATION /FCOURSE NEWHOMESAREOFTENSUBJECTTOCOMMUNITYBUILDINGCODESTHAT DETERMINESIZE COLOR SETBACKDISTANCE ANDOTHERFEATURES"UTWITHINTHECON½NES OFEVENTHEMOSTRIGIDNEIGHBORHOODRULEBOOK NEWHOUSESCANBESITEDFOROPTIMAL SOLAREXPOSURE CONSTRUCTEDFROMLOCAL RENEWABLEMATERIALS ANDEQUIPPEDWITH MAXIMALLY EF½CIENT HEATING COOLING AND WASTE SYSTEMS !ND WHEN THE NEIGH BORSHEARHOWMUCHTHEOWNERSOFTHENEWSUSTAINABLEHOUSEDOWNTHEBLOCKARE SAVINGONTHEIRENERGYBILLS THEYMAYJUSTRALLYFORAGREENERSETOFCOMMUNITY PLANNINGREGULATIONS

Suburb

53


68


villa sari

LOCATION

Pori, Finland

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

ARRAK R Arkkitehdit

Hannu Kiiskilä

2000

4HOUGHTHEWINTERSIN0ORI ATOWNONTHEWESTCOASTOF &INLANDABOUTMILESNORTHWESTOF(ELSINKI AREN´TAS FRIGIDASTHOSEFARTHERNORTHINTHECOUNTRY THEREGIONIS NONETHELESSAPLACEOFEXTREMES)NTHEDEADOFWINTER THE SUNSTAYSABOVETHEHORIZONFORAFEWPRECIOUSHOURS HANGING LOWINTHESKY)NTHESUMMER ITSETSONLYBRIE¾Y4HESPREAD BETWEENAYEAR´SLOWESTANDHIGHESTTEMPERATURESCANTOP DEGREES"ECAUSECONDITIONSCANBEHARSHANDWINTER HEATINGBILLSHIGH SAYSARCHITECT(ANNU+IISKILi ±WEHAVE GOODREASONHERETOPAYATTENTIONTOSUSTAINABILITY²

: !22!+´S6ILLA3ARIISLOCATED

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Villa Sari

69


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70

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Villa Sari

71


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72

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Villa Sari

73


Little tesseract

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Steven Holl Architects

Steven Holl

2004

3TEVEN(OLLISONEOFTHEBEST REGARDED!MERICANARCHITECTS OFHISGENERATION WELLKNOWNFORDESIGNSINCLUDINGTHE +IASMA-USEUMIN(ELSINKIAND3IMMONS(ALLAT-)4(E WASALSOAMEMBER WITHARCHITECTURE WORLDHEAVYWEIGHTS 0ETER%ISENMAN #HARLES'WATHMEY AND2ICHARD-EIER IN THESO CALLED$REAM4EAMGROUPTHATWASNAMEDA½NALIST INTHEMASTERPLANCOMPETITIONFORTHE7ORLD4RADE#ENTER SITE 7HATHEHASN´TBEENKNOWNFORISACOMMITMENTTO SUSTAINABLEARCHITECTURE

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4HATMAYCHANGE HOWEVER ONCEMOREARCHITECTS CRITICS ANDENVIRONMENTALISTSGETALOOKATTHE ,ITTLE4ESSERACT ANADDITIONTO(OLL´SOWNWEEKEND HOUSEIN2HINEBECK .EW9ORK ABOUTMILESNORTH OF-ANHATTAN4HENEWSTRUCTURE ° WHICHWAS LARGELY½NISHEDBY THOUGH(OLLSAYSHEISSTILL TINKERINGWITHIT ° ADDSABOUT SQUAREFEETOF SPACEONTWOLEVELSTOASMALLEXISTINGSTONEHOUSE BUILTINTHES"YANYSTANDARDTHEADDITION QUALI½ESASGREEN!NDITISALSOPERHAPSLESSOFAN ANOMALYFOR(OLLTHANITWOULDAPPEAR(ESAYSHE HASBEENEXPLORINGARANGEOFSUSTAINABLESTRATEGIES INRECENTPROJECTS INCLUDINGAGEOTHERMALPROJECT IN.ANJING #HINA 4HE½RSTSUSTAINABLEDECISION(OLLMADEIN 2HINEBECKWASNOTTOTEARDOWNHISEXISTINGHOUSE

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Rhinebeck, New York Y

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75


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77


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10

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3ITE0LAN

bedroom

studio

cooling pond

3ECOND&LOOR0LAN

78

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Suburb

dining room


Mill valley straw-bale house

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Arkin Tilt Architects

David Arkin and Anni Tilt

2001

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Mill Valley Straw-Bale House

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Mill Valley Straw-Bale House

83


Naked house

LOCATION

Kawagoe, Japan

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Shigeru Ban Architects

Shigeru Ban

2001

)NTHELATES ANUNUSUALFAXCAMECHUGGINGTHROUGHTHE MACHINEAT3HIGERU"ANS4OKYOOF½CE!MANWHOWANTED "ANTODESIGNANEWHOUSEFORHISFAMILY ° ANDWHOM"AN HADMETJUSTONCEBEFORE ° WASWRITINGTOMAKESOMEVERY PRECISEANDUNUSUALREQUESTSABOUTTHEPROJECT4HENOTE EXPLAINEDTHATTHEMAN WHOWASINHISTHIRTIESANDLIVED WITHHISWIFE HISTWOCHILDREN ANDHISSEVENTY ½VE YEAR OLDMOTHER WANTEDAHOUSEFORALLOFTHEMTHAT AS"AN REMEMBERSTHEMANDESCRIBINGIT ±PROVIDESTHELEASTPRIVACY SOTHATTHEFAMILYMEMBERSARENOTSECLUDEDFROMONE ANOTHER ° AHOUSETHATGIVESEVERYONETHEFREEDOMTOHAVE INDIVIDUALACTIVITIESINASHAREDATMOSPHERE INTHEMIDDLE OFAUNI½EDFAMILY² %VENIN*APAN ACOUNTRYKNOWNFORTIGHTFAMILY

: 3HIGERU"AN´S.AKED(OUSE

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Naked House

85


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Naked House

87


88

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Naked House

89


MOUNTAINSIDE

More than ten billion acres of the Earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface are covered in forest, and most of that land falls in sparsely populated mountainous regions. These stunning landscapes, among the last to resist industrialization, urbanization, and suburban sprawl, are essential to the survival of the planet. They promote water and soil conservation, provide ï¬&#x201A;ood control, synthesize huge amounts of oxygen, help protect against climate change, and promote long-term biodiversity. "UT MORE THAN   ACRES OF FORESTED LAND ARE BEING DESTROYED EVERY DAY !LTHOUGHGREATSTRIDESAREBEINGMADEINFORESTMANAGEMENTANDCONSERVATION JUSTPERCENTOFFORESTSWORLDWIDEAREOF½CIALLYPROTECTED THEMAJORITYOFTHESEIN %UROPEANDTHE5NITED3TATES!NDWHILEMOSTOFTHEPROBLEMSTHATPLAGUEMOUN TAINOUSREGIONSWON´TBESOLVEDBYARCHITECTUREALONE IT´SNOTHARDTOSEETHAT BUILDINGINTHESEAREASCARRIESITSOWNSPECI½CRESPONSIBILITIES 4HEMOUNTAINSIDE´SOFTEN STEEP ELEVATEDTERRAINALSOSUGGESTSITSOWNSPECI½C ARCHITECTURAL GESTURES AND RESPONSES )N NO OTHER GEOGRAPHIC LANDSCAPE DOES RESIDENTIALDESIGNTAKEITSCUESSODIRECTLYFROMTHELANDSCAPE(ISTORICALLY MOUN TAINSIDEHOUSESHAVEDISPLAYEDANAESTHETICOFROUGH HEWNDURABILITYANDTIME LESSNESS !ND WHILE CONTEMPORARY EXAMPLES ARE A FAR CRY FROM THE LOG CABINS ANDMOUNTAINLODGESOFTHEPOPULARIMAGINATION THEYSHAREWITHTHOSEEARLIER BUILDINGSATASTEFORTHEVERNACULARANDALOYALTYTOLOCALMATERIALS0ARTOFTHAT HASSIMPLYTODOWITHREMOTENESSITMAKESLITTLESENSE PRACTICALLYORENVIRON MENTALLY TOHAULEXOTICMATERIALSHALFWAYUPAMOUNTAINAND ASARESULT THE ARCHITECTSWHOWORKINSUCHREGIONSHAVELEARNEDTOUSELOCALSTONESANDEVEN BOULDERS°NATURAL BUILDING BLOCKS FOUND CLOSE BY !ND ASSUMING THE FORESTS FROMWHICHITCOMESAREMANAGEDSUSTAINABILITY WOODCANBEANECO FRIENDLY BUILDINGMATERIAL

90


-OUNTAINOUS BUILDING SITES LIKE THOSE IN THE TROPICS AND DESERT FACE THE CHALLENGE OF EXTREME WEATHER (OUSES MUST WITHSTAND FREEZING TEMPERATURES AND FREQUENT RAIN AND SNOW AND PROTECT THEMSELVES AGAINST THE POSSIBILITY OFMUDSLIDES4HESUN WHENITSHINES CANBEHARSHERATHIGHALTITUDESTHANAT SEALEVEL"UTTHESEEXTREMESALSOMAKEITPOSSIBLEFORGREENARCHITECTSTOTAKE ADVANTAGEOFSOLARANDWINDPOWER ANDEVENTHERUSHINGWATEROFRIVERSAND STREAMS TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY 3NOW ACCUMULATION AND FREQUENT RAINFALL PERMITTHEHARVESTINGOFFRESHWATER !RCHITECTSWORKINGINTHEMOUNTAINSHAVETOBEPARTICULARLYMINDFULOFTHE LANDSCAPE$URINGCONSTRUCTION ITMAKESSENSETOLIMITTHEUSEOFHEAVYTRUCKSAND MACHINERY ANDTOMINIMIZETHEDAMAGETOEXISTINGTREESANDPLANTS WHOSESHADE GIVINGPROPERTIESANDPROTECTIONAGAINSTEROSIONWILLBEMISSEDIFTHEYAREKNOCKED DOWNWHILETHEHOUSEISGOINGUP&INALLY IT´SWORTHREMEMBERINGTHATAHOUSE ONAMOUNTAINSLOPEISMOREVISIBLETHANONEONA¾ATPIECEOFLAND WHICHMEANS ITSARCHITECTUREWILLNECESSARILYHAVEAVISUALIMPACTONMORETHANJUSTITSIMME DIATENEIGHBORS4HISDOESN´TMEANTHATCONTEMPORARYDESIGNISAUTOMATICALLY INAPPROPRIATEINSUCHAREAS ORTHATARCHITECTSOUGHTTORELYEXCLUSIVELYONTRADI TIONALORQUIETFACADESWHENBUILDINGHOUSESONTHEMOUNTAINSIDE)TSIMPLYMEANS THATSIGHTLINESFROMTHEOUTSIDEINHAVETOBECONSIDEREDASCAREFULLYASTHOSE FROMTHEINSIDEOUT

Mountainside

91


92

Mountainside


House with shades

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Achenbach Architekten + Designer

Joachim and Gabriele Achenbach

2000

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: *OACHIMAND'ABRIELE

!CHENBACH´SSENSOR DRIVEN AUTOMATICSHADESBLOCKTHESUN BUTNOTTHE!LPINEVIEWS

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Jebenhausen, Germany

TENMILESAWAY4HEHOUSE´SMOSTPROMINENT FEATURE AROWOFRETRACTABLETEXTILESHADESTHAT RUNSTHEENTIRELENGTHOFTHEFACADE MAKESA BOLDDEFENSEAGAINSTUNWANTEDSOLARGAININTHE SEARINGSUMMERMONTHSWITHOUTBLOCKINGOUTTHE MAGNI½CENTMOUNTAINVISTAS #OMPOSEDOFASERIESOFINTERSECTINGBOXES THE HOUSEHASFOURBEDROOMS THREEBATHROOMS AN OPENLIVING DININGAREAOFFTHEKITCHEN AGARAGE ANDA½NISHEDBASEMENTRESTINGONAREINFORCED CONCRETEBASE4HERESIDENTIALPORTION WHICH MEASURESFEETDEEPBYFEETWIDE SITSWITHIN ANEXTERIORSTEELSKELETON WHICHEXTENDSALMOST FEETLENGTHWISE!CENTRALSTAIRCASEASCENDSFROM THESUNKENGROUND¾OORTOTHETOP LEVELGARDEN CONNECTINGALLTHEPRIVATEAREASTOTHEOPEN

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House with Shades

93


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!XONOMETRIC$RAWING

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House with Shades

95


96

Mountainside


solarhaus iii

LOCATION

Ebnat-Kappel, Switzerland

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Schwarz Architektur

Dietrich Schwarz

2000

7HENITCOMESTO$IETRICH3CHWARZ´S3OLAR(AUS))) THE2OMAN NUMERALTELLSASTORY4HEHOUSE WHICHSITSINALOW RISE LOW DENSITYCOLLECTIONOFSINGLE FAMILYDESIGNSINTHE3WISSTOWN OF%BNAT +APPEL LOOKSSIMPLE)TSLONGWOODANDGLASSPRO½LE ISATTRACTIVELYSPAREANDRECTILINEAR ANDNOTICEABLYHORIZONTAL AGAINSTTHERISINGBACKDROPOFTHE!LPS"UTTHEBUILDING´S VERYSIMPLICITYALSOREPRESENTSASUBSTANTIALBREAKTHROUGHFOR THEARCHITECTWHENITCOMESTOHISAPPROACHTOGREENDESIGN

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SolarHaus III

97


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98

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99


100

Mountainside


Great (bamboo) wall

LOCATION

Commune by the Great Wall, Shuiguan-Badaling, China

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Kengo Kuma & Associates

Kengo Kuma

2002

&IFTY ONE YEAR OLD+ENGO+UMA AMONGTHEBEST KNOWN *APANESEARCHITECTSOFHISGENERATION TENDSTOUSEEACHOF HISRESIDENTIALCOMMISSIONSTOEXPLOREASINGLEBUILDING MATERIAL)NADENSE4OKYONEIGHBORHOOD FOREXAMPLE HE DESIGNEDTHESO CALLED0LASTIC(OUSE INWHICHNEARLYALL THEWALLSAND¾OORSANDEVENTHESCREWS AREMADEOFA TRANSLUCENT LUMINOUSPLASTICTHECOLOROFGREENTEA&INISHED IN ITISASURPRISINGLYBEAUTIFULPIECEOFARCHITECTURE ° AMEDITATIONONTHEHIDDENAESTHETICPROPERTIESOFAMATERIAL RESCUEDFROMTHESCRAPHEAPOFTHEDESIGNWORLD

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Great (Bamboo) Wall

101


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102

Mountainside




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Great (Bamboo) Wall

103






   











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104

Mountainside


















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Great (Bamboo) Wall

105


106

Mountainside


R128

LOCATION

Stuttgart, Germany

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Werner Sobek Ingenieure

Werner Sobek

2002

7ERNER3OBEK´SDESIGNPHILOSOPHYISSIMPLE±!RCHITECTURE ISENVIRONMENTALDESIGN)TTHEREFOREMIRRORSSOCIETY ITS BEHAVIORANDAMBITIONS ²HESAYS4HEFOUR STORYRESIDENCE 3OBEKDESIGNEDFORHISFAMILYINISANELEGANT EMBODIMENTOFTHATCREDO4HEGLASSHOUSEISSOEF½CIENT ITACTUALLYGENERATESMOREENERGYTHANITUSES)TSOPEN PLANINTERIORSANDITSHIGH TECHFEATURES ° TOUCH SCREEN TEMPERATURECONTROLS COMPUTER CONTROLLEDHEATINGSYSTEM VOICE ACTIVATEDDOORS ANDRADAR CONTROLLEDFAUCETS ° SAY ALOTABOUTSOCIALBEHAVIORINATECHNOLOGICALLYADVANCED SOCIETY)TSSLEEK IMPECCABLEDESIGNPROJECTSANAESTHETIC AMBITIONRARELYSEENINSUSTAINABLEBUILDINGS"UT3OBEKDID NOTSETOUTTOCREATEAHIGH TECHWONDER±)WASGOVERNED BYTHEIDEALOFLIVINGINTHREE DIMENSIONALTRANSPARENCYSO THAT)COULDALWAYSFEELCLOSETONATURE4HETECHNOLOGYJUST HELPEDMEACHIEVETHATIDEAL²

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R128

107


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108

Mountainside


Green Features

S OLA R PA NELS

The electrical energy needed to run the mechanical ventilation system is supplied by solar receptors embedded in the roof. S P LIT- S YST EM AIR C OND ITIONIN G

Each floor has a separate temperature control, which allows the system to cool or heat only the space being used. R E CYC LA B LE M ATERI ALS

From the wood panel flooring and glass walls to the bolted steel skeleton, every component of the house was chosen for its capacity to be recycled. TR IP LE GLAZIN G

With three layers of glass containing a film of metalcoated plastic foil in the air space between the outer and central panes, as well as inert gas between each layer, the windows have an extremely low heat transmission value. NATUR AL LIGH T

Floor-to-ceiling windows eliminate the need for artificial light during the day.


110

Mountainside


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R128

111


Waterside

While few of us make a living from the sea or a river these days, more and more people are moving to the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge. Communities small and large are dismantling ports, repurposing docks, and greening embankments for the benefit of their citizens and businesses. The recent evolution of cities like Barcelona, London, and New York has been closely tied to the renaissance of their once-decrepit waterfronts, with the rehabilitation or addition of residential units there among the most prominent improvements. 4HROUGHOUT HISTORY HOWEVER MOST WATERFRONT HOMES HAVE BEEN BUILT AS PLACES OF ESCAPE FROM THE CITY &ROM SECLUDED CABINS TO MODERN BEACH HOUSES TO LAKE FRONTRETREATS SUCHHOMESAREUSUALLYDESIGNEDTOMAXIMIZEASENSEOFCONNEC TIONTONATUREANDEVENTOTHEELEMENTSFORTHISREASONWATERSIDELIVINGHASLONG BEEN SYNONYMOUS WITH SENSITIVITY TO THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT´S BEAUTY°AND ITSVULNERABILITY )TISNOCOINCIDENCETHATSOMEOFTHEMOSTNOTABLEEXPERIMENTSINRETHINKING THE PRINCIPLES OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY LIFE HAVE OCCURRED IN WATERSIDE LOCATIONS BOTH BECAUSE THEY ARE SEEN AS ISOLATED EVEN UTOPIAN SITES ANDBECAUSETHEYCANBESOFRAGILE(EREASELSEWHERE GREENDESIGNGOESHANDIN HANDWITHPROGRESSIVEAPPROACHESTOLANDUSEANDURBANPLANNING!MSTERDAM´S %ASTERN (ARBOUR $OCKLANDS DEVELOPMENT WITH ITS EIGHT THOUSAND ROW HOUSES STANDINGONRECLAIMEDDOCKS ANDTHEPARADIGMATIC.EW5RBANISTTOWNOF3EASIDE &LORIDA AREGOODEXAMPLES !MONGTHEMOSTARCHITECTURALLYCELEBRATEDPLANNEDWATERSIDECOMMUNITIESIS .OTHERN#ALIFORNIA´S3EA2ANCH&OROVERTHREEDECADES ITHASSTOODONTHE0ACI½C #OASTASATOUCHSTONEFORDESIGNERSSEEKINGABETTERBALANCEBETWEENTHENEEDS OFINDIVIDUALFAMILIESANDTHOSEOFTHENATURALENVIRONMENT%ARLYON HOUSESAT 3EA2ANCHWEREBUILTINCLUSTERSTOENHANCEENERGYEF½CIENCY4HE#ONDOMINIUM

112


/NE DEVELOPMENT WAS BUILT OF WEATHERED WOOD BY THE ½RM OF -OORE ,YNDON 4URNBULL7HITAKERANDDESIGNEDTO±CAPTURETHESUNANDSHIELDTHEWIND²)NWHAT AMOUNTEDTOARADICALIDEAATTHETIME LARGEPORTIONSOFTHEWINDYBLUFFSWERELEFT FREEOFDEVELOPMENTSOTHATVIEWSOFTHESEAANDTHECOASTALMEADOWSCOULDBE SHAREDBYTHEENTIRECOMMUNITY3UCHMACRO PLANNINGCHOICESAREJUSTASGREENAS THEDECISIONTOADDSOLARPANELSTOONE´SROOF 7HETHERTHEYAREDESIGNEDFORRELAXATIONORYEAR ROUNDLIVING WATERFRONTPROP ERTIESARECOMMONLYEXPOSEDTOEXTREMEHEAT WIND SUNSHINE SALT WATERDAMAGE ANDSUDDENCLIMATECHANGE/NSMALLISLANDSORREMOTELAKES WATERSIDEHOMESCAN LACKACCESSTOGAS ELECTRICITY WASTEDISPOSAL ANDEVENPOTABLEWATER'REENHOUSES INTHESELOCATIONSCOMBINETHENECESSARYRESPONSESTOSUCHSITECONDITIONSWITH TECHNOLOGIESTHATMAXIMIZEENERGYEF½CIENCYANDMINIMIZETHEHOUSE´SIMPACT ONITSSURROUNDINGS!NDGREENBUILDERSKNOWTHATPRESERVINGTHELANDONWHICH THEHOUSESITSISTHEKEYFACTORINPROTECTINGTHEWATERITSELF 7ATERSIDEHOMESCANEXPLOITTHEADVANTAGESOFTHEIRLOCATIONBYMAKINGUSE OFSOLARORWINDPOWER BYSIPHONINGBREEZESTHATBLOWACROSSTHETOPOFAPOND OR LAKE AND USING THEM FOR NATURAL VENTILATION AND BY EMPLOYING LOCALLY AVAIL ABLE OFTENINEXPENSIVEBUILDINGMATERIALS FROMBEACHPEBBLESTOBAMBOOHUSKS !TTHESAMETIME WATERSIDEHOMESHAVEASPECIALRESPONSIBILITYTOPRESERVETHE NATURALRESOURCESOFBOTHTHELANDANDTHEWATER0ROTECTIONGOESBOTHWAYS°SAFE GUARDINGTHEHOUSEFROMNATURE ANDNATUREFROMTHEHOUSE 4HE GREATEST DAMAGE TO WATERSIDE LOCATIONS STEMS FROM LARGE SCALE COLLECTIVE DEVELOPMENTRATHERTHANTHECHOICESMADEBYANINDIVIDUALHOMEOWNERORARCHI TECT3TILL OVERCROWDINGANDSEASIDEDESTRUCTIONHAPPENONEHOUSEATATIME AND THEREISPLENTYEACHARCHITECTCANDOBOTHTOCONSERVETHELANDSCAPEANDTOSETA STANDARDFOROTHERSTOFOLLOW &EARSABOUTTHEDEMISEOFTHESEASHOREASARESULTOFENCROACHINGURBANDEVEL OPMENTHAVEBEENWITHUSFORGENERATIONS ANDTHEYARENOTLIKELYTOFADEANYTIME SOON±7ESHALLHAVEBEFORELONGTOCHANGEOURIDEASABOUTTHESEASIDE)TISLOSING ITSOLDGLAMOURTHROUGHBEINGBROUGHTSONEARTOTHETOWN ²COMPLAINED%LLA#ARTER INHERBOOK3EASIDE(OUSESAND"UNGALOWS7ITHCURRENTADVANCESINGREEN DESIGN OURIDEASABOUTTHEWATERSIDEARECHANGINGONCEAGAIN

Waterside

113


114

Waterside


howard house

LOCATION

West Pennant, Nova Scotia, Canada

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Brian MacKay-Lyons Architects

Brian MacKay-Lyons

1999

)NTHESMALL CRAGGY½SHINGVILLAGESALONG.OVA3COTIA´S REMOTESOUTHEASTERNCOAST LOCAL½SHERMENHAVEBEEN RECYCLINGFORYEARS4RANSFORMINGOLDCARGOCONTAINERSINTO BOATSHEDS THEY´VECREATEDALANDSCAPEOFWEATHEREDMETAL BOXESTHATPLAINLYRE¾ECTSBOTHTHERUGGEDNESSANDMODESTY OFTHEIRTRADITION/NTHEEDGEOFONESUCHVILLAGE WEDGEDIN AMONGTHEBOULDERSOFAHOOK SHAPEDPENINSULATHATREACHES INTOTHESEA STANDS"RIAN-AC+AY ,YONS´S(OWARD(OUSE

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,ONGANDLEANANDCLADINCORRUGATEDMETAL

THE BY  FOOT THREE BEDROOM SINGLE FAMILY RESIDENCEISSOWELLCAMOU¾AGEDTHATFORSEVERAL YEARSTHELOCALGOVERNINGCOUNCILACTUALLYTHOUGHTIT WASJUSTANOTHERCONTAINER CUM BOATSHEDANDTAXED ITACCORDINGLY&OR-AC+AY ,YONS A.OVA3COTIA NATIVEWHOHASBASEDHISPRACTICEONWHATHECALLS ±ANARCHITECTUREROOTEDINPLACE ²THATMISCALCULATION WASPROOFOFTHEDESIGN´SSUCCESS±)THINKOFTHE BUILDINGASBEINGAKINDOFDIDACTICINSTRUMENT THAT´SMEANTTOEXPLAINTHECULTURALLANDSCAPE TOENHANCETHESENSEOFTHEPLACE)THINKOFITAS CULTURALSUSTAINABILITY ²HESAYS 4HE(OWARDSAREANACADEMICCOUPLE°HE´SANART HISTORIAN SHE´SALIBRARIAN ANDBOTHAREPASSIONATE ABOUTARCHITECTURE°WHODECIDEDTORELOCATEFROM "RITISH#OLUMBIATO.OVA3COTIAWITHTHEIRTWOSMALL CHILDREN&ORTHEM -AC+AY ,YONSWASANOBVIOUS CHOICE(ISSITE SPECI½CARCHITECTURALINVESTIGATIONS APPEALEDTOTHEIRINTERESTINTHECONCEPTUAL CONNECTIONSBETWEENARTANDARCHITECTURE)NEARLY DISCUSSIONS CLIENTANDARCHITECTBEGANFORMULATING THEPROJECTINTERMSOFLANDART°ACONCEPTTHAT FORBOTHPARTIESHASASMUCHTODOWITHARTISTIC EXPRESSIONASITDOESWITHRESPECTFORTHELAND 3ITEDONANORTH SOUTHAXISATTHEWESTERNEDGE OFA ACREPARCEL THEHOUSEINCORPORATESAHOST OFLOW IMPACTSTRATEGIES°INCLUDINGPASSIVESOLAR COLLECTION PASSIVEVENTING THERMALMASSING ANDIN ¾OORRADIANTHEATING°THATMAKEITNOTONLYAPPEAR TO½TINTOTHELANDSCAPEBUTENSUREITSWELCOME

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Howard House

115


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116

Waterside

HIMTOCREATEAHOUSEMUCHMOREINKEEPINGWITH THE.OVA3COTIAETHOS±)NTHISPLACEPEOPLESHUN OSTENTATION9OUWOULDNEVERWANTTOCALLATTENTION TOYOURSELF"UILDINGSARESUPPOSEDTOBEFRUGAL² 7ITHWHATTHEARCHITECTDESCRIBESAS±ZERO DETAILING ²THEHOUSEHASACLEAN MODERN MINIMAL LOOK"UTTHISISNOTAHEAVY HANDEDOROVER WROUGHTMINIMALISM±)LIKETODRAWALINEBETWEEN MINIMALISMANDPLAINNESS-INIMALISMISAFANCY TERM0LAINNESSISTHETERMCOMMONFOLKSUSE ² HEMAINTAINS

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Howard House

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118

Waterside


::4HEBREEZEWAYISCLADIN

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#OMBINED%LEVATION 0LAN AND3ECTION

Howard House

119


Swart RESIDENCE

LOCATION

Melbourne, Australia

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Cocks Carmichael

Peter Carmichael

2004

&ORYEARS -ELBOURNERESIDENT2ICCI3WARTMONITOREDTHEREAL ESTATELISTINGSFORPROPERTIESON"EACONS½ELD0ARADE4HE TWO MILESTRETCHOFSTATELYOLDTOWNHOUSESFACING0ORT0HILLIP "AYHELDTHEPROMISEOFSATISFYINGHERCHILDHOODDREAM OFLIVINGBYTHEWATER"YTHETIMEHEROWNKIDSHADGROWN UP 3WART AMULTIMEDIAPRODUCER WASREADYFORACHANGE 3OWHENSHESAWAFOR SALESIGNONTHEVERYBLOCKSHEHAD COVETED SHEMADEHERMOVE4HEFACTTHATTHEPROPERTYWAS ACOMPLETEEYESORE°THEOLD%DWARDIANHADBEENBRUTALIZED BYANINSENSITIVERENOVATIONDECADESEARLIER°ONLYINCREASED HERENTHUSIASM SINCEITMEANTSHECOULDSTARTFROMSCRATCH

: &ACING-ELBOURNE´S0ORT0HILIP

"AYANDABUSYMOTORWAY THE 3WART2ESIDENCEISDESIGNEDTO ACCENTUATEVIEWSOFTHEWATER WHILEMINIMIZINGTRAF½CNOISE ANDPOLLUTIONONTHEINTERIOR < 0HOTOVOLTAICCELLSANDSOLARHOT

WATERPANELSONTHEROOFCAPTURE ENOUGHENERGYTOMAKETHEHOUSE SELF SUF½CIENTMUCHOFTHEYEAR !NINVERTERENSURESTHATEXCESS ELECTRICALENERGYCANBERETURNEDTO THEELECTRICALSUPPLYAUTHORITY

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TOWITHSTANDTHEEFFECTSOFEVAPORATINGSALTWATER ANDEXHAUSTSPEWEDBYTHEPASSINGTRAF½C(EALSO PAIDPARTICULARATTENTIONTOCONTEXT±7EPICKEDUP THERHYTHMOFTHEADJACENTROWFOREXAMPLE THE COLUMNSAREATTHESAMESPACINGASTHOSEOFTHE HOUSESONEITHERSIDE ANDTHEARCHFORMTHATSITS NEXTTOTHEBIGFRONTDOORISADIRECTREFERENCETOTHE NEO )TALIANATENEIGHBORS ²HESAYS4HEFREESTANDING FRONTISPIECEHASSEVERALPRACTICALFUNCTIONSIN ADDITIONTOFRAMINGTHEBAY ITABSORBSVIBRATIONS FROMTHEPASSINGTRAF½C BUFFERSTHEINTERIORFROM EXTERIORNOISEANDGUSTYWINDS ANDBLOCKSOUTTHE BURNINGRAYSOFTHELATEAFTERNOONSUMMERSUN)TS GENTLECURVEISANGLEDTOALIGNTHEHOUSEWITHITS TWONEIGHBORS EACHOFWHICHHASADIFFERENTSETBACK #ARMICHAELALSODREWINSPIRATIONFROMTHE CHARACTERISTICSOFTHESITE4HECOMBINATIONOF BEACH BOARDWALK ANDOCEANSIDEMOTORWAY SKIRTINGAROWOFGRACIOUSHOMESREMINDEDHIM OFTHE-EDITERRANEANTOWNSALONGTHE&RENCH 2IVIERAWHERE(ENRI-ATISSEHADPAINTED!NDTHE GRACEFUL CURVINGMOTIFSFOUNDIN4HE$ANCEAND OTHER-ATISSEWORKSAREECHOEDINTHEGEOMETRY OFTHE3WARTHOUSE MAKINGSURPRISEAPPEARANCES THROUGHOUTTHEINTERIOR 4HEPROXIMITYOFBEACHANDMOTORWAYGUIDED MOSTOFTHEDESIGNDECISIONS FROMTHEADDITIONOF SEALEDFRONTWINDOWSTHATFENDOFFTRAF½CNOISE ANDPOLLUTIONTOTHEGLAZEDINTERIORAIRSHAFTTHAT SLICESTHROUGHTHECENTEROFTHEHOUSE VENTILATING ALLTHREELEVELSWITHFRESHAIRDRAWNINFROMA HEIGHTTHATLIMITSTHEINTAKEOFVEHICULAREXHAUST #ARMICHAEL´SAIMWASTOOPTIMIZEAIRQUALITYAND VIEWSOFTHEBAYWHILEMINIMIZINGENERGYUSE #ONSEQUENTLY THEROOFISHEAVILYINSULATEDAND THEFRONTWALLISINSETWITHHALF INCH¯THICKGLASS

PRIMARILYFORACOUSTICREASONSBUTALSOBECAUSEITS THERMALTRANSFERRESISTANCEISMUCHBETTERTHAN THATOFTHINNERGLASS4OTHEREAR OVERHANGSCONTROL THEINTENSENORTHSUN PERMITTINGPENETRATIONIN WINTERBUTBLOCKINGTHEHARSHRAYSOFSUMMER 0HOTOVOLTAICPANELSONTHEROOFARECONNECTEDTO THEELECTRICITYGRID7HENSUNSHINEISABUNDANT

THEYACCUMULATEASURPLUS WHICHISCREDITEDBACK TOTHEHOMEFORUSEINTHEGRAYWINTERMONTHS

Swart Residence

121


::\:\:

4HENORTH FACINGREARTERRACE WHICHISPROTECTEDBYADEEP OVERHANGANDSTAINLESS STEEL LOUVRES EXTENDSTHETHIRD ¾OOR LIVINGSPACE OFFERINGSWEEPING VIEWSOFTHECITYBEYOND 9-ADEOFPOUREDCONCRETE THE

SEMI DETACHED CURVINGFACADE ACTSASAVIBRATIONSINKASWELL ASASUNVISORTOSHADETHELIVING ROOMFROMALLBUTTHELOW AFTERNOONSUN

122

Waterside


)NSULATIONANDHEATMANAGEMENTAREPARTLYRELIANT ONTHESITE´SPREEXISTINGCHARACTERISTICS°SHARING SIDEWALLSWITHTHENEIGHBORINGHOUSESHELPS MODERATETEMPERATURES°ANDPARTLYTHROUGH THEDEPLOYMENTOFHIGH TECHDEVICES4HEHOUSE ISWIREDTOACCOMMODATEAFULLYINTEGRATED CONTROLNETWORKTHATENABLESLIGHTS BLINDS AIR CONDITIONING SECURITY ANDEVENLANDSCAPEFEATURES TOBEPROGRAMMEDTORESPONDTOLIGHTCONDITIONS TEMPERATUREVARIATIONS OCCUPANCYCIRCUMSTANCES ANDSECURITYNEEDS 2AINWATERCOLLECTEDFROMTHEROOFSOFBOTHTHE MAINHOUSEANDTHEDETACHEDGARAGEISDISTRIBUTED TOTHEBACKGARDENBYANAUTOMATEDIRRIGATION SYSTEM4HEFRONTWATERFALL°APOETICFORMOFNOISE REDUCTION°RUNSONASEPARATESYSTEMOFRECYCLED

WATER/NTHEADVICEOFAHYDRAULICSCONSULTANT A PLANNEDGRAY WATERSYSTEMWASRULEDOUTDUETO THECOMPACTSITEAREAAVAILABLEANDTHELIKELIHOOD OFSATURATINGANDSOURINGTHESOIL 7ATERINGNEEDS HOWEVER ARERELATIVELYMINIMALRATHERTHANAN INCESSANTLYTHIRSTYLAWN #ARMICHAELLAIDOUTA STONEPATIO¾ANKEDBYTWOSMALL¾OWERBEDSAND AVEGETABLEPATCH4HESCHEMEAPPEALEDTO3WART BOTHENVIRONMENTALLYANDPRACTICALLY±/NEOFMY PRIMARYREQUIREMENTSWASTHATTHEHOUSEBEEASY TORUN EASYTOTAKECAREOF ²SHESAYS±)WANTEDTO BEABLETOWALKOUTOFTHEHOUSE GETONAPLANE ANDSTAYAWAYFORTHREEMONTHSWITHOUTWORRYING ABOUTUPKEEP² /THERLOW MAINTENANCEANDENERGY EF½CIENT SOLUTIONSINCLUDELOW VOLTAGEHALOGENSWITH

DIMMERCONTROLSANDHIGH EF½CIENCY¾UORESCENT BULBSTHATREDUCEPOWERDEMANDS3OLARHOTWATER PANELS WHICHOPERATEONACLOSED CIRCUITTHERMO SIPHONSYSTEMWITHGASBOOSTERS OFFERTHEMOST EF½CIENTFORMATFOR-ELBOURNE´STEMPERATECLIMATE ACCORDINGTO#ARMICHAEL!NDSEVENSEPARATESPLIT SYSTEMAIR CONDITIONERSALLOWFORFOCUSEDHEATING ANDCOOLINGINDESIGNATEDAREASOFTHEHOUSE ±$ESPITEALLTHEHIGH TECHFEATURES ORPERHAPSAS ARESULTOFTHEM )´VEBECOMEMUCHMORECONNECTED TOTHEENVIRONMENTSINCELIVINGHERE ²SAYS3WART ±3INCETHEHOUSEISCONSTANTLYADJUSTINGITSELF IT MAKESMECONSCIOUSOFSUBTLECHANGESINTHEWIND ANDTHETIDESANDTHELIGHT!ND)REALLYLIKETHAT) REALLYLIKETHECONNECTION²

Swart Residence

123


ELEVATED AIRINTAKE FACADESCREENS NORTH WESTSUN

2INSULATION

SOLARHOT WATER SYSTEM

SCREENED SKYLIGHT

PHOTOVOLTAIC PANELS

MULTIZONE AIR CONDITIONING

THICKGLAZINGTO MAXIMISETHERMAL ANDACOUSTICRESISTANCE

SUMMERSUN

WINTERSUN

RAINWATERRETICULATEDTO GARDENFROMSTORAGETANK

VENTILATION COURTYARD

0ASSIVEAND!CTIVE3YSTEMS

3OUTH%LEVATION

124

Waterside

.ORTH%LEVATION


Green Features

C E N T R A L AIR S HA FT

PH O T O VO LTA IC CELLS

R A I NWAT E R C O L L E C T I O N

Cutting through all three levels at the center of the house, the airshaft is a sitespecific feature that improves the internal air quality by drawing fresh air from the exterior above the traffic line.

The solar collectors on the roof, which supply most of the house’s electric power, are connected to the power grid with a 0.2KV inverter so that excess electrical energy can be returned to the electrical supply authority.

Rain is collected from the roofs of the main house and the garage and distributed to the garden by an automated irrigation system.

AU T O MAT E D C L I MAT E C O NT R O L S

An integrated system controls lights, blinds, airconditioning, and security, and can be programmed to respond to light and temperature conditions as well as patterns of occupancy. Swart Residence

125


Waterside

While few of us make a living from the sea or a river these days, more and more people are moving to the waterâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s edge. Communities small and large are dismantling ports, repurposing docks, and greening embankments for the benefit of their citizens and businesses. The recent evolution of cities like Barcelona, London, and New York has been closely tied to the renaissance of their once-decrepit waterfronts, with the rehabilitation or addition of residential units there among the most prominent improvements. 4HROUGHOUT HISTORY HOWEVER MOST WATERFRONT HOMES HAVE BEEN BUILT AS PLACES OF ESCAPE FROM THE CITY &ROM SECLUDED CABINS TO MODERN BEACH HOUSES TO LAKE FRONTRETREATS SUCHHOMESAREUSUALLYDESIGNEDTOMAXIMIZEASENSEOFCONNEC TIONTONATUREANDEVENTOTHEELEMENTSFORTHISREASONWATERSIDELIVINGHASLONG BEEN SYNONYMOUS WITH SENSITIVITY TO THE NATURAL ENVIRONMENT´S BEAUTY°AND ITSVULNERABILITY )TISNOCOINCIDENCETHATSOMEOFTHEMOSTNOTABLEEXPERIMENTSINRETHINKING THE PRINCIPLES OF RESIDENTIAL DEVELOPMENT AND COMMUNITY LIFE HAVE OCCURRED IN WATERSIDE LOCATIONS BOTH BECAUSE THEY ARE SEEN AS ISOLATED EVEN UTOPIAN SITES ANDBECAUSETHEYCANBESOFRAGILE(EREASELSEWHERE GREENDESIGNGOESHANDIN HANDWITHPROGRESSIVEAPPROACHESTOLANDUSEANDURBANPLANNING!MSTERDAM´S %ASTERN (ARBOUR $OCKLANDS DEVELOPMENT WITH ITS EIGHT THOUSAND ROW HOUSES STANDINGONRECLAIMEDDOCKS ANDTHEPARADIGMATIC.EW5RBANISTTOWNOF3EASIDE &LORIDA AREGOODEXAMPLES !MONGTHEMOSTARCHITECTURALLYCELEBRATEDPLANNEDWATERSIDECOMMUNITIESIS .OTHERN#ALIFORNIA´S3EA2ANCH&OROVERTHREEDECADES ITHASSTOODONTHE0ACI½C #OASTASATOUCHSTONEFORDESIGNERSSEEKINGABETTERBALANCEBETWEENTHENEEDS OFINDIVIDUALFAMILIESANDTHOSEOFTHENATURALENVIRONMENT%ARLYON HOUSESAT 3EA2ANCHWEREBUILTINCLUSTERSTOENHANCEENERGYEF½CIENCY4HE#ONDOMINIUM

112


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126


Lake Washington HOUSE

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Olson Sundberg Kundig Allen Architects

Jim Olson

2004

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walla womba guest house ARCHITECTURALFIRM

1+2 Architecture

DESIGNERS

Cath Hall, Mike V Verdouw, Fred Ward

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LOCATION

Bruny Island, Tasmania, Australia YEAR

2003

ADVANTAGEOFTHELOW HANGINGWINTERSUN)NDEED THESTRIKINGFORMOFTHEHOUSE¾OWSNATURALLYFROM THISPASSIVE SOLARSTRATEGYITSTWOSWOOPINGROOFS

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133


McKinley HOUSE

LOCATION

Venice, California V

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

David Hertz Architects/Syndesis

David Hertz and Stacy Fong

2004

$AVID(ERTZCALLSIT±-C+INLEY² 4HE3OUTHERN#ALIFORNIAARCHITECTRUNSA½RMCALLED3YNDESIS THATISWELLKNOWNFORITSSUSTAINABLEDESIGNEXPERTISEAND FORDEVELOPINGA±GREEN²CONCRETECALLED3YNDECRETE(E½RST DESIGNEDA  SQUARE FOOTHOUSEFORHIMSELFANDHISFAMILY ININ6ENICE #ALIFORNIA WHICHHEDUBBEDTHE-C+INLEY (OUSEAFTERTHESTREETONWHICHITSITS JUSTASTONE´STHROWFROM THE0ACI½C/CEAN3INCETHEN HISFAMILYHASEXPANDED°HEAND HISWIFENOWHAVETHREECHILDRENBETWEENTHEAGESOFEIGHT ANDTWELVE°ANDAFTERAWHILEHEDECIDEDMAYBETHEHOUSE NEEDEDEXPANDINGTOO,UCKILYENOUGH THEPROPERTYDIRECTLY NORTHOFTHEEXISTINGHOUSEBECAMEAVAILABLE(ERTZBOUGHTIT ANDFOUNDHIMSELFWITHALOTTHATHADPRECISELYDOUBLEDINSIZE FROM BY FEETTO BY FEET

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desert

With its often unbearable temperatures and scarce amounts of natural water, the desert is one of the harshest environments on Earth. But it is also a place of refuge and solaceâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;a sanctuary for people seeking rejuvenation, spiritual uplift, and relief from the crush of big cities. Recently, however, especially in the United States, large tracts of desert land have been metastasizing into suburbs, with homogenous subdivisions connected by six-lane highways. $ESERTSCOVERONE ½FTHOFTHE%ARTH´SSURFACE INCLUDINGLARGESWATHSOFATHIRD OF THE WORLD´S COUNTRIES FROM #HINA 3OUTH !SIA THE -IDDLE %AST AND MUCH OF !FRICATOPORTIONSOF3OUTH!MERICA -EXICO ANDTHESOUTHWESTERN5NITED3TATES 4HEYTAKETHEFORMOFSOFTLYUNDULATINGSANDDUNES IMMENSEARIDPLAINSOFRED CLAY CRUSTYSALTBASINS ORROCKYMOUNTAINOUSTERRAIN7HEREDAYSAREDE½NEDBY PUNISHINGHEAT TEMPERATURESCANPLUMMETBYUPTODEGREESAFTERTHESUNSETS 3EEMINGLYVOID THEDESERTIS INFACT FULLOFLIFE!RAREBURSTOFRAINFALLCANCOAXA CARPETOFWILD¾OWERSFROMTHECRACKEDDIRTTHATWILLBLOOM SEED ANDWITHERINTHE SPANOFAFEWDAYS "ECAUSESOMANYPEOPLEMOVETOTHEDESERTTODELIGHTINITSNATURALBEAUTYAND DRYAIR ITHASBEENTHESITEOFIMPORTANTEXPERIMENTSINSUSTAINABLEARCHITECTURE 9ETARCHITECTUREHASNOCHOICEBUTTOBENDTOACLIMATESOEXTREME AFACTTHATHAS GIVENRISETOAVERNACULARARCHITECTUREBASEDONPASSIVE SOLARHEATINGANDCOOLING METHODSANDINGENIOUSSOLUTIONSFORVENTILATIONANDAIR CONDITIONING4HETHICK WALLSOFANADOBEHOUSEACTASASPONGE LIKEBARRIERAGAINSTMIDDAYHEATTHENAT NIGHTTHEWARMTHISRELEASEDSLOWLYFROMTHEWALLS°ANEXTRAORDINARILYEFFECTIVE MEANSOFMANAGINGINDOORTEMPERATURES 4HE½RSTCONSIDERATIONINDESERTARCHITECTUREISTHEQUANTITYOFSPACETHATNEEDS TO BE KEPT COOL ENOUGH FOR DWELLING 3MALLER IS ALWAYS BETTER ENVIRONMENTALLY "UTWHATEVERTHESIZE THEREISALSOTHEQUESTIONOFMANAGINGTHECHALLENGESOF

140

Desert


THEINTENSESUN)FABUILDINGISLONGERTHANITISWIDEANDPLACEDALONGTHETRACK OF THE SUN THEN ONE MAIN WALL IS PROTECTED FROM DIRECT SUNLIGHT -ANY DESERT HOMESCREATEACOOLZONEBYFOLLOWINGTHISSIMPLERULE3HADYINTERIORCOURTYARDS SURROUNDEDBYTHEMOSTIMPORTANTROOMSOFTHEHOUSE AREANOTHERTRADITIONIN ARIDSETTINGS3IMILARLYCOMMONISAU SHAPEDESIGN OPENTOTHENORTHORSOUTH DEPENDINGONTHEHEMISPHERE WHICHCREATESACOURTYARDINWHICHTOENJOYCOOL EVENINGBREEZES 4HE DESERT CLIMATE IS DE½NED NOT ONLY BY TEMPERATURE ¾UCTUATIONS BUT BY EXTREME ARIDITY ,ESS THAN  INCHES OF RAINFALL A YEAR IS TYPICAL %XTRACTING AND STORINGWATERFROMDEEPWELLSORHARVESTINGRAINWATERCANBESURPRISINGLYDIF½ CULT AND EXPENSIVE°FALLING RAIN FOR EXAMPLE MUST BE SAVED AND SEALED BEFORE IT EVAPORATES 7ATER CONSERVATION AND PLANNED STORAGE SOLUTIONS ARE THEREFORE ESSENTIALTOSUSTAINABLEDESERTBUILDING3O CALLED±GRAYWATER²SYSTEMS°WHICH USETHESAMEWATERFORMORETHANONEFUNCTION FROMWASHINGDISHESTOLANDSCAPE IRRIGATION°CANDRASTICALLYREDUCEWATERUSEANDCONSEQUENTLY COSTS.EWTECHNO LOGIESAREBECOMINGAVAILABLEFOR±CLOUDHARVESTING²AND±FOGCATCHING²COMMON INPLACESLIKE#HILE SUCHSYSTEMSCONVERTATMOSPHERICMOISTUREINTOUSABLEWATER 7IND DUST ANDSANDSTORMSAREADDITIONALMENACES)T´SCRUCIALTOBUILDHOUSES STRONGENOUGHTOWITHSTANDTHEM BUTTHATEFFORTISSOMETIMESATODDSWITHALIGHT ON THE LAND SUSTAINABLE ETHIC !LTHOUGH THE DESERT DOES NOT OFFER A WIDE RANGE OF LOCAL CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS ENVIRONMENTALLY CONSCIOUS BUILDERS TRY TO AVOID TRUCKINGINLARGEQUANTITIESOFTIMBERANDOTHERMATERIALSFROMFARAWAYSOURCES )NDIGENOUSMATERIALSLIKELOCALSTONEAREBETTERSUITEDTOTHEDESERTCLIMATE AND THEYBLENDINBETTERVISUALLY !HOSTOFOTHERARCHITECTURALSOLUTIONSCANINCREASETHEDURABILITYANDREDUCETHE ENVIRONMENTALIMPACTOFADESERTHOMEROOFOVERHANGSBLOCKTHEHIGHSUMMER SUNWHILEALLOWINGINSLANTEDWINTERRAYSAVARIETYOFTRADITIONALANDHIGH TECH MATERIALSMIMICTHEELABORATELYCARVEDSCREENSOF3OUTH!SIANAND-IDDLE%ASTERN HOUSES NARROW WINDOWS ALLOW IN JUST ENOUGH SUN WHILE PROJECTING BEAUTIFUL STREAKSOFLIGHTONTHEINTERIORWALLS4HEPRINCIPLESINVOLVEDARERARELYNEW BUT THEYCONTINUETOMAKEBUILDINGINTHEDESERTNOTJUSTPOSSIBLEBUTREWARDING

Desert

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142

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tucson mountain house

LOCATION

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Rick Joy Architects

Rick Joy

2001

4HE 4UCSON -OUNTAIN (OUSE SITS IN A SECLUDED VALLEY MARKED BY UNUSUALLY HARSH METEOROLOGICAL EXTREMES 3EARING HEAT ALTERNATES WITH NIGHTTIME CHILLS -ONSOON RAINS CRAWL UP FROM THE SOUTH 4HUNDERSTORMS APPEAR OUT OF NOWHERE

ELECTRIFYING THE SCRUB WITH LIGHTNING BOLTS 4RADITIONALLY

RESIDENTS IN THE AREA HAVE ADJUSTED TO THE CLIMATE BY BUILDING LOW SLUNG ADOBE DWELLINGS WITH SMALL WINDOWS AND THICK WALLS AND MUCH OF THE AREA´S NEW CONSTRUCTION RECALLS THIS CLASSIC SOUTHWESTERN REGIONAL STYLE "UT THE EARTH COLORED PAINT AND ROUNDED CORNERS TYPICAL OF RECENT SUBDIVISIONS CAN´T SUBSTITUTE FOR AN AUTHENTIC VERNACULAR

: 3ETINTHE3ONORA$ESERTONA

SITEFARREMOVEDFROMTHECITY

2ICK*OY´S4UCSON-OUNTAIN (OUSEISDESIGNEDTOBLENDINTO THELANDSCAPE BOTHAESTHETICALLY ANDENVIRONMENTALLY

2ICK *OY A .ATIONAL $ESIGN !WARD WINNING PRACTITIONER OF ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIBLE ARCHITECTURE°OR ±ARCHITECTURE ROOTED IN ITS PLACE ² AS HE DESCRIBES IT°HAS PUT A NEW SPIN ON TIME HONORED DESERT BUILDING METHODS 4HE 4UCSON BASED DESIGNER SPENT TWELVE YEARS WORKING AS A MUSICIAN AND ½NISH CARPENTER IN -AINE BEFORE ENROLLING IN ARCHITECTURE SCHOOL AT THE 5NIVERSITY OF !RIZONA !FTER GRADUATING IN  HE WORKED FOR THREE YEARS IN 7ILL "RUDER´S 0HOENIX STUDIO BEFORE ESTABLISHING HIS SMALL COLLABORATIVE PRACTICE WITH A SERIES OF STRIATED RAMMED EARTH HOUSES THAT PAIR ANCIENT BUILDING TECHNIQUES WITH MODERN LINES AND ASTONISHING DESERT VIEWS !LL OF *OY´S PROJECTS ARE DRIVEN BY A CAREFUL CONSIDERATION OF SOLAR ORIENTATION AND RESOURCE CONSERVATION %ACH ONE ALSO RE¾ECTS HIS PROFOUND RESPECT FOR THE LANDSCAPE AND POETIC UNDERSTANDING OF SPACE 4HE 4UCSON -OUNTAIN (OUSE IS A PRIME EXAMPLE OF HOW THE ARCHITECT´S CHARACTERISTIC BLEND OF TRADITIONAL BUILDING TECHNIQUES BOLDLY MODERN SHAPES AND INDUSTRIAL MATERIALS HARMONIZES WITH THE DESERT´S COLORS MOODS AND TOPOGRAPHY 3ECLUDED IN THE 3ONORA $ESERT OUTSIDE OF 4UCSON THE ONE FAMILY HOUSE FOR A LOCAL COUPLE IS DELIBERATELY SMALL°LESS THAN   SQUARE

Tucson, Arizona

FEET°AS IF TO ANNOUNCE THAT IT CANNOT POSSIBLY COMPETE WITH THE VAST MOUNTAINS LOOMING IN THE DISTANCE OR THE IMMENSE DOME OF THE PITCH BLACK NIGHT SKY ABOVE )TS LOW PRO½LE MAKES THE SINGLE LEVEL HOME UNOBTRUSIVE IN THE GENTLY SLOPING LANDSCAPE WHERE SAGEBRUSH AND CACTI RUN RAMPANT 4HE HOUSE CONSISTS OF A MASTER BEDROOM AND A GUEST ROOM ADJACENT TO A COMBINED KITCHEN DINING LIVING ROOM /N THE NORTH SIDE A LARGE PORCH FUNCTIONS AS AN OUTDOOR ROOM 4O THE EAST

A STEPPED ENTRYWAY LEADS DOWN TO THE FOYER ±/NE OF MY RULES IS NO GARAGES ² *OY SAYS SO THE PARKING AREA IS HIDDEN BEHIND THE HOUSE AND A SIMPLE PATH ALIGNED AXIALLY WITH THE CENTRAL SPINE OF THE HOUSE PAVES THE WAY TO THE FRONT DOOR 4HE COMPACT ARRANGEMENT HAS AN ANGULAR BUTTER¾Y SHAPED ROOF OF CORRUGATED STEEL )TS DEEP EAVES SHADE EXPANSIVE GLASS WALLS THAT FACE NORTH AND EAST OFFERING UNOBSTRUCTED VIEWS OUT TO THE DESERT WITHOUT EXCESSIVE SOLAR GAIN )N THE OTHER DIRECTIONS SMALL

GEOMETRIC CUTOUTS FRAME THE OWNERS´ FAVORITE DESERT VISTAS 4HROUGHOUT THE HOUSE WINDOWS POSITIONED CLOSE TO GROUND LEVEL PROMOTE CROSS VENTILATION 2ANGING FROM DEEP RUST TO PALE TAUPE DEPENDING ON THE DIRECTION AND ANGLE OF THE SUN *OY´S SIGNATURE RAMMED EARTH WALLS°A MIXTURE OF DESERT SOIL FROM THE BUILDING SITE AND  PERCENT 0ORTLAND CEMENT°ENDOW THE 4UCSON -OUNTAIN (OUSE WITH THE COLORS AND TEXTURES OF THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE 0OURED INTO WOOD CASTS AND TAMPED DOWN IN LAYERS THE COMPOUND APPEARS STRIATED WHEN IT HARDENS AND IS REMOVED FROM THE MOLD AS IF EONS OF GEOLOGICAL SHIFTS HAD FORMED IT /N THE EXTERIOR THE RAMMED EARTH´S ROUGH POROUS SURFACE BLENDS INTO THE TERRAIN )NSIDE WHERE A COATING OF SEALER PREVENTS IT FROM DUSTING OFF ITS COARSENESS MAKES AN IMPRESSIVE CONTRAST WITH THE SMOOTH POLISHED CONCRETE ¾OORS AND MINIMALIST BUILT IN FURNISHINGS MADE OF MAPLE %NVIRONMENTALLY

THESE EARTHEN WALLS°WHICH RUN  FEET THICK AND  FEET HIGH ON THE NORTH AND SOUTH SIDES OF THE HOUSE°MAKE AN IDEAL MATCH FOR THE DESERT BY PROVIDING PASSIVE AIR CONDITIONING 4HEIR MASS EASILY ABSORBS DAYTIME HEAT WHEN ¯DEGREE

Tucson Mountain House

143


:/NTHENORTHSIDEOFTHEHOUSE

BENEATHONEWINGOFTHEPITCHED ROOF ANEXPANSIVEPORCHWITH ½REPLACE LOUNGE ANDVIEWS FUNCTIONSASANOUTDOORROOM

TEMPERATURESARENOTUNCOMMON SOTHATTHEINTERIOR REMAINSCOOL!TNIGHT WHENOUTSIDETEMPERATURES PLUMMET THEWALLSGRADUALLYTRANSFERTHESTORED UP HEAT WARMINGTHEINTERIOR ,IKEOTHERDESERTDWELLINGSBUILTBY*OYINRECENT YEARS THE4UCSON-OUNTAIN(OUSEISDESIGNED ANDCONSTRUCTEDWITHAGREATDEALOFREVERENCEFOR THEFRAGILE3ONORANECOSYSTEM ASPARE FORBIDDING

ENVIRONMENTTHAT ONCLOSEINSPECTION BRIMSWITH MANYVARIETIESOF¾ORAANDFAUNA(UMBLEYET VISUALLYCON½DENT THEHOUSESATIS½ESITSOWNERS´ NEEDSWHILEINTRUDINGONLYMINIMALLYONITS SURROUNDINGS±-YVERSIONOFENVIRONMENTALISM ISABOUTADEEPLEVELOFRESPECTFORTHELANDSCAPE ² SAYS*OY±4HATTRANSLATESINTOHOW)BUILDANDWHAT )BUILD4HEDESERTISALWAYSTHE½RSTCONSIDERATION² 94HEFRONTDOOR AGLASSPANEL

SETBETWEENTHESTUCTURE´STWO VOLUMES OFFERSA½RSTGLIMPSE OFTHEHOUSE´SSTUNNINGDESERT VIEWS

144

Desert


Tucson Mountain House

145


146

Desert


:: !WALLOFEAST FACINGGLASS

PANELSINTHELIVING DININGAREA OPENSTHEHOUSETOTHEDESERT´S RICH¾ORAANDWILDLIFE : )NTHEBATHROOM SLIDINGGLASS

DOORSANDMIRROREDPANELSCREATE THEILLUSIONOFANOUTDOORSHOWER :: 4HESTRIATEDRAMMED EARTH

WALLSSUPPLYSTRUCTUREASWELLAS TEXTURE INSIDEANDOUT : 7HILETHEHOUSEHASMANYLARGE SWATHSOFGLASS ONLYAFEWPANELS CONTAINOPERABLEWINDOWS!LLOF THESEARESTRATEGICALLYPOSITIONED TOENCOURAGECROSSVENTILATION

.ORTH%LEVATION H L

%AST%LEVATION

7EST%LEVATION

3OUTH%LEVATION

Tucson Mountain House

147


148

Desert


Giles Loft/Studio

LOCATION

San Antonio, Texas

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Lake/Flato Architects

Ted Flato, Bob Harris, Heather DeGrella

2001

.O MATTER HOW ENERGY EF½CIENT A NEW STRUCTURE MAY BE FROM THE STANDPOINT OF ECOLOGICAL IMPACT ALMOST NOTHING BEATS A SUCCESSFUL EFFORT AT SAVING A BUILDING FROM THE WRECKING BALL ! RENOVATED LOW SLUNG S INDUSTRIAL BUILDING IN THE EDGY ±)RISH &LATS² SECTION OF 3AN !NTONIO BECAME A CASE STUDY IN ADAPTIVE REUSE AFTER SURVIVING A CLOSE CALL WITH A DEMOLITION CREW NOT ONCE BUT TWICE

: )NKEEPINGWITHTHISBUILDING´S INDUSTRIALORIGINS ,AKE&LATO REPLACEDTHE½RE DAMAGEDCEILING WITHASAW TOOTHROOF&ROMTHE NORTHENDFACINGSOUTH THERE APPEARSTOBENOTHINGBUTSKY OVERHEAD

0URCHASED IN  BY *ILL 'ILES A LOCAL GRAPHIC ARTIST THE ABANDONED WAREHOUSE WAS IN THE ½NAL STAGES OF BEING CONVERTED INTO A LIVE WORK LOFT SPACE BY 3AN !NTONIO BASED ,AKE&LATO !RCHITECTS WHEN A WELDING SPARK SET OFF A ½RE 4HE BLAZE OBLITERATED MOST OF THE ARCHITECTS´ RENOVATION WORK AS WELL AS THE ORIGINAL WOOD SUPPORT STRUCTURE AND PART OF THE ROOF 7HEN THE ½RE ENGINES ROLLED OUT NOT MUCH WAS LEFT OTHER THAN A STARK QUADRANGLE OF BRICK VENEER AND CONCRETE WALLS 5NDETERRED 'ILES AND PROJECT ARCHITECT "OB (ARRIS A PARTNER AT ,AKE&LATO TOGETHER WITH PRINCIPAL IN CHARGE 4ED &LATO AND (EATHER $E'RELLA

DECIDED TO MAKE THE MOST OF AN UNEXPECTED TURN OF EVENTS !FTER NEARLY A YEAR OF CONSTRUCTION DELAYS AND ½GHTS WITH THE INSURANCE COMPANY THE DESIGN TEAM WENT BACK TO THE DRAWING BOARD AND TRANSFORMED THE BURNED OUT SHELL INTO AN OPEN PLAN LOFT THAT PUTS FEW DEMANDS ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND THE OWNER´S POCKETBOOK THANKS TO A SPARE AESTHETIC

THE DEFT USE OF LOCAL MATERIALS AND A SAW TOOTH ROOF THAT ¾OODS THE SPACE WITH NATURAL LIGHT .AMED &IRM OF THE 9EAR IN  BY THE !MERICAN )NSTITUTE OF !RCHITECTS ,AKE&LATO ESTABLISHED ITS PRACTICE BUILDING ENVIRONMENTALLY SENSITIVE STRUCTURES°MAINLY IN RURAL 4EXAS°THAT COMBINE THE PRAGMATIC SOLUTIONS OF THE VERNACULAR WITH THE HONESTY OF MODERNISM 4HEIR SLEEK NO NONSENSE RESIDENCES AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS EMPLOY THE VISUAL PALETTE OF THE 3OUTHWEST WITHOUT FALLING VICTIM TO FRONTIER NOSTALGIA ±7HILE WRITING MY COLLEGE THESIS WHICH WAS ABOUT GREEN DESIGN ) CAME TO THE CONCLUSION THAT

SUSTAINABLE BUILDING IS NOT SO MUCH ABOUT WHAT WE BUILD AS WHERE WE BUILD ² SAYS (ARRIS ±4HIS HOUSE IS ON THE EDGE OF DOWNTOWN IN WHAT COULD BE CONSIDERED A MARGINALIZED AREA *UST BY REDOING ONE DERELICT SPACE AND PUTTING A CONSCIENTIOUS PERSON IN THERE THE WHOLE AREA WILL BEGIN TO IMPROVE² /CCUPIED SINCE  THE BUILDING IS NOW A LIVE WORK SPACE CONSISTING OF TWO LARGE BRICK STRUCTURES°EACH ABOUT   SQUARE FEET°CONNECTED BY A GATED COURTYARD 0ART OF THE PROPERTY´S INITIAL APPEAL FOR 'ILES WAS THE PROMISE OF ELIMINATING HER COMMUTE 4HE SITE OFFERED PLENTY OF ROOM FOR BOTH DOMESTIC AND PROFESSIONAL SPACES°ENOUGH TO KEEP THEM WELL SEPARATED°PLUS EXTRA SPACE TO LEASE OUT FOR ADDITIONAL INCOME )N THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING A SET OF LARGE BARN STYLE ROLLING DOORS SEPARATES THE BEDROOM AND PRIVATE QUARTERS FROM THE MAIN LIVING SPACE &OR THE KITCHEN

(ARRIS DESIGNED LOW COST CUSTOM MADE STEEL CABINETS AND CONCRETE COUNTERTOPS (E FASHIONED THE DINING ALCOVE FROM ONE OF THE ONLY PARTS OF THE STRUCTURE LEFT INTACT AFTER THE ½RE°A STEEL BOX THAT ONCE HOUSED SEISMIC INSTRUMENTS AND OTHER INDUSTRIAL MACHINERY 4UCKED INTO THE LOFT´S BACK CORNER THE BOX´S WARPED AND BUCKLED WALLS HAD TAKEN ON A SINUOUS TEXTURE FROM THE HEAT OF THE ¾AMES "Y OPENING UP THE BOX TO THE MAIN ROOM THE DESIGN TEAM CREATED A RIVETING CONTRAST BETWEEN THE RUSTED STEEL AND THE SMOOTH ½NISH OF THE SURROUNDING PLASTER WALLS 4HE ADDITION OF AN OLD WINDOW SALVAGED FROM A WAREHOUSE IN !USTIN MADE A NATURAL COMPLEMENT "ETWEEN THE DOMESTIC SPACE AND THE OF½CE SPACE

A COURTYARD SHIELDED FROM NEIGHBORHOOD ACTIVITY BY A  FOOT CONCRETE WALL OFFERS A PLACID URBAN RETREAT 7ITH POTTED PLANTS AN OUTDOOR ½REPLACE AND A LAP POOL MODELED ON THE POOL IN ARTIST $ONALD *UDD´S MINIMALIST COMPOUND IN -ARFA 4EXAS THE COURTYARD BREATHES LIFE INTO THE HOUSE AND HUMANIZES THE INDUSTRIAL AESTHETIC 4HE INTERIOR WALLS OF THE STUDIO IN THE ADJACENT BUILDING ARE VENEERED IN BLACK CHALKBOARD TO PROVIDE A SURFACE FOR NOTES AND DRAWINGS FOR THE BENE½T OF 'ILES HER GRAPHIC DESIGN COLLEAGUES AND THE STAFF OF THE ½LM PRODUCTION COMPANY THAT LEASES PART OF

Giles Loft/Studio

149


<"LACK PAINTEDCONCRETE

½BERBOARDASTURDYBLENDOF RECYCLEDPAPER CEMENT AND CONCRETE SETINTOTHEORIGINAL BRICKSTRUCTUREPRESERVESTHE BUILDING´SINDUSTRIALCHARACTER FROMTHEOUTSIDE WHILEENSURING PRIVACYANDSECURITYFORTHE OWNERONTHEINSIDE

150

Desert


THESPACE7ITHINTHEOPEN PLANARRANGEMENT AMEZZANINELOFT ACCESSEDBYAGALVANIZED STEEL STAIRCASE ALLOWSFORDISCRETEWORKAREASONTWO LEVELS4HEEASTBUILDING´SPITCHEDSTEELSUPPORT STRUCTURE AKINDOFINTERNALSKELETONADDEDAFTER THE½RE ENABLESHOTAIRTORISEANDDISSIPATE(IGH EF½CIENCYAIR CONDITIONINGUNITSAREREQUIREDONLY TOREGULATETHETEMPERATUREINTHEBOTTOMHALFOF THESPACE "ECAUSEOFTHEMASSIVESAW TOOTHROOFINSPIRED IRONICALLY BYANOLD&RIEDRICHAIRCONDITIONER FACTORYNEARBY 'ILES´SLIVINGSPACERECEIVESABUN DANTLIGHT4HENORTH FACINGCLERESTORYWINDOWS INEACHPITCHEDBAY¾OODTHESPACEWITHASOFT ½LTEREDGLOW&ROMTHESOUTHENDFACINGNORTH THE WINDOWSAPPEARTOFORMACONTIGUOUSOPENINGTO THESKY!DDITIONALLIGHTENTERSTHROUGHGLASSDOORS THATOPENONTOTHECOURTYARDASWELLASTHROUGHA BANDOFWINDOWSCOATEDWITHTINYCERAMICBEADS THATDISFUSETHELIGHT0OSITIONEDHIGHONTHE

NORTHERNANDEASTERNWALLS THESENARROWEXPOSURES OFFERLIGHTWITHOUTSACRI½CINGPRIVACY±9OUSIMPLY NEVERNEEDTOTURNONALIGHTINTHEREDURINGTHEDAY EVENWHENIT´SGRAYANDRAINY ²(ARRISSAYS&ORA COMPLEXOFTHISSIZE THATMEANSHUGEENERGYSAVINGS SINCELIGHTSARETHELEADINGSOURCEOFENERGYUSEIN MOSTHOMES &OR(ARRIS THEHOUSEISATESTAMENTTO,AKE&LATO´S PARTICULARBRANDOFLOW IMPACTARCHITECTURE°AN APPROACHTOSUSTAINABLEDESIGNTHATEMPHASIZES LOWCOST LOWMAINTENANCE ANDOFTENSEAT OF THE PANTSSOLUTIONSTHATSAVEENERGYANDCONSTRUCTION COSTSBYAVOIDINGUNNECESSARYWASTEANDREPLICATION ±7E´REDISCOVERINGTHATTHERE´SADIVIDEBETWEEN HARDCOREENVIRONMENTALTECHNOLOGISTS°PEOPLE WORKINGTOWARD,%%$CERTI½CATIONSANDUSINGHIGH TECHMATERIALSANDSYSTEMS°ANDPEOPLEDOING SMART THOUGHTFUL LOCALDESIGN4HE½RMWORKSON BOTHFRONTS BUTTHISHOUSEDE½NITELYFALLSINTOTHE LATTERCATEGORY²

4HEWARM TOBACCO COLOREDPATINAOFTHE¾OORS MAKESHISCASE)TWASTHERESULTOFRUBBINGTHE ½RE DAMAGEDCEMENTWITHOLDCRANK CASEOILFROM ALOCALLUBESHOP ATECHNIQUETHATTHETEAMHAD DISCOVEREDONANOTHERPROJECTBECAUSE±ITSOUNDED LIKEAGOODIDEA ²(ARRISSAYS&INISHEDWITHWAX THEPROCESSISARESOURCEFULALTERNATIVETOTOXIC CHEMICALCONCRETESTAINS &ROMTHECOURTYARDWALLSOFUN½NISHEDCONCRETE BLOCK TOTHELOW GRADEQUARTER INCHPLYWOODWALLS TOTHELOCALLYPRODUCEDGALVANIZEDSTAIRTREADSTHAT COSTABOUTONEDOLLAREACH ,AKE&LATO´SRENOVATION FOCUSEDONCLEANINGUPANDSECURINGTHEBUILDING WITHTHESMALLESTAMOUNTOFMATERIALSAND ½NISHES±7EWANTEDTOLEAVEITSPARE ²(ARRISSAYS ±4HAT´SANOTHERWAYTOBEMOREENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY°JUSTPUTLESSSTUFFINIT&EWERELEMENTS TRANSLATEINTOMORE¾EXIBILITY4HISBUILDINGCOULD BEEASILYTRANSFORMEDAGAINSOMEDAY4HAT´STHE MOSTEF½CIENTWAYTOBUILD²

94HESITEPLANILLUSTRATESTHE

ARRANGEMENTOFHOMEANDWORK SPACESINTHETWOBUILDINGSAS WELLASTHECOURTYARDANDPOOL BETWEENTHEM

Giles Loft/Studio

151


<9)NTHECOURTYARDBETWEEN

THERESIDENTIALBUILDINGANDTHE OF½CESPACE ASCULPTURALLAPPOOL HELPSTOCOOLPASSINGBREEZESAND TOOFFSETTHECOMPOUND´SURBAN AUSTERITY

152

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Green Features

HIG H- EFFICI EN CY AIR - C ON DI T I O N IN G

Because the peaked roof allows hot air to rise, less air conditioning is needed and then, only on the hottest days.

FRIT T ER E D GL A SS

PL A ST E R WA L L S

SAW-T O O T H R O O F

Covered with small ceramic dots that act like lighttransmitting blinds, the windows and skylights reduce heat gain and glare while keeping the space bright.

With a high sand content, the plaster walls act as thermal collectors, aborbing much of the heat so that the air temperature stays cool.

The north-facing glass panels ďŹ&#x201A;ood the house with light. Even on gray days, artiďŹ cial light is rarely necessary.

153


154

Desert


LoLoma 5 Lofts

LOCATION

Scottsdale, Arizona

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Will Bruder Architects

Will Bruder

2004

4HE DRY HOT CITY OF 3COTTSDALE KNOWN FOR ITS FALSE FRONTED

/LD 7EST ARCHITECTURE AND AS A HOME FOR SPRING TRAINING BASEBALL IS LOCATED JUST NORTHEAST OF 0HOENIX IN THE URBANIZED 3ONORA $ESERT 4HE CITY DIDN´T HAVE ANY KIND OF MUNICIPAL GREEN BUILDING PROGRAM WHEN 7ILL "RUDER ONE OF THE 3OUTHWEST´S LEADING ARCHITECTS BEGAN WORK ON AN EXTENSION TO THE 3COTTSDALE -USEUM OF #ONTEMPORARY !RT IN THE MID S (IS SCHEME FOR THE MUSEUM WHICH TURNED AN OLD ART HOUSE MOVIE THEATER INTO GALLERY SPACE AND DRAPED ITS EXTERIOR IN VARIOUS KINDS OF GALVANIZED STEEL WAS EYE CATCHING AND POPULAR WHEN IT OPENED IN  YES "UT NOT GREEN

: 4HEEXTERIOROFEACHUNITIN

7ILL"RUDER´S,O,OMABUILDING INCLUDESABALCONYCANTILEVERED FROMTHEFACADETOGRABVIEWS OFTHEDESERTFROMTWODIRECTIONS 0ERFORATEDMETALSCREENSHELP CONTROLTHELEVELOFSUNLIGHTINSIDE

"Y THE TIME ANOTHER 3COTTSDALE COMMISSION

THIS ONE RESIDENTIAL CAME "RUDER´S WAY A FEW YEARS LATER THE CITY HAD PUT AMBITIOUS NEW SUSTAINABILITY GUIDELINES INTO PLACE 4HEY CALL FOR PROJECTS THAT ARE SMALL LESS THAN   SQUARE FEET FOR A SINGLE FAMILY HOUSE FOR EXAMPLE CAREFUL TO PRESERVE WATER AND OTHER RESOURCES NO SWIMMING POOLS OR LAWNS AND THAT PAY ATTENTION TO PASSIVE SOLAR STRATEGIES THE LONGEST AXIS OF THE PROJECT MUST BE ORIENTED TO FACE WITHIN  DEGREES OF DUE SOUTH

AND LOW EMISSION WINDOWS ARE RECOMMENDED  0OINTS ARE ALSO AWARDED FOR EF½CIENT INSULATION

NON TOXIC PAINTS AND ½NISHES AND LANDSCAPING AND DRIVEWAYS THAT MITIGATE IMPACT ON SITE TOPOGRAPHY

AMONG OTHER CRITERIA "UILDINGS THAT MEET THE CITY´S BASIC REQUIREMENTS RECEIVE AN %NTRY ,EVEL GREEN RATING WHILE DESIGNS THAT MEET MORE STRINGENT ONES ARE RANKED AT THE !DVANCED ,EVEL 4HE GUIDELINES ARE NOT PRESCRIPTIVE THEY DON´T REQUIRE THAT EVERY BIT OR EVEN A SET PERCENTAGE OF NEW CONSTRUCTION IN THE CITY MEET GREEN BENCHMARKS "UT THEY ALLOW SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENTS TO BE PUT ON AN EXPEDITED APPROVAL TRACK WITH !DVANCED ,EVEL PROJECTS GETTING THE MOST FAVORABLE TREATMENT THEY PROMOTE GREEN ARCHITECTURE WITH A CARROT INSTEAD OF A STICK ±3O

YOU MAKE YOUR CHOICE ² "RUDER EXPLAINS ±9OU DO SOMETHING CONVENTIONAL AND GO THROUGH THE OLD

SLOW PROCESS /R YOU DO SOMETHING SUSTAINABLE AND MOVE THAT MUCH MORE QUICKLY² "RUDER WENT FOR GREEN AND FOR SPEED &OR A LOT JUST FOUR BLOCKS AWAY FROM THE MUSEUM ON A STREET LINED WITH PALM TREES AND LOW RISE APARTMENT BUILDINGS "RUDER AND HIS COLLEAGUES AT 7ILL "RUDER !RCHITECTS PRODUCED A STRIKING COLLECTION OF ½VE LIVE WORK LOFTS THAT COMBINE ATTENTION TO REGION AND SUSTAINABILITY WITH STRIPPED DOWN BUT FORCEFUL

EVEN MUSCULAR CONTEMPORARY FORM %ACH UNIT OF THE ,O,OMA  ,OFTS INCLUDES   SQUARE FEET ON THREE ¾OORS COMMERCIAL SPACE ON THE GROUND ¾OOR TOPPED BY TWO BEDROOM TWO STORY APARTMENTS 4HE BUILDING IS LOCATED IN THE NEW 3COTTSDALE !RTS $ISTRICT AND IS WITHIN WALKING DISTANCE°AT LEAST ON A RELATIVELY COOL DAY OR IN THE MORNING OR EVENING°NOT JUST OF THE MUSEUM BUT OF OTHER CULTURAL FACILITIES RESTAURANTS AND MASS TRANSIT STOPS 4HE BUILDING QUALI½ED FOR DISTINCTION AT THE !DVANCED ,EVEL OF THE CITY´S GREEN PROGRAM 4HE GREEN ELEMENTS BEGIN JUST PAST THE CURB WHAT THE ARCHITECTS CALL THE ±AUTO COURT² IS LINED WITH CRUSHED COMPACTED GRANITE WITH NO CONCRETE OR ASPHALT 4HIS PAVEMENT HELPS KEEP TEMPERATURES DOWN ON A SURFACE THAT "RUDER SAYS ±COULD HAVE BEEN A HEAT TRAP² AND INTEGRATES THE BUILDING WITH THE SURROUNDING LANDSCAPE 4HE WESTERN FACADE FACING THE STREET IS RELATIVELY BUTTONED UP CLAD IN 2HEINZINK PANELS AND NARROW GAUGE WINDOWS THAT DIRECT THIN COLUMNS OF EVENING LIGHT INTO THE KITCHENS !LSO VISIBLE FROM THE STREET IS THE NORTHERN FACADE

WHICH TELLS A MORE COMPLICATED STORY ABOUT SUSTAINABILITY IN A REGION WHERE THE SUN IS SOMETHING BOTH TO BE TREASURED°IT´S THE REASON MOST PEOPLE MOVE TO THIS PART OF THE COUNTRY AFTER ALL°AND FEARED FOR THE DAMAGE IT CAN DO 4HE NORTHERN FACADE FEATURES THE MOST GLASS "UT BECAUSE EVEN $ECEMBER DAYS CAN BE HOT HERE

AND BECAUSE SPRING AND FALL ARE OFTEN DOWNRIGHT SCORCHING THIS SIDE OF THE BUILDING ALSO SHOWS SIGNS OF AN EFFORT TO PROTECT RESIDENTS FROM THE SUN 4HE

LoLoma 5 Lofts

155


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156

Desert


WINDOWSARESUBSTANTIALLYCOVEREDWITHPERFORATED METALSCRIMS WHICHAREABOUTPERCENTSOLIDAND PERCENTVOID4HESCRIMSCOVERTHEUPPERHALFOF THESECOND STORYWINDOWSANDMOSTOFTHEWINDOWS ONTHETHIRD¾OOR 4HEVIEWSFROMINSIDETHROUGHTHESCRIMSARE MORETRANSPARENTTHANYOUWOULDGUESS!NDTHE DESIGNDOESOFFERPLENTYOFOPPORTUNITYFORRESIDENTS TOSTEPOUTSIDEATTIMESOFTHEDAY°ANDOFTHE YEAR°WHENTHESUNISLESSTHANINTENSE%ACHUNIT INCLUDESABALCONYONTHESECONDSTORY CANTILEVERED OUTFROMTHEFACADEANDTWISTEDABITTOGRABVIEWS TOTHENORTHANDWEST WHERE#AMELBACK-OUNTAIN RISESFEETABOVETHEDESERT¾OOR4HEREISALSO AROOF TOPBALCONYFOREACHLOFTONTHESOUTHERN SIDEOFTHEBUILDING OFFERINGVIEWSOFTHECITY THE DESERT ANDTHE3ANDSTONE0APAGO"UTTES ASWELLAS ACOOLPLACETOSLEEPONWARMNIGHTS±7EWANTED TORECAPTURETHEWHOLESPIRITOFSLEEPINGPORCHES ² "RUDERSAYS CITING2UDOLF3CHINDLER´SOWNHOUSE IN(OLLYWOODASANINSPIRATION4HEARCHITECTSAYS THATBOTHBALCONIESAREDESIGNEDTOPROVIDE±OUTDOOR LIVINGENVIRONMENTSTHATACCOMMODATETHESUN´S PATHANDTHISCLIMATEWE´REIN²

)NSIDE THELOFTSAREOPENANDAIRY"RUDER ESTIMATESTHATTHEVENTILATIONSYSTEMWILLALLOW RESIDENTSTOUSENATURALCOOLINGFORMUCHOFTHE YEAR-OSTRESIDENTIALBUILDINGSINTHEAREACLOSE OFFTOTHEELEMENTSRATHERTHANTRYTOENGAGETHEM AS"RUDER´SDOES±)DON´TTHINKMOSTPEOPLEHERE WHOLIVEINROW HOUSEUNITSLIKETHESEAREUSED TOTHEABILITYTOOPENANDCLOSETHEWINDOWSAND BRINGVENTILATIONALLTHEWAYTHROUGHTHEHOUSE ² HESAYS(EESTIMATESTHATFROMTHEMIDDLEOF 3EPTEMBERTOTHEMIDDLEOF-AYRESIDENTSWILLBE ABLETOLIVEESSENTIALLYWITHOUTAIR CONDITIONING REDUCINGTOFOURTHEMONTHSOFTHEYEARWHENTHEY WILLHAVETORELYHEAVILYONARTI½CIALCOOLING $ESPITETHEIRGREATVIEWSANDSTRIKING ARCHITECTURE THEUNITSINTHE,O,OMAPROJECTARE NOTEXTRAVAGANT"RUDERSAYSHEPREFERSWORKING WITHTIGHTSPACES WHEREEVERYSQUAREFOOTCOUNTS (ESAYSTHE½NISHEDLOFTS±HAVEASAILBOATMODESTY TOTHEM°EVERYTHINGINITSPLACE°THATBREEDSAN ATTITUDEOFEF½CIENCY²

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LoLoma 5 Lofts

157


<94HEWINDOWSONTHENORTHERN

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158

Desert


<\<7INDOWSDELIVERTHIN

COLUMNSOFLIGHTINTOTHEKITCHEN ANDOFFEREXPANSIVEVIEWSFROM THEBEDROOM

:2OOFBALCONIESARETUCKED

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LoLoma 5 Lofts

159


tropics

Between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn lies a region where there are just two seasons and temperatures are persistently high. The oppressive heat and humidity give way to periods of epic rainfall and punishing stormsâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;typhoons, cyclones, tornadoesâ&#x20AC;&#x201D;that can cause indiscriminate damage whenever and wherever they strike. !T OTHER TIMES THE TROPICS EXUDE A TRANQUILITY THAT HAS NO MATCH ELSEWHERE ON THEPLANET OFFERINGASOFT SWEET ANDLUSHREFUGEOFEMERALDFORESTSANDTURQUOISE OCEANSTHATISAPTLYDESCRIBEDASPARADISE!LMOSTPERCENTOFTHE%ARTH´SLAND SURFACEFALLSBETWEENTHESETWOLATITUDESANDABOUTATHIRDOFTHEWORLD´SPOPU LATIONLIVESTHERE OFTENUNDERCHRONICECONOMICDEPRIVATION-ILLIONSMOREARRIVE ANNUALLYFORSHORTVISITS SPURREDBYANEVERMOREAMBITIOUSANDFAR ¾UNGTOURISM INDUSTRY ±)FTHEREISONETHINGTHATCHARACTERIZESLIFEINTHETROPICS ITISTHEABILITYTOLIVEIN CLOSECONTACTWITHTHEEXTERIORENVIRONMENTANDENJOYTHESENSATIONOFOPENNESS ANDCLOSENESSTONATURETHISBRINGS ²WRITES"RUNO3TAGNOINHISBOOK!N!RCHITECT IN THE 4ROPICS 4HE TROPICS DEMAND ADAPTABILITY FROM BOTH INHABITANTS AND THE STRUCTURESINWHICHTHEYLIVE)NDIGENOUSPOPULATIONSHAVEBEENPRACTICINGGREEN ARCHITECTUREFORCOUNTLESSGENERATIONS HARNESSINGTREESFORTHEIRCOOLSHADEORTHE SEABREEZEFORITSFREEANDCONSISTANTVENTILATION°THECENTRALNECESSITYOFTROPICAL ARCHITECTURE4HATCHINGANDWOVENLEAVESSERVEASFANSANDASPROTECTIONAGAINST RAIN (IGH PITCHED ROOFS DE¾ECT THE WIND JACK ROOFS ELEVATED CLERESTORY OPEN INGS ENHANCECROSSVENTILATIONANDALLOWHEATTOESCAPEQUICKLY(EAVYBUT¾EX IBLEBAMBOOFRAMESRESISTEARTHQUAKESANDHIGHWINDS4ERRACES CANOPIES BLINDS COVERED VERANDAS AND WIDE OVERHANGING EAVES BLOCK DIRECT SUNLIGHT 3TILTS AND SLATTED¾OORSPROTECTAGAINSTWATERDAMAGEANDHEATEXPOSURE!LLTHESEVERNAC ULARSOLUTIONSREAPPEARINTHEHIGH TECHDESIGNSOFCONTEMPORARYGREENARCHITECTS WORKINGINTHETROPICS %NVIRONMENTALLYCONSCIOUSTROPICALARCHITECTUREMUSTALSOTACKLELOGISTICALAND TECHNICAL PROBLEMS THAT DO NOT EXIST IN THE SAME COMBINATION ELSEWHERE FROM

160


BIO DETERIORATION AND EXCESS RAINWATER TO PEST AND FUNGAL INFESTATION TO THE LIMITEDAVAILABILITYOFNATURALBUILDINGMATERIALS0LANNINGFORAFULLYINTEGRATED INDOOR OUTDOOR LIFESTYLE IS ESSENTIAL 3PECIAL CONSIDERATION MUST BE GIVEN TO REDUCING GLARE AND MAXIMIZING SHADE BUT ALSO TO PROTECTING AGAINST HURRICANE WINDS ¾OODS LANDSLIDES EARTHQUAKES ANDSEVERELIGHTNING -ETEOROLOGICALLY WHATDISTINGUISHESTHETROPICSFROMOTHERREGIONSTHEMOST ISHUMIDITY!LTHOUGHITCONTRIBUTESTOAVASTANDEASILYHARNESSEDWATERSUPPLY HUMIDITY GIVES RISE TO SPECI½C CONSTRUCTION PROBLEMS /F PARTICULAR CONCERN IS THE ACCELERATED RATE AT WHICH ORGANIC MATERIALS DECOMPOSE 3OIL EROSION CREATES SPECIALENGINEERINGCHALLENGESWHENITCOMESTODESIGNINGFOUNDATIONSTHATWILL WITHSTAND SEVERE WEATHER (UMIDITY ALSO MAKES IT HARDER TO BALANCE STRUCTURAL STABILITYWITHENVIRONMENTALSENSITIVITY4OPROTECTAGAINSTVIRULENTCORROSION FOR EXAMPLE METALSHOULDBETREATEDWITHRUST RESISTANTAGENTS BUTSUCHTREATMENTS ARE USUALLY TOXIC AND HIGH IN VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS 4HE SAME IS TRUE FOR TREATMENTSCOMMONLYUSEDONWOODTOPROTECTAGAINSTBOTHWEATHERANDINSECT INFESTATION WHICHCANPOSEASERIOUSTHREATTOANYTROPICALBUILDING )NOURERAOFRAMPANTDEFORESTATION WHENHUNDREDSOFACRESOFTROPICALRAIN FORESTS ARE CLEAR CUT EVERY DAY THE USE OF SUSTAINABLY HARVESTED OR FAST GROWTH TIMBERHASNEVERBEENMORECRUCIAL7HENTHETROPICALCANOPYISDESTROYED ANIMAL SPECIES THAT RELY ON TREES FOR FOOD AND HABITAT SUFFER°AND HALF OF THE GLOBE´S LIVINGSPECIESARESAIDTOBEFOUNDONLYINTROPICALENVIRONMENTS"YMINIMIZING RELIANCE ON NON SUSTAINABLE TIMBER ARCHITECTS CAN ACT RESPONSIBLY IN THE FACE OFTHESETHREATS3IMILARRESPONSESAREREQUIREDTOCOUNTERACTTHEALARMINGDESTRUC TIONOFCORALREEFS FROMTHE&LORIDA+EYSTO!USTRALIA´S'REAT"ARRIER2EEF!RCHI TECTS CAN HELP PREVENT FURTHER DETERIORATION OF REEFS°WHICH LIKE UNDERWATER RAINFORESTS HOSTARICHDIVERSITYOFAQUATICSPECIES°BYLIMITINGTHEUSEOFTOXIC BUILDINGMATERIALSANDINCORPORATINGENVIRONMENTALLYSOUNDWATERANDSEWAGE TREATMENTSYSTEMS 4HOUGH THESE ARE SERIOUS CONCERNS FOR ARCHITECTURE IN TROPICAL REGIONS THE BEAUTYANDSERENITYOFTROPICALLIFECANBEPRESERVEDWITHCAREFULLONG RANGEPLAN NINGANDCONSTRUCTION4HEVERNACULARARCHITECTUREOFTHETROPICSHASPROVIDEDA WELLSPRINGOFINSPIRATIONFORCONTEMPORARYGREENARCHITECTS WHOARENOWINTHE POSITIONTORETURNTHEFAVOR

Tropics

161


162

Tropics


Casuarina Beach house

LOCATION

Kingscliff, New South Wales, Australia

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Lahz Nimmo Architects

Annabel Lahz and Andrew Nimmo

2001

4HEULTIMATEBEACHHOUSEFORSOMEIT´SATINYTHATCHEDHUT WITHAHAMMOCKANDASURFBOARDFOROTHERSIT´SA'ATSBY ESQUEPILE&OR!NNABEL,AHZAND!NDREW.IMMO IT´SACON TEMPORARYSTUDYININDOOROUTDOORLIVINGTHATISBUILTTOBEAS COMFORTABLEFORTHELOCALECOSYSTEMASITISFORITSINHABITANTS

< 4HECOMPACT BATTENED

DOWNFACADEOF,AHZ.IMMO´S #ASUARINA"EACH(OUSEFORMSA STRIKINGCONTRASTTOITSEXPANSIVE

LOFTYINTERIORSPACES WHICHOPEN WIDETOTHESURROUNDINGDUNES

: 3LATTEDTIMBERCLADDINGAND

LOUVEREDWINDOWSHELPKEEP BREEZES¾OWINGTHROUGHOUT THE±SLEEPINGBOX ²ONEOFTWO DISCRETESTRUCTURESTHATCOMPRISE THEHOUSE

,AHZ.IMMO!RCHITECTS THEPARTNERS´TEN YEAR OLD3YDNEY BASEDPRACTICE WASONEOFFOURTEEN ½RMSINVITEDTOPARTICIPATEINACOMPETITIONTO COMEUPWITHTHEPERFECTSPECHOMEFORAPIECEOF OCEAN FRONTPROPERTYONTHE0ACI½CNEAR+INGSCLIFF

INTHEBLUSTERYTROPICSOFNORTHERN.EW3OUTH 7ALES/RGANIZEDBY!USTRALIANDEVELOPER #ONSOLIDATED0ROPERTIES THE±5LTIMATE"EACH (OUSE²CONTESTPROVEDTOBEANEF½CIENTWAYFOR THECOMPANYTOBOTHDEVELOPANDPROMOTEITS NEWPROJECTAT#ASAURINA"EACH,AHZ.IMMO´S HANDSOME HORIZONTALLYCLADHOUSEWASONEOFTHREE WINNINGDESIGNSANDTHE½RSTTOBEBUILTONTHESITE AREJUVENATEDFORMERSANDMINE3ELF SUF½CIENTAND SMARTLYSTYLISH ITSETTHESTANDARDFORQUALITYDESIGN INTHENEWDEVELOPMENTANDSERVEDASAPROTOTYPE FORTESTINGTHEMARKETABILITYOF±3USTAINABLE(OUSE 0ACKAGES²THERE#ONSOLIDATED´SPRESIDENT$ONALD /´2OARK A±MADKEENSURFER ²AS.IMMODESCRIBES HIM THOUGHTTHEPROJECTSOSUCCESSFUL HEBOUGHT THEHOUSEHIMSELF 3ETBACKABOUTFEETBEHINDTHEDUNES AMID THEUBIQUITOUSCASUARINATREESAFTERWHICHTHE BEACHWASNAMED THEHOUSECUTSALONG LINEAR PRO½LE4WORECTANGULARVOLUMESCONNECTEDBY ADOUBLE HEIGHTBREEZEWAYCOMPRISETHEINTERIOR SPACE4HEOPEN PLANLIVINGPAVILIONONTHEEAST SIDEOFTHESITEEXTENDSOUTTOWARDTHESANDAND SEAWITHARETRACTABLEGLASSWALLONONESIDEAND ¾OOR TO CEILINGWINDOWSONTHEOTHER&LOATINGOVER THELANDSCAPEONSTEELSTRUTS ITCONTAINSKITCHEN DINING ANDLOUNGEAREASUNDERASOARING SINGLE PITCHROOF4HETWO STORYTIMBER±SLEEPINGBOX ² WHICHCONTAINSTHREEBEDROOMS THREEBATHROOMS AGARAGE ANDA±RUMPUSROOM ²IS BYCONTRAST

½RMLYANCHOREDTOTHEGROUNDANDMORESHIELDED

FROMTHEELEMENTSBYASERIESOFGLASSLOUVERSAND WOODBATTENS4HEREASONFORSEPARATINGTHETWO STRUCTURESHASTODOWITH±ZONING ²SAYS.IMMO ±7EWERETHINKINGABOUTHOWBEACHHOLIDAYSWORK

HOWTHEREAREALWAYSEXTRAPEOPLEAROUND AND CAMEUPWITHTHISTWO PARTSTRUCTUREASAWAYOF ALLOWINGDIFFERENTGROUPSANDDIFFERENTACTIVITIES TOCOEXISTHAPPILY² )NTHESPACESBETWEENANDAROUNDTHETWO BUILDINGS THEARCHITECTSFOUNDROOMFORAPRIVATE GARDENCOURTYARD ANEXTENSIVELAWN ACOVERED VERANDA AVASTOPEN AIRDECK ANDACOMPACTPLUNGE POOL±4HEWINDSCANBEPRETTYFULL ONSOMETIMES ANDTHEYTENDTOCHANGEDIRECTIONDEPENDINGON THESEASON ²SAYS.IMMO SOTHEDIFFERENTTYPES ANDLOCATIONSOFOUTDOORSPACESWEREDESIGNEDTO ±ENSURETHATATANYTIMEOFTHEYEARORDAY THERE WILLALWAYSBEONEPERFECTPLACETOBECOMFORTABLE OUTSIDETHEHOUSE² 4HROUGHOUTTHEPROPERTY ,AHZAND.IMMOUSED MATERIALSTHATWOULDSTANDUPTOTHEWINDAND SALTWITHOUTIMPINGINGONTHEENVIRONMENT4HEY CHOSEBLUEGUM ANATIVEHARDWOOD SALVAGEDFROM ANOLDRAILWAYBRIDGE FORTHEBATTENSANDCLADDING )TWASMOREEXPENSIVETHANNEWTIMBER BUT ±BECAUSEBUILDERSTENDEDTOUSEMATURETREESBACK THEN THECOLORANDGRAINAREMUCHMORESTABLETHAN WHATYOUCAN½NDNOW ².IMMOEXPLAINS4HE WOODISTREATEDONLYWITHOIL WHICHPRESERVESITS RICHCOLORANDPROTECTSAGAINST56RAYS 7HILETHEYWERECONSCIOUSOFMINIMIZINGTHE AMOUNTOFMETALINTHEHOUSE SINCEITHASTOBESO HEAVILYTREATEDTOAVOIDCORROSIONINTHESALTYAIR

THEARCHITECTSDIDINCORPORATEHOT DIPPEDGALVANIZED STEELFORTHESUPPORTTRUSSESANDALUMINUMFORTHE WINDOWFRAMES"ECAUSEHEATLOSSISNOTAPROBLEM THANKSTOTHEREGION´SMILD TROPICALWEATHER THEY SELECTEDSTANDARDGLASS BUTPROTECTEDALLEXPOSURES WITHSHADYOVERHANGSORTIMBERBATTENSTOREDUCE SOLARGAIN !SARESULTOFTHEWIDEARRAYOFECOLOGICALLY SUSTAINABLEDESIGNSOLUTIONSINCORPORATEDINTOTHE PLAN THEHOUSEREQUIRESVIRTUALLYNORESOURCESIT CANNOTGENERATEONITSOWN0HOTOVOLTAICPANELS

Casuarina Beach House

163


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164

Tropics


<<4HECOVEREDBREEZEWAY

</PENANDCOVEREDDECKS PATIOS

JOININGTHETWOPAVILIONS FUNCTIONSASATHERMALCHIMNEY COAXINGHOTAIRUPANDOUTWHILE DRAWINGINCOOLAIRFROMBELOW

ANDVERANDASFANOUTINEVERY DIRECTION ALLOWINGFOROUTDOOR ACTIVITIESREGARDLESSOFWIND DIRECTIONORSEASON

Casuarina Beach House

165


4HEREISNOAIR CONDITIONINGSYSTEM EITHER4HE BREEZEWAYCONNECTINGTHETWOPARTSOFTHEHOUSE FUNCTIONSASATHERMALCHIMNEYTHATDRAWSINTHE COOLOCEANBREEZESATTHEBOTTOMANDEXPELSHOT AIROUTTHETOP3HUTTERSANDLOUVERSREGULATETHE AMOUNTOFLIGHTANDAIRENTERINGTHEBUILDING 7HENTHESUNISHIGH THESHADESCANBEPOSITIONED TODE¾ECTTHEHARSHRAYSWITHOUTBLOCKINGALLOFTHE LIGHTORAIR±4HE½RSTTIME)WENTFORAVISITAFTER ITWASBUILT ITWASASTINKINGHOTDAY ².IMMO REMEMBERS ±BUTWHEN)WALKEDINSIDE ITWAS BEAUTIFULLYCOOL YET¾OODEDWITHLIGHT4HAT´STHE BESTTHINGABOUTTHISHOUSE°ITBREATHES²

ONTHEROOFPRODUCEELECTRICITYFORTHEENERGY EF½CIENTAPPLIANCES7HENTHEHOUSEISAT MAXIMUMCAPACITY ITMAYDRAWPOWERFROMTHE ELECTRICALGRID BUTATOTHERTIMESTHECELLSGENERATE ENOUGHPOWERTOEARNBACKCREDITSFROMTHELOCAL UTILITY4HEEXTENSIVEWATER RECYCLINGPROGRAM INCLUDESAPURIFYINGSYSTEMTHATTRANSFORMSRAIN INTODRINKINGWATERANDWASTEWATERINTOIRRIGATION AND¾USHINGWATER3EWAGEANDSTORMWATERNEVER LEAVETHESITE°THEY´RETREATEDINASERIESOFGRAVEL LINEDCISTERNS°ANDNOFRESHWATERISIMPORTED -UNICIPALWATERISAVAILABLE BUTONLYASABACKUP INCASEOFADROUGHT

BED

BED

BATH

ENS

BED

VOI D

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LAUNDRY

PLUNGEPOOL COURTYARD

DECK

OUTDOORAREA

KITCHEN BATH GARAGE

BED

ENTRYDECK

&IRST&LOOR0LAN

3ECTION

166

Tropics

WC BREEZEWAY

ENTRY

DINING

BAR

LIVING

DECK


Green Features

R E C L A IM ED W OOD C L A D DING

All exterior timber cladding and battens are of blue gum, a hardwood native to the area that the architects salvaged from an old railway bridge. The hoop-pine plywood ceiling panels were sourced from plantation timbers.

N O -T ECH VEN T IN G

Despite the tropical conditions, the house contains no mechanized air-conditioning aside from ceiling fans. Slatted panels above doorways allow for cross ventilation at night.

F O U NDAT I O N-L E SS ST R U C T U R E

O N- SI T E WAT E R PU R I F I C AT I O N

Elevated on treated steel struts (not shown), the house hovers over the landscape instead of being set into the earth. This arrangement not only minimizes the environmental impact, it also allows cool air to circulate up from underneath.

A series of cisterns converts rain into drinking water and treats waste water for use in irrigation and ďŹ&#x201A;ushing so that neither storm water nor sewage ever leaves the site.

Casuarina Beach House

167


taylor house

LOCATION

Scotland Cay, Bahamas

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Frank Harmon and Associates

Frank Harmon

2001

&ROMADISTANCE ITLOOKSLIKEACARTOONACRISP BOXYBEACH HOUSEWITHDISTINCTECHOESOF"AUHAUSMODERNISMTHAT´S GONEONAMADCAPSPREE°ITSWINDOWSARE¾APPING ITS DOORSARE¾AILING ITSDECKSARESPREADAKIMBO ANDITS PYRAMID SHAPEDROOFAPPEARSTOHAVEPOPPEDUPINTOTHE AIR DONEASOMERSAULT ANDLANDEDBACKONTHEHOUSEWITH ITSPOINTYENDFACINGDOWN

: 4OPROTECTAGAINSTTHE

FEROCIOUSWINDSANDEPICRAINS THATREGULARLYHITTHE"AHAMAS

ARCHITECT&RANK(ARMONDESIGNED ASERIESOFDOORSANDHATCHES FORTHE4AYLORHOUSETHATCANBE BATTENEDDOWNASSOONASTHE CLOUDSROLLIN7HENTHESKIESARE CLEAR THEOPEN¾APSFUNCTIONASA LOW TECHVENTILATIONSYSTEMTHAT KEEPSTHEWHOLEHOUSEFULLOFCOOL OFF SHOREBREEZES

7HENTHELATEINDUSTRIALDESIGNER*IM4AYLOR BEGANTOTHINKABOUTAVACATIONHOUSEFORHIMSELF ANDHISWIFE *ANICE INTHELUSH"AHAMANHIDEAWAY OF3COTLAND#AY HEKNEWITWOULDN´TBEATYPICAL HOME4HEINVENTOROFTHE½RSTBAR CODEREADING MACHINE 4AYLORWASANINNOVATORWHOALWAYS SEARCHEDFORUNORTHODOXSOLUTIONSTOWHATEVER PUZZLEHEWASWORKINGONANEARLIERHOMEOFHIS

IN2ALEIGH .ORTH#AROLINA FEATUREDROOMSONAIR CUSHIONSTHATCOULDBEMOVEDAROUNDFREELY 4HE REMOTESPOTHEPICKEDFORTHECOUPLE´SNEWSEASIDE HOUSECERTAINLYOFFEREDCHALLENGESTHATWOULDHAVE BEENADETERRENTTOSOMEHOMEBUILDERSTHOUGH POSTCARD PERFECTFROMAPHOTOGRAPHER´SVANTAGE POINT THE!BACO)SLANDSAREFULLOFTROPICALDANGERS

FROMBLISTERINGSUNANDSWARMSOFSCORPIONSTO CATEGORY ½VEHURRICANESTHATEMERGEFROMOUTOF NOWHEREANDRIPOUTWHOLECLUSTERSOFMAHOGANY TREES 4OCOPEWITHTHESEANDOTHERLOCALPROBLEMS

INCLUDINGTHEABSENCEOFFRESHWATER THE4AYLORS TURNEDTO&RANK(ARMON A2ALEIGH BASEDARCHITECT 3OMEOFTHEDESIGNDECISIONSSEEMEDOBVIOUS 4HEHOUSEWOULDHAVETOBERELATIVELYTALL FOR EXAMPLE NOTONLYFORTHEVIEWSBUTSOTHATTHE LIVINGQUARTERSCOULDRISEABOVETHEMOSQUITO LINE.ATURALVENTILATIONWOULDHAVETOSUF½CEFOR AIR CONDITIONING/THERCOMPLEXITIESCALLEDFOR MOREINGENUITY4HEBIGGESTPROBLEMWASTHELACK OFFRESHWATERONTHEISLAND WHICHMEANTTHAT RAINWATERWOULDHAVETOBECOLLECTEDFORDRINKING

COOKING WASHING ANDBATHING (ARMON´SMASTERSTROKE°ANINVERTED±UMBRELLA² ROOFCLADWITHMARINEPLYWOODANDNATIVEPINE

ONITSUNDERSIDE°SOLVEDSEVERALDESIGNPROBLEMS ATONCE WHILEADDINGASIGNATUREARCHITECTURAL ELEMENTTOTHEHOUSE4HE INCHSTEELPIPEINTHE BOTTOMOFTHEFUNNEL LIKEROOFDIRECTSHARVESTED RAINWATERTHROUGHTHEHOUSEANDDOWNINTOAN   GALLONCISTERNATGROUNDLEVEL)TPROVIDES PLENTYOFWATERFORALLTHEHOUSEHOLDNEEDSPLUS EXTRASTORESFOREMERGENCIES-EANWHILE THE SPRAWLINGEAVESOFFERWELCOMESHADEANDCIRCULATE COOLOCEANBREEZESINTHETHIRD ¾OOROPEN PLAN LIVING DININGROOMANDKITCHEN WHICHOFFERS MAJESTICVIEWSOFTHETURQUOISEOCEANANDASENSE OFLIVINGDIRECTLYUNDERTHESKY±4HECONSTANT¾OW OFFRESHAIRMAKESTHISAVERYHEALTHYHOME ²SAYS (ARMON±!ND TOME THAT´STHENUMBERONEGOAL 7HYELSEWOULDYOUMAKEAGREENHOUSE² 4HEUPSIDE DOWNROOFISBOTHVISUALLYSTRIKING ANDFUNCTIONALLYIMPORTANT"UTITTOOK(ARMON SOMETIMETO½GUREOUTHOWTOKEEPITFROM ¾YINGOFFIFHITWITHONEOFTHEAREA´SFREQUENT TROPICALSTORMS WHICHOFTENCOMEWITHWIND SPEEDSOFUPTOMILESPERHOUR&OLLOWING THELEADOFSTRUCTURALENGINEER'REG3ULLIVAN (ARMONTETHEREDTHEROOF´SSTEELSKELETONTOFOUR CONCRETECOLUMNSTHATARECONNECTEDDIRECTLY TOTHEFOUNDATION !DDITIONALLOGISTICALISSUESHADTOBEOVERCOME INTHEPROCESSOFCONSTRUCTION4HECREW WORKING WITHOUTACRANE WOULDHAVETODOALLTHEHEAVY LIFTINGBYHAND.ON INDIGENOUSMATERIALSCOULD PLAYONLYAMINIMALROLE SINCEEVERYTHINGHAD TOBESHIPPEDINONBOATS)NFACT THESTEELBEAMS ACCOUNTEDFORTHEONLYBUILDINGMATERIALTHAT DIDNOTCOMEFROMWITHINA MILERADIUS4HE EXTERIORISCOMPOSEDOFREADILYAVAILABLEREINFORCED CONCRETEBLOCKS WOOD ANDSTUCCO/NTHEINTERIOR

(ARMONUTILIZEDONEOFTHEISLAND´SMOSTABUNDANT RESOURCESCORAL"OTHTHEINTERIORANDEXTERIOR ¾OORS ASWELLASTHEKITCHENCOUNTERS AREMADE FROMSLABSOFASOFT PINKLIMESTONE LIKECORALTHAT WASEXCAVATEDFROMTHEFOUNDATIONHOLEANDIS NATURALLYEMBEDDEDWITHTINYANCIENTSEASHELLS -UCHOFTHEEFFORTDURINGBOTHTHEDESIGNAND CONSTRUCTIONPHASESWENTINTOCREATINGASYSTEM OFSHUTTERS ¾APS ANDROLLINGDOORSTHATCANBE

Taylor House

169


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USEDINTHEHOUSE THEWOOD CLADDINGONTHEUNDERSIDEOFTHE ROOF´SWIDEEAVESWASHARVESTED LOCALLY

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casa de carmen

LOCATION

Baja California Sur, Mexico

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNERS

YEAR

Leddy Maytum Stacy Architects

Marsha Maytum and Roberto Sheinberg

2001

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One of the most signiďŹ cant developments in residential architecture over the last several years, particularly in the United States and Europe, has been the effort to rehabilitate the reputation of prefabricated, or modular, housing. Using powerful design software that allows them to combine the cost savings of factory-built homes with the aesthetic benefits of customized design, a number of young ďŹ rms are creating modular houses that offer sophisticated architecture at a remarkably low price. )TISNOWBECOMINGPOSSIBLETOPICKADESIGNFROMONEOFTHOSE½RMS´7EBSITES ORDERAHOUSETHATCANBEALTEREDSPECI½CALLYTO½TYOURFAMILY´SNEEDSANDTHECON TOURSOFYOURBUILDINGSITE GETTHEHOUSEDELIVEREDONTHEBACKOFATRUCK ANDHAVE ITBUILT°ALLWITHININAFEWSHORTMONTHS0ERHAPSMOSTIMPORTANTOFALL THESEARE NOTTHEBANALTRACTHOMESONETENDSTOASSOCIATEWITHTHETERMÂąPREFAB²)NSTEAD MANYARESLEEKANDATTRACTIVE DRIVENASMUCHBYAESTHETICSASBYECONOMY! SIGNI½CANTNUMBERAREDESIGNEDINTHEMODERNISTIDIOM WHICHMEANSYOUCAN NOWBRINGTHE"AUHAUSTOYOURHOUSEONANEVERYMAN´SBUDGET /FCOURSE USINGMASS PRODUCEDPARTSANDAUTOMATEDDESIGNTECHNOLOGYTOBRING WELL DESIGNEDRESIDENCESTOTHEMIDDLECLASSHASBEENADREAMOFARCHITECTSSINCE THEBEGINNINGOFTHEMODERNMOVEMENT)TEMERGEDDURINGTHEEARLYYEARSOFTHE TWENTIETHCENTURY AS%UROPEANARCHITECTSPREDICTEDTHATMODERNBUILDINGTECH NIQUESWOULDHELPLIBERATEFAMILIESFROMCRAMPED DECREPITHOUSING ANDAGAININ THEPOSTWARPERIOD ASARCHITECTSFROM*EAN0ROUVmTO"UCKMINSTER&ULLERTO#HARLES AND2AY%AMESTRIEDTOPERFECTMODULARRESIDENTIALDESIGNSTHATCOULDBEALLBUT ERECTEDONANASSEMBLYLINE!LAS THOSEDREAMSHAVEBEENREPEATEDLYDASHED BYTHEREALITIESOFTHEBUILDINGTRADE WHOSELEADINGCOMPANIESHAVEPROVED RELUCTANTTOCHANGETHEIRWAYSORTOTESTTHEMARKETFORHOUSESWITHFORWARD LOOKING ORNAMENT FREEDESIGN

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Anywhere

ARCHITECTURALFIRM

DESIGNER

YEAR

Michelle Kaufmann Designs

Michelle Kaufmann

2004

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$AVE-ILLER 4HE-ILLER(ULL0ARTNERSHIP 0OLSON"UILDING #OLUMBIA TH¾OOR 3EATTLE 7ASHINGTON 53! WWWMILLERHULLCOM

*IM/LSON /LSON3UNDBERG+UNDIG!LLEN!RCHITECTS 3OUTH*ACKSON3TREET TH¾OOR 3EATTLE 7ASHINTON 53! WWWOLSONSUNDBERGCOM

2AFAEL0ELLI #ESAR0ELLI!SSOCIATES!RCHITECTS TH!VENUE TH¾OOR .EW9ORK .EW9ORK 53! WWWCESAR PELLICOM

$IETRICH3CHWARZ 3CHWARZ!RCHITEKTUR 6IA#ALUNDIS #( $OMAT%MS 3WITZERLAND WWWSCHWARZ ARCHITEKTURCH

*ENNIFER3IEGAL /F½CEOF-OBILE$ESIGN !BBOT+INNEY"OULEVARD 6ENICE #ALIFORNIA 53! WWWDESIGNMOBILECOM

+IRSTI3IVEN +IRSTI3IVmN!SKO4AKALA +ORKEAVUORENKATU! (ELSINKI &INLAND

7ERNER3OBEK 7ERNER3OBEK)NGENIEURE !LBSTRASSE 3TUTTGART 'ERMANY WWWWERNERSOBEKCOM

Featured Architects

189


resources

!LLIANCETO 3AVE%NERGY WWWASEORG

%NERGYAND%NVIRONMENTAL "UILDING!SSOCIATION WWWEEBAORG

%NERGY3TAR !PPLIANCES0ROGRAM WWWENERGYSTARGOV

%NVIRONMENTAL "UILDING.EWS WWWBUILDINGGREENCOM

'LOBAL%NVIRONMENTAL /PTIONS WWWGEONETWORKORG

'LOBAL'REEN 53! WWWGLOBALGREENORG

'REEN"UILDING !LLIANCE WWWGBAPGHORG

2OCKY-OUNTAIN )NSTITUTE WWWRMIORG

3USTAINABLE "UILDING)NDUSTRY#OUNCIL WWWSBICOUNCILORG

53$EPARTMENT OF%NERGY WWWENERGYGOV

53'REEN "UILDING#OUNCIL WWWUSGBCORG

7ORLD'REEN"UILDING #OUNCIL WWWWORLDGBCORG

190

Resources


Photography credits

P.A.R.A.S.I.T.E.

!NNE"OUSEMA

156 Reade Street

0AUL7ARCHOL -ARVIN2AND

Colorado Court

Viikki

*USSI4IAINEN

130 East Union Street

*AMES&(OUSEL"ENJAMIN"ENSCHNEIDERPBOTTOMLEFT

Sea Train House

5NDINE0RyHL

The Solaire

*EFF'OLDBERG%STO

Solar Tube

"RUNO+LOMFARPBOTTOM *AMES-ORRIS

Charlotte Residence

0HILIP"EAURLINE

Villa Sari

-ATTI+ARJANOJA

Little Tesseract

"ILYANA$IMITROVA

Mill Valley Straw-Bale House

%DWARD#ALDWELLPTOPANDMIDDLE *OHN$OLANPBOTTOM

Naked House

(IROOYUKI(IRAI

House with Shades

(OLGER(ILL

SolarHaus III

&REDERIC#OMTESSE

Great (Bamboo) Wall

3ATOSHI!SAKAWA

R128

2OLAND(ALBE

Howard House

5NDINE0RyHLPPLEFTPTOPLEFTANDRIGHT

*AMES3TEEVESPPRIGHTPBOTTOMLEFTANDRIGHT

Swart Residence

$EREK3WALWELL

Lake Washington House

%DUARDO#ALDERvN

Walla Womba Guest House

 !RCHITECTURE0ETER(YATTP

McKinley House

-ARK3EELEN

Tucson Mountain House

5NDINE0RyHL

Giles Loft/Studio

0AUL(ESTER

LoLoma 5 Lofts

"ILL4IMMERMAN

Casaurina Beach House

"RETT"OARDMAN

Taylor House

*AMES7EST

Casa de Carmen

,UIS'ORDOA

Photography Credits

191


This book is printed on Zander Mega, which is made from 40 percent reclaimed pulp. The typefaces used in this book are Thesis Serif, Clarendon, and Rosewood.

192

Colophon

The Green House - New Directions in Sustainable Architecture (Malestrom)  

The Green House - New Directions in Sustainable Architecture (Malestrom) - zelena arhitektura

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