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Community Revitalization through Adaptive Reuse Bristol, Rhode Island A Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Architecture Department LQ3DUWLDO)XOĂ€OOPHQWRIWKH5HTXLUHPHQWVIRUWKH Degree of Masters of Architecture at Savannah College of Art & Design by Alex Kimball Otterbein Savannah, Georgia May 2014

Judith Reno Committee Chair Dan Brown Committee Member Craig Clements Committee Member


1 2 3 4 5 6

thesis development abstract

page 6

introduction

page 9

design strategy

page 15

contextual & regional description new england’s history

page 25

history

page 28

context

page 30

site analysis scope of revitalization

page 40

site

page 45

existing conditions

page 50

program analysis user description

page 57

case studies

page 59

program elements

page 64

schematic design site amenities

page 67

horizontal connections

page 85

detailed program

page 89

design development LQDOVLWHGHVLJQ

page 106

ORRUSODQV LQDO

page 115

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page 125

work cited

page 142


List of

Figures

Chapter One Figure 1 Robin Rug Factory Stair By Author Cover page Figure 1.1 Robin Rug Factory Façade By Author Page 5 Figure 1.2 Historic vs. Modern Façade By Author Page 7 Figure 1.3 Urban Renewal Sign 1967 By Frank Passic www.albionmich.com Page 10 Figure 1.4 Urban Renewal Boston 1960 www.cityofbostonarchives.tumblr.com Page 10 Figure 1.5 Urban Renewal Boston www.cityofbostonarchives.tumblr.com Page 10 Figure 1.6 Robotics and Automism www.cccblog.org Page 11 Figure 1.7 Tallest Skyline www.archdaily.org Page 11 Figure 1.8 Building Energy Consumption www.preservationnation.org Page 20 Figure 1.9 Historic District San Francisco Page 21 Figure 1.10 Downtown Savannah Page 22 Figure 1.11 Historic Preservation Work Page 22 Chapter Two Content Analysis & Regional Description Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9

New England Industry Collage Bristol, Rhode Island 1939 Map of Rhode Island Aerial view of Bristol, Rhode Island Bristol County Districts Bristol County Historic Sites Bristol County existing land use Bristol County future land use Robin Rug Factory Exterior

By Author www.bristolri.us By Author www.stoneharborbristol.com www.bristolri.us/community www.bristolri.us/community www.bristolri.us/community www.bristolri.us/community By Author

Page 24 Page 27 Page 29 Page 30 Page 31 Page 32 Page 33 Page 34 Page 36

Chapter Three Site Analysis Figure 3.1 Rhode Island Context Maps www.google.com/maps Page 37-38 Figure 3.2 Bristol County Map www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 39 Figure 3.3 Bristol County Map www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 41 Figure 3.4 Colt State Park www.weddingmapper.com Page 42 Figure 3.5 Board walk www.flickr.com/stoneharbor Page 42 Figure 3.6 Bristol Harbor www.rwu.edu Page 42 Figure 3.7 Roger Williams www.rwu.edu Page 42 Figure 3.8 Bike Path www.newenglandboating.com Page 43 Figure 3.9 Board walk flickr.com Page 43 Figure 3.10 Robin Rug Factory East Elevation By Author Page 43 Figure 3.11 Downtown Circulation Map www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 44 Figure 3.12 Bird’s eye view of Bristol www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 46 Figure 3.13 Robin Rug Factory West Elevation By Author Page 46 Figure 3.14 Bird’s Eye view of the Robin Rug Factory www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 47 Figure 3.15 Rear View By Author Page 47 Figure 3.16 Bridge By Author Page 47 Figure 3.17 East Façade By Author Page 48 Figure 3.18 Partial Façade By Author Page 48 Figure 3.19 North Elevation By Author Page 48 Figure 3.20 Hope Street www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 49 Figure 3.21 Parking adjacent to site www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 49 Figure 3.22 Water Access www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 49

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Figure 3.23 Constitution Street www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 49 Figure 3.24 Hope Street www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 49 Figure 3.25 Existing Conditions Collage By Author Page 50 Figure 3.26 Zoning Map www.bristolri.us Page 51 Figure 3.27 Climate Mapping By Author Page 53 Figure 3.28 Bristol Floodplains www.bristolri.us/commuinity Page 54 Figure 3.29 Bristol Soils www.bristolri.us/commuinity Page 54 Chapter Four Program Analysis Figure 4.1 Program Diagram By Author Page 55 Figure 4.2 Ford Assembly Interior www.wonlogan.com Page 60 Figure 4.3 Ford Assembly Exterior www.archdaily.com Page 60 Figure 4.4 Ford Assembly Exterior www.inhabitat.com Page 60 Figure 4.5 Ford Assembly Interior www.archdaily.com Page 60 Figure 4.6 Ford Assembly Exterior www.archdaily.com Page 60 Figure 4.7 Shoreham Street Faรงade Detail www.dezeen.com Page 61 Figure 4.8 Shoreham Street Exterior www.aasarchitecture.com Page 61 Figure 4.9 Shoreham Street Exterior www.blog.g8.life.com Page 61 Figure 4.10 Shoreham Street Interior Stair www.dezeen.com Page 61 Figure 4.11 The Granary Faรงade Detail www.medusagroup.com Page 62 Figure 4.12 The Granary material detail www.medusagroup.com Page 62 Figure 4.13 The Granary Interior Detail www.medusagroup.com Page 62 Figure 4.14 The Granary Interior www.medusagroup.com Page 62 Figure 4.15 The Granary Exterior www.medusagroup.com Page 62 Figure 4.16 3D Site Plan By Author Page 63 Figure 4.17 Phase One 3D Programming By Author Page 64 Chapter Five Schematic Design Figure 5.1 Faรงade Collage By Author Page 65-66 Figure 5.2 Mount Hope High School www.mthopehighschool.com Page 67 Figure 5.3 Bristol Yacht Club www.momgenerations.com Page 67 Figure 5.4 The Robin Rug Factory By Author Page 67 Figure 5.5 Roger Williams University www.rwu.edu Page 67 Figure 5.6 Bristol Proposed Connections www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 68 Figure 5.7 Bike Path Terminus www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 69 Figure 5.8 Board Walk Terminus www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 69 Figure 5.9 Parking Lot www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 69 Figure 5.10 Hope Street Entrance www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 69 Figure 5.11 Proposed Urban Changes www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 70 Figure 5.12 Existing Site Conditions Google Earth Page 72 Figure 5.13 Proposed Site Conditions Google Earth Page 72 Figure 5.14 Site Plan By Author Page 73 Figure 5.15 Existing Street Google Earth Page 74 Figure 5.16 Proposed Street Google Earth Page 74 Figure 5.17 East Elevation By Author Page 75-76 Figure 5.18 South Elevation By Author Page 75-76 Figure 5.19 Proposed Floor plans for the Robin Rug Factory Unkown Page 77 Figure 5.20 Facebook comments www.facebook.com Page 78 Figure 5.21 Adjacency Diagram By Author Page 79 Figure 5.22 Adjacency Diagram Stage Two By Author Page 80 Figure 5.23 Phase Two 3D Program Diagram By Author Page 81

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Figure 5.24 Bristol Income Map www.google.com/maps/place/Bristol Page 82 Figure 5.25 Circulation Diagram By Author Page 83 Figure 5.26 Level One Circulation Diagram By Author Page 84 Figure 5.27 Robin Rug Factory Faรงade By Author Page 85 Figure 5.28 Horizontal Connections Sketches By Author Page 85 Figure 5.29 Horizontal Connection Concept By Author Page 85 Figure 5.30 Horizontal Connection Concept By Author Page 86 Figure 5.31 Proposed Horizontal Connections By Author Page 86 Figure 5.32 Atrium Material Study www.archmainly.tumblr.com Page 86 Figure 5.33 Atrium Pathways www.us.gsk.com Page 86 Figure 5.34 Atrium Pathways www.arch2o.com Page 86 Figure 5.35 Atrium Design www.officesnapshots.com Page 87 Figure 5.36 Atrium Design www.architectmagazine.com Page 87 Figure 5.37 Atrium Design www.crazyengineers.com Page 87 Figure 5.38 Atrium Design www.dupont.com Page 87 Figure 5.39 Material Study By Author Page 88 Figure 5.40 Material Study By Author Page 88 Figure 5.41 Material Study By Author Page 88 Figure 5.42 Material Study By Author Page 88 Figure 5.43 Material Study www.miceman.blogspot.com Page 88 Figure 5.44 Material Study www.medusagroup.com Page 88 Figure 5.45 Art Gallery www.art.usta.edu Page 89 Figure 5.46 Art Gallery www.payvand.com Page 89 Figure 5.47 Art Gallery www.teallartgallery.com Page 89 Figure 5.48 Zone One Level One By Author Page 89 Figure 5.49 Workshop www.abeautifulmess.com Page 90 Figure 5.50 Workshop www.architectureartdesign.com Page 90 Figure 5.51 Workshop www.workwithbrandy.com Page 90 Figure 5.52 Workshop www.designsponge.com Page 90 Figure 5.53 Zone One Level Two By Author Page 90 Figure 5.54 Lofts www.kickstarter.com/copycat Page 91 Figure 5.55 Lofts www.kickstarter.com/copycat Page 91 Figure 5.56 Lofts www.kickstarter.com/copycat Page 91 Figure 5.57 Zone One Level Two & Three By Author Page 91 Figure 5.58 Retail www.lexilikes.com Page 92 Figure 5.59 Retail www.ateliersolarshop.blogspot.com Page 92 Figure 5.60 Retail www.blog.chron.com Page 92 Figure 5.61 Retail www.architizer.com/projects/la-marzocco-flagship-store-taipei Page 92 Figure 5.62 Zone Two Level One By Author Page 92 Figure 5.63 Retail www.dezeen.com/2012/02/03/sweet-alchemy-by-kois-associated-architects Page 93 Figure 5.64 Retail www.belmorebootmakers.com.au Page 93 Figure 5.65 Retail www.fastrack.in/storelocator Page 93 Figure 5.66 Retail www.dezeen.com/2009/07/05/camper-store-tokyo-by-jaime-hayon Page 93 Figure 5.67 Zone Two Level Two By Author Page 93 Figure 5.68 Lofts www.apartmenttherapy.com Page 94 Figure 5.69 Lofts www.remodelista.com Page 94 Figure 5.70 Lofts www.artsmoothie.wordpress.com Page 94 Figure 5.71 Lofts www.watickets.com Page 94 Figure 5.72 Zone Two Level Three & Four By Author Page 94 Figure 5.73 Market www.pinterest.com/farmersmarket Page 95 Figure 5.74 Market www.back9network.com Page 95 Figure 5.75 Market www.bonappetit.com Page 95 Figure 5.76 Market www.prevueonline.net Page 95 Figure 5.77 Zone Three Level One By Author Page 95 Figure 5.78 YMCA www.yogachrissy.com Page 96 Figure 5.79 YMCA www.dmymca.com Page 96

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Figure 5.80 YMCA www.articles.elitefts.com Page 96 Figure 5.81 YMCA www.decorationdigest.com Page 96 Figure 5.82 Zone Three Level Two By Author Page 96 Figure 5.83 Student Living www.8rd.org/decoration Page 97 Figure 5.84 Student Living www.homedit.com Page 97 Figure 5.85 Student Living www.dornob.com/modest-student Page 97 Figure 5.86 Student Living www.elevencompany.com Page 97 Figure 5.87 Zone Three Level Three By Author Page 97 Figure 5.88 Student Living www.wehearit.com Page 98 Figure 5.89 Student Living www.dormroom.ideas.blogspot.com Page 98 Figure 5.90 Student Living www.urumix.com Page 98 Figure 5.91 Zone Three Level Four By Author Page 98 Figure 5.92 Offices www.interiordesign.net/projects/detail/1105-blu-dot-moves-headquarters/ Page 99 Figure 5.93 Offices www.interiordesign.net/projects/detail/1105-blu-dot-moves-headquarters/ Page 99 Figure 5.94 Offices www.interiordesign.net/projects/detail/1105-blu-dot-moves-headquarters/ Page 99 Figure 5.95 Zone Four Level One By Author Page 99 Figure 5.96 Offices www.homegue.com Page 100 Figure 5.97 Offices www.welikesmall.com Page 100 Figure 5.98 Offices www.welikesmall.com Page 100 Figure 5.99 Offices www.welikesmall.com Page 100 Figure 5.100 Zone Four Level Two By Author Page 100 Chapter Six Design Development Figure 6.1 Bristol Context Map By Author Page 103 Figure 6.2 Thames Landing Site Plan By Author Page 105 Figure 6.3 Existing Streetscape By Author Page 107 Figure 6.4 Proposed Streetscape By Author Page 107 Figure 6.5 Proposed Urban Plan By Author Page 107 Figure 6.6 Braid Anatomy By Author Page 109 Figure 6.7 Truss Sketch By Author Page 109 Figure 6.8 Truss Sketch By Author Page 110 Figure 6.9 Aerial View By Author Page 112 Figure 6.10 East Elevation By Author Page 111-112 Figure 6.11 West Elevation By Author Page 113-114 Figure 6.12 Level One By Author Page 115 Figure 6.13 Level Two By Author Page 117 Figure 6.14 Level Three By Author Page 119 Figure 6.15 Level Four By Author Page 121 Figure 6.16 Section One By Author Page 123 Figure 6.17 Section Two By Author Page 123 Figure 6.18 Section Three By Author Page 124 Figure 6.19 Section Four By Author Page 124 Figure 6.20 Space frame http://www.superstructure.com/structural_systems.shtml Page 125 Figure 6.21 Space frame detail http://www.superstructure.com/structural_systems.shtml Page 125 Figure 6.22 Wall section By Author Page 126 Figure 6.23 Interior of Main Corridor By Author Page 128 Figure 6.24 Main Faรงade By Author Page 129-130 Figure 6.25 YMCA Entrance By Author Page 131-132 Figure 6.26 Back View By Author Page 133-134 Figure 6.27 Back of YMCA By Author Page 135-136 Figure 6.28 Interior Atrium By Author Page 137-138 Figure 6.29 Boards By Author Page 139-140

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FIGURE 1.1 Robin Rug Factory Facade

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chapter

1

community revitalization

through adaptive reuse Alex Otterbein May 2014

abstract

The concentration of this thesis is the development of site sensitive architecture and urban design through the utilization of historic structures. Urban revitalization and planning are tools that can be used to modify and enhance communities. Melding modern design principles with those of the past to achieve a balance that celebrates the historic and cultural significance of a site with the capability to transcend and adapt to future needs.

“The issue is no longer about

new versus old but about the nature of the vital relationship between the two.�(Powell)

goal

The outcome of this thesis will be a mixuse redevelopment of an industrial factory within a small historic community. This mix-use complex will set out to create a localized community while addressed the current and future needs of the town.

[6]


FIGURE 1.2 Historic vs. Modern Facade

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"The past reminds us of timeless human truths and allows for the perpetuation of cultural traditions that can be nourishing; it contains examples of mistakes to avoid, preserves the memory of alternatives ways of doing things, and is the basis for self-understanding..." 1

1 Drew, Bettina. Crossing the Expendable Landscape. St. Paul, MN: Graywolf, 1998. Print.

[8]


introduction

historic sites. The concentration was all about the

In today’s society within the realm of architecture

but the historical and cultural environment suffered.

importance is incessantly being derived from its

modernity. Structures that employ cutting edge

in manufacturing and vehicular traffic. Automobiles

technology and reach never before seen heights are

changed the dynamics of everyday life by making

constantly making headlines for their innovation, but

transportation and commuting to work so accessible.

what about the impressive designs from the past?

Suburbs began to boom while cities became mainly

Are they to be forgotten? The value of architecture

a place of business. The objective of urban renewal

does not solely lie within its mechanics.

programs was to rejuvenate the cities, the result was

a modernization of cities.

Preserving the integrity of historic sites has not

expansion of cities and creating efficient connections,

The core of cities changed further with the rise

always been a top priority in this country. In the late 1950’s under the guidance of President Eisenhower

Urban renewal demolished entire historic city blocks

the National Interstate and Defense Highway Act of

and decimated entire neighborhoods to make room

1956 was signed. This act was established to provide

for highways, parking and new development. The

efficient infrastructure for the military. Establishing an

primary problem with this approach stems from the

integrated interstate highway system throughout the

fact that clearance does not create need. In many

country began in the 1930’s during the Roosevelt’s

cases of urban renewal blocks were cleared and no

term, but struggled to become a reality due to

new development ever took place, to this day there

insufficient funding. In 1956 Eisenhower wanted

are places within cities that still lay vacant. During this

the creation of this transcontinental highway to

time people began seeing the negative side effects of

influence economic development, highway safety and

this radical urban modernization movement and the

congestion relief.

impacts it had on people and cities. Major highways

Constructing these new major connections

and new development were demolishing heritage sites

made travel more convenient for almost all Americans.

and in turn erasing the history, identity and character

The major intersections encouraged growth and new

of cities. Due to this rising concern for the nation’s

industries. Cities could now expand to new areas

heritage several independent agencies began to bring

and major urban areas could now develop away from

awareness to historic preservation.

coastal regions. These new developments were only possible with the demolition of large areas including 2. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print.


FIGURE 1.3 Urban Renewal sign 1967

“Urban Renewal was conceived originally to enable cities to revitalize their urban core areas by lowering the cost of preparing land for private development, so that developers would be attracted and new development would take place.“2

FIGURE 1.4 Urban Renewal Boston 1960

FIGURE 1.5 Urban Renewal Boston

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After the industrial revolution the general public

there are still hundreds of towers and buildings that

developed the principle that “new” is innately

lay vacant. Dubai is the definition of false grandeur,

better. The focus is placed on the end product, while

constructing a metropolis in a dessert with limited

overlooking the process and impact the product may

resources can only be dazzling for so long. The hasty

have within its context. Looking at the architecture of

expansion of Dubai resulted in sewage treatment

today little has changed, people are still enamored

problems, enormous amounts of heated sludge and

with the “new”.

carbon dioxide emissions. With sustainability and sensible building at the forefront cities like Dubai are not the future. Alluring the public with record breaking heights and majestic looking skyscrapers that act solely as monuments of money and power will only attract visitors for so long. Due to its location and harsh climatic conditions Dubai consumes more electricity and water than most other countries, and

FIGURE 1.6 Robotics & Automatism

has become one of the world’s largest pollutants.

The unsustainable development of the city of

Creating irreversible change for the sake of luxury

Dubai is seemingly infatuated with innovative and

and status is nothing more than a fad. Every city

modern construction. Over the past decade Dubai’s

contains opportunities for a sustainable approach,

rapid and profligate urbanization has led to just as

through adaptive reuse, historic preservation and

extravagant environmental problems. Hundreds of

rehab projects. Looking back to historic structures is

millions of dollars are being spent on the creation of

imperative to design architecture responsibly for the

skyscrapers that utilize hi-tech methods or take the

future.

prize for being the tallest structure in the world, while

FIGURE 1.7 Tallest Skyline

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“Cities need old buildings so badly it is probably impossible for vigorous streets and districts to grow without them. By old buildings, I mean not museum-piece old buildings, not in excellent and expensive state of rehabilitation, ‌ but also a good lot of plain, ordinary, low value buildings, including some run-down old buildings.â€? 3

Maintaining

environment

Creating this segregation inherently limits the

established by historic buildings, districts and

benefits that historic preservation can lend to urban

features enriches the lives of the community and

development. In order for communities to experience

provides a link to the past. It has been a common

the advantages of historic preservation, buildings

practice to define historic preservation as a selection

other than monuments, museums and landmarks

of historically significant landmarks, which excludes

need to be embraced.

a

diverse

cultural

ordinary structures.

3. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House, 1961. Print.

[12]


Historic Preservation refers to the retaining and

initiate projects and give incentives for preservations

preserving

architecture,

projects. Since the development of this act Historic

landscape, structures and neighborhoods. Preserving

Preservation has evolved from a small provincial effort

the aesthetic character and heritage of a community

to an expansive nationwide movement.

is a way of maintaining the memory and identity of

Furthering the efforts of the National Historic

place. Regardless of how modern and urbanized cities

Preservation Act the Secretary of the Interiors

and suburbs become historic sites and structures

developed a set of standards for the treatment of

will always be an important and vital reminder of our

historic preservation in 1995. These standards are

past. Knowing, learning and understanding the past

essentially a list of regulations and guidelines to be

is necessary in order to responsibly move toward the

applied to all historic buildings, structures, objects,

future.

and districts. The guidelines are split into four main

“A community needs historic preservation to preserve its historic identity, not simply in order to profit from tourism, but to give strength and permanence to its local community.� 4

categories: Preservation, Rehabilitation, Restoration,

In 1966 the National Historic Preservation Act

preservation projects, which implies these guidelines

was put in place to preserve and retain historical

do not address specific cases or rare instances.

sites. This act was also the catalyst that created the

The historic resource types included are: buildings,

Register of Historic Places, State Historic Preservation

sites, structures, objects, and districts. Within these

Offices and List of National Historic Landmarks.

resource types are specific architectural features

Under the National Historic Preservation Act local,

that convey historic importance: roofs, windows,

state and national governments are brought together

entrances and porches, storefronts, interior structure,

for a common goal of retaining and preserving our

spatial arrangement, finishes, materials, mechanical

nation’s historic fabric. The federal government was

systems, districts and neighborhoods. Within each

made to be a full partner in the movement of historic

major category there are a list of standards, annotated

preservation. In order for this act to be successful the

guidelines, and corresponding list of recommended

federal government was to provide encouragement,

and non-recommended suggestions.

of

historic

elements,

and Reconstruction. The Secretary of the Interior developed these set of standards for all historic

4. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print.

[13]


preservation rehabilitation

“Rehabilitation is defined as the act or process of making possible the compatible use for a property through repair, alteration and additions while preserving those portions or features which convey its historical cultural or architectural values.� 5

restoration reconstruction

The standards provided for rehabilitation acknowledge

and adapted to employ a contemporary function while

that the programming and original function of historic

preserving the historic narrative and value. Today the

structures may no longer be viable and new uses and

regeneration of urban areas and change in utilization of

functions may need to be appropriated in order for

structures is most commonly known as adaptive reuse.

the life cycle of the building to continue. Respectful

The implementation of adaptive reuse on heritage

rehabilitation calls for new designs to compliment

buildings is seen as a strategy of ESD (education for

the character of not only the structure in immediate

sustainable development) and is an important practice

interaction, but also the neighborhood and district.

within urban centers to prevent urban sprawl and

Compatibility can be addressed in terms of materials,

promote land conservation. Giving historic structures

mass, color, and relationship of solid to void.

new functions and purpose is not only a sustainable practice it is a way to integrate our own culture and

For the purpose of this thesis and its concentration on

history with new technology and practices. Adaptive

transformation of historic structures, rehabilitation will

Reuse is the most widely used and the most common

be the primary vehicle for creating a dynamic language

treatment for the survival of old buildings. According the

between the new and the old. Under the guidance of

Jane Jacobs, when a building design for one purpose is

rehabilitation historic buildings can be transformed

put into a completely different use its value deepens.

5. United States. Heritage Preservation Services. U.S Department of the Interior. The Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. By Kay Weeks and Anne Grimmer. Washington D.C: n.p., 1995. Print.


design strategy adaptive reuse “Adaptive reuse is the conversion of a building site or precinct from one use to another. Where the site being reused has heritage value the new use should support the ongoing interpretation and understanding of that heritage while also accommodating new functions.” 6

Understanding architecture of the past permits the

provide a more pleasant and charming experience

potential to combine the old constitution of cities with

than modern developments.

new concepts. This notion that certain qualities of

This dialogue between the new and the old can be

old buildings may surpass those of new construction

achieved through adaptive use of historic structures.

is not always easy for people to comprehend. It

Adaptive reuse is a general development tool that can

defies the logical order of progression, but it puts

be implemented to regenerate historic buildings and

into question the way buildings are currently being

urban areas by changing the utilization of a structure.

designed. Uniting old buildings with modern structures

Instead of cities continuing to demolish buildings

provides a texture and character within a community

and construct new ones, local communities could

that cannot be achieved with new construction. Unlike

be taking advantage of the vacant and abandoned

the skyscrapers shooting up in cities all around the

buildings most cities are littered with. Transforming

world, historic structures provide a composition that is

an old building into a highly efficient structure that

familiar and easy to understand. Historic communities

features a compelling program and adds life to a city.

•seeks to bring new life rather than freezing a structure at a particular moment in time •offers an option that lies between demolition and a museum conversion •temporary uses deterioration

6. Brand, S. (1994) How buildings learn. New York, NY, Penguin Group.

[15]

offer

prevention

from


design approach The

preservation

of

historic

monuments

materials, character, texture and construction speak and

structures has been a topic of controversy even before the discipline was formed. There are those who believe our built heritage should run its course and wither away as nature intended. Others believe that we should restore buildings and monuments to express a specific point during their life cycle. Theorists, historians, preservationists, and architects have all written about this debate endlessly, but no answers or solutions to these questions have arisen. What set of principles are we meant to follow? Should historic buildings be left to erode? Should we stop the life cycle of a historic structure and bring it back in time? Or should we continue the story of a building in

history fall into ruination? Why bring a structure back to a specific period in time with materials of today?

If it is the character, materials and historic

value that make these buildings speak to us, inserting materials and techniques of the present would create a false representation. It is unfortunate that many historians believe that the only way to preserve a building is reconstructing exactly how it previously occurred. The science of historic preservation lies within analysis, documentation and preservation techniques, but when discussing whether a building should be torn down, added to, subtracted from or renewed there is no scientific or academic basis from one answer to the next. It many cases it comes down

the present?

to the human senses in a different way. Why let this

Historic preservation is about more than

just saving the physical form of a building. Preserving the story of a structure is what educates us and connects us to the past. Within this connection a sense of community and culture becomes enriched. Whether the structure has maintained its appearance or it has begun to fall into disrepair the narrative it has accumulated along the way is retained. When in the presence of a historic structure it is clear that a certain atmosphere or aura sheathes it, new construction simply does not capture this feeling. The

to a matter of opinion.

Today historic buildings are constantly being

torn down or left behind because many historic districts, organizations, and laws intimidate developers and investors. The laws become so over bearing that changing the building in any way becomes a lengthy and expensive journey. Within these sanctioned districts changing the original layout or exterior form is prohibited. For many historic buildings it seems as though there are only two options, lay vacant and unused or become a doll-house frozen in time.

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A building is meant to have a life similar to our own, one

journey of a building from its creation to the present.

that is constantly changing and adapting. For some

This does not mean that the previous use or character

reason many people take it upon themselves to decide

should vanish or be destroyed. If anything it should be

when it ends. For years historic buildings have been

explored and exemplified.

changing and adapting to the environment and that is

exactly what they should continue to do. Restoring a

reinvented. New uses can be found and a new life can

building to a previous state or preserving it where the

be given. This would require the rules and regulations

only function it can truly take on is a museum is a lost

on historic buildings to be determined more on a

opportunity. While it is commendable to restore and

case by case basis. Assessing the historical value of

preserve historic structures, helping them maintain a

the structure and the new design within its context.

vital role in our community and everyday life through

Developers and builders will be able to see the light

active use is as equally important.

at the end of the tunnel within historic preservation.

In order to preserve our buildings we need

Architects can take advantage of this opportunity to

to give them uses, temporary or permanent. We

investigate the dynamic relationship between the new

should be living, working and learning in these historic

and old. Between the character of the past and the

structures. Rather than ending a buildings story, we

character of the future. Our built environment must

should continue to add chapters to their life through

find ways to change and adapt with the constantly

respectful and inventive additions. Alterations and

changing social and cultural environments. Adaptive

additions to historic structures should be respectful

reuse enables the capability for buildings to transition

and responsive but not mimic the architecture of the

and maintain significance.

past. Additions should be truthful and express the 7. Stephen S. (2008) Dialogue in time. Architectural Record, 196 (7), Page 133.

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Through adaptive reuse a building can be


The objective of this thesis is to continue the narrative of a structure. Manipulating and transforming the existing and historic structures to correspond with the current needs of the community and plan for future growth. Pushing the boundaries of historic preservation to acknowledge a necessary dialogue between the existing and the present.

“Arguably when a historic building is preserved and transformed for new uses, the dialogue created between old, conserved or restored elements and the newly modern brings these shifts between past and future into the dramatic present. Architects who effectively manipulate space, light and materials to suggest something about the future beyond the process of time embodied by the historic remains, help to perpetually thrust the observer both backwards and forward from the present moment he or she experiences this architecture.� 7

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reasoning

sustainability

The adaptation of historic sites and structures

because of their passive design the energy needed

requires much more than an idea of what the space

for the operations and maintenance of an existing

could be. This adaptation of space is not always an

building is less than new construction.

easy process, in order to procure the benefits of old

Data from the U.S energy information administration

buildings excessive thought and planning is required.

explain that existing buildings particularly from the

One key feature to be capitalized on through the

early 20th century out preform modern buildings.

preservation of historic structures is sustainability.

Many older buildings utilize “passive survivability”

In the early 21st century the field of green building

tactics which allows the building to operate without the

went from being a concern to a global industry. Today

use of energy. Commercial and Industrial structures

the green building industry focuses on the design and

of the early 1900’s were designed to function without

operations of buildings. In the U.S building operations

the dependence of systems. Large windows, proper

alone make up 41% of the nation’s primary energy

orientation, slender floor plans and careful planning

consumption. The extraction of natural resources for

allowed these structures to be more sustainable

construction and the production of building materials

than most of the buildings being constructed today.

are also incredibly energy intensive processes that

Commercial buildings constructed before the 1920’s

contribute to the carbon footprint of buildings. This

are among the best examples of passive construction

naturally makes the rehabilitation and reuse of

and when compared utilize less energy per square foot

existing and historic structures the more sustainable

than any other decade. Although there is significant

approach.

research and studies displaying the benefits of

Historic Preservation employs a more resourceful

building reuse our society continues to abandon and

use of materials, minimizes construction waste,

demolish existing structures. Our society must move

maximizes the use of existing building structure

past wounded image these abandon buildings convey

and eliminates demolition costs. In addition older

and see their true potential. Every year 1 billion square

structures are inherently more sustainable due to their

feet of buildings are demolished and replaced with

implementation of passive construction methods,

new construction.

8. "How Much Energy Is Consumed in Residential and Commercial Buildings in the United States?" Http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=86&t=1. U.S Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. 9. ”National Trust for Historic Preservation.” Http://www.preservationnation.org/. Preservation Green Lab, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.


is unpredictable. There is a budding policy movement to incentivize or require building owners to track and record the energy use of their buildings, as well as a growing demand on the part of real estate investors and tenants for transparent and consistent data about building performance. Still, many existing buildings in the United States are not bench-marked against established baselines.

250

Thousand Btus/sf

200

150

100

50

“When comparing similar buildings savings from building reuse are between 4 and 46% compared to new construction” 8

0 Before 1920

1920 to 1945

1946 to 1969

1970 to 1989

1990 to 2003

Building Vintage

“The overwhelming amount of demolition is projected to only get worse and is one of the main contributors to carbon emissions and climate change.” 9

Space Heating Lighting

Cooling Computers

Ventilation

Water Heating

Other (Refrigeration, Cooking, Office Equipment, Misc.)

Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration, Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption Survey (2003).

FIGURE 1.8 Building Energy Consumption

In order to avoid high carbon emissions and

3. Building transportation energy is the energy utilized

THE GREENEST BUILDING: QUANTIFYING THE ENVIRONMENTAL VALUE OF BUILDING REUSE

unsustainable construction various types of building

to transport occupants to and from the building.

energy use must be considered. The three types

The operating energy of a building is the largest

of energy consumption involved in sustainable

consumer of a buildings overall energy consumption,

construction are embodied energy, operating energy

and the biggest concern for sustainable building.

and building transportation energy.

The building envelope and system performance

1. Embodied energy is the amount of energy required

largely determine the operating energy of a building.

to produce a building. There are two types of embodies

When looking at all types of construction residential

energy initial and recurring. Initial is the upfront energy

structures are responsible for the largest portion of

for the extraction of natural resources, manufacturing,

energy consumed. Reusing and recycling historic

transportation and installation of materials. Recurring

and existing structures employs and teaches passive

is energy needed to maintain the building over the

building techniques which greatly reduces our buildings

course of its life span.

dependence on energy from the initial construction to

2. Operating energy is the energy required for all

daily operation needs. This approach can be applied

building operations, including heating, cooling, and

on a building to building basis, considerable benefits

electricity.

can be seen when applied to whole communities and districts.

[20]


practicality economics

In difficult economic times like the present the pres-

spectrum of variables within historic preservation and

ervation of heritage sites are not always seen as a top

local economies with the result concluding that his-

priority. Heritage sites offer social, aesthetic, historic,

toric preservation benefits local economies. Positive

cultural and educational values but in order to attract

impacts of Historic Preservation can be seen in many

the attention of politicians, voters, and investors an

areas including but not limited to; jobs, property value

economic aspect must be incorporated. Over the past

and heritage tourism.

decade many studies have been done with a broad

property values Across the nation it can be seen that Historic Districts maintain higher property values compared to properties not in recognized or distinguished districts. In general across the country the average annual growth rate for historic preservation rehabilitation properties are higher than non-historic properties. Even during the recent recession historic properties maintain a higher property value and are less likely to succumb to foreclosure. FIGURE 1.9 Historic District San Francisco

•In Logan Utah all properties saw a decline in value after 2007, but after 2011 properties in historic districts began to regain value and now in 2013 are almost at their pre cash peak. •In Kentucky National registered historic districts experience a larger increase in property values than undesignated neighborhoods. •Historic Districts are sought out by investors because they provide greater financial insurance as well as protection from inappropriate.

[21]


heritage tourism

Heritage tourism is defined as a traveling experience to specific places and activities that authentically represent the past. The industry of heritage tourism is one of the leading economical drivers of historic preservation.

In Georgia heritage tourism supports 117,000 jobs and brings in $203,850,000 in salary and wages. In Washington state heritage tourism brings in $629 million to the local economy through lodging, food, retail, transportation, and recreation.

FIGURE 1.10 Downtown Savannah

“Heritage tourism helps make historic preservation viable by using historic structures and landscapes to attract and serve travelers.� 10

jobs When looking at the industry of Historic Preservation a positive correlation can be seen in the creation of jobs and the Preservation industry. In Georgia preservation work creates more jobs per $1 million than any other major industry. In Delaware per $1 million preservation work creates more jobs than new construction. Kentucky the national leader in preservation with 73 designated recognized historic communities, creates 43 jobs per $1 million spent on preservation.

FIGURE 1.11 Historic Preservation Work

10. "Heritage Tourism." Preservationnation.org. National Trust for Historic Preservation, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013.


chapter

2

content analysis

regional description

[23]


FIGURE 2.1 New England Industry Collage

[24]


new england’s

industrial history

“The growth of manufacturing in New England between the American Revolution and the Civil War has long been recognized been recognized as a major step in the economic and social development of the United States. It was in the textile mills erected on New England’s abundant water-power that the American factory system developed, and it was in company owned villages and towns, built around these rural cotton and woolen mills, that the first generation of American workers were introduced to factory life ” 11

Industrial towns can be seen in almost every major

communities around industries resulted in arbitrary

city within New England. For the purpose of this thesis

developments of supporting buildings both public and

will be Rhode Island’s industrial heritage.

private. The infrastructure of cities was formed around

Rhode Island’s industrial system was formed two

the success and growth of the industry.

different types of communities. The first community

The textile industry within New England progressed in

was constituted of a single manufacturing company.

many ways over the century. This progression affected

The

the architecture, materials, towns, and rural fabric.

second

community

encompassed

several

independent companies. The formation of town and

11. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print.

[25]


background

historic

“Many New England industrial towns founded during the nineteenth century exist today simply because they used to exist, rather than because of any apparent present economic or geographical asset. So devastating has been the trauma of the collapse and disappearance of their principal industries that many communities have yet to awaken to the importance of the heritage which they still possess, a heritage of almost unequaled importance in the industrial and social history of the United States” 12

In the early 19th century many towns and communi-

these historic centers have seen their importance

ties were assembled around the advancement of a

to the nation’s past is unparalleled. During times

specific industry. These settlements grew and thrived

of economic hardship many of these communities

due to the success of industries like textile and agricul-

faced massive demolition in hopes new development

ture. When new methods of manufacturing developed

would occupy the space like it once was. However the

and outsourcing became economically superior, the

materialization of new businesses, jobs, homes and

life and vivacity was stolen from these industrial towns.

identity does not need a new structure in order to

Entire communities lost their purpose, and function for

be successful. Industrial Historic structure provide

being.

ample space for multiple programming needs, all it

The edifice of these once incredibly powerful

takes is the right vision. For this thesis the chosen

industrial towns can be seen all over New England.

site for contextual and economic purposes is the

Since the ruination of their initial industries many

Historic Waterfront District of Bristol, Rhode Island.

of these communities struggle to bring purpose back into these large industrial structures. Many people don’t see the economic potential and others tend to associate negative memories with these old industrial complexes. Despite the devastation that

12. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print.

[26]


FIGURE 2.2 Bristol, Rhode Island 1939

[27]


bristolrhode 1680

Bristol’s historic district was first constructed by 4 Bostonian business man. The name Bristol was chosen with respect to the great English seaport.

1770

1775

The British returned and burned a church and 16 houses. It took the town 2 years to rebuild and reopen a port of entry.

Bristol came to the zenith of her mercantile power by means of the slave trade. Many buildings were constructed using African stone carried as ballasts in slave ships.

1812

1830

Bristol was the leading commercial port in New England. Bristol ships traded with southern states, West Indies, Europe and eventually around the world.

The American Revolution hindered the progress of Bristol, demanding goods, cattle, and produce. Negotiations were made to save the town from further harm.

1778

1787

island

During the war of 1812 privateering became popular. The “Yankee” was the most successful capturing 40 vessels with $5,000,000 in cargo.

The economic base shifted from maritime to manufacturing. Thames Street became the location for new factories.

1836

125 Thames Street Pokanoket Mill was constructed.

1855 The Providence Railroad was established, a direct service was provided from Bristol to New York City. This lead to impetus growth and industrial expansion.

[28]


FIGURE 2.3 Map of Rhode Island

[29]


context

Prudence Island Ferry. located in the downtown core

The initial plan for Bristol consisted of 4 North South Streets, 9 East West Streets and 128 original house lots, meeting house, burial grounds, commons, town hall, market house and school house. This original plan has stayed prevalent for nearly 300 years and is now the defining infrastructure for over 400 historic buildings. Bristol is connected to Providence and Newport two major tourism and commercial sectors

along the Bristol Harbor.

In the early 1800’s a large number of immigrants from Portugal came to the United States. The majority of these settlers were fisherman from the Azores and were attracted to the large ports. Rhode Island and Massachusetts saw the largest number of immigrants. Today Bristol still possess a rich Portuguese culture. This can be seen within the small community through festivals, holidays, clubs and food.

through vehicular travel. Bristol is also home to the

“Bristol’s town plan is unique in Rhode Island. Unlike other Rhode Island communities which grew up along a waterfront axis, along the Old Post Road, or around a mill site, Bristol alone originated as a commercial venture with planned community, residential and commercial spaces.” 13 13. "Town of Bristol Rhode Island: Community Development Information: Planning." Ri.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.

FIGURE 2.4 Aerial view of Bristol, Rhode Island

[30]


FIGURE 2.5 Bristol County Districts

neighborhoods Bristol, Rhode Island is divided into 16 planned areas. These areas delineate between different land uses and building types. For the purpose of this thesis the downtown core and its immediate surrounding areas will be the main focus. The Robin Rug Factory is located on the water at the south west edge of the downtown core.

[31]


downtown The Downtown Core consists of Bristol’s local Historic district, the National Registered Historic District and future candidates.

8

K ic mu ke

N WARRE L

BRISTO

it R iv er

TUPELO ST

BACK ROAD HISTORIC DISTRICT

Narragansett

Bay HOPE ST

GOODING

Mt. Hope

AVE

Bay SAM WHITES CORNER H.D.

CHESTNU

T ST

R.I. VETERANS HOME

NORTHERN HOPE STREET HIST. DIST.

POPPASQUASH FARMS HISTORIC DISTRICT

JUNIPER HILL CEMETERY GATEHOUSE

IE BAYV

E

W AV

MOUNT HOPE LANDS HISTORIC DISTRICT

Bristol E STAT

ST

BRISTOL WATERFRONT HIS. DIST.

MOUNT HOPE FARM

Harbor WN DLA

W OLD

AVE

OM

GRIS

AV E

AV E

WOO

ME

TA C

Mt. Hope

Bay FERRY ROAD HISTORIC DISTRICT

Legend Bristol Local Historic District

Future Historic District

National Register District Candidate

National Register

National Register Historic District or Site

Local Bristol Historic (Future)

MOUNT HOPE BRIDGE

Historic Site Property/Local Individually Listed Property Bike Path

FIGURE 2.6 Bristol County Historic sites 0

1,000

2,000

4,000

Feet

Map 11

Adopted by Planning Board and Town Council September 3, 2008 and December 2, 2009

Bristol Comprehensive Plan 2009 Historical Districts, Buildings And Properties

[32]

This map was created by BETA Group, Inc. 23-June-2009 Q:\Projects\02841_Bristol_GIS\Comprehensive_Plan_Maps\Map 11 - Historic Resources - Districts, Buildings and Sites 11 x 17.mxd Source: Base map from 1990 Comp. Plan and 2003 Update


current plan and redevelopment

existing land use

FIGURE 2.7 Bristol County existing land use

[33]


future land use

FIGURE 2.8 Bristol County Future land use

[34]


architecture “The architectural and historical legacy contained within the Bristol waterfront Historic District with its original town plan is priceless. The wide tree lined streets with rows of close set wood and brick sea captains homes, great Federal and Greek Revival mansions, Victorian cottages and excellent public buildings from all periods, present a remarkably unified streetscape important for both the quality and quantity of historic buildings.� 14

13. "Town of Bristol Rhode Island: Community Development Information: Planning." Ri.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013.

[35]


FIGURE 2.9 Robin Rug Factory Exterior

[36]


[37]


chapter

3

analysis

site

FIGURE 3.1 Rhode Island context maps

[38]


FIGURE 3.2 Bristol County Map

[39]


revitalization

scope of

Urban Rehabilitation

The Downtown Historic District and its infrastructure will be the main focus for urban redevelopment.

Building Rehabilitation

The primary concentration will the redevelopment of a specific building within the Historic District of Bristol.

[40]


FIGURE 3.3 Bristol County Map

[41]


natural, cultural, scenic landscapes

& views

Bristol is home to many natural amenities. Colt State Park, located to the East of the downtown core is 464 acres of beautiful public space. Colt State Park was originally comprised of several parcels of land belonging to influential families in the 18th century. Today the park is home to beaches, biking and walking trails, soccer FIGURE 3.4 Colt State Park

FIGURE 3.5 Board walk

FIGURE 3.6 Bristol Harbor

FIGURE 3.7 Roger Williams

[42]


district

water front

The site for this thesis is the Robin Rug factory located on Thames street at the southern terminus of the Bristol Historic Waterfront.

area population ethnic minorities prominent industries

20.6 square miles 22,964 portuguese boat building manufacturing tourism

primary circulation secondary circulation bike path

FIGURE 3.8 Bike Path

board walk parking water access FIGURE 3.9 Boardwalk

FIGURE 3.10 Robin Rug Factory East Elevation

[43]


FIGURE 3.11 Downtown Circulation Map


site

the robin rug factory 125 thames street bristol, rhode island

west elevation facing bristol harbor

The site of the Robin Rug Factory has always

expansions. These changes can be directly

been home to a textile mill. Beginning as the

observed through the facade of the building. As

Pakohonet Mill in the early 19th century the site

you walk down Thames Street and are greeted

has been changing and developing for over

by this enormous structure the different in scale

a century. Currently the Robin Rug Factory

becomes evident. The windows, materials,

is the product of numerous transitions and

textures, and structure change morph to what

[45]


FIGURE 3.12 Bird’s eye view of Bristol

FIGURE 3.9 13 West Elevation of Robin Rug Factory

look like completely separate structures. The

of the building. The west side of the building

different facades mark different time periods

also displays the buildings history through the

during

experienced

change in volumes , form and angles. This

additions and alterations. Walking around the

thesis seeks not only to continue the life of this

factory the site opens up to reveal its ideal

structure but to add and to contribute to its

location with the harbor boarding the rear side

story.

which

the

building

[46]


FIGURE 3.14 Bird’s eye view of Robin Rug Factory

FIGURE 3.15 Rear View

FIGURE 3.16 Bridge

[47]


FIGURE 3.17 East Facade

FIGURE 3.18 Partial Facade

[48]

FIGURE 3.19 North Elevation


views

site

FIGURE 3.20 Hope Street

FIGURE 3.21 Parking adjacent to site

FIGURE 3.22 Water access

FIGURE 3.23 Constitution Street

FIGURE 3.24 Hope Street

The views around the site and within the town

the town and the waterfront. Along thames street

show the drastic change in scale between the the

the street that flanks the water front there are

factory and the surrounding buildings. In order for

many parks and access points where the public

the complex to better relate to its context it must

may experience the Bristol Harbor. These views

be broken down into smaller strutures. The factory

and access points need to be integrated into the

also creates a 500 foot long blockade between

factory complex.

[49]


The existing conditions within the town display

and schools that serve the community. What

what the downtown core already has and what

Bristol needs is a place thats draws people to

it needs. Bristol already has many small shops,

the downtown core, a place that supports and

hotels, and bed and breakfasts that support

benefits the people and the business’ of Bristol.

the tourism. Along with libraries, museums,

conditions

Schools

Historic Museum

Hotel Library

Town Hall

Galleries

existing

FIGURE 3.25 Existing conditions collage

[50]


FIGURE 3.26 Zoning Map

[51]


zoning R-6

This R-6 zone is intended for high density residential areas comprised of single household, two household, and multi-household structures with a minimum density of 6,000 square feet for the first dwelling unit and 4,000 square feet per additional dwelling unit where public sewer and public water are required.

R-8

This zone is intended for high density residential areas comprised of single household and two-family household structures with a minimum density of 8,000 square feet per dwelling unit.

R-10

This zone is intended for high density residential areas comprised of single household and two-household structures with a minimum density of 10,000 square feet per dwelling unit where public sewer and/or public water are provided.

R-15

This zone is intended for medium density residential areas comprised of single household detached structures with a minimum density of 15,000 square feet per dwelling unit where public sewer and/or public water are provided.

R-20

This zone is intended for medium density residential areas previously lacking infrastructure and already developed to this density, or currently undeveloped and lacking infrastructure, comprised of single household detached structures with a minimum density of 20,000 square feet per dwelling unit.

LB

GB

D

M

W

Limited business. This zoning district is intended for mixed use including neighborhood commercial areas that primarily serve local neighborhood needs for convenience, retail services and professional office establishments, as well as high density multi-household residential use. General business. This zoning district is intended for commercial areas that serve town-wide and regional commercial needs for retail services, and professional office establishments. Downtown. This zoning district is intended for the preservation of downtown commercial areas. Manufacturing. This zone is intended for general industrial uses that accommodate a variety of manufacturing, assembly, storage of durable goods and related activities, provided that they do not pose toxic, explosive or environmental hazard in the town. Waterfront. This zone is intended for mixed use residential, commercial, and limited industrial use along the downtown waterfront with an emphasis on preservation, economic development, recreation, and open space.

[52]


climate • Rhode Island has a humid coastal climate, with an equal amount of precipitation throughout the year. • All four seasons are experienced here with warm weather from April to October and snowfall in the winter months. • Rhode Island lies within the area of “prevailing westerlies” a belt of generally eastern air movement. This brings particularly irregular weather patterns on a regular basis.

FIGURE 3.27 Climate Mapping

J

F

M

A

M

J

J

A

S

O

N

D


hydrography and floodplains

FIGURE 3.28 Bristol Floodplains

soils

FIGURE 3.29 Bristol Soils

[54]


FIGURE 4.1 Future Program Diagram

[55]


chapter

4

analysis

program

Throughout history Bristol has struggled to grab hold

that transitions through time.

of a defining industry or key econmic element. From its

situations, and conditions grow and evolve our

beginning in the 17th century to now bristol has been

buildings and environment either keep up or fall

a place of many different identities. It’s challenging

behind. In order for existing buildings to stay relevant

and rich history has lended itself to a diverse cultural

and useful they must be adaptable. Buildings must be

environment, but in the present day Bristol struggles

able to accommodate new user groups, functions, and

to maintain its small business district. For years

technology.

the small business’ and mom and pop shops have

Through a buildings transition it is important to keep

struggled to capture a consistent and reliable client

the buildings history prevalent. When dealing with

base.

historic structures it is an architects responsibility to

Through the program analysis the objective of this

learn from heritage structures and respond to their

thesis is the creation of a focal point. A complex that

story and character. In addition to the impact on the

benefits the community and attracts the general

building, the impact on the building and economy

public. Preparing and anticipating for the future, the

must be considered in the feasibility of the project.

goal of this structure is to employ an architecture

[56]

As society, culture,


description

user

The primary user of this mix use development is the local community and residents. The secondary user is the general public the programming will seek to attract. This user base falls into several different categories: residential, commercial, retail, and recreation

residential

The residential users will the permanent and constant variable of this program. Occupying the space on a 24 hour cycle. Within the residential scope of the program all age groups will be targeted, college students and young adults in there 20’s will be the primary focus.

commercial

The commercial users will include those occupying office space within the structure, also including the clients and events.

retail

recreation

The primary retail audience will be the local community and residents. The retail programming will cover a wide scope from general needs to leisure items.

The recreational users will include those who occupy y the studios and public space within the property.

[57]


potential users

Lindsay Lindsay is a full time college student majoring in international studies at Roger William’s University. She is an avid coffee drinker and shopaholic, with a thriving social life. Lindsay goes to class during the day and retreats to downtown bristol at night and on weekends. Lindsay and her friends visit the local boutiques and coffee shops often, but wish there was a larger variety of stores. She frequently exercises and runs downtown, her preferred route is along the water. Ideally she hopes one day the board walk will continue along the entire water front. Lindsay has been looking for a job for a couple of weeks and wishes there were more opportunities in town. Use: Entertainment, Social, Shopping Age: 21 Ability: Full Occupation: Student Frequency: 2-5 times per week Time: Morning, Afternoon, Nights Duration: 30mins - 4 hours Albert Albert has lived in Bristol for forty years and has owned a local business for eighteen years. He fell in love with the historic charm of Bristol and can’t imagine living anywhere else. Albert depends of tourism and locals for income and has tried many different marketing schemes to get more customers and a steady client base. Advertisements in local newspapers and magazines has not generated the response he has hoped for. Albert hopes that Bristol will realize its need for expansion sooner than later. He values the small town feel the community has and enjoys he daily run ins on the streets with his customers and friends. It would be nice if there was more to do in the downtown area with groups of friends. Use: Social, Educational Age: 58 Ability: Full Occupation: Owner of Albert’s Antiques in downtown Bristol Frequency: 1-2 times per week Time: Morning, Afternoon Duration: 10mins - 2 hours Sarah Sarah is a lawyer with an office in downtown Bristol. She is also a member of the town council and part of the Historic Preservation committee. She has a passion for architecture and historic preservation and lives in Bristol for that reason. Sarah believes retaining the character of Bristol is vital and fully supports the strict codes and regulations the historic board has put in place. She was against putting a Dunkin Donuts on the main street of Bristol but can not deny that it has been very successful since it opened. Sarah made sure that the historic store front that Dunkin Donuts now occupies retained its character and charm. Sarah is also a realist and knows that the business’ of Bristol constantly struggle and something needs to be implemented in order to draw a larger crowd into town. Age: 33 Ability: Full Occupation: Lawyer Use: Social, Business, Entertainment Frequency: 1 per week Time: Morning, Afternoon Duration: 10 mins - 2 Hours

[58]


ccasesstudies

1 The Ford Assembly Building

2 Shoreham Street

3

The Granary Lofts

[59]


the ford assembly Architect

Marcy Wong Donn Logan Architects

Location

Richmond, California

Previous Use

Automobile plant

New Use

Mix Use Entertainment Office Dining Vistor Center

Size

525,000 sqft

Key Elements

•Maintained original structure •Open space that hosts temporary events and clients •Programmed space for the community

FIGURE 4.2 Ford Assembly Interior

FIGURE 4.3 Ford Assembly Exterior

FIGURE 4.4 Ford Assembly Exterior

FIGURE 4.5 Ford Assembly Interior

FIGURE 4.6 Ford Assembly Exterior

[60]


shoreham street Architect

Project Orange

Location

Shoreham, England

Previous Use

Steel & Aluminum Warehouse

New Use

Mix Use Residential Office Dining

Key Elements

•Maintained original structure •Engages the existing design by projecting new additions through and around the existing structure •Contrasting design and materials

FIGURE 4.7 Shoreham Street Facade detail

FIGURE 4.8 Shoreham Street Exterior

FIGURE 4.9 Shoreham Street Exterior

FIGURE 4.10 Shoreham Street Interior stair

[61]


the granary

Architect

medusa Group

Location

Gliwice, Poland

Previous Use Granary

New Use

Mix Use Residential Office Retail

Key Elements

•Maintained original structure •Open space that can transform for future services and customers •Complimentary materials

FIGURE 4.11 The Granary Facade detail

FIGURE 4.12 The Gramary material detail

FIGURE 4.13 The Granary Interior detail

FIGURE 4.14 The Granary Interior

FIGURE 4.15 The Granary Exeterior

[62]


typology

building

The typology for this Industrial Complex would best be described as a mix use development. Employing several programmatic functions promotes the buildings continuous use and transitional quality. A mix use development also possess the ablity to meet the needs of several different user groups.

Industrial Complex: • 2.9 acre lot • Several attached buildings • 327,488 sqft • 2-4 stories

FIGURE 4.16 3d site plan

[63]


1 Circulation 2 Residential

elements

program 1

80,000 sqft

• Loft, Studio & Condo spaces • Student Living • Family Living • Luxury Living

3 Studios 24,000 sqft

• Studios & lease-able space for artists & students • Space will be adaptable and expandable

2 3

4 5

4 Retail

6

60,000 sqft

•Different square footages will be offered to encourage start-ups and small businesses •Dining •Grocery •Fitness •Clothing •Goods

7

5 Community/Recreation 45,000 sqft

• Public and rent-able venues for the community •Sports and recreation

6 Commercial

FIGURE 4.17 Phase One 3D Programming

90,000 sqft

•Offices with open plan layout

7 Parking

[64]


FIGURE 5.1 Facde Collage

[65]


chapter

5

schematic

design

[66]


FIGURE 5.2 Mount Hope High School

FIGURE 5.3 Bristol Yacht Club

FIGURE 5.4 The Robin Rug Factory

FIGURE 5.5 Roger Williams University

[67]


FIGURE 5.6 Bristol Proposed Connections

[68]


FIGURE 5.7 Bike Path Terminus

FIGURE 5.8 Board Walk Terminus

FIGURE 5.9 Parking Lot

FIGURE 5.10 Hope Street Entrance

[69]


FIGURE 5.11 Proposed Urban changes

[70]


design

site

Parking Lot

Vacant Lot

Community Garden

Proposed Residential Lots Proposed Street

[71]


FIGURE 5.12 Existing Site Conditions

FIGURE 5.13 Proposed Site Conditions

[72]


design

site

FIGURE 5.14 Site Plan

[73]


existing street scape

FIGURE 5.15 Existing Street

proposed street scape

FIGURE 5.16 Proposed Street

Total = 46 Ft

6 Ft

12 Ft Bike path

[74]

22 Ft

16 Ft Sidewalk


east elevation

south elevation

[75]


FIGURE 5.17 East Elevation

FIGURE 5.18 South Elevation

[76]


2008re-development

plan

Information Requested

•What is the appropriate density for residential units? •How should affordable housing being addressed? •What is the proper configuration of retail space? •What are the inconsistencies between the town plan and the proposal?

Level One

Proposed Development

•The original footprint of the factory is 280,000sqft • 98 Residential units - 1,2 & 3 Bedrooms ranging from 1,000 sqft to 4,000 sqft •13,000 sqft of commercial and retail space on the first level

96 % residential

Level Two

Arguement Introducing 98 new condos into this already over saturated residential downtown district will only leave units empty and the local economy underwhelmed. Instead of developers learning from existing residential

Level Three

complexes within the area that have failed they continue to construct one dimensional developments that fall short of aiding the local community.

Level Four

Parking Plan - Basement

FIGURE 5.19 Proposed Floor Plans for the Robin Rug Factory

[77]


community

involvement

FIGURE 5.20 Facebook comments for the Robin Rug Factory

After conducting a survey it became obvious that the function of this complex must address many different user groups.

[78]


The initial adjaceny diagram displays how the factory can be divided into smaller spaces and where the introduction of open atrium spaces would be the most benefical.

FIGURE 5.21 Adjacency Diagram

[79]


Developed further a more detailed adjaceny exploration shows how spaces can be divided even further. This looks into where public and private spaces may take place and where small and large open spaces will be best utilized.

FIGURE 5.22 Stage Two Adjacency Diagram

[80]


elements

program

1 Circulation 2 Commercial

•Offices with open plan layout

1

3 Community/Recreation • Public and rent-able venues for the community •Sports and recreation •Farmer’s Market/Food Co-op • Student Living

2

3

4

5

4 Retail, Family Living, Dining

•Different square footages will be offered to encourage start-ups and small businesses •Dining •Clothing •Goods •Residential

6

5 Studios

• Studios & lease-able space for artists & students • Space will be adaptable and expandable •Public gallery •Artist Living

6 Parking

•Will utilize the space underneath the building

FIGURE 5.23 Phase Two 3D Program Diagram

[81]


user

target

Bristol County •Mean household income

$58,214

•Mean contract rent

$782 •Median monthly housing costs with mortgage

$2,175 •Median monthly housing costs without mortgage

$749

FIGURE 5.24 Bristol Income Map

[82]


circulation The circulation of the new complex with exist within each seperate structure as well as in the linear connections being introduced. These linear corridors will connect each building to the next and will connect the user to both the town and the harbor. FIGURE 5.25 Proposed Circulation Diagram

[83]


Secondary Entrance

Primary Entrance

FIGURE 5.26 First Floor Circulation

[84]


horizontal connections

FIGURE 5.27 Robin Rug Factory Facade

Corridors will be introduced into the new design for the Robin Rug Factory to establish a connection between the town on the west side and teh harbor on the east side. The location for these corridors was based upon load bearing walls and openings within the existing building.

FIGURE 5.28 Horizontal Connection Sketches

FIGURE 5.29 Horizontal Connection Concept

[85]


FIGURE 5.32 Atrium Material Study

FIGURE 5.33 Atrium Pathways

FIGURE 5.34 Atrium Pathways

FIGURE 5.30 Horizontal Connection Concept

FIGURE 5.31 Proposed Horizontal Connections

[86]


atriumdesign

FIGURE 5.35

FIGURE 5.36

FIGURE 5.37

FIGURE 5.35 Atrium Spatial Analysis

FIGURE 5.38

[87]


existing

materials

FIGURE 5.40

brick

FIGURE 5.41

glass

FIGURE 5.42

stucco

proposed

materials

FIGURE 5.43

glass

steel FIGURE 5.44

FIGURE 5.39

[88]


zone onelevel

FIGURE 5.45

one FIGURE 5.46

FIGURE 5.47

18,000 sqft Primary Program Gallery

Supporting Spaces •Office •Reception / lobby •Storage •Public Restroom •Cafe

FIGURE 5.48

[89]


level twozone one FIGURE 5.49

FIGURE 5.50

FIGURE 5.51

18,000 sqft Primary Program Working Studios

Supporting Spaces

•Workshop •Storage •Public Restroom / lockeroom •Display area •Lecture area

FIGURE 5.53

[90]

FIGURE 5.52


zone onelevel

FIGURE 5.54

three & four

FIGURE 5.55

FIGURE 5.56

36,000 sqft Primary Program Artist Studio / Loft

Supporting Spaces

• Common Area • 1, 2, & 3 Bedroom lofts

FIGURE 5.57

[91]


level onezone two FIGURE 5.58

FIGURE 5.59

FIGURE 5.60

FIGURE 5.61

20,500 sqft Primary Program Retail / Dining •Focus local & starter companies

Supporting Spaces

DN

• Showroom / Sales space • Dining • Storage • Kitchen Space • Refrigerator Space • Restrooms • Lounge

DN DN

FIGURE 5.62

[92]

DN

DN

DN

1 A101


zone twolevel

FIGURE 5.63

two

FIGURE 5.64

FIGURE 5.65

FIGURE 5.66

20,500 sqft Primary Program

Retail / Dining •Brand Names & Franchises

Supporting Spaces

DN

• Showroom / Sales space • Dining • Storage • Kitchen Space • Refrigerator Space • Restrooms • Lounge

DN DN

FIGURE 5.67

[93]

DN

DN

DN

1 A101


level three &zone two four FIGURE 5.68

FIGURE 5.69

FIGURE 5.71

FIGURE 5.70

20,500 sqft Primary Program Residential

Supporting Spaces DN

• Kitchen • Living • Bedroom • Bathroom • Office Space • Storage • Entrance Lobby • Mail room

DN DN

FIGURE 5.72

[94]

DN

DN

DN

1 A101


zone three level

one

FIGURE 5.74

FIGURE 5.73

FIGURE 5.75

FIGURE 5.76

25,000 sqft Primary Program

Supporting Spaces

Community Center • Grocery / Farmers Market • YMCA / Recreation Center DN

• Storage for goods • Refrigerator storage • open sales floor • Public restrooms • Cafe seating • Pharmacy / general store • Pool • Locker room

DN DN

DN

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.77

[95]


level twozone three FIGURE 5.79

FIGURE 5.78

FIGURE 5.80

FIGURE 5.81

25,000 sqft Primary Program

Supporting Spaces

Community Center • Fitness • YMCA / Recreation Center DN

• Open workout space • Yoga rooms • Sales space • Event space • Public restrooms • Lounge • Health store • Locker room

DN DN

DN

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.82

[96]


zone threelevel

FIGURE 5.83

three

FIGURE 5.84

FIGURE 5.85

FIGURE 5.86

25,000 sqft Primary Program

Supporting Spaces

Student Living

DN

• Lounge • Bedroom • Bathroom • Shared living space • Kitchen • Storage

DN DN

DN

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.87

[97]


level fourzone three FIGURE 5.89

FIGURE 5.88

FIGURE 5.90

13,000 sqft Primary Program

Supporting Spaces

Student Living DN

• Bedroom • Bathroom • Shared living space • Kitchen • Storage

DN DN

DN

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.91

[98]


zone fourlevel

FIGURE 5.92

one

FIGURE 5.93

FIGURE 5.94

7,300 sqft Primary Program Offices

Supporting Spaces

DN

• Conference room • Enclosed offices • Shared living space • Lunch room • Storage • Restroom

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.95

[99]


level twozone four FIGURE 5.96

FIGURE 5.97

FIGURE 5.98

7,300 sqft Primary Program Offices

Supporting Spaces

DN

• Conference room • Enclosed offices • Shared living space • Lunch room • Storage • Restroom

DN

DN

FIGURE 5.100

[100]

FIGURE 5.99


community residential recreation business lifestyle fitness art [101]


community revitalization

through adaptive reuse

Creating,

aiding,

and

redeveloping

a

stay relevant in the present and the future. This

community that is grounded by the past and

thesis will explore ways to stabilize and localize

inspired by the future. Guided by the aspect

the

of transformation, the objective of this thesis is

development

the creation of an evolving architecture that

and escalating to a community lifestyle. This

possess’ the capability to grow and adapt with

transformative structure will ultimately have

its context.

the intent of stabilizing a small community to

Adapting to the environemtal, economic and

give a new consistent life to small businesses

social realms is a necessary quality in order to

that create unique experiences.

[102]

community.

Creating

originating

a

with

sustainable a

building


[103]

FIGURE 6.1


chapter

6

development

design

The transformation of the Robin Rug Factory into Thames Landing.

[104]


FIGURE 6.2

[105]


final site

design

The final site design for Thames Landing is all about reconnecting the structure with the community and its surroundings. The inegrationg of this complex back into its surroundings is vital for its revitalization. This connection will be created through the program, architecture and urban connections. Forming visual pathways through the building, segmenting the facade and constructing several distinct buildings the complex will relate more with its context. The boardwalk will be continued along the backside of the complex and form a connection with the pathways leading to the different buildings. The bike path will run down Thames street passing in front of the building and ending at Roger Williams University 2.1 miles away. This will connect Thames landing to the several cities through out the state as well as giving the local college students a quick and easy access route. The super block located across the street from Thames landing will be densified taking use of under utilized spaced.

[106]


FIGURE 6.3

FIGURE 6.4

FIGURE 6.5

[107]


conditions

street

Presently Thames Street dedicated much of its surface are to on street parking. Taking away the on street parking for the five blocks adjacent to Thames Landing will provide space for the introduction of the bike path along Thames Street. The reduction of parking will also provide space for the widening of the sidewalk flanking Thames Landing. Green space will be provided in between vehicular and pedastrian to create a more pedestrian friendly atmosphere for the users of Thames Landing.

The provide more direct and better access to the site a new street will be added leading to the main entrance of Thames Landing. Along this new street two new residential plots will be added to densify the unused space. Orgininally the surface parking that exists on the north side of the street was to be made a community garden, after some reconsidering it was left to support the Thames Landing and make up for the onstreet parking being taken away.

[108]


weaving

design

The Robin Rug Factory has been a textile mill thourghout the buildings entire history. Steming off of the entwined history and use of this structure the aspect of weaving will be represented in the architecture being added to the existing structure. Using the anatomy of a braid to develop a pattern that has the ability to develop into an architecture. This architecture eventually developed into a truss system.

FIGURE 6.6

FIGURE 6.7

[109]


Utilizing these patterned trusses within the new linear corridors will add a new dimension to the pattern. Placing multiple trusses in line with one another will create a layering effect and a dyamic experiences. Specfic trusses will also display a three dimensional quality with a glass pyramid structure. In between the trusses will be steel tension ties linking each truss together.

FIGURE 6.8

[110]


The trusses will have three distinct treatments. The

corridor. This circulation space is connected to retail,

first trusses are located in the corridor that leads into

the market and the YMCA space. The corridor will

a main atrium space. This corridor will remain open

be a conditioned space with a transparent roof and

air until it meets the atrium space. Within the atrium

3dimensional glass curtain walls on the east and west

space the trusses will be behind a glass curtain

ends giving a clear path from the harbor to the town.

wall and will also be apart of a space frame system.

The third corridor is an open air circulation space that

The second treatment will be considered the main

leads the the main entrance of the YMCA and offices.

1 [111]


1

3

2

FIGURE 6.9

2

3 FIGURE 6.10

[112]


The west side of Thames Landing features two main

be a center to activity spilling from the inside out to

elements: the YMCA and the atrium space.

The

the terrace. The atrium will be full of activity from

YMCA pool space opens up to the Bristol Harbor.

residential, cafes, retail, art galleries and workshops

The harbor, boardwalk and surrounding activity will

and will all be able to be seen and heard from a

be able to witness the activity and community swim

multitude of perspectives.

meets happening inside. The atrium space will also

[113]


FIGURE 6.11

[114]


1 UP

UP

2

UP

3 UP

UP

UP

UP

4 UP

UP

5 UP

UP

0’

20’

40’

80’

FIGURE 6.12

[115]


one

level

zone one • 7,150sqft of commercial space • restrooms • kitchen & break room zone two • 9,850sqft market space • storage • restrooms zone three •16,000sqft YMCA • (2) 1,800sqft locker rooms zone four • (6) retail spaces ranging from 850sqft - 1600sqft • cafe space • lobby • restrooms zone five • 16,000sqft of gallery and installation space • restrooms • offices • lobby

[116]


1

2

3

4 5

FIGURE 6.13

0’

20’

40’

80’

[117]


two

level

zone one • 7,150sqft of commercial space • restrooms • kitchen & break room zone two • 3,000sqft of dining space over looking market • storage • restrooms zone three • balcony space overlooking pool • (2) 1,800sqft exercise rooms zone four • (5) residential units ranging from 1100sqft - 2,000sqft zone five • (6) workshop spaces 800-1,200sqft • restrooms • lobby

[118]


1 UP

UP

UP

3

2 DN

UP

UP

DN

UP

DW

4

DW

UP

5 DW

UP

DN UP

FIGURE 6.14

0’

20’

40’

80’

[119]


three

level

zone one • 7,150sqft of commercial space • restrooms • kitchen & break room zone two • 9,850sqft fitness center • storage zone three • (4) yoga and exercise rooms 1,000sqft - 1,200sqft • (2) 1,800sqft locker rooms zone four • (5) residential units ranging from 1100sqft - 2,000sqft • lobby zone five • (4) residential units from 1,500sqft - 2,000sqft • lobby

[120]


1 DN

DN

2

3

DN

DN

4 5 DN

DN

FIGURE 6.15

0’

20’

40’

80’

[121]


four

level

zone one • 7,150sqft of commercial space • restrooms • kitchen & break room zone two • 3,000sqft fitness center • storage zone three • event space 3,500sqft • (2) offices 1,100sqft zone four • (5) residential units ranging from 1100sqft - 2,000sqft • lobby zone five • (4) residential units from 1,500sqft - 2,000sqft • lobby

[122]


56’ - 0”

40’ - 0”

26’ - 0”

12’ - 0”

0’ - 0”

-15’ - 0”

0’

10’

one

20’

section

40’

FIGURE 6.16

Section one cuts through the art gallery, workshops, residential and atrium space. This conveys how both public and private spaces look over the open atrium space bringing together a sense of community.

two

section

Section two shows the market, YMCA, fitness center, event space and offices. The relationship with the balcony spaces can be seen over looking the market and pool.

56’ - 0”

40’ - 0”

26’ - 0”

0’ - 0”

-15’ - 0”

0’

10’

20’

40’

FIGURE 6.17

[123]


56’ - 0”

40’ - 0”

26’ - 0”

12’ - 0”

0’ - 0”

-15’ - 0”

0’

10’

20’

FIGURE 6.18

three 40’

section

Section three displays the retail store fronts in addition to the residential units above. The west side of the retail and residential looks out over the atrium space.

four

section

Section four cuts through the open plan office spaces. There are meeting rooms, break room and a lobby space.

56’ - 0”

40’ - 0”

26’ - 0”

12’ - 0”

0’ - 0”

-15’ - 0”

0’

10’

20’

40’

FIGURE 6.19

[124]


space frame me

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detail

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[125] [121]


section

walll

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Base plate *URXW $QFKRUEROW 5HEDU &RQFUHWHIRRWLQJ

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[122] [126]

FIGURE 6.22


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throughadaptive reuse

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[123] [127]


FIGURE 6.23


[129]


[130]

FIGURE 6.24


[131]


[132]

FIGURE 6.25


[133]


FIGURE 6.26

[134]


[135]


FIGURE 6.27

[136]


[136]


[138]

FIGURE 6.28


[139]


FIGURE 6.29

[140]


[141]


work k

cited

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15.

Brand, S. (1994) How buildings learn. New York, NY, Penguin Group. Gilderbloom, John. "Preservation Kentucky - Publications."Http://www.preservationkentucky.org. Preservation Kentucky Inc., n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. "Heritage Tourism." Preservationnation.org. National Trust for Historic Preservation, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. "Historic Preservation Creates Jobs." Http://heritagebusinessjournal.com. Heritage Business Journal, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. "How Much Energy Is Consumed in Residential and Commercial Buildings in the United States?" Http://www.eia.gov/tools/faqs/faq.cfm?id=86&t=1. U.S Department of Energy, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Jacobs, Jane. The Death and Life of Great American Cities. [New York]: Random House, 1961. Print. Langenbach, Randolph, and Gene Bunnell. A Future from the Past: The Case for Conservation and Reuse of Old Buildings in Industrial Communities. Washington: U.S. Dept. of Housing and Urban Development, 1978. Print. "National Trust for Historic Preservation." Http://www.preservationnation.org. International National Trust Oragnization, n.d. Web. 03 Nov. 2013. â&#x20AC;&#x153;National Interstate and Defense Highway Act.â&#x20AC;? www.ourdocument.gov. U.S. National Archives & Records Administration, n.d. Web. 27Oct. 2013. Powell, Ken. Architecture Reborn: Converting Old Buildings for New Uses. New York: Rizzoli, 1999. Print. "Profits through Preservation." Http://www.placeeconomics.com/. Utah Heritage Foundation, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Rabinowitz, Phil. "Section 7. Encouraging Historic Preservation." Http://ctb.ku.edu/en/table-ofcontents/implement/phsyical-social-environment/historic-preservation/main. Work Group for Community Health and Development, n.d. Web. 27 Oct. 2013. Stephens, S. (2008, July). Dialogue in time. Architectural Record, 196 (7), p. 133. "Town of Bristol Rhode Island: Community Development Information: Planning." Ri.gov. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Nov. 2013. United States. Heritage Preservation Services. U.S Department of the Interior. The Secretary of the Interiors Standards for the Treatment of Historic Properties. By Kay Weeks and Anne Grimmer. Washington D.C: n.p., 1995. Print.

[142]


Community Revitalization through Adaptive Reuse