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(7) Zlvkdif

(7) Zlvkdif 1


(7) Zlvkdif

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pGrf;òrdif (xkdif;jrefrme,fpyf) aZmfaZmfatmif (Auo) tvif;tdrfpmapmif (*syef)

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alinneain@hotmail.com aalinneain@yahoo.com swammyaing@yahoo.com

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tvif;tdrfpmapmif (*syef) rS xkwfa0onf 2

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(103) Haimuzariya,3-16-16 Takadanobaba,Shinjuku-Ku, Tokyo,Japan(169-0075)


(7) Zlvkdif

rmwdum · pum;OD; · xkwfa0olwdkŒtrSm · 'kwd,t}udrf ppfwyftm%modrf;xm;pOfumv 1962=63 ausmif;om;v+yf&Sm;r+rsm;rSaumufE+wfcsuf ordkiftusOf; atmifapmOD;(rdiª ;f &mjynf)h · ausmif;om;xk. _idrf;csrf;a&;awmif;qkdoH (1962 Zlvikd f 3 &uf) OD;ynmoD&d · (7) &ufZlvkdif ta&;awmfykH (uAsm) 0if;wifx h eG ;f · Auorsm;tzGJŒcsKyf (EkdifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD) . xkwfjyefcsuf? · (7) &ufZlvkdif ta&;awmfykH (okdŒr[kwf) ppftpkd;&&JŒ vlowfyGJ 0if;wifx h eG ;f · Zlvkdif (7) &ufpdwf"mwf t"GefŒ&Snfygap ref;&Smvm;zef; · (7) Zlvkdif&JŒ orkdif;u¾ zk;d oH (vlxk) · Zlvkdif (7) &uf ta&;awmfykH wifah Zmf · Auoqkdwm òzdzsufI &aumif;aomt&mr[kwfyg ZGerf id+ ;f · (7) *sLvkdif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;v+yf&Sm;r+oydwf}uD;ukd Oya'ykdif;qkdif&m&+axmifhrS csOf;uyfavhvm a0zefokH;oyfjcif; OD;atmifx;l (J) Ekid if aH &;tusO;f om;a[mif; · Zlvkdif (7) 1962 ta&;awmfykHtwGif; aoqkH;ol/ '%f&m&ol/ aysmufqkH;ol/ zrfqD;cH&ol ausmif;om;rsm;pm&if;?

(4) (5) (6) (8) (10) (13) (15) (22) (25) (30) (52) (63) (74) 3


7 &uf 1962 ckESpfrS onf (44)ESpfwdkifcJhay+yD ?

(7) Zlvkdif

pum;OD; 7 &ufZlvdkif 1962 ckESpfrSonf 7 &ufZlvdkif2006 xdqdkvSsif (44)ESpfwdkifcJh+yD? xdkae@a&mufwdkif;aemifawmfausmifom;}uD;rsm;wdkufyGJ0ifcJhaomcGGyfa'gif;awG&J@aoG;ordkif; *k%fxl; *k%fyk'fawGudk atmufarhwo vGrf;qGwf=uygw,f? qJAif;Zlvdkif aoG;pufordkif;[mb,fvdkrSarhazsmufEd_ifrSmr[kwfyg? 'DtjzpfrSef ordkif;tcsuftvufawGudk rsKd;qufopf cGyfa'gif;awGqD vufqufqifhurf;=u&ygr,f? xdktjzpftysufrsm;udkpmtkyfi,fwtkyf/rSwfwrf;i,fwapmiftjzpfpkpnf;xkwf a0vdkaom pdwfapwemjzifhtpysKd;rdygw,f? *syefEdkifiHwGifxkwfa0aeaom tvif;tdrf pmapmif0dkif;awmfom;rsm;xJrS udk&J+idrf;ESihf wdkifyif aqG;aEG;jzpf=uygw,f? usaemhudk pmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;udpPrsm; wm0ef,l pDpOfaqmif&Gufay;zdk@ qENðy vmygw,f? usaemfuvnf;av;eufpGm wm0ef,lvdkufygw,f? q&m zdk;oH(vlxk)/ q&mref;&SSmvm;zef;/ q&m0if;wifhxGef;/ q&mZGefr_dif;/ q&m OD;atmifxl;(J) / wdk@xHrS pmrlScsD;jrSifhvmygw,f? q&mOD; wifhaZmf &J@ Zlvdkif 7 &ufta&; awmfyHk aqmif;yg;rSm vl@abmifopf 'Drdku&ufwpfygwDrS xkwfa0aom a&pD;oH*sme,fwGif tcef;qufaz: jycJhbl;onfhpmrludk jyefvnfxnfhoGif; az: jyvdkufygw,f? Tpmtkyfjzpfajrmufa&;wGif q&mOD;wifhaZmf. pmrludk &SmazGay;aoma&pD;oH *sme,f wm0efcHt,f'Dwm q&mxGËfOD;v_dif/ pmrlrsm;udkulnDzwf&_ay;aom rwdk;wdk;ESifh 0dkif;0ef;ulnDoltm;vHk;udk aus;Zl;wif&Sdygw,f? pGrf;òrif 7 Zlvdkif 2006

4


(7) Zlvkdif

xkwfa0olwdkŒtrSm vlb0vl hordkif;jzpfpOfjzpf&yfawGxJrSmtrSefw&m;qdkwmtjrJ&Sdygw,f// trSefw&m;twGuf 'DjzpfysufcJh=u&wJhtcif;tusif;awGrSm yg0ifywfoufcJh&olawG/ rsufjrifudk,fawG@ od&SdrDScJh&olawG[mol@tuef@eJol/ ol@twdkif;twmt&yg0if ywf oufr_awGeJ@ olwdk@&J@tjrif t,l0g'awG[morkdif;qdkif&mtcsuftvufawGyg// 'gawGurkd suaf rSmufacwfArmEdik if &H ŒJ ppftm%m&Sipf epfq;kd atmuf 'Dru kd a&pD awmfvSefa&; ta&;awmfyHkumv}uD;rSm jynfolvlxk/ wdkif;&if;om;nDtudkarmifESr awG&JŒtrSefw&m;twGuf tjrif&Sif;&Sif;odjrifEfkifzdk htwGuftaxmuftyHhwck/ ae&m trSwfonm wcktjzpfod&SdEdkifapzdk htvif;tdrfpmapmifrSpDpOfxkwfa0vdkufygw,f// 7 July [m trdArmjynf ppfreS w f v hJ w G af jrmufa&;twGuw f u kd yf JG 0ifc=hJ u& wJhausmif;ol/ ausmif;om; &Jabmf&JbufawG&J@ txifu& qHkcsufwckjzpfwJh ausmif; om;or*~taqmufO;D }uD;ukd òzdzsucf cH &hJ wJh a=uuGzJ , G &f m ae@w&ufjzpf+yD;/ Adv k af e0if; OD;aqmifwhJ zufqpfppftm%m&Siaf wG&ŒJ &ufpuf&rf;um; r_ujkd yocJw h hJ aeqd;k ae@wae@ vnf;jzpfygw,f// 1962 ckESpfrS ,ae@rsufarSmufacwftrd Armjynfudk &ufpuf,kwfrmr_ taygi;f eJ@ zdEydS t f yk cf sKyfaewJh etzwjzpfvnf; ppftpd;k &[mvnf; Adv k af e0if;&J@tarGudk qufc+H yD; jynfov l x l ek @J wdik ;f &if;om;nDtudt k aygi;f udpk pfu|eðf yv#uf ‚if;wd@k tm%m wnfjrJa&;twGuf jynfolvlxk&JŒqENawGukd rsufuG,fðyum aqmif&Gufaer_tay: trSefw&m;udkjrwfEdk;olrsm;taejzifh óud;pm;xkwfa0vdkufygw,f// tvif;tdrfpmapmif

5


(7) Zlvkdif

'kwd,t}udrf ppfwyftm%modrf;xm;pOfumv 1962 = 63 ausmif;om;v+y&f mS ;r+rsm;rSaumufEw + cf suo f rkid ;f tusO;f 1962 ck/ ZGefv (18) &ufwGif rw&m;taqmifpnf;urf;rsm; xkwfjyefcJhonf? Oyrm - owfowfvGwfpm;olrsm;tm; (1) &uf/ (2) &ufpm;cGifhray;yJ (1) ESpfvkH;pm;rS cGifhðy rnf[laom pnf;urf;jzpfonf? 1962 ck/ Zlvidk v f (2) &ufwiG f &efuek cf ¶kid f pmppfXmewef;jrifah usmif;xGuf pmar;yGt J m; y,fzsuaf oma=umifh oufqidk &f mtm%mykid rf sm;ESiahf qG;aEG;&ef (Auo) u awmif;qkcd o hJ nf? 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv (3) &ufwGif or*~cef;rwGif tpnf;ta0;ðyvkyf+yD; uarmufur ynma&;pHepfukd zsufodrf;a&;ESifh rw&m;taqmifpnf;urf;rsm;ukd zsufodrf;&ef ausmif;om; xku awmif;qkdcJhonf? 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv (5) &ufwGif 'wfcsfoH¶kH;qENjy&mY or*~}uD; (3) ckrS jyjcif;jzpf&m ppftm%mykid rf sm;u yk*K~ v d af &;t&ta&;,ljcif;qko d nfrmS or*~uadk o;odraf tmifðyvkyjf cif; [k or*~u,lqonf? xkd@a=umifh ,if;udpPtm; uef@uGufcJh=uonf? 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv (6) &ufwGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpDu wuUokdvfpD;edwftzGJ@ESifh ausmif;aqmifaumfrDwDrsm;ukd ‚if;wkd@pdwfwkdif;us jyifqifzGJ@pnf;cJhonf? 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv (7) &ufwGif ae@vnf (1) em&DY (wuo) tpnf;a0;yGJðyvkyf+yD; wuUov dk 0f if;twGi;f qENjyuef@uu G cf =hJ u.? yxrykid ;f vkx H ed ;f &Jrsm;a&mufvm+yD; rsu&f nf,dk AkH;rsm;jzifh vlpkcGJESdrfeif;=uonf? nae (5 ; 30) cef@wGif ppfum; (2) pD; a&mufvm+yD; ausmif; om;xktwGif; ypfcwfowfjzwfcJhonf? wyfrSm (oeu-4) jzpf+yD; ypfrdef@rSm (3) rdepfypf (2) rdepfem; (3) rdepfypf jzpfonf? vufeufrsm;rSm *smr%Dvufeufurk % ` w D ckEiS hf zufpyfvyk u f idk f xm;aom jrefrmjynfrnfonfh ppfajrjyifYr# tokH;rðy&ao;aom G3, G4 armif;jyef¶kdifz,f aoewfrsm;jzpfnf? ppftpkd;&u ausmif;om; (17) OD;aoqkH;a=umif; owif;azmfjyaomfvnf; rE Wav; aqmifwckwnf;rSmyif w&m;0ifpm;&if;t& (17) OD;ruaoqk;H cJ+h yD; tm;vk;H aygi;f ausmif;om; &mausmaf oqk;H cJo h nf? ajrmif;jrrS ausmif;om;ukad usm0f if;rSm rE aW v;aqmife&H YH ‚if;uk, d rf S aoG;jzifh “7-7-62 rarh=ueJ@”[k a&;om;cJhonf? ukdausmf0if;onf ‚if;aoewf'%f&mjzifh (wuo) taqmuftOD;wGif ckdem;aecJhonf? 1962 ck/ Zlvkdifv (8) &ufae@reuf tm¶k%fOD;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHvGwfvyfa&;orkdif;w av#mufwGif orkdif;tpOftvm}uD;rm;cJhaom or*~taqmuftOD;tm; “uGefjrLepfrsm;.

6


(7) Zlvkdif ajray:XmecsKyfESifh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm; ykef;atmif;&mae&mjzpfonf”[kqkdum e,f cs@J orm;rsm;yif rvky&f J rvky&f ufaomudpt P m; aoG;qmaeaom zufqpfppfbv D ;l woku d u f ¶kdif;pkdif;,kwfrmpGm 'kdif;erkdufjzifh azmufcGJzsufqD;vkdufonf? '%f&mjzifhvJaeaom ajrmif;jr ukad usm0f if;onf or*~taqmuftOD;ESit hf wl 'kid ;f erku d cf v JG u dk o f nft h xJwiG f ygomG ;avawmh onf? reuf (8 ; 00) em&D a&'D,rdk S owif;vmaomtcg ppftm%m&SiAf v dk cf sKyfae0if;qko d l u “usaemfwkd@tvkyfysufatmif &nfpl;+yD; wrifwumvkyfae=uwmqkd&ifawmh usaemf aemufxyf bmrS rajymvkdawmhbl;? tenf;qkH; 'g;ukd'g;eJ@ vSHukdvSHeJ@ Face to Face &ifqkdifzkd@ yJ&Sdygw,f?”[k ausmif;om;xkw&yfvkH;ESifh jynfolvlxktm; apmfum;oGm;cJhonf? 1963 Ekd0ifbm ausmif;jyeftzGJ@wGif or*~taqmuftOD;ae&mY ,m,DwJjzifh or*~ ukd jyefvnfwnfaxmifjyefonf? Akv d af tmifausmaf usmufwidk Ef iS t hf wl tvsm; (77) vufr/ teH (62) vufr&Sdaom ausmufwkdifwckðyvkyfcJh+yD; (7-7-62) wGif usqkH;oGm;cJh=uaom ausmif;om;&mausmftm;&nfpl;I “&mausmfausmufwkdif”[k trnfwGifapcJhonf? okd@aomf r=umrD jynfwGif;ppf&yfpJa&;/ jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;qENjyyGJrsm; jzpfay:cJh+yD; ausmif;rsm;jyefyw d u f m &mausmaf usmufwidk Ef iS t hf wl or*~,m,Dwt J aqmuftOD;vnf; xyf rH zsufodrf;cHvkduf&jyefonf? (rqv) . aemufqkH;ae@&ufrsm;wGif 1988 ck Zlvkdif (23) &uf paeae@ 1350 ck/ 'kwd,0gqkdvqef; (10) &ufae@ usKduUqHuGif; q&mpHcef;r (rqv) aemufqkH;nDvmcHwGif OD;ae0if; (t+idrf;pm;AkdvfcsKyf}uD;) qkdolu or*~taqmuftOD; zsufqD;cJhr_wGif olryg0ifyJ atmif}uD;vkdvkd b,folvkdvkd v$JcscJhonf? okd@aomf 1963 ckwGif or*~,m,DwJhtaqmuf tOD;zsufqD;csdefwGif ppfwyfxJY atmif}uD;r&Sdawmhay? Ttcsufukd OD;ae0if;qkdoltaejzifh rnfo@dk ajymqkrd nfudk apmif=h unh&f rnfjzpfonf? wckaocsmonfrmS “orkid ;f qko d nfrmS nmvk@d vnf; r&/ n‡mvkd@vnf; r&” qkdjcif;yifjzpfnnf? xkd@aemufykdif;wGif “or*~jyefvnfwnfaqmufa&;ESifh ausmif;om;ta&; aqmif&Guf r_aumfrDwD”[lI v#Kd@0SufpGm zGJ@pnf;+yD; 1988 ckESpfwkdifatmif enf;rsKd;pkHjzifh qufvufv_yf&Sm; cJhonf? tcsKd@rSmvnf; vufeufukdiftzGJ@tpnf;toD;oD;okd@a&muf&Sdum vufeufukdifawmf vSefa&;jzifh ppftm%m&Sifpepftm; qufvufqef@usifwkdufyGJ0ifaeonfrSm ,ae@wkdifyifjzpf onf? atmifapmOD; (r_dif;&mjynfh) . ( jrefrmEkdifiHausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ orkdif;tusOf;pmtkyfrS xkwfEkwfwifjyonf?)

7


(7) Zlvkdif

ausmif;om;xk. _idrf;csrf;a&;awmif;qkdoH (1962 Zlvkdif 3 &uf)

urBmat;uke;f ajrrS urBm+h ird ;f csr;f a&;nDvmcH}u;D t+y;D Zlvidk v f (3) &ufae@wiG f wuo taqmuftOD;twGi;f ausmif;olausmif;om;xk qENjyyGw J &yf usi;f ycJ=h uayonf? &efuek cf ¶kid f wef;jrifhausmif;xGuf pmar;yGJzsufodrf;r_ukd uef@uGufonfh ausmif;olausmif;om;xk qENjy yGjJ zpfvsu/f &mZ0ifajymifcahJ om cGyaf 'gi;f tvHawmfatmufwiG f atmifjrifpmG usi;f ycJ=h ujcif; vnf;jzpfonf? urBmat;uke;f ajr urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;nDvmcHrS urBm+h idr;f csr;f a&;ukad wmif;qkcd =hJ uovkd wuotwGif;ausmif;olausmif;om;xkqENjyyGJrSmvnf; jrefrmh+idrf;csrf;a&;ukdawmif;qkdcJh =uayonf? jrefrmh+idr;f csr;f a&;onfjrefrmvkyo f m;jynforl sm;tzk@d ta&;}uD;aomvkt d yfcsuf w&yfjzpf&m ausmif;olausmif;om;xktaeESifh rdrdwkd@ynma&;epfemcsufrsm;ukd tajccH ta=umif;t&if;ukd &SmazG&mwGif jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;ysujf ym;r_udk tajccHjy\emw&yftjzpf qufpyfodjrif xkwfazmfoGm;=uonfrSm obm0usI rSefuefvSayonf?

cef ; vk H ; jynf h

qENjyyGu J dk &efuek cf ¶kid af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (&uo) rS }uD;rª;usi;f yjcif;jzpfI &efuek f c¶kdiftwGif;&Sd ausmif;rsm;rS ausmif;olausmif;om;rsm; wufa&mufvm=u&m wuocef;r aqmif}uD;wGif jynfv h #o H mG ;cJah yonf? qENjyyGw J iG f (&uo) OuUÏukzd ;dk xifuobmywd tjzpf t[ef@twm;rsm;=um;rS qENjyyGJ usif;y&jcif;ta=umif; rdef@cGef;ajym=um;+yD; Auorsm;tzGJ@ csKyf 'kOuUÏuko d ufEiS w hf uoacgi;f aqmifuAdk aqGav;wk@d uyg qENjyyGt J m; axmufcH a=umif; om"ursm;jzifw h ifjyoGm;=u&m ausmif;olausmif;om;xk. =obmoHrsm;rSm cef;raqmif}uD; tm; yJhwifxyfapcJhonfom jzpfayonf?

jynf w G i f ; +id r f ; csrf ; a&;

wae&mwGif ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifwOD;u tqkw d ifoiG ;f &if; ynma&;uarmufur jzpf&jcif;ta=umif;rsm;ukad zmfxw k +f yD; ,ae@ynma&;pepfudk ðyjyif&mwGif jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; vnf; &Szd @dk vt dk yfa=umif;/ xk@d a=umifh jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&; wnfaqmuf&efyg awmif;qkad =umif; ajym=um;vkduf&m ausmif;olausmif;om;xktm;vkH; OD;acgif;rsm; !Gwfcg pdwfyg0ifpm;pGmjzifh qENay;=uonfrSmvnf; av;eufaomtoGifukd aqmifvsufyif&SdcJhayonf?

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(7) Zlvkdif ta&;,l y g

qENjyyGw J iG f ausmif;om;xku wef;jrifph mar;yGzJ suo f rd ;f r_udk uef@uu G af =umif;/ pmar; yGJatmifpm&if;xkwfay;&ef awmif;qkda=umif;ESifh uarmufur ynma&;pepfzsufodrf;a&;/ pmar;yGJ ar;cGef;ayguf=um;r_twGuf oufqkdif&mt&m&Sdrsm;tm; ta&;,la&; tqkdrsm;ukd wifoGif;qkH;jzwf+yD; (1) t&m&Sdqkd;awG (ta&;,lypf æ ta&;,lypf) (2) pmar;yGJatmifpm&if; (tjrefxkwfay; æ tjrefxkwfay;) (3) uarmufurynma&;pepf (zsufodrf;ypf æ zsufodrf;ypf) (4) 'Drkdua&pDtcGifhta&; (tjynfht0ay; æ tjynfht0ay;) (5) ausmif;om;xkukd (r+cdrf;acsmufeJ@ æ r+cdrf;acsmufeJ@) (6) ausmif;om;xk (aoG;pnf;=u æ aoG;pnf;=u) [laom aºuG;a=umfoHrsm;jzifh wuUokdvf0if;twGif;vSnfhvnf aºuG;a=umfum wuo taqmuftOD;a&S@wGif qENjyyGJukd¶kyfodrf;vkduf=uayonf?

wm0ef a =u=uonf

jynfow l &yfv;Hk onf ,ae@ t=uyfaygi;f rsm;pGmESi&hf ifqidk af e=u&+y;D Ttusyt f wnf; rsm;tm; z,f&mS ;Ekid af &;wGuf jynfwiG ;f +idr;f csr;f a&;onf ta&;}uD;aom vkt d yfcsuw f &yftjzpf yg0ifvsuf&Sdayonf? TtajctaewGif ausmif;ol ausmif;om;rsm;. +idrf;csrfa&;awmif;qkdcsufonf vkH;0 obm0usonfhtjyif wm0efausyGefjcif;vnf; jzpfayonf? ausmif;om;xkum; +idrf;csrf;a&; awmif;qkdcJh=u+yDwum;? OD ; ynmoD & d ÖÖÖ

9


(7) Zlvkdif

(&)&ufZv l ikd f ta&;awmfyHk Ú 1962 ckEpS f ae0if;eJ ph pftyk pf [ k m ygvrD efukd t+yD;zsuo f rd ;f tm%modr;f jyD; wufvmw,f// Úwufvm vmcsi;f ae0if;&J t h m%modr;f r_ukd 'Dru kd a&pDzsuo f rd ;f a&;vky&f yf ppfwyftm%mxlaxmifa&;t=uH azmufjyefwv hJ y_ &f mS ;r_ tjzpf qef;ppf zGichf s twufºuGq;Hk qef@usif w&m;0ifuef@uu G f ausnmcsuf aocsmxkw+f yD; OD;OD;zsm;zsm; ¶_wcf scw hJ m A-u-oyg/ Ú 'ga=umifv h J &J&ifw h hJ A-u-o wufºuGwhJ ausmif;om;xktay: tjywfaqmf ESyd u f yG yf pfzkd h ppftyk pf &k J t h }ut H pnf[m tjidK;}uD;pGm &Scd w hJ ,f// Ú 'ga=umifhrdk h e,fcs@J w@kd &@J vufxuf u|eo f ufb0rSmawmif r&Szd ;l ao;wJh zdEydS af &;ausmif;pnf;urf;tzkzH u Hk kd wuUov kd yf &0k%x f o J @kd xw k jf yef &mZoHtpDtpOf pwifvmwJh tcsed f æ

10

0if ; wif h x G e f ;


(7) Zlvkdif Ú 1962 Zlvikd f (7) &uf xufjrufwo hJ r*~&J h wufºuGwhJ ordik ;f tpOftvmeJ h b,ftcgrS 'l;raxmuf ra=umufw&m;eJ ch yG af 'gi;f acgi;f armf+h yD; toifjh yif ppftm%m&Sirf sm;udk qef@usiaf &; wGeo f aH ºuG;jyD; toif&h ifqikd f (7) &uf Zlvikd q f w kd hJ ta&;awmfy}Hk uD; jrnf[nf; xGuaf y:vmcJjh yefygw,f? Ú ppftpd;k & æ tvdrk &Sd ppftm%m&Sipf epf æ tvdrk &Sd tiftm;tjynfh aºuG;a}umfoH rd;k vk;H nHatmif yJw h ifxyf jywfjywfom;om; azmfjycJ=h uw,f// Ú ppftyk pf &k J t h òid; vufeuftm;ud;k olrsm;yDyD jynfo@l om;aumif; orD;aumif;wd@k tay: acgi;f razmfeikd af tmif ypfcwf rao aoatmif owfc=hJ u t"dywdvrf;r}u;D vJ aoG;awGvr$ ;f uHah umfwef;awGvJ ,rf;eH@z;Hk taqmiftm;vk;H vJ usnq f o H ifh &ifeifph &mjrifuiG ;f tH}udw&f if; wufacguf wufacgu&f if;eJ ch yG af 'gi;f tvHt=um; ausmif;om;wd@k aoG; ajrccJ&h jyefygw,f// Ú 62 ckEpS f Zlvikd f (8) &uf acwftqufquf armfueG ;f rSww f ikd f cdik rf mwJt h rsK;d om;a&; oauFw e,fcs@J rsm;&J@ vufxufuawmif

a,mifv@kd awmif rwd@k rxd0hH vufweG f +h yD; a&Smif&mS ;cJh ausmif;om;rsm;&J@ a'gi;f &dyðf rH or*~taqmufttk}H u;D udv k J vuf&J Zuf&J òzdcs Ak;H eJ@c+JG yD; jymcsypfcw hJ ,f// ڑ'g; 'g; csif; æ vSH vSH csif;’ wJh ae0if;&J ph rd af c:oH jrefrmhtoHu wqifh xkwv f i$ +hf yD; ausnm rdu k ¶f idk ;f wJah e&mrSm pHðyavmufygayw,f? Ú w-u-o A-u-oeJ o h r*~}u;D tay:rSm bma=umifh 'gavmuftrke;f yGm; &efòi;d xm; &ufpuf zsuyf pfcsi&f wmvJqw kd m aoaocsmcsm jyef}unfh vG,v f , G af v;eJ o h ed ikd w f mu æ Ú A-u-oqdw k m Armjynf&J ah usmif;om;taygi;f cGyaf 'gi;f wd@k &J h arG;zGm;&m æ// Úor*~qw kd m Armjynf&J o h rdik ;f a=umif; cGyaf 'gi;f wd@k &J h cdv k &H_ m æ// Ú 'ga=umifh æ ppftm%m&Siaf wGtwGuf tm%moufq;kd &Snzf @kd ta&; cGyaf 'gi;f aoG;qdk taoowf tjywfajrjr‡Kyfypfcsicf =hJ uw,f//

11


(7) Zlvkdif Ú w-u-o A -u -o or*~whJ wufºuGwhJ ordik ;f tpOftvmeJ h Armjynf&@J txifu& xGe;f ywJh 'DtrnfawG[m &ifxrJ mS tpOfp;l ae0if;twGuf æ ql; t¶l;trl; qef@usif xm0pOf cg;onf;p&m}u;D awGjzpfcw hJ ,f// Ú w-u-o A-u-o wd@k &J o h rdik ;f a=umif; jyefajymif;ay:vmavwdik ;f twdik ;f rod t&Su&f w-u-o&JŒ acgi;f aqmifpm&if; A-u-o &JŒacgi;f aqmifpm&if; ae0if;wa,muf rygczhJ ;l b,fqaD jcOD;a&muf bma=umifh aysmufae&ovJ &J&J rajz0Hph &m jzpfcw hJ ,f// ÚArmjynfordik ;f wavsmuf xGe;f awmufxif&mS ; ausmif;om;rsm;&JŒ a'gi;f &dyðf rH or*~qw kd hJ taqmufttk}H uD;em; ajczsm;av;awmif roDz;l rygz;l wJh ae0if;[m vdyjf ymrvkH jzpfc&hJ or*~ jrif&if a&m*gwuf toa& ysuzf , G jf zpfcw hJ ,f//

12

Ú'g ah =umifv h J w-u-o A-u-oudk taoowf t+y;D tjywf zsuzf ,ford ;f csKyf+idr;f oGm;atmif vkycf w hJ ,f// Ú or*~}uD;udk Ak;H eJ@cJG vuf&J Zuf&J zsuòf zdcs jymusomG ;atmif vkycf w hJ ,f// Ú 'gayrJh ausmif;om;awG&ŒJ 0d^mOfxJ &ifxu J A-u-o b,fawmhrS rcsKyf+idr;f zsuo f rd ;f ypfv@kd r&yg// ÚcGyaf 'gi;f awG&J Eh v S ;Hk om;xJ &ifxu J or*~ b,fawmhrS ròydysuf zsuq f ;D ypfvkd rh &yg =unfh =u æ =unfh =u æ æ // // (0if ; wif h x G e f ; ) rSwcf suf 1995 ckEpS /f wuUov kd pf ed &f wktxdr;f trSw/f A-u-orsm;tzG@J csKyfrS xkwaf 0cJw h hJ 0if;wifx h eG ;f &J@ (cGyaf 'gi;f wd@k &@J wGeu f sL;oH) vk;H csi;f uAsmpmtkyf rS (7) &ufZlvdkif ta&;awmfykHtcef;udk xkwfE_wf azmfjyvdu k w f mjzpfygw,f//


(7) Zlvkdif

FOREIGN AFFAIRS COMMITTEE ALL BURMA FEDERATION OF STUDENT UNIONS (44) ESpfajrmuf Zlvkdif (7) &uf ESpfywfvnf xkwfjyefcsuf &ufpGJ? 7/ 7/ 2006 'Duae@ Zlvdkif (7) &uf[m tm%modrf;ppftkyfpku rw&m;ojzifh xkwfjyefxm;wJh ausmif;pnf;urf;/ taqmifpnf;urf;awGtay: uef@uGufwJhtaeeJ@ +idrf;csrf;pGm qENjywkdufyGJ 0ifwmudk ppftyk pf u k t=urf;zufypfcwfowfjzwfwehJ nf;eJ@w@Hk jyefcv hJ @kd ausmif;om;awG &mcsD usqHk;'%f&m&cJh+yD; rarhEkdifwJh a=uuGJzG,f&mtjzpftysuf}uD;jzpfysufcJhwJh (44) ESpfajrmuf ae@jzpfygw,f? 'gt h jyif aemufwae@ Zlvidk f (8) &ufae@ t¶k%Of ;D rSmawmh Armjynforkid ;f rSm t¶kyq f ;kd tusnf;wef;+yD; azsmufzsufvkd@r&EkdifwJh ausmif;om;jynfolw&yfvHk; av;pm;wefzdk;xm;cJh =uwJh orkdif;0if or*~taqmuftOD}uD;udk 'kdiferdkufeJ@ òzdcGJzsufqD;cJhygw,f? ausmif;om;awGudk &meJ@csD+yD;owfwm/ orkdif;0ifor*~ taqmuftOD}uD;udk òzdcGJ zsufqD;ypfwmawG[mausmif;om;awG&JŒr[kwfrcHwkdufyGJ0ifpdwf"mwfudk±kdufcsKd;zsufqD;zdk@ óud;pm;wJJh tm%modrf;+yD;ump ppftkyfpk&J@ yxrqHk;vkyf&yfjzpfygw,f/? 'gayr,hf ,ae@wkdif atmif e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;/ zufqpfawmfvSefa&;/ trsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;eJ@ jynfwGif;+idrf; csrf;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;eJ@twl aygufzGm;vmwJh ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_awGtay: vufeuftm; udk;eJ@ zdESdyfvdk@r&Ekdifwmudk acwftqufqufwkdufyGJawGuae tckaemufqHk; yJcl;u ausmif; om;awG a'gif;refuAsmxkwfa0+yD; wkdufyGJ0ifcJhr_txd oufaoxlaeygw,f? Armjynfausmif;om;awG&ŒJ trsKd ;om;a&;Ekid if aH &;vkyif ef;pOftay:rSm xm;&Sw d hJ wku fd yf JG 0if cGyfa'gif;pdwf"mwfeJ@ orkdif;tpOftvmudkawmh ppftkyfpktqufquftaeeJ@ b,faom tcgrS zsufqD;vdk@r&Ekdif[k usaemfwkd@taeeJ@ pGJjrJpGm,Hk=unfxm;ygw,f? 'Dae@umvArmjynf[m b,facwftcgueJ@rrS wlatmif Ekid if aH &;/ pD;yGm;a&;/ vlra_ &;/ userf ma&; pwJh bufaygi;f pkrH mS ysupf , D , kd iG ;f vsu&f +dS yD; jynfow l &yfv;kH rSmvnf; tvkyt f udik f

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(7) Zlvkdif &Sm;yg;r_eJ@ taxGaxGukefaps;Elef;}uD;jrifhwJh'%fudk cg;pD;cHae&+yD;/ aemufqHk; w&m;cHrsm;vdk tdrf wdkif;rSm vlpm&if;eJ@"mwfyHkuyf+yD; jyxm;&wJhtxdatmif etzppftyk pf &k @J zEd ydS rf u _ jyif;xefae ygw,f? xdek nf;twl ausmif;om;awGrmS vnf; ausmif ; om;xk & J Œ tcG i f h t a&;rsm; qH k ; ±_ H ; aeovd k ausmif ; om;or*~ r sm; w&m;0if&yfwnfEkdifcGifhrSmvnf; (44) ESpfwkdif aysmufqHk;aeygw,f? xd k @ twG u f ppf t m%m&S i f p epf zsuf o d r f ; a&;eJ @ 'D r d k u a&pD 0 ef ; usif ay:xGe;f a&;qdw k hJ trsK;d om;Ekid if aH &;wm0efe@J twl ausmif;om;or*~rsm; w&m;0if vGwfvyfpGmzGJ@pnf;Ekdifa&;wm0ef [m ,ae@ausmif;om; vli,fxkw&yfvHk;&J@ ycH;k xufrmS usa&mufae+yD jzpfygw,f? ausmif; om;or*~rsm; ay:ayguaf &; twGuf jzpfEkdifwJhenf;vrf;rSefor#udk tm;pkdufóud;yrf;oGm;&ef vkdtyfae+yDvdk@ Auo (Ek d i f i H j cm;a&;&maumf r wD ) taeeJ @ ,H k = unf , l q ygw,f ? 'gtjyif h vuf & S d EkdifiHa&;tusyftwnf;umvtwGif;rSmvnf; ausmif;om;xkw&yfvkH;taeeJ@ ausmif ; om; tcG i f h t a&;umuG , f a &;tygt0if ppf t k y f p k & J @ rw&m;wJ h zd E S d y f r _ r S e f o r#ud k qef @ usif & J w J h ausmif ; om;v_ y f & S m ;r_ a wG u d k yH k p H r sKd ; eJ @ azmfaqmifoGm;zdk@vnf; vdktyfaeygw,f? 'ga=umifh 'Duae@ usa&mufwJh (7) &uf Zlvdkif (44) ESpfjynfwJhtcsdefrSm usaemfwkd@ Auorsm;tzGJ@csKyf (EkdifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD) taeeJ@ Zlvkdif (7) &uf a e@rS m ol & J a umif ; yD o pG m usqH k ; oG m ;=uwJ h aemif a wmf a usmif ; om; taygif;wdk@tm; OD;!Gwf*k%fðy&if; ycHk;xufusa&muf aewJh trsKd;om;a&;EdkifiHa&; wm0efrsm; aus¹yGefa&;twGuf Armjynfauskmif;om;vli,fxk w&yfvHk;eJ@ rdbjynfolwkd@eJ@vufwGJum tm;pkdufóud;pm;oGm;rnfjzpfa=umif; today;tyf ygw,f? “ ausmifom;&Sdv#if ausmif;om;or*~&Sd&rnf” “ ppftm%m&Sifpepf rkcsusqHk;&rnf ”

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14

EkdifiHjcm;a&;&maumfrwD Auorsm;tzGJ@csKyf


(7) Zlvkdif

(&) &uf Zlvikd fta&;tcif; (od@k rh [kw)f ppftpd;k &&J v h o l wfyJG 0if;wifhxGef; 15


(7) Zlvkdif Adv k cf sKyf}uD;ae0if;yJacgi;f aqmifwt hJ rd af pmift h pd;k &vufxufwek ;f uvnf; Adv k cf sKyf}uD; ae0if;tpdk;&[m +idrf0yfydjym;a&;pDrHcsuftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ ausmif;om;xktay: ESdyfuGyfcJhygw,f? ausmif;om;xkvy_ &f mS ;r_reS o f r#ukd t+yD;wdik Zf ufowfypfEidk zf kd óh ud;yrf;tm;xkwcf yhJ gw,f? (59) ckESpfrSm &efukefwuUodkvftufOya'jyifqifcsufudk xkwfjyefcJhygw,f? tJ'Djyifqifcsuft&/ wuo&J w h &m;0ifu, kd pf m;vS,f (2) OD;udk &efuek w f uUov kd t f yk cf sKyfra_ umifpu D ae xkwyf ,f ypfcyhJ gw,f? &efuek w f uUov kd &f @J ta&;udpaP wGtwGuf &efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;om;xku, kd f pm;vS,jf zpfwhJ wuo}uD;&J@u, kd pf m;vS,rf yg0ifapyJeJ ah jz&Si;f zd@k óud;pm;wmrSeo f r#[m b,f vdkrS obm0rusayr,fh ppftpdk;&[m tJ'Dobm0ruswJh Oya'jyifqifcsufudk xkwfjyef+yD; ausmif;om;xktay:csK;d ESrd zf @dk vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfcyhJ gw,f?wjcm;aom wd;k wufwhJ EkdifiHa&;tiftm;pkawGtay: tjyif;txefESdyfuGyfcJhovdk/ ausmif;om;xk&J@Auo/ wuo/ &uoawGtay:vnf; jyif;jyif;xefxefESdyfuGyfcJhygw,f? tdrfapmifhtpdk;&vufxufrSm ausmif ; om;acgif ; aqmif a wG a wmf a wmf r sm;rsm; 0&rf ; ajy;jzpf o l j zpf / awmcd k o l c d k & / axmifusolus/ u|ef; tydk@cH&ol cH&txdjzpfcJh&ygw,f? tck 'kwd,t=udrftm%modrf;+yD;wufvmawmh/ (58) ckESpfuvdkawmif tdrfapmifh tpdk;&vkyfzdk hwufvmwmr[kwfawmh/ ausmif;om;xk&J@ Auo/ wuo/ &uorsm;tay: yd+k y;D wif;rmwJo h abmxm; óuw d ifcsrw S x f m;+y;D om; toifyh gvmcJyh &Hk ygw,f? tcdik t f rm azmfjy vmcsuu f awmh&efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;om;xktay:zdEydS cf sKyfcs,zf Œkd tpDtpOf&&dS adS &;qGJ xm; wJh “taqmifpnf;urf;opf”awGukd csrw S jf yXmef;vdu k jf cif;yJjzpfygw,f? awmfveS af &;aumifpD tjzpf tm%modr;f +yD;wufvm+yD;wJah emufcsrw S jf yXmef;vdu k w f 'hJ t D aqmifpnf;urf;opf awG [m e,fcs@J uv kd ekd t D pd;k &vufxufuawmif r&Scd zhJ ;l / rcsrw S cf &H zl;wJh taqmifpnf;urf;awGjzpf aeygw,f? wuUodkvfausmif;om;xk&J@*k%foduQmudk n‡Kd;EGrf;edrfhyg;atmif ESdrfhcsapmfum;vdkuf ovdjk zpfwt hJ jyif/ b,fwek ;f urS csrw S jf cif;rcH&zl;wJh jyif;xefwif;usyv f eG ;f wJh pnf;urf;Oya' awGvnf; jzpfaeygw,f? tpurS ppftpdk;&tay: rvdkvm;Ekdif rESpfoufEkdifjzpfae&wJhtxJ tckvdkzdESdyfcsKyfcs,fwJh wif;usyfjyif;xefwJh taqmifpnf;urf;opfqdkwmawG xkwfjyefcsrSwf vdkufwJhtcg &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;xk}uD;[m rcHr&yfEkdifatmifjzpfoGm;&ygw,f? wuU odkvftkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDrSmvnf; ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,f (wuoudk,fpm;vS,f) tzsuf od r f ; cH & +yD ; yg0if c G i f h r &jzpf a evd k h r auscsrf ; p&mawG jzpf a e&qJ t csd e f r S m / wif;usyfwJhtaqmif pnf;urf;opfawG xyfrHcsrSwfjyXmef;vmjcif;[m ausmif;om;xkudk wqifhwuf apmfum;vm wmeJ@rjcm; tcH&cufapcJhygw,f? Zlvdkifv (6) &ufae@ n (10) em&D/ a&$bdkaqmif pmzwftoif;tpnf;ta0;t+yD;rSm/ wif;usyfwJhtaqmifpnf;urf;opfawGtay: rcHr&yfEkdifjzpfol rauseyfolawGu atmf[pf

16


(7) Zlvkdif ajymqdk=uygw,f? wjcm;taqmifawGuvnf; atmf[pfajymqdkvm=uwJhtwGuf/ taqmif toD;oD;twGif;uae atmf[pfqENjyyGJ}uD;usif;yaeovdk jzpfay:vmcJhygw,f? tJ'Daemuf ydwfxm;wJhtaqmifwHcg;awGudkzGifhay;zdk htaqmifrª;awGudk ajymqdk=uwJhtcg/taqmifrª; awGuzGifhray;vdk@/wHcg;udk¶kdufcsKd;zGifh=uwmawG/tJ'Daemufrauseyfolausmif;om;awGpkaygif; +yD; wuUodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;rª; OD;,kciftdrf oGm;0dkif;qENjywm/ ygarmuQcsKyf OD;umtdrf oGm;0dkif; +yD; qENjy[pfaºuG;wmawG ay:aygufvmcJhygw,f? tJ'Dwkef;u &efukefwuUodkvfygarmuQcsKyf [m OD;umjzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;awGeJ htqifajywJh ausmif;om;awGbufu&yfwJh ygarmuQcsKyf q&mOD; omvSukd z,f&mS ;+yD;/ Adv k af e0if;u ol@q&m&if;jzpfwhJ OD;umudk ygarmuQcsKyfcef@tyfxm;csed jf zpf ygw,f? OD;um[m Adv k af e0if; tdraf pmift h pd;k &vufxufwek ;f uvnf; ynma&;0ef}uD;tjzpf tr_awmfxrf;cJzh ;l oljzpfygw,f? wuUov kd t f yk cf sKyaf &;rª; OD;,kcifu ausmif;om;awG&ŒJ rauseyf csufawGudk/ awmif;qdkcsufawGudk wuUodkvftkyfcsKyfa&;aumifpDudk wifjyay;r,fvdk@ ajz&Sif; ajymqdkcJhw,f qdkygw,f? Zlvdkif (&) &ufae@ ae@vnfrSm wuo u}uD;rª;+yD; wuUodkvfausmif;om; xktpnf; ta0;}uD;udk ac:qdkusif;yygw,f? wuoOuUÏ udkAaqGav;/ AuoOuUÏ udkouftygt0if ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawGwa,muf+y;D wa,muf pum;ajym=uygw,f? tJ't D csed rf mS Auo OuUÏ[m udo k ufjzpfae+yDjzpfygw,f? udo k uf[m t&ifu 'kOuUÏomjzpfayr,f/h OuUÏjzpfwhJ udkcifarmiftkH;u awmfvSefa&;aumifpDwufvmwmudk ol@oabmeJ@ol axmufcHoGm;wJht wGuf ausmif;om;xku z,f&Sm;ypfvdkuf+yD;/ 'kOuUÏudkoufudk OuUÏtjzpf wifajr‡mufxm;+yD; csdefjzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifawGeJ hwufa&mufvm=uwJhausmif;om;xk[mjzpf ay:vmaewJhvwfwavmtajctaeawGudkwifjyaqG;aEG;n‡dE_dif;=u+yD;aemuf/ppftpdk;& u csrSwfjyXmef;vmwJh “w&m;rr#wwJh taqmifpnf;urf;rsm;zsufodrf;a&;awmif;qdkbdk@” qkH; jzwfvdkuf=uygw,f? or*~}uD;twGif;usif;ywJh ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;}uD;+yD;wJhaemuf ausmif;om;rsm;[m taqmifjyefoljyef/ em;olem;/ vzuf&nfqdkifxdkifolxdkif/ at;at; aq;aq; ykHrSeftaetxm;twdkif; &SdaecJh=uygw,f? yk H r S e f t aetxm;twd k i f ; r&S d c J h w muawmh ppf t pd k ; &buf u jzpf c J h y gw,f ? ausmif;om; xk&JŒ v_yf&Sm;awmif;qdkvmr_rSefor#udk tjywftowfeif;acsypf+yD;/ yGJOD;xGuf 'Dta&;udk tay: pD;uae tEkdif,ltjywfzdxm;Ekdifzdk htuGuf¶kduf+yD; jyifqifvmcJhygw,f? 'Dta&;udk yDyDjyifjyifudkifwG,fEkdifzdk hqdk+yD; toHv$ifh¶kHxJrSm trdef hay;uGyfuJa&;tzGJ@ ae&m,lxm;apcJhygw,f? acgif;aqmiftjzpf awmfvSefa&;aumifpD0ifeJ hjynfxJa&;0ef}uD;Xme wm0efcH Adkvfrª;}uD;ausmfpdk;/ tzGJ@0ifawGtjzpf Adkvfrª;}uD;vS[ef/ Adkvfrª;}uD;apmjrifh/ Adkvfrª;}uD;

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(7) Zlvkdif beDwdk@tjyif/ axmufvSrf;a&;t}uD;tuJ Adkvfrª;}uD;armifvGif (E_wfcrf;ar$; OD;vGif) eJ h&Jrif; }uD;OD;bat;wdk htoifh&SdaecJh=uygw,f? awmfvSefa&;aumifpD&J@ eHygwf (2) yk*~dKvf}uD; Adkvfrª; csKyfatmif}uD;vnf; a&mufvmvdkuf xGufoGm;vdkuf v_yf&Sm;yg0ifaecJhw,f qdkygw,f? nae (4) em&D 0ef;usiaf vmufrmS &efuek w f uUov kd ef ,fajrtwGi;f vkx H ed ;f &Jum;awG 0ifvmcJhygw,f? urm&Gwf*wfwJuvdk@,lq&wJh &Jrsm;vnf; a&muf&SdvmcJh=uygw,f? wuU odv k ef ,fajrxJtxd a&muf&v dS m=uwJh &JawGu ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawGuv kd uf&J Zuf&J twif;0ifzrf;ygw,f?or*~xJtxd0ifzrf;w,fqdkygw,f?wcsKd@udkqdk&if¶kdufESufzrf;qD;wm txdawmif vkyfcJh=uw,fqdkygw,f? wuoOuUÏ udkAaqGav;/AuoOuUÏudkouf/ &uo twGif;a&;rª;udk^m%f0if;wdkŒtzrf;tqD;cHvdkuf=u&+yD;urm&Gwf*wfwJudkac:oGm;w,fqdk ygw,f? tJ'Dvdk rw&m;ojzifhtwif;0ifzrf;qD;wmcH=u&wma=umifha&m/ ausmif;om;acgif; aqmifawGukd apmfapmfum;um;ðyrlzrf;qD;wma=umifyh g rcHr&yfEidk jf zpfvmcJ=h uwJh ausmif;om; awGu “'dk hacgif;aqmifawGudk zrf;ae+yD” “rcH=ueJ ha[h” qdk+yD; jyefvnfpk¶kH;atmf[pf=uw,f qdkygw,f? atmf[pfqef@usifuef@uGuf=u&if; &JawGudkvnf; cJawGeJ@ jyefvnfypfaygufarmif; xkwfwm/ wkef@jyefwdkufcdkufwmvkyf=uw,f qdkygw,f? tJ'Dvdk ausmif;0if;xJtxd armuf armufrmrm0ifa&muf+yD; rzG,rf &mzrf;qD;wmawGukd rcHr&yfEidk f wke@f jyef&ifqikd =f uwma=umifh ¶kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfyGm;cJh&ygw,f? ausmif;om;awGu aºuG;a=umfoHawG atmf[pf+yD;/ zdESdyfr_ awGudk tjyif;txefqef@usifcJh=uygw,f? &JawGxGufcGmoGm;+yD;aemuf r=umrD0ifa&mufvmwmawGuawmh ppfum;awGjzpfyg w,f? wyf&if; (4) u ppfum;awGv@kd qykd gw,f? wyf&if; (4) [m Adv k cf sKy}f u;D ae0if;&JŒud, k &f aH wmf wyf/ txl;wyf&if; jzpfygw,f? wyf&if;rª; 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;vSjrifheJ@ emrnfausmf 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;pdefvGifwdk@yg a&muf&Sdvm=u yg w,f? t"dywdvrf;wavsmuf ppfom;awGudk ae&m,lapcJhygw,f? toifhtaetxm; jyifqifae&mcsay;xm;wJh ppfom;awGudk wyfqifay;xm;wmuawmh ArmjynfumuG,fa&; puf¶kHuxkwfvkyfay;xm;wJh ay:ump *sD;o&D;aoewfawG jzpfygw,f? ausmif;om;awGuawmh wuUodkvfjrufcif;jyifawGay:rSm 0dkif;zGJ hpum;ajymolawGu vnf; ajymae=u/ or*~uiG ;f jyifa&S x h ikd af eolawGu xdik af e=u/ taqmiftoD;oD;&JŒ 0&efwm awGa&S@xGuf&yf+yD; =unfholawGu =unfhae=u/ ppftpdk;&qef@usifa&;aºuG;a=umfoHawGudk atmf [pfaeolawGuvnf; atmf[pfae=ueJ hykHo¾meftrsKd;rsKd;eJ h&Sdae=uygw,f? tajctae[m 0¶kef;okef;um;jzpfaewJhtaetxm;rsKd;/ xdef;rEkdifodrf;r& taet xm;rsKd;awmh r[kwfcJhyg? r=umrD EkdifiHawmfaumifpD0if Adkvfrª;}uD;oef;pdef&JŒum; qdkufa&mufvm+yD; wHcg;0rSm

18


(7) Zlvkdif 'kAv kd rf ;ª }uD;vSjrif/h 'kAv kd rf ;ª }uD;pdev f iG w f @kd e@J &yf+yD;pum;pjrnfajymaewm jrifvu kd =f u&ygw,f? (10) rdepfavmuft=umrSm Adkvfrª;}uD;oef;pdef um;eJ hjyefvnfxGufcGmoGm;ygw,f? Adkvfrª;}uD;oef;pdefum; jyefoGm; +yD; r=umrDrSmyJ ppfum;av;wpD; xyfrHa&mufvm+yD;um;xJ uaeAdkvf}uD;tqifh&SdolwOD;qif;vmumpmwapmifudk 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;vSjrifheJ h'kAdkvfrª;}uD; pd e f v G i f u d k x k w f a y;oG m ;w,f q d k y gw,f ? tJ ' D u m;jyef v nf x G u f c G m oG m ;oG m ;csif ; rS m yJ 'kAv kd rf ;ª }uD;vSjrifeh J 'h Ak v kd rf ;ª }uD;pdev f iG w f @kd acgi;f csi;f qdik v f u kd =f u+yD;aemuf/toifah e&m ,lxm;+yD; wyfudkusnfxdk;armif;wifcdkif;vdkuf=uygawmhw,f?wyf&if;rª;uvufudk0dkif;+yD;okH;}udrf a0S@,rf;jyvdkufwJhtcsdefrSmawmh toifhae&m ,lxm;+yD;om;ppfom;rsm;&J@vufxJu *sDo&D; aoewfrsm;[m wòydifeufwnf; rD;yGifhoGm; cJhygw,f? atmfwdkrufwpf *sDo&D; armif;jyef aoewfoHawGeJtwl tvJvJtòydòyd jzpfoGm;&wJh aoewfxdrSefcH&ol ausmif;om;awG&J@ atmf[pfoHawGvnf; yJhwifnHoGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f? aoolao/ '%f&m&ol&/ ajy;=uv$m;=u w¶ke;f ¶ke;f eJ u h rBmysuo f vdjk zpfomG ;&ygawmh w,f?udkvdkeDe,fcsJ@tpdk;&vufatmufwkef;uawmifaoewfoHr=um;cJh&zl;wJhwuUodkvfa jr/ ,rf;eH@,rf;cdk;ra0cJh&zl;wJh uHhaumfwef;/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDqdkwJhppftpdk;&&J hvufatmuf rSmrS aoG;pdrf;&Sif&Sif v$rf;oGm;cJh&ygawmhw,f? t"dywdvrf;rwavsmuf aoG;uGufaoG;puf awG pGef;ayuspifcJh& ¶kHru/ wuUodkvfjrufcif;jyiftESH h aoG;uGufaoG;puf tdkifxGef;ayusH cJ&h ¶krH u/ taqmifawGay: taqmifawGxt J xd aoG;uGuaf oG;pufawG xyfc&hJ ygawmhw,f? ppftpd;k &&J@ ypfred @f ay;xm;jcif;cH&wJh ppfom;awG&ŒJ twif;'&ref;=urf; rJrjJ rif&m ypfcwf oHawG[m taqmifawGay: taqmifawGxJtxdtòid;}uD;pGmusa&mufaygufuGJ xdrSefcJh&yg w,f?vJòydusq;Hk oGm;&wJh ausmif;om;awG/',dr;f ',dik jf zpf+yD;'%f&m&cJ&h wJh ausmif;om;awG/ usnfqHvGwf&ma&Smif&if;wdrf;&if;eD;&mtaqmifawGxJ0ifajy;cJh&olawG/twdtus a&wGuf vd@k r&Ekid af tmifjzpfc&hJ ygw,f?&efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;om;xktwGuu f rBmra=up &maoG;pGe;f wJhae@jzpfcJh&ovdk/ Armjynfausmif;om;xktaygif;twGufvnf; O'gef;ra=up&m aoG;aºuG; pm&if;zGifhcJh&wJhae@ jzpfygw,f? (7) &uf Zlvdkif/ (7) &uf Zlvdkif qdkwJhae@pGJ[m Armjynfausmif; om;taygi;f twGuo f m emusn;f p&mtaumif;qk;H aoG;ordik ;f wifc&hJ wJah e@r[kw/f rdb jynf olwdkif;twGufvnf; &ifqdk@p&m jzpfcJh&wJhae@ jzpfygw,f? taqmifeH&Hay:rSm &cJhwJh aoewfxdrSef'%f&mxJu xGufuspD;,dkvmwJhaoG;eJ@“ (7) &ufZv l ikd rf arh=ueJ h”qdkwJhpmwrf;udk ajrmif;jruausmif;om; udkausmf0if;u a&;xdk;armfuGef; wifoGm;cJhygw,f? (7) &ufZlvdkifta&;tcif;/ wenf;tm;jzifh Zlvdkif (7) &ufta&;awmfykHvdk hrSwfwrf; wifxm;&r,fhtjzpftysuf}uD;[m/ awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtpdk;&qdkwJh ppftm%m&Siftpdk;&&J@

19


(7) Zlvkdif ,kwfrm&ufpufr_udk/ teD;qkH; aAGaqmfOD; rD;armif;xdk;jyvdkufwJh emusnf;a=uuGJp&m tjzpf tysuf}uD;jzpfygw,f? tm%modrf;+yD;wuftvm/ (4) veJ h(5) &uft=um/ rqvvrf;pOf }uD;xGufay:+yD;vdk@ (3) &ufyJ=umao;csdefrSm xGufay:vmcJh&wJh ausmif;om;xk aoG;ajrus cJh&r_}uD; jzpfygw,f? ppftpdk;&&J@ ausmif;om;xktay: tòid;}uD;}uD;eJ husL;vGefapmfum;vdkufwJh tpk vdkuf tðyHvdkufvlowfyGJ}uD;vnf; jzpfygw,f? ÚÚÚÚÚ arSmifpysK;d csed rf mS wuUov kd af jrwckv;Hk udk tarSmifcsxm;vdu k yf gw,f? tarSmif&yd af wG [mvnf; wuUodkvfe,fajray:rSm apmapmpD;pD;usa&mufaecJh+yD jzpfygw,f? taqmifawG tm;vk;H udv k nf;rD;awGjzwftarSmifcs/wuUov kd af jr}uD;wckv;Hk udv k nf; rD;awGjzwf tarSmifcs xm;vdkuf+yD; tarSmifawG=um;xJrSm tvJvJtòydòydaoqkH;ae=u&wJh ausmif;om;awG&J@t avmif;awGudk ppfwyfu vdkufvHaumuf,lum vufpazsmufa&;vkyfief;udk vkyfaqmifyg w,f? ,rf;eH@,rf;cdk;awGa0aewJh uHhaumfawmtkyfawG=um;/ aoG;uGufaoG;pufawG xGef;ae &wJhwuUodkvfe,fajrwavsmufay:rSmppfbDvl;tm%myg;uGufom;rsm;&JŒppfzdeyfoHawG omtqufrjywf zkH;v$rf;aecJh&ygw,f? tarSmifcsxm;jcif;cHae&wJh taqmifawGxJuae ‘ppf tpd;k & tvdrk &Sd’qdw k hJ ausmif;om;awG&ŒJ atmf[pfoaH wGuawmh/ t+yD;wdik u f , G af ysmuf roGm; yJ [dku onfu óud;=um; óud;=um; xGufay:vmaecJhygw,f? ppfwyf&ŒJ '&pyfypfcwfowfjzwfra_ =umifh ajcOD;wnf&h m a&Smif&if;wdr;f &if;ajy;v$m;cJ&h / eD;&mtaqmifawGxJ0if+yD; cdkatmif;cJh=u&eJ h tvJvJtòydòydjzpfcJh=u&wJh ausmif;om;rsm;[m/ urBmysufovdkjzpfcJh&wJh aoG;acsmif;pD;owfjzwfyGJ}uD;twGif;ausmif;om;awGb,fa&GŒb,frsS aoaus usq;Hk cJ&h w,fqw kd m twdtuspm&if;razmfjyEkid af yrJ&h meJ ch s+D yD;aoqk;H cJ&h ovdk &me@J csD+yD;'%f&m&cJhw,fqdkwmawmh aocsmcJhygw,f? ÚÚÚÚÚ ausmif;om;awGudk &meJ@csDowfjzwft+yD;/ urf;ukefatmif qufvufrdkuf¶kdif;jyvdkuf wmuawmh/ &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;or*~ (wuo) taqmuftOD}uD;udk AkH;eJ@cGJ òzdcs zsuq f ;D ypfvu kd jf cif;yJjzpfygw,f? Zlvikd f (8) &ufae rh euf (5) em&D0ef;usiaf vmufrmS 'dik ;f erdik ;f eJ@c+JG yD; wppDzsuq f ;D ypfvu kd yf gawmhw,f? taqmifawGxJ ukwiftoD;oD;ay: vSaJ etdyaf e=u wJah usmif;olausmif;om;awG[m 0ke;f ueJaom ayguu f o JG }H uD;udk =um;vdu k =f u&+yD;/ odru hf eJ wkeaf tmif odoo d momwkecf gr}_ u;D udk cHpm;vdu k =f u&&if;/ reufr;kd tvif;rSm ‘or*~ taqmuf

20


(7) Zlvkdif tOD’}uD;udk wppD tkwfykHysuf}uD;tjzpfeJ@yJ a=uuGJqdk@eifhp&m awG@jrif=u&ygawmhw,f? or*~ taqmuftOD}uD;udk 'dkif;erdkif;eJ@uyf+yD; òzdcGJvdkufwJhtcsdefrSm urm&Gwf&yfuGufwckvkH;vnf; odrfhueJaeatmifwkefoGm;cJh&ygw,f? ordkif;0if or*~taqmuftOD}uD;udk t+yD;wdkif zsufqD; ypfvu kd jf cif; jzpfygw,f? 1927 ckEpS u f olaX;OD;ndK&JŒ aqmufvyk v f 'ª ge;f r_eJ h ay:ayguv f mcJw h hJ or*~taqmuftOD}u;D [m e,fcsŒJ vufatmuf/ zufqpfvufatmuf/ trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmuf a&;ordik ;f pOfwavsmufrmS Ekid if o hH m;aumif;rsm;udak rG;xkw&f m / Ekid if cH sppf w d "f mwf oGe;f avmif; &m/ta&;}uD;EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_}uD;awG&JŒtajccH&m jzpfcJhygw,f?wu,fhordkif;0ifblrdeufoef ae&m/ ordkif;0iftaqmuftOD}uD;wckvnf; jzpfygw,f? EkdifiHhordkif;rSm 'Davmufta&;ygcJh/ wefz;kd &Scd w hJ hJ ordik ;f 0iftaqmuftOD}uD;ud/k ordik ;f wefz;kd udk wpufuav;avmufrS em;vnf& aumif;rSef;rodwJh ppftpdk;&/ ppftkyfpk[m ,kwf,kwfrmrm yufyufpufpufeJ h vuf&JZuf&J òzdcGJ jymcsypfcJhygw,f? ppftm%m&Sipf epfut kd cdik t f rmxlaxmifzkd t h =uH}uD; =uHxm;+yD;om;jzpfwhJ Adv k af e0if; acgi;f aqmifwhJ ppftyk pf [ k m/ twdu k t f cHðyr,fh qef@usiu f ef@uu G =f ur,fh tiftm;pkreS o f r#ukd tjywftowfacsr_ef;ypfzdk@/ =uH&G,fydkif;jzwfxm;+yD;om; jzpfovdk/ awmfvSefwdk;wufwJh/ trSef w&m;bufu &J&J0Hh0Hh &yfwnfaqmif&Guf=ur,fh wu,fhEkdifiHhom;aumif;rsm;udk arG;xkwfr,fh blred ufoefae&mrSef or*~taqmuftOD}uD;udv k nf; &efo}l uD;ozG,f ¶_jrifxm;cJ=h uygw,f? r=unfhcsifrjrifcsifavmufatmiftrkef;}uD;rkef;cJh=uygw,f?or*~taqmuftOD}uD;udk ykeu f efqef@usio f rl sm;&JŒcdak tmif;&m/awmfveS af &;orm;rsm;udk arG;xkw&f m/ olyek o f u l efrsm;&JŒ XmecsKyftjzpf wzufowfrSwfxifem;vnf¶_jrifxm;cJh=uygw,f?tJ'Dvdk trkef;}uD;rkef;/t&GH }uD;&GH /ta=umuf}uD;a=umuf&muae/ pftm%m&Sif¶_;wdk@&J@ppfbDvl;pdwf"mwf/&ufpuf aumufuspw f wfrt _ usit hf =uHawGe@J qufpyfaygi;f pnf;vdu k w f t hJ cg/or*~taqmuf tOD}uD; udkyg AkH;eJ@cGJypfwJhtxd rdkufrdkuf¶kdif;¶kdif; usL;vGefcJh=ujcif;jzpfygw,f? (8) &ufae@reufrSm jrefrmhtoHuwqifh AdkvfcsKyf}uD;ae0if;&J h‘"m; "m;csif;/ vSH vSHcsif;’ rdef@cGef;oH em;cg;p&m qufvufxGufay: a=unmaecJhygw,f? (0if;wifhxGef;) rSwcf suf ? ?0if;wifx h eG ;f &JŒ“tarSmif=um;u Armjynf” (teD;acwf ArmjynfEidk if aH &; v_y&f mS ;r_ ordik ;f tusO;f / 1948-2000ordik ;f pmtkypf mrlordik ;f pmtkypf mrl(r=umrDxu G rf nf)h rS xkwfE_wfazmfjycsuf?

21


(7) Zlvkdif

Zlvdkif (7) &uf pdwf"mwf

t"GeŒ f &Snfygap æ

ref;&Smvm;zef; 1962 ckEpS /f rwfv (2) &ufae@u Adv k af e0if; trª; ðyonfhppfzuftm%modrf;r_jzpfyGm;cJhonf? Ttm%m odr;f r_EiS t hf wl,ciforwa[mif; pyfa&$ou kd t f jyif orw ref;0if;armifESifh 0ef}uD;csKyfOD;EkOD;aqmifonfh yxrtpdk;& wzGJ@vHk; zrf;qD;cHcJh&onf? Adkvfae0if;u xdkppftm%m odrf;tpdk;&udk awmfvSefa&;aumifpD[k a=unmcJhonf? odk@&mwGif‚if;wdk@udk b,folur#awmfvSefa&;tpdk;&[k r,lqacs? txl;ojzifh vli,fausmif;om;rsm;u ‚if;wdk@ udk vHk;0 t,Hkt=unfr&SdcJhacs? 1962 ckESpf/ ZGefv &efukefwuUodkvfjyefzGifhI &uf ydik ;f twGi;f rSmyif wuUov kd af usmif;tkycf sKyfa&;aumifpu D kd zsufodrf;vdkuf+yD; wuUodkvfausmif;udk awmfvSefa&; aumifpt D rnfcH ppftyk cf sKyfa&;atmufo@kd ow G o f iG ;f vdu k f onf? wqufwnf;rSmyif wuUov kd af usmif;ESiyhf wfouf I pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;trsKd;rsKd;udk xkwfvmonf? &efukef wuUodkvfausmif;tkyfcsKyfa&;onf rlvtpOftvmt& q&m/ ausmif;om;/ tpdk;&oHk;bufaygif;tkyfcsKyfa&; jzpfc+hJ yD;rsm;pGmtqifajycJo h nf? xdt k yk cf sKyfa&;pepfukd zsuf I ppftkyfcsKyfa&;atmufodk@&efukefwuUodkvf}uD;udk oGwf

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(7) Zlvkdif oGif;vdkufonfhtcg awmfvSefa&;tpOftvmtvGef}uD;cJhonfh ordkif;0ifausmif;om; or*~rsm;u vH;k 0vufrcHEikd af cs? xd@k a=umifh Tppftyk cf sKyfa&;y,fzsu&f ef topfcsrw S f vmonhf ausmif;pnf;urf;rsm;udky,fzsufay;&ef Zlvdkif (7) &ufae@wGif ausmif;om; rsm; aºuG;a=umfqENjycJh=uonf? xdkae@qENjyyGJonf naeydkif; (4) em&Dcef@a&mufvmonfhtcg ausmif;ol/ ausmif;om;rsm;onf qENjyyGJudk vlcsif;cGJI&yfqdkif;xm;&ef ausmif;om;or*~t aqmufOD;a&S›rS jyefxGufcGmcJh=u+yDjzpfonf? xdktcsdefrSmyif AdkvfpdefvGifOD;pD;onfh Armh aoeyfudkifwyf&if; (4) 0ifa&mufvm+yD; &efukefwuUodkvf}uD;udk 0dkif;xm;vdkuf=u onfhtcg ausmif;om;rsm; jyefvnfpkpnf;vm+yD; wr[kwfjcif;wif;rmvmcJhonf? ‚if;aemuf AdkvfpdefvGif.trdef@ay;r_jzifh ypfowfr_jzpfyGm;cJh&m rdepftenf;i,ftwGif; ausmif;olausmif;om; (150) ausmf aoqHk;cJh&+yD; trsm;tjym;'%f&m&&SdcJh=uonf? aoqH;k oGm;onhf ausmif;olausmif;om;tm;vH;k . tavmif;rsm;udv k nf; ppftyk pf u k ajzmufzsufypfcJhonf? ppftkyfpk. &ufpufpGmowfjzwf+yD; tavmif;rsm;udk ajzmuf zsufypfonfh"avhonf xdktcsdefrSm pwifjrpfzsm;cHcJhjcif;jzpfonf? Zlvdkif (8) &ufae@ aemufw&uf eHeuf (4) em&Dcef@wGifrl ppftkyfpkonf awmfvSefa&;tpOftvm}uD;rm;onfh ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD; (Union) }uD; udk azmufcGJzsufqD;&m xdkaygufuGJr_}uD;onf urm&GwfwckvHk; wkefcgoGm;onftxd kH wdysupf ;D cJ¶h rkH u rE aW v;aqmif. trd;k wcsK@d EiS hf jyif;xefc+hJ yD; (Union) wckv;kH tkwyf t t"dywdvrf;&Sd vloGm;vrf;ausmufjym;}uD;rsm;yif trsm;tjym; ausrGysufpD;cJhonf? xdkae@rSpI &efukefwuUodkvf}uD;udk tuef@towfr&Sdydwfvdkuf&m wifharmzG,f vSy pnfum;cJhonfh &efukefwuUodkvf}uD;onf vaygif;rsm;pGm okomefwpjyife,f wdwf qdwf+idrfoufaecJhonf? 1963 ckESpf ausmif;jyefzGifh+yD;r=umrD Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae@wGif Zlvdkif (7) &uf wESpf ajrmuftxdrf;trSwfESifh ,m,Dor*~taqmuftOD;zGifhyGJudk ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? xdkae@wGif wuoOuUÏ udkAaqGav;/ AuoOuUÏ udkouf ausmif;om;acgif;aqmif a[mif;ud, k /k udpk ;kd ode;f wd@k &&J aJ wmufred @f ceG ;f rsm;udak jymcJ=h uonf? wqufwnf;rSmyif ESpfukefydkif;wGif (6) c±dkif +idrf;csrf;a&;qENjyyGJ}uD;wGif ausmif;om;xk}uD;yg0ifcJh=uonf? 1963 ckEpS f awG@qakH qG;aEG;yGyJ suo f mG ;onht f cgwiG rf l ausmif;om;trsm;tjym; xyfrzH rf; 23


(7) Zlvkdif qD;cH&+yD; ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;jzpfonfh udkAaqGav;/ udkouf/ udkwifxGef;/ udkpdk;0if;/ udk^m%f0if;tygt0if ausmif;om; trsm;tjym; awmcdkcJh=uonf? ‚if;wdk@ txJwGif [oFmwrS pma&;ol.ausmif;aebuf apm[ife&Dvnf; u&ifhawmfvSef a&;odk@ a&muf&SdcJhonf? ‚if;onf (7) &uf Z l v d k i f w G i f aygif w zuf t±d k ; a=urG o G m ;+yD ; vrf ; av#muf & mwG i f =unhfraumif;avmufatmif edrfhjrifhaecJhonf? Zl v d k i f (7) &uf t a&;awmf y H k } uD ; onf ,ck q d k v #if (44) ESpfwif;wif;jynhfcJh+yD; jzpfonf? odk@&mwGif xdkpOfuykHum;csyfrsm;ESifhtwl t"dywdvrf;/ tif;,m;uef/ opfykyf yif/ ydawmuf/ pdefyef;/ uHhaumf/ bG J @ eif ; obif w d k @ .yk H & d y f r sm; ,ae@wd k i f v ef ; qef ; ae qJ j zpf o nf ? awmwGif;odk@a&mufcJh wuUodkvfausmif;}uD;ESifh ESpf (40) wdkifwdkif a0;cJh onfhwdkif twdwfrSt&dyfrsm;um; r_ef0g;roGm;cJhacs? ppf t k y f p k o nf T (44) wmumvtwG i f ; rw&m;r_ r sm;ud k qef @ usif o nf h vl i ,f a usmif ; om;rsm;. awmf v S e f a &;pd w f " mwf u d k Ek w f y ,f y pf & ef v l i ,f a usmif ; om;rsm;ud k u|ef y nma&;pepf u sif h o H k ; +yD ; u|eo f abmvkzd Ed ydS u f |eðf yxm;&ef óud;yrf;cJo h nf? od@k aomf vli,fausmif;om; rsm;. vG w f v yf r _ / w&m;r#wr_ u d k jrwf E d k ; onf h p d w f " mwf u d k Ek w f y ,f zsufpD;jcif;iSm rpGrf;Edkifacs? Zlvdkif (7) &uf. pdwf"mwfonf tpOf&Sifoef aernfom jzpfonf? ,ae@umvonfwikd ;f jynfwckv;kH ppfu|eb f 0atmuf jym;jym;arSmuf ae&qJjzpfonf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;udkyifv#if vGwfvwfpGmzGJ@pnf;cGifh r&=uacs? xdk@ a=umifh ,ae@ vli,fausmif;om;rsm; taejzifh T (7) &uf Zlvdkifpdwf"mwfudk pdkufxlI r+yD;qHk;ao;aom ordkif;ay;wm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifoGm;=u&ef wdkufwGef;E_d;aqmf vdkufygonf? (7) Zlvdkifpdwf"mwf t"Gef@&Snfygap æ? ref;&Smvm;zef; Ö 24


(7) Zlvkdif

(7) &ufZlvkdif&J@ orkdif;u¾

zkd;oH (vlxk) &mpkEpS w f 0ufe;D yg; ppftm%m&Sit f yk pf ;dk r_atmufrmS &[ef;oHCmawmfawGe@J ausmif; om;awGtyg jynfolawGqENjyvkd@ towfcH&wmrsm;vSyg+yD? 'gayr,fh (7) &ufZlvkdifukd a&muf w,f q k d w d k i f ; ppf t pk d ; &&J Πyxrqk H ; tpk t vk d u f t tk H v k d u f vl o wf r _ } uD ; uk d jyef v nf a zmf x k w f ajymqk d a e=u&wm bma=umif h y gvJ ? tema[mif ; uk d j yef a zmf + yD ; ta=umif;rJhjy\emazmfae wmvm;? rajymrjzpfvkd@ ajymae=uwmvm;?

25


(7) Zlvkdif (1) (7) &uf Zlvkdifta&;tcif;[m Akdvfae0if;tm%modrf;+yD;vkd@ av;v=umwJhtcgrSm ay:ayguw f mjzpfygw,f? 'Dtm%modr;f r_[m acwfopfArmjynforkid ;f &JŒ tajymif;tvJtauG@ tcsK;d }uD;wckjzpfygw,f? Akv d af e0if;wk@d ppftyk pf [ k m ppftyk pf rk sK;d qufe@J cs+D y;D wkid ;f jynftm%mukd odrf;ykdufawmhr,f? wu,fh&nf&G,fcsufukdrajymbJ wkdif;&if;om;awGtay: rw&m;pGyfpGJ+yD; tm%modrf;cJhwmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh tm%m&yxpeJ@ t"dutwkduftcH zqyvwkd@[m awGoGm;+yD; (1958-60) tm%modrf;r_wkef;uvkd Akdvfae0if;u tm%mjyefv$Javrvm;vkd@ pOf;pm;olpOf;pm;eJ@wek @f qidk ;f aeygw,f? aemuf+yD; vuf0q J w dk hJ (yrnw) xJuvnf; renf;wJh vlawG[m Akdvfae0if;ajymwJh qkd&S,fvpfpum;ukd oGm;&nfus+yD; ppftpkd;&ukd axmufcHajym vmygw,f? EkdifiHa&;t& wpkHw&m;±_yfaxG;aew,fvkd@ qkdEkdifygw,f? wcsKd@owif;pmawGu vnf; prf;w0g;0g;a&;om;azmfjyae=uygw,f? olwkd@taeeJ@ tzrf;cH&rSmeJ@ owif;pmwkduf tydwfcH&rSmukd owdxm;ae=uwJh oabmvnf;ygygw,f? (2) 'Dvt dk aetxm;rSm wuoeJ@Auowk@d uaeppftpk;d &tm%modr;f wmukd uef@uu G f a=umif;twdtvif;a=unmvkdufygw,f?'g[mtm%m&+yD;umprmefwufaewJh ppftkyfpk ukdtrsufajcmif;ajcmif;xGufapcJhygw,f?twkduftcHEkdifiHa&;orm;}uD;awGawmif rajym0Hh wmukd'Dravmufav;ravmufpm;ausmif;om;av;awGu&m&mpp ajym&paumif;vm; qkd+yD;ppfOD;bDvl;ozG,for*~eJ@ausmif;om;awGtay: OD;OD;zsm;zsm; &rf;um;&ufpufcJhwm[m t"dutm;jzifh 'Dta=umif;a=umifhyg? ol@b0rSm ausmif;om;or*~awGeJ@ a,mifvkd@rSrywf oufvkd@rS rywfoufcJhzl;wJh Akdvfae0if;[m orkdif;0if&efukefwuUokdvfausmif;om;rsm; or*~ taqmuftOD;}uD;ukd rkdif;AkH;eJ@òzdypfckdif;wJhwm[m txufuajymcJhwJh emusnf;csufa=umifh jzpfw,fv@dk q&dk if rrSm;ygb;l ? ppfrjzpfru D ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_rmS yg0ifcw hJ hJ usaemfrh cd ifq&dk if tJ'Dwkef;u ukd,fhem;ukd,f r,kHEkdifavmufatmifjzpfoGm;+yD; olwdk@ES,f rkduf±kdif;vkdufavvkd@ wjzpfawmufawmufajymcJhwm tcktxd rSwfrdaeygw,f? (3) Akdvfae0if;u ausmif;om;awGukdowfjyvkdufwm[m wu,fu wjynfvkH;ukd +cdrf; ajcmufvu dk w f mjzpfygw,f?"m;"m;csi;f / vSv H cHS si;f &ifqidk rf ,fv@dk a'gorxde;f Ekid b f J ajymwJt h xd jzpfcJhw,f? 'Dpum;=um;awmhvufeufrJhausmif;om;awGtay: armufarmufrmrmpdefac:ae wJh wkdif;jynfacgif;aqmif}uD;ukdvnf; vlxku tHh=o=u&ygw,f? trSefu ausmif;om;or*~ awGtay:rSmxm;&SdwJh Akdvfae0if;&JŒtmCmw[morkdif;eJ@csD+yD;ol@&ifxJ/ acgif;xJrSmudef;

26


(7) Zlvkdif atmif;aecJhwmjzpfygw,f? ocifatmifqef;tyg ol@&JŒEkdifiHa&;òydifbufawGvkd@ olowfrSwf xm;olawGtm;vkH;tvkdvkd[mor*~rSmxdyfykdif;u v_yf&Sm;cJholawGjzpfygw,f? aemuf+yD; wkd@ Armtpnf;t±kH;rSm ol@q&m ocifApdef/ ocifxGef;tkyfwkd@eJ@tòydif q&m}uD;ocifukd,fawmf r_dif;&JŒ ausmaxmufaemufcHtiftm;[m ausmif;omor*~0ifa[mif;awG r[kwfvm;? 'Dvl owfyGJ[m tJ'D&efòid;awGukd azmufcGJvkdufwmvkd@ajym&ifvnf; rrSm;ygbl;? olwav#mufvkH; t±_H;ay;cJh&wJh ausmif;om;or*~ukd jyeftEkdif,lwJhoabmjzpfygw,f? (4) ol@&J@'DvlowfyGJ[m ausmif;om;awGukdom OD;wnfwmr[kwfbJ wjynfvkH;ukd ‘jrifw,fr[kwfvm;’ ‘=unfhxm;=u’vkd@ pHjyvkyfjyvkdufwmyg? wkdif;jynf&JŒt!Gef@tzl;vkd@ qkdwJh toufi,f&G,fwJhausmif;om;awGukdawmif owf&Jw,f? usefwJhtv$mtoD;oD;ukd awmh ajymp&mrvkdbl;qkdwJh t"dy`m,fyg? 'Dvlowfr_[m aemifppftpkd;&tqufquftwGuf &J&JowfjzwfwJhtpOftvmukd xlaxmifay;vkdufwm/ &Jaq;wifay;vkdufwmjzpfygw,f? trSef0efcH&&if usaemfhwOD;csif;a&m/ wjcm;usaemfodor# tzGJ@tpnf;awGa&m vl yk*~dKvfawGyg Akdvfae0if; 'gavmuf rdkufrkduf±kdif;±kdif;vkyfvdrfhr,fvkd@ ar#mfvifhrxm;wmtrSefyg? omrmefArmjynfom;wa,muftaeeJ@ 'gavmuf&ufpufvdrfhr,fvkd@ rwGufrdcJhygbl;? 'DvkdeJ@ 'Dtjzpftysufay:aygufvkdufwJhtwGuf tm;vkH;[m pOf;pm;r_enf;em/ vufawG@jyifqifr_ pwmawGtm;vk;H rSm t&ifueJ@rwlwmawGcsn;f jzpfuek yf gw,f?'Dvedk @J wcsK@d ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawG awmckdwmtxd jzpfcJhygw,f? (5) ausmif;om;or*~awG[m (1962) ckESpfup+yD; ordkif;rSmyxrqHk;tjzpf ajratmufcdk &cJ&h ygw,f? 'Dt&ifwek ;f u ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifawGtzrf;cH&wma&m tzrf;rcH&wma&m tzrf;rcH&atmifa&Smif=u&Sm;=uwmyg&ydS gw,f?'gayr,fah usmif;om;or*~awGuawmh quf vufvnfywfaecJhw,f? usefaeolawGu zrf;xm;olawGudk jyefv$wfay;zdk@/ ausmif;xkwfcH& olawGudk ausmif;aecGifhay;zdk@ qufwdkufyGJ0if=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh (1962) ckESpf aemufrSmus awmh t"duor*~±kH;rsm;vdk@qdk&r,fh &efukefwuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm; or*~taqmuf tOD }uD;eJ@rE Wav;wuUodkvfu or*~wJ}uD;ukd ppftpdk;&uòzdypfvdkuf+yD; b,fol@udkrS v_yf&Sm;cGifh ray;awmhygbl;? tJ'Daemuf (1963) ckESpfrSm rqvtpdk;&u awmwGif;eJ@aphpyfaqG;aEG;zdk@ vkyfw,fqdkwJhtcgrSm tzrf;cHxm;&olawGudkvnf; awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtpdk;&u v$wfay; &ygw,f? tJ'Daemuf ykef;atmif;aewJhausmif;om;awGvnf; jyefxGufvm=u+yD; usefaewJh

27


(7) Zlvkdif vlawGe@J twlor*~vyk if ef;rsm;udk jyefp=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh 'g[m vtenf;i,fomcHygw,f? Adv k af e0if;uaphpyfaqG;aEG;a&;rsuv f n S yhf aJG wmfcsed w f ef+yD;vd@k qH;k jzwfvu kd w f meJ@ pmyG0J ikd ;f awGukd zsufodrf;+yD; awmwGif;tiftm;pkawGudk awmxJjyefcdkif;um òrdŒay:rSmvlzrf;yGJawG t}uD; tus,fvkyfawmhwmyg/ tJ'DvdkeJ@ ausmif;om;or*~awG ajratmufv#Kd;oGm;&wm[m 'Dae@ txdygyJ? (6) Adv k af e0if;u *rl;±l;xd;k eJ@or*~taqmuftOD;}uD;udk òzdcv JG u kd w f m[m Adv k af e0if;wd@k ukd ordkif;w&m;cHtjzpf aowJhtxd awmufav#mufwap>ajcmufcJhygw,f? aemufydkif;rSm olwdk@ csi;f tjyeftvSev f ufnK‡ ;d xd;k =u&if; Adv k af tmif}uD;eJ@u&JG mrSm tcsut f vufjzpfvmcJyh gw,f? wu,fqkd 'Dtcsuu f twGi;f odjzpfwAhJ v kd af tmif}uD;taeeJ@ Adv k af e0if;tay: Edik zf J wcsyjf zpf &rSmyg? 'gayr,fh owWdr&SdwJh Adkvfatmif}ud;u 'DzJcsyfudk Adkvfae0if;qDrSm rsufESmcsKdaoG;a&; twGufyJ toHk;csoGm;cJhygw,f? ordkif;&JŒjzpf&yfrSefawGudk xkwfazmfavmufatmifowWdr&Sd a=umif; jyooGm;ygw,f? ordkif;udkjyef=unfh&if Adkvfae0if;tygt0if b,fppftm%m&Sifrqdk olwdk@udk,fwdkifqHk;jzpfwmyg? awmfawmfrsm;rsm;uolwOD;wnf;qHk;jzwfxmyg? b,folrS jyef ajym0Hwmr[kwfygbl;? 'gudk twGif;odvdk@qdk&r,fhuawmfawGu yk*HoD&dypP,ma[mfw,f rSm tcsif;csif;ajym=uwmudk=um;&+yD; Adkvfae0if;wcgxyf+yD; aoG;vef@&w,fr[kwfygvm;? (7) (7) &uf Zlvdkifausmif;om;owfyGJ}uD;+yD;wJhtcgrSm jynfolvlxktwGif; ppftpdk;&eJ@ ywfoufvdk@ tjrif&Sif;oGm;=uygw,f? tJ'Dumvu EdkifiHa&;eJ@ywfoufvm&if 'DvlowfyGJ tay:±_jrify/kH &yfwnfcsuyf t kH ay:rlwnf+yD; tuJjzwf=uygw,f? 'g[m tJ'w D ek ;f u vly*k K~ v d ef @J tzG@J tpnf;awGuw kd ikd ;f wmwJh pHwckygy?J jynfov l x l [ k m rqveJ@aygi;f wJv h al wGtay: 'Dupd P }uD;ay:+yD;aemufrSm ydk+yD;arwWmysufoGm;ygw,f? ajray:vuf0Jorm;awGxJrSmvnf; rqveJ@aygif;oleJ@ raygif;ol&,fvdk@ twdtvif; uGjJ ym;oGm;ygw,f? rqveJ@wo JG mG ;olawGtxJrmS Edik if aH &;tpOftvm}uD;olawG/ emrnf}uD; olawGyg=uygw,f? 'gayr,fh olw@kd crsm tJ'aD jcvSr;f up+yD; jynfov l x l ek @J uif;uGmoGm;vdu k f wm EdkifiHa&;t& vHk;vHk;jyefemvHrxlawmhygbl;? 'ga=umifh 'Dta&;tcif;[m tJ'Dtcgu bDvl;pnf; vlpnf;cGJ&mrSmvnf; tifrwefta&;ygwJhtcef;u yg&SdcJhw,fvdk@qdkEdkifygw,f?

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(7) Zlvkdif

(8) 'ga=umifh (1962) ckESpf tm%modrf;r_[m ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;ZmwfcHk&JŒ tcif;tusif; awmfawmfrsm;rsm;udak jymif;vJomG ;apw,fv@kd q&kd if rrSm;ygb;l ? (1966) ckEpS rf mS usaemfaxmif xJudka&mufawmh axmifxJrSmusaemfht&ifa&mufESifhwJhoHCmawmfawG/ ausmif;om;awG/ EdkifiHa&;orm;awG &Sdygw,f? 'gayr,fh t&ifwkef;uEdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;tjzpfawG@&avh&SdwJh qdk&S,feDwdk@/ jynfol@&Jabmfwdk@ rawG@&oavmufjzpfaeygw,f? aemufwESpfavmufaerS jynf ol@&JabmfxJu (tJtcsdefrSm rvny-jrefrmEdkifiHtvkyform;nD!Gwfa&;ygwDvdk@ emrnf,l xm;wJ)h jynfo@l &aJ bmfuacgi;f aqmifa[mif;wcsK@d vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;xJjyef0ifz@kd pnf; ±k;H v_y&f mS ;=uvd@k tzrf;cH&+yD; axmifxaJ &mufvmygw,f? Adv k w f ifw h ,facgi;f aqmifwt hJ zG@J yg? 'DvdkeJ@ axmifxJrSmwdkufyGJawGazmf=uwJhtcgusawmh rE Wav;c±kdifAuou usaemfwdk@[m zqyvwdk@/ yxp/ rvny/ tvHeDpwmawGeJ@vufwGJ+yD; axmiftm%mydkifawGudk wdkufae wmawG@vm&ygw,f? ArmjynfEdkifiHa&;&JŒ t"duyËdyuQ[m ajymif;oGm;+yDudk;? (9) aemufqHk;wcsuftaeeJ@ajym&&if ausmif;om;awG[m ordkif;rSmrñuHzl;wJh/ rpOf;pm; rar#mv f ifch w hJ hJ &ufpufowfjzwfr}_ uD;eJ@ tzdEydS cf v H u kd &f ayr,fah emufweG @f jcif;vH;k 0r&Sb d J or*~ vkyfief;awGudk rsKd;qufwquf+yD;wquf&wJhenf;aygif;pHkeJ@qufvufo,faqmifae=uqJqdk wJt h csuyf gy?J ArmjynfrmS ausmif;om;qdw k m&Sad eoa&GŒausmif;om;or*~qw kd m wnf&adS erSm ygyJ? zdk;oH (vlxk) Ö

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(7) Zlvkdif ausmif;om;rsm;tm; rsufESmomay;vGef;aomausmif;q&m usaemfonf 'kwd,urBmppfrwkdifrD +Adwdo#acwfudk uav;i,fwa,muftaejzifh awG@xdvkdufzl;onf? 1941 ckESpfukefwGif &efukefòrd@udk *syefav,mOfrsm; AkH;=uJwkdufckdufojzifh tdENd,EkdifiHokd@jyef=uaom tdENd,EG,fzGm; tvkyform;rsm;pGmwdk@ usaemfwkd@ausmufjzLòrd@ukd jzwf+yD; ,ckb*Fvm;a'h&Sfjzpfaeaom tENd,e,fpyfodk@xGufajy;=upOf *syefav,mOfrsm;u vkdufvHwkdufckdufjcif;/ +Adwdo#tpkd;&. t&m&SdwOD;jzpfaom usaemfwkd@taz *syefuifaywkdif tzrf;rcH&atmif &Gmrsm;/ òrd@rsm; wck+yD;wckokd@ a&Smifwdrf;a&$@ajymif;cJh=u&jcif;/ usaemfwkd@ ausmufjzLòrd@ukd wpfòrd@vkH;a=urGoGm;atmif r[mrdwfwyfrsm; AkH;rkd;&Gmcswkdufckdufjcif;ponfh

Zlvikd f (7) &uf ta&;awmfyHk

wifhaZmf 'kuQrsKd;pkHwkd@ukd jzwfoef;cJh&+yD;aemuf/ ppf}uD;+yD;qkH;I (2) ESpfeD;yg;t=um 1947 ESpfqef;wGifrS usaemfwkd@.tdrfokd@ jyefa&mufcJh=uonf? tdrw f iG *f syefrsm;¶k;H vkypf Ofua&;oGm;aom *syefpmrsm;/ r[mrdww f yfrsm; ¶k;H vkypf Ofu a&;oGm;aomt*Fvyd pf mrsm;/1946 ckEpS u f ek yf idk ;f Y jrefrmEkid if t H axGaxGoydww f iG f yg0ifcahJ om ausmif;om;or*~rsm; ¶k;H vkyo f mG ;pOfu a&;xm;cJo h nfh jrefrmpmrsm;udak wG@jrif&ojzifh usaemf wkd@tdrfonf wkdufyGJtrsKd;rsKd;ukdjzwfoef;cJh&onfh ordkif;taxmuftxm;jzpfaeonfukd usaemfh acgif;xJwGif A[kokwtjzpf pkaqmif;rd+yD;om;jzpfaecJhyg+yD? 1946 ckESpfu ausmufjzLòrd@teD; *kH;csdef&GmwGif ausmif;paecGifh&cJh+yD;/ 1953 ckESpfwGif wuUokdvf0ifwef;atmifI &efukefwuUokdvfokd@a&mufcJhonf? 1957 ckESpfwGif ody`HbJG@&cJh+yD; aemuf &cdkifwdkif;ausmufjzLaumvdyfwGif ¶lyaA'Xmerª;tjzpf 1959 ckESpfrS 1961 ckESpfxd

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(7) Zlvkdif wm0efxrf;aqmifcJh&onf? touf (22) ESpf/ (23) ESpft&G,fjzpfojzifh ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh &if;&if;ESD;ESD;&SdvSonf? xdo k @kd wm0efxrf;aqmifpOf tpk;d &cGiðhf yaom vkyyf idk cf iG rhf sm;ukd jynforl sm;tusK;d cHpm;& atmif tpGrf;ukefóud;pm;aqmif&Gufcsifaom usaemfESifh txufvl}uD;rsm;tóudufukdom aqmif&u G +f yD; rdr&d mxl;wufa&;ukOd ;D pm;ay;csiaf om ausmif;tkyOf ;D ausmcf ifw@dk t=um; tacs twifjzpfr_wcsKd@ñuHcJh&onf? ausmufjzLaumvdyftaqmufttkHrsm; wdk;csJ@r_rGef;rHjyifqifr_rsm;vkyf&ef ESpfpOfcGifhðy aiGcsay;onfudk ausmif;tkyfuroHk;yJ aiGtm;vkH;udk jyefvnfay;oGif;I txufvl}uD;rsm;xH wGirf suEf mS aumif;&atmif óud;pm;onfudk usaemfua0zef+yD; awmausmif;tqifo h m &Sad o; aomtaqmufttkEH iS hf ausmif;0if;xJ&v dS rf;rsm;udk jyifqifrr_ sm;vky&f efwifjy&m ausmif;tkyf u vufrcHbJy,fcscJhonf? 1961-62 ckESpfwGif usaemfonf tzGJ@0ifXmerª; (5) OD;&Sdaom axmifyHha=u;aumf rwDwGif twGif;a&;rª;tjzpfvnf; wm0efay;jcif;cH&onf? axmufyHha=u;av#mufxm;olrsm; xJrS ausmi;fom; (10) a,mufudk a&G;cs,f&efjzpfonf? Tudpw P iG v f nf; ausmif;tky}f uD;ESiu hf saemf tacstwifjzpf&jyefonf? olu ausmif; om;rsm;xJrSwuUodkvf0ifwef;atmifrSwftrsm;qkH;&olrsm;ukd a&G;csifonf? usaemfurl rdb rsm;. pD;yGm;a&;csKd@iJholrsm;xJrS a&G;Iay;csifonf? wuUodkvfrsm;tufOya'wGif ausmif;om;rsm;tm; aiGa=u;ulnDcsD;jr‡ifhr_twGuf paumvm;&SpEf iS phf wdik yf if[I l ESprf sK;d owfrw S x f m;onf?paumvm;&Sprf mS tawmfq;kH ausmif; om;rsm;udkay;onfh ynmxl;c|efqkjzpf.? xkdpOfu vpOf (75) usyfE_ef;ay;onf? pwkdifyifrSm rdbtcsKd@wJhqHk; ausmif;om;rsm;twGuf ynmoifaxmufyHha=u;jzpf+yD; vpOf (60) usyfpDay; onf? xd@k a=umifh usaemfu Oya'ESit hf nDvyk &f ef wifjyjcif;jzpfonf// od@k aomf ausmif;tkyu f oabmrwl?ygwpD 'Hk rD u dk a&pDuu dk sio hf ;Hk onfh OD;Ek.tpk;d &acwfjzpfojzifh rJcq JG ;Hk jzwf&ef oabm wl=uonf? tpnf;ta0;rsm;wGif aemufqHk;rSrJay;&aom tpnf;ta0;obmywd ausmif;tkyf u yxrOD;qHk;rJay;vdkuf.? 'Drkdua&pDvkyfxkH;udk csKd;azmufI usefq&mrsm;tm; zdtm;ay; vkdufjcif;jzpfonf? '\eduXmerª;u ausmif;tkyf}uD;udk axmufcHvdkuf.? wuUokdvfaxmufyHha=u;wGifwm0ef&Sdolrsm;. w&m;Oya'csKd;azmufr_wcsKd@ukd ausmif;om;b0uyif usaemfawG@jrifcJh&zl;onf? 1954 ckESpfu ausmufjzLOypmaumvdyfukd pzGifhonfhtcg vkdtyfolrsm;twGuf jynfawmfomaxmufyHha=u;ay;&ef tpdk;&ua=unm aomfvnf; awmifukwfrS rkef@zufxkyfonf rkqkd;rwOD;.om;onf axmufyHha=u;r&ojzifh

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(7) Zlvkdif ausmif;qufrwufEkdifcJh? xkEd pS u f ausmufjzLwGiw f m0efusaeaom c¶kid 0f ef.orD;ESpaf ,mufudk axmufyahH =u; ay;cJ=h uonf?pD;yGm;a&;tcuftcJ&o dS u l akd y;&rnfqadk omtcsuEf iS hf rdom;pkwckrS wa,muf xufykdIray;&[laom pnf;urf;csufESpfckukd wòydifwnf;csKd;azmufvkduf=ujcif;jzpfonf? xkd@xufykdqkd;aom jzpf&yfwckrSm 1955-56 ckESpfujzpfcJh.? 'vòrd@rS tarhtm;ukd;r_ wckwnf;jzifhausmif;wufaeonfh ausmif;olrwifvSonf aq;wuUokdvfbGJ@ukd tcsdefwkdwkd ESifhqGwfcl;Ekdifatmif OD;Ektpkd;&u txl;pDpOfzGifhvSpfay;xm;onfh aq;wuUokdvftóudoif wef;rS atmifvmoljzpfojzifh wuUokdvf0ifwef;atmifonfhESpfrSmyif aq;wuUokdvf 'kwd, ESpfokd@ wkduf¶kdufwufa&mufcGifh&aeoljzpfonf?? touf (16) ESpfom&Sdao;aom rwifvSonf ,lusKH;r&jzpfum "mwkaA'XmerS [dkuf'&dkuvdk&pftufqpf tjyif;pm;ykvif;udk,lvm+yD; wykvif;vHk;ukd ol@yg;pyfxJodk@avmif; xnfhIowfaovkdufonf? xkdpOfu usaemfonf touf (18) ESpfausmft&G,fjzpf+yD; wwd ,ESpf ¶lyaA'*k%fxl;wef;wGif wufa&mufoif=um;aeqJjzpf.? Ekid if jH cm;jzpfrsK;d pku H dk qif,if=uaom wuUov dk af usmif;olrsm;=um;wGif zsi=f urf;t0wf rsm;uko d m0wfIausmif;wufaeaomrwifvu S u kd saemfw@dk yk+d yD;wefz;dk xm;cJ=h uojzifh rwifvS aoqkH;r_ta=umif;ESifh tpkd;&wm0ef&Sdolrsm;tvGJokH;pm;vkyfr_udk wdusaom taxmuft xm;rsm;jzifh usaemfa&;+yD;yk@d c&hJ m xGe;f ae@pOfowif;pmwGif tjynft h 0azmfjyay;onf? ygvrD ef v$wfawmfxdyif xdkaqmif;yg; *,uf¶dkufoGm;cJhonf? ,ckaxmufyHha=u;aumfrwDtpnf;ta0;wGif Taqmif;yg;ta=umif;udk usaemfjyef ajym&if; rsuf&nfrsm;yifpkd@vmrdonf? rwifvSaoqHk;&r_wGif axmufyHha=u;a&G;cs,fcJhonfh yk*Kd~ vfrsm; wm0ef&o dS nf[k u|eaf wmfc, H al =umif;&Si;f jyvdu k &f m useXf merª;ESpaf ,mufjzpfonfh t*FvdyfpmXmerª; OD;atmifoef;ESifh jrefrmpmXmerª; a':cifapmwkd@u pdwfxdckdufr_ukdjy+yD; axmufcH=uI usaemfhtqdktEdkif&um trSefwu,f pD;yGm;a&;tcufñuHaeonfh ausmif; om;rsm; ynmqufoifcGifh&oGm;=uonf? ausmif;tkyf}uD;url usaemfhtay: &efòid;zGJ@oGm;.? ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh òrdŒolòrdŒom;rsm; wufa&mufonfh ynmay;a[majymyJGrsm;wGif urBmay: Y jzpfay:aeaom ody`Hqkdif&m wkd;wufjzpfxGef;r_rsm;wifjyonfh usaemfha[majym csurf sm;ukd òrd@ròd rd@brsm; tvGeo f abmus=uonf? a[majymyGw J ckwiG f 'H;k ysjH zpfay:vmyHrk pS I urBmywfò*dvfwkrsm;ay:xGef;vmykHta=umif;ESifh *smr%D/ tar&duef/ ¶k&SEkdifiHwdk@.pGr;faqmif r_rsm;udk a[majymvkdufonf? ausmif;om;rsm;.ar;cGe;f udak jz&if; yxrqH;k urBmywfò*dvw f u k kd ¶k&v S w $ cf +hJ yD; yxrqH;k urBmywfvlom;rSm ,l&D*g*g&ifjzpfa=umif; ajymjyvdkufonf? tar&duefjynfaxmifpku eD;

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(7) Zlvkdif uyfpGm,SOfòydifae+yD; *|ef*vif;onf urBmhqGJtm;tjyifbufxd wufa&mufcJh+yDjzpfa=umif; vnf; ajymjycJhonf? Tonfukd usaemfuGefjrLepf0g'udk jzef@csDonf[k wuUokdvfaumifpDokd@ wkdifpmykd@cHcJh&onf? usaemfydk@cs&aom ¶lyaA'bmomrSm t*Fvdyfbmomjzifhydk@cs+yD;aemuf ausmif;om; rsm; ydkem;vnfap&ef jrefrmpum;jzifhwausmhjyef ydk@csay;avh&Sd=uonf? ausmufjzLaumvdyf wGifwufa&mufaeonfh ausmif;om;rsm; udkpHomjzL/ udkausmfvS/ udk,lEGwf (pf) ponfh ausmif;om;tm;vkH;rSm &ckdifpum;ajymolrsm;jzpf=uonf? t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh ydk@cs+yD;aomtcg jrefrmpum;tpm; oufqkdif&m wkdif;&if;om; pum;jzifhykd@csEkdifv#if ykd@cs=u&ef yx0D0ifygarmuQ a'gufwma':oif;=unf/ ocFsmygarmuQ OD;atmifv/S ¶lyaA'ygarmuQa'guw f marmifarmifc polw@dk !$e=f um;onfh jynfaxmifppk w d "f mwf zG@H +zdK;a&; &nfreS ;f csut f wkid ;f &cdik pf um;jzifh usaemfy@kd csonfuv kd nf; &cdik t f rsK;d om;a&; pnf;¶k;H v_H@aqmfr_vkyfaeonf[lI wdkifpmydk@cH&jyefonf? ausmif;om;b0u wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;or* ~(wuo) Y xif&Sm;aom acgif; aqmifjzpfcJhzl;aomfvnf; taqmifrª;rsm;ESifh jy\emay:avhr&SdcJh? 1957-58 ckESpfu wuU ok d v f w G i f prf ; oyf u sif h o k H ; cJ h a om ausmif ; aqmif r sm;tm; q&mES i f h a usmif ; om; yl ; wG J t k y f c sKyf a &; pD r H c suf w G i f taqmif r ª ; rsm;u usaemf h t m; vk H ; 0v$ J a y;onf t xd aqmif&Gufay;EkdifcJhaom rSwfwrf;aumif;&SdcJhonf? 1958 ck E S p f =o*k w f v twG i f ; u uk u U d K if ; vrf ; qk H & S d [d k Z G r f p m;awmf q uf w G i f qkid rf x _ rf;ESiahf usmif;om;av;a,mufw@kd pum;rsm;+yD;ausmif;om;rsm;udk 0kid ;f zrf;¶ku d Ef u S =f uI ausmif; om;axmifaygif;rsm;pGmESifh &JwyfzGJ@wkd@ &ifqkdifae=uonfudk usaemft"duwm0ef,l ajz&Sif;ay; cJhI t"du¶k%f;rSvGwfuif;apcJhonf? ausmif;q&mb0wGif ausmif;om;rsm;tay: aysmhaysmif;vGef;onf/ rsufESmom ay; vGe;f onf[k wuUov kd af umifp0D ifwcsK@d u jrifaomfvnf; ynma&;0ef}uD; OD;armifausmZf u H tajctaeudpk pHk rf;avhvmum usaemft h m; 1962 ckEpS f Zefe0g&v D qef;wGif &efuek w f uUov kd f odk@ jyefac:ajymif;a&$@ay;vdkufojzifh vdyfcHk;wGif 'kwd,ESpfoifwef;rsm;udk wm0ef,lcJh&onf? Tod@k ajymif;a&$@vm&jcif;rSm jrefrmEdik if . H ordik ;f wGif txl;jcm;qH;k aomjzpf&yfrsm;Y ud, k w f ikd f jzwfoef;ñuHawG@cHpm;&zdk@twGuf zefwD;vmjcif;yifjzpfawmhonf? 1962 ckESpf tm%modrf;yGJ usaemf&efukefodk@ jyefajymif;+yD;I r=umrDrSmyif ppfwyfu tm%modrf;vdkufojzifh wdkif;jynftajctae ajymif;ukefawmhonf?

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(7) Zlvkdif 1958 ckESpfwGif OD;Ek.oef@&Sif;zqyvtpdk;&u Akdvfae0if;tm; tm%mv$Jay;&mwGif ygvrD efudk zsuo f rd ;f jcif;r&Sb d J tdraf pmift h pd;k &tjzpfEiS hf ajcmufvwm0ef,x l ed o f rd ;f +yD;aemuf a&G;aumufyGJvkyfay;&rnf[k oabmwlcJh=uonf? ajcmufv ESpf}udrfjynfh+yD;onfhwkdif a&G; aumufyrJG vkyaf o;bJ aemufajcmufvquf,al omtcg yrnwacgi;f aqmif ocifcspaf rmif u ygvDrefxJwGifa0zef+yD; a&G;aumufyGJusif;yay;&efawmif;qkdvkduf.? xdkodk@awmif;qkd&mwGif tavmif;awmf0d"l&Zmwfa=umif;udk;um;I a[majymcsuf onf ygvDrefxJwGifa&m jynfolvlxkxJwGifyg xda&mufr_&SdvSojzifh ocifcspfarmifukd 0d"l& ocifcspfarmif[k ,ae@wkdifac:ae=ujcif;jzpfonf? a&G;aumufyGJvkyfay;ygawmhrnf[k OD;ae0if; u ygvDrefxJYa=unm+yD; 1960 ckESpf azaz:0g&D/ rwfvwGif a&G;aumufyGJusif;y+yD; tEkdif&onfh jynfaxmifpkygwD (yxp) okd@tm%mv$Jajymif;ay;tyfcJhonf? ,cifu w&m;0iftpkd;&u ygvDrefwGifwifjyonfukd tqifhqifh az0efpDppfr_rsm; vkyf +yD;rS cGifhðycsuf&cJhaom aiGa=u;ESifhtcGifhtm%mrsKd;pkHudk tdrfapmihftpdk;&vufxufwGif pdwf wkdif;us okH;pGJcGifh&cJhaomt&omukd wyfrufoGm;ykH&aom OD;ae0if;onf 1962 ckESpfwGif z,f' &,fudpPudk wvGJt"dy`g,faumufI vDq,f+yD; tm%modrf;,lcJhjyefyg+yD? tm%modrf;+yD; ppftpdk;&tzGJ@udk awmfvSefa&;aumifpDtrnfcHI zGJ@vdkuf.? ppfOD;pD; csKyfAv kd cf sKyfae0if;u awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uUÏ&mxl;,lxm;onf? tm%modr;f onfah e@jzpf aom 1962 ckEpS /f rwfv (2) &ufae@rpS I jrefrmEkid if . H Oya'ðyr_tm%m/ tkycf sKyfrt _ m%mESihf w&m;pD&ifrt _ m%mtm;vH;k ukd awmfveS af &;aumifpOD uUÏwa,mufwnf;u csKyfuidk v f u kd +f yD [k a=ujimcsufxkwfcJhonf? TonfrSm jrefrmEdkifiHwGif tm%m&Sifpepfudk pwifvdkufjcif;yif jzpfygawmhonf? 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &ufae@ tm%modrf;r_jzpfyGm;pOf AdkvfcsKyfae0if;udk,fwdkif !$e=f um;r_jzifh wyfct JG qif&h adS omwyfrsm;onf orw}uD;ref;0if;armif/ 0ef}uD;csKyfO;D EkEiS w hf uG tpdk;&tzGJ@0if0ef}uD;rsm;udk reufapmapm (2) em&D (3) em&Dcef@wGif aetdrfrsm;odk@0ifa&muf zrf;qD;=u.? tpdk;&tzGJ@0ifr[kwfawmhonfh orwa[mif;p0fa&$odkufudkvnf;zrf;onf? &efuek òf rd@u, kd rhf if;ud, k chf si;f vrf;ESihf *Gwv W pfvrf;qHYk &Sad om orwa[mif;pyfa&$ou kd f tdrfjcHwGif;odk@ ppfom;rsm; jcHpnf;¶dk;ausmfI0ifvmaomtcg tajccHynmausmif;om;r#om jzpfao;aom om;i,fp0frDrDodkufu tdyf&mrSEdk;+yD; ydwfxm;onfh tdrfa&S@wHcg;twGif;rSyif “b,folawGvJ”[k atmfIar;vkduf.? tddrf&SifcGifhðycsufr&SdbJ tcsdefrawmf}uD; jcHxJodk@cdk;0ifvmol ppfom;rsm;onf rdrdwdk@ rnfolawGjzpfa=umif; jyefatmfajymvdkuf¶HkESifh +yD;&rnfhudpPukd bmr#toHjyefray;bJ tdrfa&S@ wHcg;wnfw h nfo h @kd armif;jyefaoewfrsm;jzifyh pfvu kd =f uojzifh p0frrD o D u kd yf cJG si;f +yD; aoqH;k oGm;

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(7) Zlvkdif &Smonf? vl}uD;rsm;vef@Ekd;I rD;rsm;zGifhvdkuf=uwGif ppfom;rsm;u tdrfom;rsm;+idrf+idrfae+yD; wHcg;zGifhay;=uzdk@ trdef@ay;vdkuf=u.? vGwfvyfaomjrefrmEdkifiH. yxrqHk;orwjzpfaom &Srf;wkdif;&if;om;acgif;aqmifp0fa&$odkufonf ppfom;rsm;u w&m;rJhypfcwfowfjzwfjcif;cH oGm;&aom ol@om;i,fudkyif =unfh&_cGifhr&bJ zrf;qD;ac:aqmifoGm;jcif;cH&onf? tm%modrf;+yD; aemufwae@jzpfaom rwfv (3) &ufae@xkwfowif;pmrsm;wGif p0frrD o D u kd f ypfowfc&H onfh owif;ygvmojzifh usaemf&h ifxrJ mS cHpm;&onf? ntcsed rf awmf aetdrjf cH0if;xJo@kd vlprd ;f rsm;0ifvmonfuakd wG@I atmfar;jcif;onfh rdbtkyx f ed ;f r_atmuf&dS vlrr,fwa,muftm; ypfowfvdkuf=ujcif;onf w&m;Oya'udkcsKd;azmufonfh t=urf;zuf owfjzwfr_jzpfonf? 62 ckESpf tm%modrf;yGJwGif p0frDrDodkufonf wOD;wnf;aom usqHk;ol jzpfonf? tm%modr;f onfv h yk &f yfudk usaemfv;Hk 0vufrcH? wkid ;f jynfvw G v f yfa&;&+yD;csed rf pS I pwifjzpfymG ;cJah omjynfwiG ;f ppf&yfpzJ @kd ta&;}uD;aeonfqo dk nfh q&m}uD;ocifu, dk af wmfrKS id ;f .aqmf=ocsufudk usaemfaxmufcHojzifh ausmif;om;v_yfrSm;r_wGif usaemf wuf=uGpGmyg0if cJhjcif;jzpfonf? 1956 ckESpfuay:cJhonfh trsm;xkqENoDcsif;/ 1958 ckESpfuay:cJhaom {&m0wDikdoH oDcsif;rsm;udk usaemfwkd@ a&mufonfhae&mwkdif;wGifoDqdk+yD; jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;twGuf wkduf wGef;cJh=uonf? jynfwGif;+idrf;csrf;a&;&&Sdatmif aqmif&Gufr_tm;enf;aom zqyvESifh yxptpd;k &wd@k .csK@d ,iG ;f csurf sm;tay: a0zefrr_ sm;usaemfvyk cf o hJ nf?touf (18) t&G,w f iG f owif;pmaqmif;yg;a&;Iyif a0zefcjhJ cif;onf tpd;k &wm0ef&o dS rl sm;taeESihf olw@kd .rSm;uGuf rsm;udkjrifum ðyjyifapvdkIóud;pm;cJhjcif;jzpfonf? ,cktcsdefwGif wuUodkvf0efxrf;wOD;jzpfaeI a0zefr_rsm;rvkyfEkdifawmh? yxptpdk; &. csK@d ,iG ;f csurf sm;ukjd riforl sm;onf a0zefaxmufjyjcif; vkyo f ifo h nf? tpk;d &t&m&S}d uD;rsm; txl;ojzifh OD;ae0if;vkd vkyfazmfukdifzufa[mif;rsm;u ykdIwm0ef&Sdonf? okd@r[kwfbJ csKd@ ,Gif;csufudk vufn‡Kd;xdk;+yD; tm%modrf;,lonfhvkyf&yfukd usaemfvkH;0raxmufcH? 0efxrf; wa,mufjzpfaeI tm%modrf;r_ukd uef@uGufaomvkyf&yfrsm;wGif usaemfyg0ifjcif;r&Sdonf ukd tm;rvkdtm;r&jzpfrdonf? p0frDrDodkuf tokbtcef;tem;udkawmh usaemfvdkufygydk@aqmifcJhonf? =uHawm ok\efodk@ tokbydk@&ef ausmif;om;rsm;tm;óudqdkaomum;wpD;jzifh usaemfvdkufygcJhonf? rD;oò*dvfcgeD;wGif tavmif;tm; tav;ðyjcif;ESifh jyefwrf;zwf=um;jcif;rsm;ðyvkyf=u.? Auo/ wuoESifh &uowkd@ukd,fpm; AuoOuUÏukdoufu jyefwrf;zwf=um;aom

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(7) Zlvkdif tcg usaemf =uufoD;ar$;n‡if;yifxvm+yD; rsuf&nfrsm;pdk@wufvmonf? tokbodk@ vmol tm;vHk;vdkvdkyif pdwfxdcdkufae=u.? &Srf;trsKd;om;/ trsKd;orD;rsm;u ydkIxdcdkufyHk&onf? a'go vnf ; xG u f a e=uonf ? tok b od k @ ppf a xmuf v S r f ; a&;ES i f h &J a xmuf v S e f ; a&; 'gZifaygif;rsm;pGm wufa&mufowif;,laeonfh=um;rS tcrf;tem;ðyvkyfaejcif;jzpfI rD;oò*dvfjcif;+yD;onfESifh vlpkcGJ=uzdk@ wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfvdkufajymolu ajym=uonf? tokbtcef;tem;+yD;onfESifh vltkyfxJrS usaemfxGuf+yD;tkwf*lrsm;=um;rS w a,mufwnf; ajcvSrf;oGufoGufjzifh av#mufcJhonf? ocsKõif;tjyifodk@xGufzdk@ av#mufjcif; r[kwb f J Adv k af tmifausmt f w k *f o l @kd av#mufcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? Adv k af tmifausmo f nf 1938 ckEpS f taxGaxGoydwftwGif;uusqHk;cJhaom ausmif;om;tmZmenfjzpfonf? a&eHajrtvkyf orm;oydwfrSpwifcJhaom +Adwdo#tpdk;&qef@usifa&;oydwfwdkufyGJwGif ausmif;om;rsm; &ef ukeòf r@d &dS twGi;f 0efrsm;¶k;H udk 'DZifbmv (20) &ufae@wiG f 0dik ;f 0ef;ydwq f @kd qENjy&mrSm acgi;f aqmif wOD;jzpfcJhonf? jrif;pD;&Ju ausmif;om;rsm;udk eHygwfwkwfrsm;jzifh ¶dkufESufòzdcGJ&mwGif '%f&mjyif;jyif; xefxef&cJh+yD; (23) &ufae@wGif aq;¶HkYuG,fvGefoGm;cJhojzifh wEkdifiHvHk;u tmZmenftjzpf owfrw S *f % k ðf ycH&oljzpfonf?xdpk Ofuudak tmifausmo f nf AuoA[dak cgi;f aqmifwOD;tjzpf udkatmifqef;wkd@ESifhtwl wm0ef,laeaom wuUodkvfausmif;om;jzpfonf? wdu k yf 0JG if ausmif;om;acgi;f aqmiftjzpfEiS hf usq;kH oGm;olukd Adv k [ f ak c:a0:=ujcif;rSm ppfAv kd [ f q k v kd jkd cif;r[kw?f Adv k q f akd oma0g[m&. oD;jcm;t"dyg` ,w f ckjzpfaom acgi;f aqmif[k qdkvdkjcif;jzpfonf? ukdatmifausmfusqkH;cJhjcif;onf ol.vkyfazmfukdifzuf ukdatmifqef;wkd@ .pdwfwGif jrefrmjynfolrsm;vGwfajrmufa&;twGuf jrefrmhwyfrawmfukdzGJ@&rnf[laom qkH; jzwf c suf u k d r sKd ; aph c say;cJ h o nf r [k w f y gvm;?uk d a tmif a usmf t ouf a y;rsKd ; aph c say;I ay:aygufcJhaomjrefrmppfwyfuukdatmifausmf/ukdatmifqef;wkd@.rsKd;qufopf ausmif;om; i,fwa,mufukd ypfowfvkduf=uyg+yDaum? Adkvfatmifausmftkwf*lwGif tjcm; 3-4 a,mufvnf; awG@&.? usaemfwdk@onf Adv k af tmifausmt f w k *f w l iG f wrdepfr# +idro f ufpmG &yfItav;ðy=u+yD;aemuf wdwq f w d pf mG jzifh =uHawmok\efrS xGufcGmcJh=uonf? tm%modrf;ppftpdk;&ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;t=um; wif;rmvmjcif; tm%modrf;+yD;aemufwae@jzpfaom rwfv (3) &ufae@wGif ausmif;om;or*~ tzGJ@ }uD; (3) ckjzpfaom ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&m ausmif;om;or*~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf (Auo)/ &efukefwuU odv k af usmif;om;rsm;or*~ (wuo) ESihf &efuek cf ¶dik f ausmif;om;rsm;or*~ (&uo) wd@k y;l wGJ

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(7) Zlvkdif a=unmcsufwapmifxkwf+yD; ppfwyfutm%modrf;jcif;udk uef@uGufvdkuf=uonf? vli,fh wyfO;D ponfh tjcm;vli,ftzG@J tpnf;rsm;vnf; ppftm%modr;f r_ukd qef@usiu f ef@uu G af om a=unmcsufrsm;xkwf=uaomfvnf; txufygausmif;om;or*~rsm;avmuf us,fjyef@aom tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;r[kwf=u? zqyv/ yrnw ponfh Ekid if aH &;ygw}D uD;rsm;rSm apmif=h unf&h efq;Hk jzwfxm;=uonf? xkd@a=umifh ppftpkd;&u ausmif;om;or*~rsm;ukd t"duypfrSwftjzpf oabmxm;um tm %modr;f acgi;f aqmif Adv k cf sKyfae0if;u ausmif;om;or*~rsm; òzdcEJG ydS u f yG af &;udk OD;wnfjyifqif awmhonf? ppftpd;k &onf Edik if aH &;ygwrD sm;.axmufcrH u _ kd &atmifóud;pm;onft h aeESihf OD;ae0if; udk,fwdkif EdkifiHa&;ygwDacgif;aqmifrsm;udk awG@qHkaqG;aEG;cJhonf? rnfonfhygwDur# jywfjywf om;om; raxmufcH=u? {+yDv (30) &ufae@wGif jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfudk a=ujimaom tcgwGifvnf; EdkifiHa&;ygwDrsm;u rwifrusom wkef@jyef=uonf? OD;ae0if;ppftkyfpkonf ausmif;om;rsm;udkrl ac:,laqG;aEG;jci;fr&SdbJ zdeSdyfa&;ajcvSrf;udkomvSrf;vmcJhonf? wuUov kd t f yk cf sKyfa&;ESiphf rD cH ef@caJG &;udk ynma&;0ef}uD;Xmeu wdik ¶f u kd u f ikd w f , G jf cif;r&Sd bJ wuUov kd af umifpu D omudik w f , G &f onf? wuUov kd af umifpw D iG f ygarmuQrsm;.ud, k pf m; vS,frsm;/ jynfol@v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f (5) OD;ESifh ausmif;om;udk,fpm;vS,f (2) OD;wkd@yg0if =uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;vdu k ef m&rnfph nf;urf;rsm;udck srw S o f nft h cg wuUov kd af umifpw D iG f tjyeftvSefaqG;aEG;=u+yD; oabmwlnDcsuf&rS twnfjzpfonf? wuUokdvfaumifpD T tajctaejzpfvmatmif1920 ckEpS af usmif;om;oydwrf t S pðy óud;pm;cJah =umif;udk jrefrmEkid if H . trsKd;om;ae@orkdif;u txift&Sm;jyaecJh+yD;jzpfonf? &efukefwuUokdvfaumifpDtwGuf &efukefwuUokdvftufOya'ESifh rE Wav;wuUokdvfaumifpDtwGuf rE Wav;wuUokdvf tuf Oya'wkd@ukd jyXmef;xm;&Sdonf? Tr#ta&;}uD;+yD; tpOftvmvnf;aumif;aom wuUokdvfaumifpDudk zsufodrf;&ef twGuf OD;ae0if;onf &efukefwuUokdvftufOya'ESifh rE Wav;wuUokdvftufOya'wkd@ukd ¶kwo f rd ;f onfqo dk nfh Oya'a=unmcsu[ f o l nfh csucf si;f tm%mwnfap&rnfqo dk nfh a=u nmcsufukd OD;ae0if;vufrSwfxkd;I arv (9) &ufae@pGJjzifh xkwfjyefvkduf.? wuUokdvftufOya'rsm;wGifyg&Sdonfh vkyfykdifcGifhtm;vkH;udk ppftpkd;&awmfvSefa&; aumifpDuusifhokH;oGm;rnf[kvnf;OD;ae0if;.a=unmcsufxJwGifyg&Sdonf? arv (10) &uf ae@wGif OD;ae0if;onf wuUodkvfaumifpD0ifrsm;ukd '*kH&dyfomYac:awG@+yD; ,ae@rSpI wuU odkvfaumifpDukd zsufodrf;vkdufa=umif; ajymjyvkdufonf? wuUokdvfq&mrsm;/ ausmif;om;

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(7) Zlvkdif rsm;ESifh acwfynmwwfrsm;xJwGif OD;ae0if;.a=unmcsufonf trsKd;om;ae@orkdif;udk eif;acs ypfonfhvkyf&yfjzpfonf[k jrif=uonf? arv (31) &ufae@wiG f &efuek w f uUov kd yf garmuQcsKyf a'guw f momvSukd &mxl;rSz,f &Sm;vdkuf+yD; ocsFmygarmuQOD;umudk ygarmuQcsKyfcef@tyfvdkuf.? wuUodkvftufOya't& ygarmuQcsKyf&mxl;vpfvyfaomtcg ygarmuQrsm;xJrS ,SOfòydifta&G;cHcGifh&Sd+yD; wuUodkvfbGJ@& toif;0ifrsm;u v#Kd@0SufrJay;pepfjzifh a&G;aumufwifajr‡muf&onf? tpdk;&tr_xrf;jzpfap/ yk*~vdutvkyfvkyfoljzpfap/ bGJ@&toif;0ifjzpfygu rJay;cGifh&Sd onf? xdkodk@ rJay;wifajr‡muf&aom ygarmuQcsKyf&mxl;udk tpdk;&u wdkuf¶dkufcef@tyfcGifh vk;H 0 r&Scd ?hJ t*FvefEidk if u H tpðycJah om vGwv f yfonfw h uUov dk af umifppD epfonf urBmwGif pHe rlemtjzpf av;pm;wefxkd;xm;=uonfhpepfjzpfonf? xkdpepfukd ppftm%m&Siftkyfpku eif;acs ae=uyg+yD? wuUov kd t f yk cf sKyfa&;wckv;kH udk ppftpd;k &u vH;k 0csKyfuikd v f u kd jf cif;onf jrefrmEkid if . H tem*wftwGuf edrdwfqkd;ukd ed'gef;ysKd;ay;vkdufjcif;yifjzpfonf? &mxl;rSz,f&Sm;cH&ol a'guf wmomvSrSm ppfóudacwfu wuoacgif;aqmifjzpfcJhzl;onf? q&m}uD;OD;umrSmrl ausmi;f om;v_yf&Sm;r_rSm yg0ifcJholr[kwfbJ/ txuftm%mydkif.trdef@udk woa0rwdrf;vdkufem wwfoljzpfI ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh a&ma&maESmaESmaewwfavhr&Sd? q&mOD;um.ausmif;om;rsm;tay: ¶kd;om;onfhapwemxm;wwfr_udk xdawG@vkduf zl;onfh wynfhwa,muftaeESifh tenf;i,fwifjyyg&ap? wuUokdvfausmif;aqmifrsm;wGif taqmifrª;/ vufaxmuftaqmifrª;wkd@tjyif ygarmuQ (okd@r[kwf) uxduwa,mufukd taqmifrª;csKyftjzpf wm0efay;xm;onf? q&mOD;umonf usaemfwkd@ yif;,aqmif. taqmifrª;csKyfjzpfI usaemfr=umc% oGm;awG@&onf?usaemfw@dk taqmifEpS yf wfvnfnpmpm;yGv J yk &f ef pDpOf=uonft h cg 'efayguf xrif;csuf&eftwGuf q&m}uD;ukd,fwkdif taqmifokd@vm+yD; pDpOf!$efjyay;onftxd ulnD avh&o dS nf?pnf;urf;wif;=uyfojl zpfaomfvnf; wynfrh sm;tay: uln, D idk ;f yif;r_vnf;&So d nfh q&maumif;jzpfonfukd usaemfwkd@ cHpm;vkdufzl;onf? awmfveS af &;aumifppD pftpd;k &u 1962-63 ynma&;ESpf tpydik ;f Yxkwjf yefvmaom wuUodkvfpnf;urf;opfrsm;ukd ygarmuQcsKyfOD;um. vufrSwfxkd;ay;&jcif;rSm jynfolrsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;.rauseyfr_rsm;twGuf q&m}uD;OD;umokd@OD;wnfap&ef vSnfhuGufqifjcif; jzpfonf? ppftpkd;&. ynma&;pnf;urf;opfrsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;u 1920 ckESpfu +Adwdo# tpkd;&csrSwfcJhaom ynma&;Oya'ygtcsuftvufrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfavhvm=u+yD; vl@tcGifh

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(7) Zlvkdif ta&;udk csKd;azmuf&ma&mufonfhtcsuftvufrsm;udk axmufjyuef@uGufr_rsm;vkyf=u onf? uef@uGufcsufudkwuorSwm0ef,lI trsm;odatmifxkwfjyef+yD;/ uef@uGufcsuf rSef or#udk ygarmuQcsKyf¶kH;odk@ w&m;0ifay;pmtjzpfydk@cJhonf? wcsK@d upd EP iS yhf wfoufIygarmuQcsKyftm;awG@qckH iG v hf nf; awmif;cJo h nf? ygarmuQcsKyf xHrS jyef=um;r_wckr#r&SdcJh? ppftpdk;&u ygarmuQcsKyfOD;umudk ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh qufoG,f jcif; bmr#rvkyf&ef owday;xm;Ijzpfonf? tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;ESifhausmif;om;rsm;t=um;wif; rmr_ wae@xufwae@ ydkIjrifhrm;vmonf? Zlvkdifvqef;wGifwuUodkvftaqmifwHcg;rsm; n (8) em&DtcsdefwGifydwfrnf?xdk tcsdefrSpItaqmifrsm;wGif rnfolr# t0iftxGufrvkyf&[laompnf;urf;opfwckxGuf vmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;a'goxGufukef=uawmhonf? acwfrDSwuUodkvfrsm;wGif taqmif a eausmif ; om;rsm;taqmif r ª ; cG i f h ð ycsuf , l + yD ; nOD ; yd k i f ; wG i f t jyif x G u f c G i f h ð y =uonfursm;onf? pmusuf&if; +iD;aiG@vmv#ifjzpfap/ wckckpm;csif aomufcsifv#ifjzpfap/ wuUodkvf0if; xJ&Sdqdkifrsm;wGif oGm;a&mufpm;aomufEkdifatmif cGifhðyjcif;jzpfonf? n (8) em&DrSpI tjyif xGufcGuf vHk;0ydwfyifvdkufaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;rSm n (8) em&DrSpI tus,fcsKyf tusOf;om;jzpfoGm;ovdk cHpm;=u&onf? xdk@a=umifh Zlvdkifv (4) &ufAk'<[l;ae@ n (9) em&Dcef@wGif taqmifaeausmif;om;rsm; rdrdtaqmifxJrSmaeI aºuG;a=umfuef@uGufr_rsm; vkyf=u.? ausmif;om;rsm;. aºu;a=umfuef@uGufoHrsm; Zlvdkifv (5) &ufae@wGifwuorS ygarmuQcsKyfxHodk@pma&;+yDD; rw&m;pnf;urf;rsm; ¶kyo f rd ;f ay;&efxyfraH wmi;fqv kd u kd . f ? ausmi;fom;rsm;.cHpm;csuu f dk tkycf sKyfa&;ykid ;f ok@d wifjy EdkifatmifESifh tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;rSvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;odk@ ajymcsifonfrsm;udk tusKd;oifht a=umif;oifh ES;D aESmajymjyEkid af tmifausmif;om;ud, k pf m;vS,rf sm;tm;ygarmuQcsKyfEiS hf awG@ciG hf ay;&efvnf; yef=um;vdkufonf// odk@aomf rnfonfhta=umif;jyefcsufr#ay:rvmcJh? xdak e@nwGiaf usmif;om;rsm; aºuG;a=umf=ujyefonf? aºuG;a=umf&if; pdw"f mwfyw kd uf ºuGvmonf? taqmifwHcg;rsm;udk vltiftm;jzifhwGef;zGifhvdkuf=u+yD; vrf;rodk@xGufvm=u onf?ausmif;om;rsm;onft"dywdvrf;rSwqifh tif;0vrf;ukjd zwfI yk*v H rf;xJo@kd 0ifa&muf um q&mrsm;odk@wdkifwef;a[majym=uonf? pnf;urf;opfawGa=umifhwuUodkvfrSm tusOf;axmifwckESifhwlvmaeyga=umif;/ T udpPudkajz&Sif;Edkifatmif q&mrsm;u0dkif;0ef;ulnD=uyg&ef rdrdwdk@awmif;yefa=umif; a[majym

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(7) Zlvkdif =uonf? q&mrsm;pdwrf aumif;jzpf¶u kH vGI J bmr#rvky&f =J u? ausmif;om;rsm;tm; xGurf awG@ &J=u?ausmif;om;rsm;udak =umufIr[kw/f ppftm%m&Siaf wGuakd =umufI jzpfonf? ygarmuQ csKyfa'gufwmomvSvdktvkyfrSxkwfy,fjcif;cH&rSmudk pdk;&drf=uIjzpfonf? wuUodkvftkyfcsKy fa&;¶kH;rS xdyfwef;0g&ifht&m&SdwOD;jzpfonfh OD;,kcifonf yk*Hvrf;aetdrfrSxGufvm+yD; ausmif; om;rsm;ESifh pum;vmajymonf// ESpfaxmifcef@&Sdonfh ausmif;om;rsm;onf OD;,kcifpum;ajym&mokd@ pk¶kH;vm+yD; +idrfI em;axmif=u.?OD;,kcifu “wynfw h @kd cHpm;csuaf wGukd wifjy=u&mrSm pdw&f n S zf @kd awmhvrkd ,f/ t=urf;zufr_awGrjzpfapeJ@? ausmif;0if; tjyifodk@rxGuf=ueJ@”[kajym+yD; noef;acgifcsdef a&mufvm+yDrdk@ rdrdwdk@taqmiftoD;oD;odk@jyef+yD; tdyfpuftem;,l=uzdk@ ajymvdkufonf? ausmif;om;rsm;u q&m@pum;ukd em;axmifrSmjzpfa=umif;ajym+yD; “q&mOD;,kcif usrf;rmygap”[kaºuG;a=umfum taqmifodk@jyefoGm;cJh=uonf? Zlvdkif (6) &ufae@wGif tm%mydkifrsm;xHrS wpHkwckxl;vmrnf[k ar#mfvifh=uaomf vnf; bmr#rxl;? ae@vnfbufwGif wuoa=unmcsufxGufay:vmonf? vuf&Sdjzpfay: aeonfhtajctaersm;ESifhywfoufI ausmif;om;xkqENudkazmfxkwf&ef ausmif;om;xk tpnf;ta0;ukd paeae@ae@vnf (1) em&DtcsdefwGif wuopnf;a0;cef;rY usif;yrnfjzpfI wufa&muf=u&ef arwWm&yfcHa=umi;f azmfjyxm;onf? a=unmcsufudk wuoOuUÏ udkAaqG av; vufrSwfa&;xdk;xm;+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;odk@jzef@a0vdkuf=uonf? usaemfonf urm&GwfaysmfbG,fausmif;vrf;xJwGif tdrfiSm;aeonf? xdk@a=umifh n bufqENjyjcif;ukd udk,fwdkifrjrifawG@vdkuf&? usaemfESifhtwlaeol udkcifpkd;/ ukdcifaºuG ponfh ausmi;fom;rsm;ESifh tjcm;ausmi;fom;rsm;xHrS ta=umif;pHkudkawmh odae&onf? usaemfhcHpm; csuft&qdkv#if wuUodkvfq&mrsm;xJrS =um;cHtjzpfyg0if&ef tkyfcsKyfa&;ydkif;u cGiðhf yapcsio f nf?ok@d aomfppftpk;d &u q&mrsm;udk vrf;yifyw d x f m;=uonf? q&mrsm;taeESihf rdom;pk pm;0wfaea&;ESifhb0vHkðcHa&; txdcdkufcH&rnfudk pdk;&GH@ae=uonf? rnfolr# yg0ifywfoufjcif; rðy&J=u? Zlvkdif (7) &ufae@ ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;wGif t}uD;tus,fzrf;qD;csKyfaESmifr_ rsm;jzpfvmrnfudk usaemfpdk;&drfylyefaerdonf? xdk@a=umifhvnf; tpnf;ta0;usif;ycsdefwGif teD;tem;rSoGm;Iapmifh=unfh&ef usaemfqHk;jzwfvdkufonf? Zlvdkif (7) &ufae@ &efuek w f uUov kd o f ifwef;rsm;rSm paeae@wiG af e@0ufjzpf.// xd@k a=umifh (12) em&Dx;kd +yD;

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(7) Zlvkdif aomtcg tcsdefydkoifwef;wckwavrSvGJI tjcm;oifwef;rsm;r&Sdawmh? ausmif;om;rsm; onf pnf;a0;cef;rxJodk@ wzGJzGJa&mufvmae=u+yD? usaemfonfwuoacgi;f aqmifjzpfczhJ ;l ojzifh wuotaqmuftOD;.twGi;f tae xm;udk &if;ESD;u|r;f0if+yD;jzpfonf? awmifESifhajrmufwef;aeaom wuotaqmuftOD;. ajrmufbufyikd ;f tay:xyfwckv;kH onf tpnf;ta0;cef;rjzpf.? pnf;a0;cef;r.atmufxyf rSm pm;aomufqdkifjzpfI qdkif.eH&Hrsm;wGif yef;csDeef;a0. qDaq;yef;csDum;rsm; csdwfqGJxm; onf? pm;aomufqdkifaumifwm. rsufESmcsif;qkdifeH&HwGif AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;yHk&Sdonf? ab; eH&HwGif ¶kyf&Sifrif;orD; trmpdefyHk/ EGJ@EJG@pef;yHkESifh ya'gifvlrsKd;pkrsm;.yHkrsm;&Sdonf? usaemfonf AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;ykH. a&S@em;&Sdpm;yGJwGifxdkifI pm;aomufzG,f&mrsm;udkrSm,lum ajz;ajz; aq;aq;pm;aomuf&if; tajctaeudk tuJcwfapmifh=unfhaevdkufonf? pnf;a0;cef;rxJwGif toHcsJ@pufoHk;I ajym=ua[m=uonfjzpf&m/ udk;pdk;0if;/ udkom bef;/ udkodef;xGef; polwkd@.ajymqdkoHrsm;udk usaemfjynfhjynfhpHkpHk=um;&onf? pnf;a0;yGJpcgeD; wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;ESpfa,mufoHk;a,muf pnf;a0;cef;xJodk@ ausmif;om;a,mifaqmif 0ifvmonfukd ausmif;om;rsm;zrf;rd=u.? acgi;f aqmifrsm;u0ifxed ;f +yD; axmufvrS ;f a&;rsm; udk jyefvw $ af y;vdu k =f uonf? pnf;a0;yGu J kd OuUÏudAk aqGav; obmywdred @f ceG ;f ajymI zGiv hf pS f +yD; tqdkrsm;wifoGif;qHk;jzwf=uonf? ausmif;om;wa,mufu wuUodkvf0if;xJwGif vSnfhvnfqENjy=uzdk@tqdkwif&m tm;vH;k oabmwl=uojzifh t"dywdvrf;twdik ;f bG@J EiS ;f obifcefrxd csw D ufqENjy=u.? bG@J EiS ;f obifcef;ra&S@Y vufsm&pfjyefvSnfhI vmvrf;twdkif;jyefvm=uonf? wuotaqmuf tOD;a&S@ t"dywdvrf;ab; vloGm;p}uFef&Sdonfh jrufcif;ay:wGif pm;yGJwckudkcsvdkuf=uonf? OuUÏudAk aqGav;u pm;yGaJ y:od@k wuf+yD; ed*;kH csKyfred @f ceG ;f udak jymvdu k +f yD;aemuf tm;vH;k vlpck I JG jyefoGm;=uawmhonf? usaemhf&ifxJrSm at;oGm;yg+yD? pnf;a0;cef;xJukd &JawG/ ppfom;awG0ifpD;=urvm;? pDwef;qENjyae=upOf vmzrf;wmawGrsm;&Sdrvm;[k usaemfu wcsdefvHk;pdk;&drfaecJhonf? ,ck tm;vHk;at;at;csrf;csrf;+yD;oGm;+yDjzpfI usaemf tvGef0rf;omoGm;yg+yD? usaemfESifh ausmif;om;oHk;a,mufwdk@ pm;aomufqdkifrSmxGuftvmwGif wuo acgi;f aqmifrsm; tay:xyfo@kd wufz@kd jyifae=u&if; usaemfEiS &hf if;ES;D onfh udAk aqGav;/ udo k uf/ udo k mbef;/ udv k =S unfpolw@kd uEkd w _ q f uf+yD; usaemfw@kd urm&Gwt f 0dik ;f }uD;bufo@kd xGuv f m cJh=uonf? usaemfw@kd wuUov kd "f rRm¶Hak &S@o@kd a&mufaomtcg vSn;f wef;*gww f b J ufrS vif¶h b dk m um;/*spu f m;/ a'g*h spu f m;rsm;yg0ifaom &Jum;wef;wckvmaeonfukd jrif=u&onf? wuo

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(7) Zlvkdif udk &JawG0ifpD;awmhrSmygvm;[kusaemfatmfajymvdkufonfESifhtwlygonfh ausmif;om; (3) a,mufu “usaemfwdk@ajy;+yD; owday;vdkufr,f” ajym+yD; wuoqDodk@ w&Sdefxdk;ajy;oGm; =uawmhonf? usaemfvnf; olwdk@aemufrS ajcvSrf;oGufoGufvSrf;I vdkufoGm;onf? &Jum;rsm;u t&ifa&mufESifh+yD; udkAaqGav;ESifh udkouftygt0if ausmif;om;acgif; aqmif (20) ausmu f zkd rf;+yD; &J*spu f m;rsm;jzifh ac:oGm;=u.? use&f w J csK@d u wuotaqmuf tOD;udk 0ifp;D xm;+yD; &JwcsK@d rmS wuoESiu hf yfaeaom q&mOD;umtdr0f if;xJo@kd ajy;0ifae&m ,lvkduf=uonf? usaemft"dywdvrf;xdyfodk@a&mufaomtcg ausmif;om;wcsKd@u t"dywdvrf; wHcg;r }uD;udkydwfae=u+yD? usaemfonf ydkIpdk;&drfvm+yD; wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;twdkif; qufajy;um ausmif;vrf;rSwqifh oxHkaqmif0if;xJodk@0ifzdk@óud;pm;.? xdkodk@ajy;aepOf &Jrsm;ypfvdkufonfh ajcmufvHk;jyL;aoewfoH 4-5 csufudk =um;vdkuf&onf? usaemfausmif;vrf;twkid ;f ajy;aepOfrmS yif ausmif;om;rsm;u oxHak qmif*w d w f cH g; udak omhcwfyw d v f u kd =f uojzifah emufa=umi;fjyefvn S u hf m wuUov kd pf mwdu k 0f if;xJo@kd 0ifvm cJhonf? wuUodkvfpmwdkuf0if;rSm t"dywdvrf;ESifhwnfhwnfh wuot0kdif;av;. tjcm; wzufwGifjzpfonf? xdk@a=umifht"dywdvrf;ay:wGif ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh&Jrsm; &ifqkdifawG@ae =uonfudk aumif;aumif;jrif&onf? ausmif;om;rsm;uwuo0if;xJo@kd 0ifz@kd óu;d pm;=u&m 'dik ;f ud, k pf u D ikd x f m;aom &Jrsm;u wef;pDyw d q f @kd +yD;ausmif;om;rsm;udek yH gww f w k jf zih¶f u kd =f u.// rsu&f nf,Akd ;kH aoewfuikd f &Jrsm;u ausmi;fom;tkyx f o J @kd csed I f ypfvu kd &f m&ifbwfux kd rd eS cf &H onfah usmif;om;rsm; wa,muf+yD; wa,mufvJusonfudk jrifae&onf? ausmif;om;rsm;onfvJusoludkwcsKd@uulnDIcsDr,loGm;=u+yD;usefvlrsm;u &Jrsm; tm;ydkIwdkufcdkuf=u.? cJrsm;/ ykvif;rsm;/ wkwfrsm;&&mjzifhypf=uonf? &Jrsm;. ¶dkufESufr_/ ypfcwfr_rsm;ukdrr_awmhbJ a&S@odk@omydkIydkI/ wufvm=uonf// ausmif;om;rsm;ydkIrsm;vm ojzifh &Jrsm;txdemvmonf? wcsKd@ aoG;&J&JoH&J&J jzpfukef=u+yD? awmifilaqmif/ '*kHaqmif/ rE Wav;aqmif/ a&$bdk aqmifwdk@rS ausmif;om;rsm;onf awmifilaqmifESifh '*kHaqmif=um;&Sd vrf;twkdif; t"dywd vrf;odk@xGufvm=uaomtcg ygarmuQcsKyfOD;umtdrfa&S@rS&Jrsm;udk 'kwd,ppfrsufESmzGifhwkduf onfhoabm jzpfoGm;.? &Jrsm;ykdIta&;edrfhum wuoa&S@&Sd&Jrsm;qDodk@yl;aygif;I jyefwdkuf=uonf? '%f&m tjyif;txef&oGm;onfah usmif;om;rsm;udt k aqmifrsm;od@k o,f,o l mG ;onft h cg jrif&onfh ausmif;om;rsm; ydI k pdwv f y_ &f mS ;r_&v dS mojzifh ausmif;om;rsm; rdrw d @dk xcd u dk t f E &W m,fjzpfrnf

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(7) Zlvkdif udkodyf&¶krpkduf=uawmh? &Jrsm;onfaemufqkH;ay: rsuf&nf,kdAkH;rsm;udk aygaygrsm;rsm;okH;=uaomfvnf; b0wl rsm;.aoG;udkjrif+yD;=uonfh ausmif;om;rsm;.pdwf"mwfukd csKd;ESdrf&efrwwfEkdif=uawmhojzifh t"dywdvrf;*dwfab; vl0ifvlxGufwHcg;udkzGifh+yD; wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;ay:&Sd wuot0dkfif; av;em;odk@xGufoGm;=uum vmóudaomum;rsm;jzifh xGufcGmoGm;=uonf? nae (4) em&DcGJ cef@&SdoGm;+yDjzpfonf? rdk;wGif;jzpfaomfvnf; rdk;r&Gm/ wdrfv$mcyfyg;yg;u aumif;uifrSm v$rf; aeojzifh aeylodyfrjyif;vS? tu,fI ppftpd;k &uom xdak e@tjzpftysuEf iS yhf wfoufI jynforl sm;tm; tkycf sKyf a&;wm0efudk ,lxm;+yDjzpfaom tpdk;&w&yftaersKd;jzifh tav;teufpOf;pm;+yD; tay;t,l enf;wckudk pOf;pm;qHk;jzwfIaqmif&Gufrnfqdkygv#if jynfolESifhausmi;fom;rsm;twGufa&m/ wyfrawmftwGuyf g tqifajyaom ajz&Si;f enf;wckjzifh ajz&Si;f oGm;Edik rf nfjzpfonf// od@k aomf ppftpdk;&onf xdkodk@rpOf;pm;? wuotaqmufttkHESifh wuot0dkif;av;=um;wGif bwf (pf) um;rSwfwdkifwck &Sdonf? t0dkif;av;rSwfwdkif[k ac:onf? xdkrSwfwdkifwGif &yfem;xm;aom &JtcsKyfum;ESpfpD; &Sdonf? xdktcsKyfum;ab;rsm;wGif tumtuG,f,lvsuf &JwcsKd@&Sdae+yD; olwdk@onf tvGef qGJtm;aumif;aom toHzrf;pufjzifh ausmif;om;rsm;.toHudk zrf;,lae=uonf? rE aW v;aqmif0if;/ rE aW v;aqmiftay:xyfEiS hf wuUov kd &f yd o f mvrf;ay:&Sd ausmif; om;rsm;onf rw&m;pnf;urf;rsm; ¶kyo f rd ;f a&;/ t&yfom;rsm;vufo@kd tm%mjyefvaJ$ y;a&; awmif;qdkaºuG;a=umfr_rsm; qufvkyfae=uonf? pepfwuspnf;¶kH;aºuG;a=umfjcif;r[kwfbJ tenf;pkom aºuG;a=umfjcif;jzpf+yD; r=umc% &yfem;oGm;=uonf// rE Wav;aqmiftay:xyfrS vli,f 3-4 a,mufurl OD;ae0if;aoygap[k r=umc% atmf=uoH=um;&onf? xdktoHrsm; xGufay:vmwkdif; &Jrsm;ydkI*¶kpkdufum tcsKyfum; acgifrdk; vGwfatmif toHzrf;pufukdjr‡ifhI zrf;,l=uonf? *spfum;wpD; ESpfpD;onf tcsKyf u m;rsm;ab;rS urm&G w f t 0d k i f ; buf o d k @ t&S d e f j yif ; pG m armif ; oG m ;vd k u f / jyefarmif;vmvdkufvkyfae=u.? urm&Gwf*gwfwJwGifa&muf&Sdaeonfh txuft&m&Sd}uD; rsm;xHodk@ wdwfacGrsm;oGm;ydk@jcif;jzpfykH& onf? pdefvGifOD;aqmifaom ppfom;rsm; (4) em&DcJGausmfwGif ppfum;rsm;w&Sdefxkd;armif;0ifvm+yD; wuot0dkif;av;ab;em; wGif xdk;&yfvdkuf=u.? um;rsm;ay:rS ppfom;rsm;ckefqif;vm+yD; vrf;ab;wzufwcsufwGif ae&m,lvu kd =f uonf? usaemf&&dS m wuUov kd pf mwdu k b f ufo@kd rsuEf mS rlum ppfom; (20) cef@

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(7) Zlvkdif vm&yf+yD; ae&m,l=uonf? wuo/ t"dywdvrf;ESifh rE Wav;aqmif0if;bufodk@rsufESmrl ae&m,lolu ydkIrsm; onf? ppfAv kd rf sm;.ycH;k wGif tqift h wef;udak zmfjyaom a&$a&mifwq H yd rf sm;tpm; trJa&mif wHqyd rf sm;wyfxm;=uonf? a&SŒwef;ppfrsuEf mS wGif wku d yf t JG wGuf toifjh yiftaetxm;rsK;d vkyfae=uyg+yD? wuUodkvfausmif;0if;ukd a&S@wef;ppfrsufESm[k oabmxm;ae=uyg+yD? tajctaerSmwif;rmaeaomfvnf; &Jrsm;wkef;uvdk ppfom;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; t=um; &ifqdkifwdkufcdkufjcif;r&Sd=u? wuUodkvft&Hwyf&if;rS ausmif;om;rsm; oifwef;qif; vm+yDjzpfI wcsKd@u oHpl;c|efvkyfxm;onfh t"dywdvrf;*dwfwHwm;udk cufcJpGmausmf+yD; ausmif;0if;xJodk@0ifoGm;=uum wcsKd@ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh a&maevdkuf=uonf? wcsKd@rSm usaemfwdk@bufodk@ 0ifvm=uonf? xdkausmif;om;rsm;ajymjycsuft& ppf om;rsm;ud k i f x m;onf h aoewf r sm;rS m jref r mh w yf r awmf w G i f toH k ; rðy&ao;onf h *smr%Dvkyf *sD (3) ¶dkifz,faoewfrsm;jzpfa=umif;/ ppfom;rsm;udkOD;aqmifaomwyfrª;rSm 'kwd,Adkvfrª;}uD; pdefvGifjzpfa=umif;od&onf// [Hom0wDt0dkif;em;&Sd jrefrmhtoHtoHv$ifh¶HkwGif Akdvfrª;csKyfatmif}uD;/ Akdvfrª;}uD; ausmfpkd;/ Akdvfrª;}uD;vS[efponfh ppfwyfrSxdyfwef;t&m&Sdrsm; a&mufae=u+yD; A[dkvkHðcHa&; aumifpDtjzpf wm0ef,laeonf[k xdkausmif;om;rsm;u ajymjy=uonf? pdefvGifESifh pumajymjcif; pdefvGifonf [dkav#mufvdkuf/ onfav#mufvdkufvkyfaeonf? (5) em&DcGJ+yDrdk@ aerSm apmif;oxuf apmi;fvmae+yD? usaemhpdwfxJwGif pdk;&drfpdwf0ifvmonf? ausmif;om;rsm; pnf;a0;yJEG iS hf qENjyyG+J yD;oGm;+yD;aemuf &Jwyfz@JG rsm; 0ifvmzrf;qD;r_omrvkycf v hJ #if ,cktcsed rf mS tm;vHk;yHkrSefjzpfaernfrSm aocsmonf? ,ckrlppfom;awG \a&mufvm+yD; vufeuftjynfhtpHkESifh ausmif;om;rsm;udk &if qd k i f a e=uonf h t qif h o d k @ a&muf c J h + yD ? xd e f ; r& od r f ; r&wpH k w ck j zpf o G m ;v#if tm;vHk;qHk;¶H_;epfem ukefawmhrnf// wckckvkyfrS jzpfawmhrnf// pdefvGif usaemfwdk@teD;odk@ a&mufvmaomtcg usaemfol@udk pum;vSrf;ajymzdk@ óud;pm; onf// pdefvGifu ol&Sd&mokd@vmajymzdk@ajym.? ol@rsufESmrSm &efvdkonfhoabmray:? cyfðyH;ðyH; jzpfonf? xdk@a=umifh usaemfonf xdyfwGifoHpl;c|efwyfxm;onfhjcHpnf;¶dk;udk ausmfIxGufoGm; .// pmwdkuf0if;jcHpnf;¶dk;rSm vlw&yfausmf¶Hkr#omjzpfojzifh ausmf&vG,fonf? usaemfESifh twl ausmif;om; 3-4 a,mufvnf; ausmfxGufvdkufygvm=uonf? usaemfonf touf

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(7) Zlvkdif (24) ESpaf usmt f &G,jf zpf+yD; i,fyakH yguaf eojzifh rodorl sm;u ausmif;om;[kom xif=urnf? “Adkvfrª;wdk@wyfawG urm&Gwf*gwfwJavmufxd qkwfcGmay;ygvm;Adkvfrª;” “rqkwfay;Edkifbl;? usaemfwdk@u txuftrdef@r&bJ qkwfray;Edkifbl;? cifAsm;wdk@vlpk cGJ=uygvm;? [dktxJu cifAsm;wdk@ oli,fcsif;awGudkvnf; ukd,fhtaqmifudk,f jyef0ifcdkif;=u ygvm;?” pdefvGiftajzu wdusjywfom;vSonf? ol@trl&mrSm ðyH;aejrJyifjzpf./ “ausmif;om;awG 'DtxJutaqmifawGrSmaevdk@ 'D0if;[molwdk@&J@tdrf0if;ygbJ? olwdk@ ckvdkvm=unfhaewm[m udk,fhtdrfa&SŒrSm vlpdrf;awGa&mufaevdk@ xGuf=unfh=uwJh tdro f m;awG vdkygbJ? Adkvfrª;wdk@omqkwfoGm;&if olwdk@vnf;vlpkcGJrSm aocsmygw,f” ygvmonfhausmif;om;rsm;vnf; 0dkif;ajym=uonf? pdefvGifu vHk;0tav#mhray;? usaemfpum;ajymaepOf owif;axmufwcsKd@tajy;tv$m;a&mufvm+yD; "mwfyHk¶dkuf=u./ usaemfowdxm;+yD; rsuEf mS rygomG ;&atmif rodroma&Smifvu kd &f onf? pdev f iG u f kd qufajym Irxl;awmhojzifh usaemfESifhausmif;om;rsm; pmwdkuf0if;xJodk@ jyef0ifvm=uonf? Akdvfrª;}uD;rif;odef; xdk@aemufodyfr=umvSyg?&J0g,mvufum;jzpfaomzd,ufum;wpD;a&mufvm onf?zd,ufum;onfurm&Gwft0dkif;bufrS0ifvmumwuUodkvf"rRm¶kHa&S@tvGefwuU odkvf pmwdkufab;wnfhwnfh wuUodkvf&dyfomvrf;ay: Y &yfvdkuf.? um;aemufcef;rS Adkvfrª;}uD;wa,mufqif;vmonf? “tJ'gAdkvfr_;}uD; rif;odef;bJ”[k ausmif;om;rsm; ajymoH=um;& onf? pdev f iG o f nf rif;ode;f xHo@kd ajy;oGm;+yD; tav;ðyvku d . f ? rif;ode;f uol@rmS ygvmonfh pm&Gufw&Gufudk pdefvGiftm;ay;zwfckdif;+yD; pum;tjyeftvSef tenf;i,fajym=uonf? pdefvGifu pm&Gufukdzwf=unfh+yD; acgif;ukd+idrfhjyvdkuf&m rif;odef; zd,ufum;jzifhyif urm&Gwf t0kd;rS b,fzufokd@ auG@xGufcGmoGm;onf? pdefvGifutrlt&mjyvdkufonfESifh wyfrª; (6) a,muf (7) a,mufcef@ pdefvGifqDodk@ ajy;vm=uonf? pdefvGifuolwdk@tm; pmudkzwfcdkif;&m tm;vHk;0kdifzwf=u.? xdk@aemufrdrdae&ma[mif;rsm;odk@ jyefajy;+yD; ae&m,l=uonf? usaemfonfpmwdu k jf cHpnf;¶d;k oHacsmif;awGuu kd ikd +f yD; ppfom;rsm; bmvkyaf e=uygvrd ?hf pdev f iG u f rkd if;ode;f ay;oGm;onfph m&Guo f nf bmtrde@f rsm;jzpfrnfenf;[kpOf;pm;&if; pdev f iG u f kd vdkuf=unfhaerdonf? pdefvGifonf rif;oddef;tm;oGm;awG@aomae&mrS rE Wav;aqmifjcHpnf; ¶d;k ESiyhf I kd eD;onfah e&mod@k a&mufomG ;+yD; rE aW v;aqmif0if;xJo@kd =unf+h yD;wpHw k ck vSr;f ajymae onf? usaemfESifh ay 40-50 xufydkra0;aomfvnf; olbmajymonfudk r=um;&? ausmif;

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(7) Zlvkdif om;rsm;tm;vH;k rSm pdev f iG Ef iS phf pfom;rsm;udk vSr;f =unfah e=uonf? bmaºuG;a=umforH rS ðybJ ppfom;rsm; bmvkyfae=uwmvJqdkonfhoabmESifh ai;=unfhae=ujcif;jzpfrnf? xdkpOf armif;jyefaoewfoHrsm; qufwdkufxGufay:vmawmhonf? ausmif;om;awG ajy;=uv$m;=uESihf ¶kw¶f w k o f o J J jzpfuek o f nf? ausmif;om;awGvpl ck o JG mG ;atmif rd;k ay:axmif ypfae=ujcif;jzpfrnf[k usaemf,lq+yD; rlvtaetxm;twdkif;&yf=unfhae&mrS rE Wav; aqmif jcHpnf;¶d;k tkww f ikd af y:wGix f ikd af eaom ausmi;fom;rsm; aZmufx;kd vdru hf somG ;onfukd jrif&onf? t"dywdvrf;wHcg;r}uD;ukdudkifum usaemfuJhodk@&yfaeolrsm; acG=uoGm;=u.? olwdk@ ukd,frS aoG;eDeD&J&Jrsm; yef;xGufvmonfukdjrif&awmhrS vltkyfxJodk@ypfae=uygvm;[k tod 0 if vmum ajr}uD ; ay:od k @ arS m uf c svd k u f o nf ? usaemf h a b;ywf v nf r S ausmif;om;rsm;vnf; usaemfESifhwòydifwnf;vdkvdkyif vSJcsvdkuf=uonf? xdt k csed rf mS yif “wnfw h nfyh pfaew,fa[h/ ajr}uD;ay:ukd vScJ svu kd =f u” [laomtoH wck usaemfhb,fbufem;rS xGufay:vmonf? aoewfoHrsm; qufwkdufxGufay:aeqJ/ aoewforH sm;ESprf sK;d jzpfa=umif; usaemfowdxm;rdonf// us,af vmifpmG [de;f xGuv f monfh aoewfoHwrsKd;ESifh toHcwfao;ao; qufwkduftoHwrsKd;wdk@jzpfonf// us,favmifonfhtoHrsm;rSm atmfwdkrwfwpfjzpfaomfvnf; ESpfcsufokH;csuf quf wdkufxGufay:vmvdkuf/ &yfoGm;vdkufjzpf.// ydkao;aomaoewfoHrsm;u ydkI&Snfvsm;onf? (5) csuf (6) csufponfjzifh qufwdkufjzpf.// olwdk@*sD (3) a&m/ ae0if;pwif;yg tokH;ðy ae=ujcif;jzpfonf// usaemfonf b,fudkr#vSrf;=unfhzdk@róud;pm;bJ ajr}uD;ay:wGif jym;jym;0yfarSmufae onf// aoewfoHrsm; qufwdkufxGufay:aeqJjzpfI 0yfvsuftaetxm;ESifhyif ydktE W&m,f uif;atmif jcpH nf;¶d;k ESiahf 0;&mbufo@kd rdausmif;wGm;wGm;+y;D a&$ŒoGm;aevdu k o f nf// (3) rdepfcef@ qufwdkufypfcwf+yD;rS aoewfoHrsm;&yfoGm;.// usaemfonf 0wfaeonfhtaetxm;Yyif vufaxmufum udk,fudktenf;i,fºuG +yD; acgif;axmifI ywf0eff;usifodk@=unfhvdkufonf// ajr}uD;ay:wGif0yfae&mrS ukef;¶kef;x+yD; pmwdkufab;qDodk@ ajy;ae=uoltrsm;tjym;awG@&.// aoG;oH&J&JjzifhvJaeol q,faygif;rsm; pGmygvm;// wcsKd@xxdkifzdk@ óud;pm;ae=uonf// usaemfhvusfmzufY vufvSrf;rSD&mrS ausmif;om; wa,mufrmS yufvufvefaeonf// ol@rmS acgi;f wjcrf;r&Sad wmh// userf suEf mS wjcrf;rS ol@rsuf vkH;rSm rSdwfwkwfrSdwfwkwf rsufawmifcwfaeqJ// yJhxGufaeaomol@acgif;rS OD;aESmufjzLjzLazG; azG;awG jzmxGufaeonf// eD&JaomaoG;rsm; yef;xGufaeonf// usaemf=unfhaeqJrSmyif rSdwf

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(7) Zlvkdif wkwfrSdwfwkwfcwfaeaom ol@rsufvkH;&yfoGm;onf// usaemfh vuf0Jbuf (4) aycef@tuGmwGif tjcm;wa,muf// olvnf; yufvufvef aeonf// ol@0rf;Adkufnmbufjcrf; yGifhxGufae+yD; tlrsm;jyLxGufaeonf// ol@nmvufjzifh ol@tlrsm;udkvSrf;udkif+yD; 0rf;AdkufxJodk@ jyefoGif;zdk@óud;pm;ae&mrS ol@vufonf ajr}uD;ay:odk@ ¶kwfw&ufusoGm;+yD; wudk,fvkH;+idrfoufoGm;onf// usaemfhacgif;&if;buf a&SŒwnfhwnfhrS ausmif;om;wa,mufusaemfhqDodk@ ukef;ukef; +yD;ajy;vmonf// usaemft h em;od@k xikd cf svu kd +f yD; “&Jabmf usaemfu h kd ulygO;D ”[k ajymvmojzifh olxdk;ay;aomol@vufwzufudk vSrf;=unfhvdkuf&m ol@vufzsH yGifhxGufaeonf// usaemfonf tust ô yd x f rJ S vufuikd yf 0k gukd qGx J w k +f yD; ol@vufuykd wfw;D pnf;ay;&if; “&Jabmf vSt J yd cf svu kd yf gvm;” [k ol@uo kd wday;rdonf// usaemfw@kd onf ppfajrjyifwiG af &muf ae=uonf// wzufowf ypfcwfowfjzwfaeaom ppfajrjyifjzpfonf// teD;qk;H tumtuG,f wckodk@ajy;0if odk@r[kwfygu ajr}uD;ay: jym;jym;0wfaezdk@vdkonf// ausmif;om;onf usaemfywfwD;pnf;ay;+yD;onfESifh rwfwwfxzdk@ tm;,lvdkuf.? xdpk Of armif;jyefaoewforH sm; xGuaf y:vmjyefonf// “&Jabmf0yfcsvu kd f”vd@k ol@uakd tmfajym &if; usaemfajr}uD;ay:odk@ jym;aeatmif0yfcsvdkuf.? xdkausmif;om;url x+yD; tvkyform; &yfuGuf vdkif;aygufbufqDodk@ajy;oGm;onf// olbmjzpfoGm;onfudk usaemfrod&awmh// 0yfv#uEf iS hf rdausmif;wGm;wGm;aeaomusaemfonf pmwdu k yf ;kH atmufajcESihf oGm;xd rdonf? aoewfoHrsm;vnf; &yfpJoGm;ojzifh tv#iftjrefxum eD;ae+yDjzpfaom pmwdkuf taqmufttkHab;odk@ ajy;uyfvdkufonf? pmwdkuf. vusfmbufab;jzpfonf? pmwdkufab;wGif tumtuG,f,laeol q,fa,mufausmfavmufawG@&onf? xdk txJwGif vl}uD;wpfa,mufESifh vli,fwa,muf twlvm=uyHk&onf? vli,fvufxJwGif ¶dkvDaumhabmuf (p) uifr&mukdifxm;onf? vl}uD;u ajymvkdufojzifh vli,fonfpmwdkuf ab;rS tenf;i,fjyLxGuv f u kd +f yD; '%f&m&olEiS ahf oqH;k olrsm;jyef@=uJaeaom pmwdu k rf suEf mS pmbufem;qDo@kd "mwfykH (1) yHk ¶du k v f u kd . f ? ol@vufrsm; qwfqwfcgwek af e=uonf? pmwdu k f ab;wGiv f al wmfawmfeo J mG ;+yD? pmwdu k af b; opfyifyef;yifawGt=um;rS tvkyo f rm;&yfuu G f vdkif;aygufqDodk@ ajy;oGm;=ujcif;jzpfonf? usaemfESifh tjcm;vl ESpfa,mufoHk;a,mufcef@wdk@onf pmwdkufa&S@,Gef;,Gef; ppfom; rsm;jrifuGi;fodk@av#mufvSrf;+yD; xGuf=unfhvdkuf=uonf? pmwdkuf0if;xJwGif aoqHk;olESifh '%f&m&&Sdolaygif; (40) cef@avmuf&Sdonf? wcsKd@ ajrjyifay:wGifvJae&mrS xxdkifzdk@óud;pm;ae=uonf? wcsKd@vufvSrf;rSD&mwckukd rSDxdkifae=u onf? trsm;tm;jzifhawmh rv_yfr,Suf+idrfoufae=uonf?

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(7) Zlvkdif owdarhajrmae=uwmvm; (od@k r[kw)f usq;kH oGm;+yDvm; usaemfra0cGw J wf? jcHpnf; ¶kd;jyifbufwGif &yfaeaomppfom;rsmonf +idrf+idrfav;&yf+yD; usaemfwdk@ukd vSrf;=unfhae=u onf? rE Wav;aqmif/ t"dywdvrf;ESifh wuojcH0if;twGif;bufodk@rl usaemfaoaocsmcsm r=unfhrdatmif owdxm;onf? ppfom;rsm; rouFmjzpf+yD; vSrf;ypfrSmpdk;Ijzpfonf? usaemfw@kd onf jrifuiG ;f ud=k unf+h yD; &ifxrJ mS qlyu G rf /_ emusn;f r_/ a=uuGrJ r_ sm;a&m¹yGr;f jzpfay:ae=u&if; '%f&m&aeolrsm;udk ulnDzdk@wdkifyif=uonf? Edkifor#ukdcsDr+yD; wuUodkvf aq;¶Hkodk@ ydk@zdk@qHk;jzwf=uonf? wuUodkvfaq;¶HkrSm vlowfuGif;rS rDwm (50) avmufom a0;onf? usaemfwkd@onf av;ig;a,mufudk o,fydk@ay;=uonf? wuUodkvfaq;¶HkrSm omref rusef;rmr_rsm;avmufukdom ukoay;aomaq;¶Hkjzpf.? q&m0efESifhaq;r_xrf;rsm;onf a&mufvmor#ukd &SdpkrJhpkaq;ESifhu&d,mwdk@jzifh tajy;tv$m; ta&;ay:u,fq,fr_vkyfay; ae=uonf? aemufxyfo,fydk;zdk@óud;pm;ae=upOfrSmyif pmwkdufab;wnfhwnfh jcHpnf;¶kd;av;rSm '%m&m&xm;olwa,mufonf jcHpnf;¶kd;oHwkdifukdukdifI rwfwwfxvkdufonf? ol@b,f bufaygifrSm aoewfusnf teD;uyfxdrSefxm;ojzifh ta&jym;wJwJav;omusefaeojzifh wGJavmif;jzpfaeonf? xkdoli,fonf oHwkdifukdtm;cJckdxm;+yD; olESifhvufwurf;r#oma0; aomppfom;rsm;okd@ vSrf;atmfI pum;ajymvkduf.? “'DrmS =unfyh gt;Hk ævufeufqv dk @dk bmrSrygwu hJ saemfu h dk bmha=umifh ckvydk pf&wmvJ” ol@vufwurf;rSppfom;onf olEiS ehf ;D aomppfAv dk u f v dk rS ;f =unfv h u dk o f nf? ppfAv dk u f ukd,ftrlt,mjzifh tcsufay;vkdufonfESifh ol@vufxJrS *sD (3) jzifh '%f&mukdjy&if; vJusr wwfjzpfaeolvil ,ftm; &if!e$ @f o@dk csed I f armif;ðzwfvu dk &f m vli,frmS ykv H suu f somG ;onf? tjcm;ppfAkdvfwpfa,mufu usaemfwkd@tm; vSrf;ajymvmonf? “a[h a&SŒudkaemufxyfrvm=ueJ@? vm&ifypfowfcH&rSmbJ” usaemf&yfaeaom pmwdkufjcHpnf;¶dk;rS (4-5) ayr#omuGmaom ae&mY&yfaeonfh ppfAdkvfwa,mufu usaemfwdk@ukdvSrf;I}udrf;armif;vdkufjcif;jzpfonf? okd@jzifh usaemfwkd@tpD tpOfrsm;ukd &yfpyJ pfvu kd =f u&+yD; vlpck v GJ u kd =f uonf? xdt k csed w f iG f t0dik ;f av;Y ppfx&yfum; (3) pD; a&mufaeonf? t"dywdvrf;*dwfwHcg;ukd u&drf;um;wpD;jzifhqGJzGifhxm;I yGifhae+yD;jzpf.? x&yfum; wpD; t"dywdvrf;twdik ;f 0ifomG ;um ESppf ;D rSm *dw0f emYyif&yfxm;+yD; ppfom;rsm;u '%f&m& olawGa&m/ aoqHk;olawGukdygaumuf,lI xdkum;rsm;ay:odk@ a&maxG;+yD; ypfwifae=uonf udk usaemfxGufcgeD; aemufqkH;awG@jrifcJh&onf?

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(7) Zlvkdif usaemfonf wa,mufwnf;qufoGm;zdk@qHk;jzwf+yD; tvkyform;&yfuGuf vdkif;0if; aygufxJokd@ 0ifvmcJhonf? '%f&m&olukdo,fvmonfh qdkufum; (3-4) pD;cef@ukd vSrf;awG@ vdu k &f onf?ol@tpDtpOfEiS o hf w l oD;wjcm;pD oGm;ae=ujcif; jzpfonf? jynfvrf;od@k xu G o f nfh xGufaygufbufqDodk@OD;wnfoGm;jcif;r[kwfbJ jynfausmif;aqmif/ waumif;ausmif;aqmi f0if;ESifheD;aombufodk@ OD;wnfoGm;ae=uojzifh usaemfem;rvnfEdkif? usaemfonfjynfvrf; ay:okd@a&mufEdkfifaomxGufaygufwckqDOD;wnf+yD; jrefjrefav#mufvmcJhonf? “q&musaemfwdk@ tdrfrSmc%0ifem;+yD; a&rdk;csKd;oGm;ygvm;” tvkyform;wa,muf u vSrf;ac:ojzifh usaemfolwdk@tdrfbufokd@vSnfhvdkufonf? “q&m bm'%f&mawG&vmvdk@ vJ? usaemfwdk@ bmul&rvJ” olajymawmhrS usaemfhukd,f usaemfjyef=unfhrd.? wudk,fvHk;eD;yg; aoG;csif;csi;feDaeonfudk usaemfckrSowdðyrdonf? usaemfonf tvkyform;!$efjyonfhtwdkif; a&csKd;cef;qDodk@ wef;0ifoGm;onf? tdrf&Sifru rsufESmokwf yk0gESifh tusôvHkcsnfwpHkudk vSrf;ay;+yD; a&csKd;+yD;&if vJ0wfzdk@ajymonf? usaemfonf a&pnfydkif;rSa&jzifh tm;&yg;&avmif;csKd;&if; udk,fcE<mukd ppfaq;=unfh rdonf? bm'%f&mrSrawG@? aoG;rsm;jzifheD&Jaeaom wdkufyHktusô/ &SyftusôESifh befaumuf vHjk cnfut dk rd &f iS rf u a&ZvHw k ckxo J @kd xnf&h if; aemufae@awGrmS tcsed rf a&G;vm,lEikd af =umif; ajym&if; usaemfrh suEf mS udv k rS ;f =unfu h m “yGe;f &m &S&mawG trsm;}uD;ygvm;”[k vSr;f ajym.? aoewfrsm;ypfcwfpOfuxdreS o f nft h *Fawwdik rf sm;ESihf uwW&mvrf;qDrS pOfxu G v f m onfhtydkif;tpi,frsm; xdrSefyGef;&SoGm;jcif;jzpfygvdrfhrnf?usaemfonf tvkyform;vif r,m;ESpfa,mufukd aus;Zl;wifpum;ajym+yD; jynfvrf;bufodk@xGufvmcJhonf? vkdufaygufwHcg;0rSxGufI jynfvrf;udk jzwful;rnfvkyfaomtcg toHcsJ@pufwwf xm;aom *spfum;wpD;jzifh a=unmcsufawGvdkufatmfajymaeonfudk awG@&onf? nae (6) em&DrSp+yD; tdrfjyifrxGuf&trdef@xkwfvdkuf+yDrdk@ ukd,fhtdrfxJrSmudk,fae=uzdk@ a=unmae jcif;jzpfonf? yk'fr (144) xkwfvdkuf+yDjzpfonf? usaemfonf jynfvr;fay:rS tajctaeudkvSrf; =unfhvdkufonf? vrf;oGm;vrf;vm r&Sdoavmufyif? um;rsm;rSm oGm;vmae=uqJ? rdrdwkd@ tdrfokd@ tjrefqHk;jyefa&mufatmif oGm;vmae=ujcif;jzpfrnf? usaemfonf jynfvrf;udkjzwf+yD; 0*~DxJodk@0ifvdkuf.? 0*~D&yfuGufxJwGif vlol&Sif;ae onf? usaemfonf =uHawmok\efukdjzwfum =unfhjrifwdkifbufokd@ xGufvmcJhonf? arSmifp ysKd;ae+yDjzpfI vlol&Sif;vSojzifh ab;bDudkowdxm;+yD;av#muf&onf? urm&Gwrf mS &So d nfh tdro f @dk rjyefawmhbJ òrd@xt J rd w f tdrrf mS oGm;tdyzf @kd q;kH jzwf+yD; bwf (pf) wpD;ESifh vdkufygvmcJhonf? òrd@xJodk@a&mufaomtcg aq;¶Hk}uD;xJodk@0if+yD; tajctae

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(7) Zlvkdif tuJcwf&ef usaemfq;kH jzwfvu kd +f yD; aq;¶H}k uD;0if;xJo@dk 0ifayguu f v kd rS ;f =unf&h m vufeufudk ppfom;rsm; apmifhae=uonf? aq;¶HkrSm aq;¶Hkwifxm;&onfhvlemrsm;. rdom;pkrsm;udkyif 0ifcGifhray;=u? usaemf onf &ifcGJ¶kHab;em;wGif&Sdaom rvG,faygufrS0if&efpdwful;+yD; av#mufvmcJh&m ppfom;ESpf a,mufapmifah eonfuadk wG@&onf? ppfom;rsm;ukad zsmif;zsajymawmh usaemhu f 0dk ifciG ðhf yvdu k f =uonf? aq;¶Hw k iG q f &m0efrsm;/ olemðyrsm; trsm;tjym;ESihf usaemfou d |r;f ojzihf olw@kd tul tnDjzifh aoqHk;olESifh '%f&m&olrsm;pm&if;tm;vHk;ukd usaemf noef;acgifavmufwGif&cJh onf? aoqHk;ol (16) a,muf&Sdonf? '%f&m&ol (20) ausmf&Sdonf? usaemfukd,fwdkif vlowfuGif;xJrSrxGufcGmrD xdwfxdwfjymjymESifh vSrf;=unfhpOfu awG@jrifcJh&aomta&twGufxufyif enf;aeonf? aq;¶Hkodk@ um;wpD;oma&mufonf[k vnf;od&onf? um; (3) pD;ay:od@k aoqH;k olEiS hf '%f&m&olrsm;ukrd cGjJ cm;bJ ypfwifaeonfudk usaemfudk,fwdkif vSrf;jrifcJh&onfjzpf&m tjcm;um;ESpfpD;aysmufaeygvm;? ppfwyfa&mufrvmrD &Jrsm;u wkwEf iS ¶hf u dk f rsu&f nf,Adk ;Hk ESiyhf pfI '%f&m&olrsm;tm; taqmifrsm;xJo@kd o,fomG ;=u&m ,ck olw@dk b,fukd a&mufuek =f u+yDenf;? vdik ;f aygux f w J iG f jrifvdkuf&aom qdkufum;rsm;ESifh wifac:oGm;=uonfhvlemrsm; b,fESpfa,muf&Sdrnfrod? aq;¶Hkodk@a&mufaomtcg aoqHk;olESifh'%f&m&olta&twGufxuf tvGefenf;aeygvm;? aoqH k ; ol (16) a,muf q d k o nf h pm&if ; uk d reuf (4) em&D a vmuf w G i f r S usaemfo&d jcif; jzpfonf? wae@v;kH yifyef;cJrh /_ wnvH;k pkpH rf;pkaqmif;aer_/ vlowfuiG ;fxw J iG f ñuHcJh&aom pdwfESvHk;wkefv_yfajcmufjcm;r_rsm;a=umifh tvGefpdwfyef;vlyef;jzpfcJhr_wkd@a=umifh usaemf t vG e f t d y f c sif v monf ? ol i ,f c sif ; q&m0ef w csKd @ .tcef ; xJ r S m yif usaemf tdyfaysmfoGm;onf? xdk tcsdefrSm rdk;vif;tm¶k%f (4) em&Dcef@jzpfrnf? reuf (5) em&DausmfavmufwGif oli,fcsif;q&m0efu vmE_d;ojzifh usaemfEdk;oGm; onf? oli,fcsif;u“ckeu toH=um;vkdufvm;”[k ar;.? usaemfr=um;vkduf? usaemfhtdyf csed rf mS wem&Dausmaf usmrf #om&So d nf? tdyaf rmusaeojzifh usaemfr=um;vdu k ?f oli,fcsi;f u jyeftdyfzdk@ajymojzifh rsufpdrSdwf+yD; rSdef;zdk@óud;pm;vdkufonfESifh usaemfjyeftdyfaysmfoGm;onf// reuf (6) em&DcGJavmufwGif jyefEkd;vmawmhrS (5) em&DausmfavmufutoHrSm aygufuGJoHjzpfa=umif;/ jrefrmhvGwfvyfa&;ordkif;wGif ta&;tygqHk; taqmufttkHwckjzpf aom wuotaqmufttku H dk ppfwyfu rdik ;f cGzJ suq f ;D vdu k jf cif;jzpfa=umif; od&awmhonf? aoqHk;olOD;a& (16) a,mufqdkonfudk rnfolr#vufrcH=u? wcsKd@u (100) ausmf avmuf&Sdrnf[k cef@rSef;onf? wcsKd@u (150) ausmf[k qdkonf?

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(7) Zlvkdif usaemfonf pmwdkuf0if;xJwGif aoqHk;olESifh'%f&m&ol ESpfrsKd;aygif; (40) cef@ukd jrif awG@co hJ nf? rE aW v;aqmif0if;xJwiG f ydI k rsm;onf? rE aW v;aqmiftay:xyfwiG f aoqH;k olvnf;&Sdonf? t"dywdvrf;*dwfayguf0rSm tpkvkduftðyHvdkuf aoqHk;=u&onf? t"dywd vrf ; twd k i f ; xG u f a jy;ol r sm;ud k a emuf r S w aumuf a umuf v d k u f I ypf o jzif h a oqH k ; ol tavmif;ukdyif;,aqmifa&S@rSa&$bdkaqmifbufodk@ul;onfhvrf;=um;xJtxd awG@=u&onf? wuo0if;xJwiG af oqH;k olvnf;&So d nf? wuotay:xyf rsuEf mS =uufay:ok@d wufcg ykef;atmif;aeonfh '%f&m&olwcsKd@vnf;&Sdonf? olwdk@tm;vHk; reufapmapm rdkif;cGJ&mwGif ygoGm;=u+yDjzpf.? usaemfpdwfxdcdkufvGef;I pdwfwnf+idrfr_&atmif ren;fóud;pm;&onf? wae@vHk;em;aevdkufonf? rae@utjzpftysufrsm;a=umifh pdwfyifyef;/ vlyifyef; &SdvGef;onfuwa=umi;f/ tjyifodk@xGufoGm;aev#if rsufESmay:rS tyGef;t&Srsm;udk axmuf vSrf;a&;awG owdxm;rdv#if jy\emvkyfrnfudk pdk;&drfIwa=umi;fa=umifh jzpfonf? n(7) em&Dtcdsew f iG f OD;ae0if; jrefrmhtoHraS jymaom rde@f ceG ;f uk=d um;vku d &f aomtcg wudk,fvHk; wqwfqwfwkefoGm;awmhonf? “,ckjzpfysufonfhudpPonf ausmif;om;udpPwckwnf;r[kwfbJ EdkifiHa&;ya,m* tarSmihfrsm; zrf;pm;w,fqdkwm usaemfwdk@ &dyfpm;rdygw,f æ? usaemfwdk@ukd tajymb0rSm epfrGef;apjci;ftm;jzifh tvkyfysufuGufatmif&nfpl;+yD; wrifvkyfae=uw,fqdkv#ifawmh us aemf aemufxyfbmrSrajymvdkygbl;? tenf;qHk; 'g;udk æ'g;csif; æ/ vSHukd ævSHcsif;/ &ifqdkifzdk@ om&Syd gawmhw,f?tzsuo f abmESit hf ðyoabm cJjG cm;a0zefEikd =f uygap”[k OD;ae0if;u ajym oGm;onf? jynforl sm;a&G;aumufwifajr‡mufjcif;cHxm;&aom ygvrD ef'rD u kd a&pD tpd;k &vufxrJ S Edik if aH &;tm%muko d rd ;f ,ljcif;/ wuUov kd af umifpu D zdk suo f rd ;f +yD;/ rw&m;pnf;urf;rsm; csrw S f xkwfjyefjcif;/ +idrf;csrf;pGmqENjyol ausmi;fom;rsm;udkzrf;qD;jcif;/ aoG;acsmif;pD; ypfcwfowf jzwfjcif;/ ordkif;0iftaqmuftOD;ukd azmufcGJzsufqD;jcif;rsm;udk usL;vGefcJhaom OD;ae0if;u ol@udk,foltðyoabm[k aºuG;a=umfvdkuf+yD? tzrf;qD;cH&ol/ towfjzwfcH&ol ausmif;om;rsm;udk tzsuform;/ tu,fI EdkifiH a&;orm;xJraS usmif;om;rsm;ESihf eD;pyfr&_ =dS uv#iv f nf; tzsuo f rm;[k pGypf o JG wfrw S v f u dk +f yD? TonfrmS wkid ;f jynftwGuf qk;d &Gm;vSaomtpOftvmqk;d w&yfudk pwifwnfxiG v f u dk jf cif; yifjzpfonf? Tt,ltq/ TtusifhrsKd;ukdom OD;ae0if; tcdkiftrmpGJudkifxm;ygv#if wEdkifiH vHk;. tem*wftwGuf qdk;usKd;rsm;pGmESifh &ifqdkif=u&awmhrnf[k pOf;pm;rd&if; usaemfh&ifxJ wGif qdk@eifhatmifcHpm;&onf? wifhaZmf

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(7) Zlvkdif

A u o qkdwm æ òzdzsufI&aumif;aom t&mr[kwfyg

ZGefrid+ f; &JabmfnDtudkrsm;cifAsm æ 'Dae@ (7/ 7/ 2002) &ufae@[m Armjynf&J@tonf;ESvHk;jzpfwJh wuo taqmuf tOD rdkif;cJGòzdcszsufqD;cHcJh&wJh tESpf (40) ajrmufae@jzpfygw,f? 'Dae@udk trSwf&av;pm;pGmjzifh tcsuftvuftcsKd@eJ@ usaemf&JŒtawG;ptcsKd@udk wifjy aqG;aEG;yg&ap? tvG e f & S n f v sm; us,f j yef @ crf ; em;vS w J h ausmif ; om;or*~ o rd k i f ; xJ u tpdwftydkif;i,f wckudk qpfydkif;=unfhrdwJh oabmvnf;jzpfygw,f? ppftm%m&Sif[m Auoudk bma=umifh 'Davmufa=umufvef@ae&wmvJ? bma=umifh 'Davmuftòid;}uD;ae&wmvJ? usaemfpOf;pm;=unfhrdw,f?

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(7) Zlvkdif 1962ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &ufae@ ppfwyfu tm%modrf;wJhtcg tcsdK@ EdkifiHa&;tiftm; pkrsm;u rsufpdvnf+yD; awGa0,drf;,dkifaeqJrSm æ [ppftm%m&Sifpepfu jrefrmjynfvl@tzJG@tpnf;udk eif;acszsufqD;zdk@ t&SufrJhpGm tm%modrf;wmjzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh tpGrf;ukefqef@usifwdkufxkwf=u&r,f’vdk@ Auou jywfom;&J&ifph mG zGichf sqef@usicf EhJ ikd w f ,f? 'ga=umifv h nf; Adv k af e0if;tpd;k &u Auoudk tvGef emusn;f tmCmwxm;umwbufowfausmif;pnf;urf;udjk yXmef;+yD; twif;zdEySd v f mawmh w,f? 'DvdkeJ@ ausmif;pnf;urf;opfawG jyefvnfzsufodrf;ay;a&;awmif;qdkvmwJh ausmif; om;v_yf&Sm;r_qkdwm jzpfvmw,f? ausmif;pnf;urf;qkdwm wuUokdvftm%mykdifawGeJ@ ausmif;om; wkdifyif+yD;xkwf&wJhtpOftvm&Sdayr,fh tckppfwyfu xif&mpkdif;vmwmudk ausmif;om;xku b,fvrkd S vufrcHEidk af =umif;/ jyefvnfnEd‡ id_ ;f ajymif;vJoifah =umif; at;csr;f pGm wifjyawmif;qkdcJh=uwmyg? 'gayr,fh tmCmw}uD;vSwhJ Akv d af e0if;[m“"m;ud"k m;csi;f / vSu H v kd cHS si;f ”qkw d hJ *Eˆ0if rd e f @ cG e f ; rsm;eJ @ twl &uf & uf p uf p uf ypf c wf ò zd c G J c J h w ,f / / ausmif ; om; (100) ausmf aoG;ajruscJh& w,f? wqufwnf; wuotaqmuftODudk rkdif;cGJòzdcscJhw,f? wuU o k d v f e ,f a jr vH k ð cH a &;wm0ef , l x m;wJ h Ak d v f r ª ; pd e f v G i f u cg;axmuf + yD ; ausmif;0ef; oHwidk u f kd [efygyg ajcawmufwifxm;wJh "mwfyekH @J tJ'"D mwfyx kH u J ol@rsuEf mS udk b,fvkdrS arhvkd@ r&Ekdifawmhyg? oluawmh &uf&ufpufpufvkyfvdkuf+yD? 'gukd usaemfwkd@ b,fvkdwkef@jyefcJh=uygovJ? usaemfrw S rf o d r#aqG;aEG;&v#if 1963 ckEpS f Zlvidk f (7) &ufrmS usq;kH oGm;wJ&h aJ bmfrsm; twGuf ESpfywfvnfv_yf&Sm;r_awG &efukefwuUokdvfrSma&m rE Wav;wuUokdvfrSmyg vkyf=u w,f? &efukefrSm b,folawGtzrf;cH&ovJ? usaemf aumif;aumif;raqG;aEG;Ekdifayr,fh rE Wav;rSm tzrf;cH&wJhausmif;om;awGukd usaemfodw,f? olwkd@xJu ukdcifarmifaZmf (uAsmq&m aZmf0if;ukd) eJ@ ukdoHacsmif; (vlxka':trm&JŒ om;tvwf) wkd@ESpfa,mufudk ppfwyfutòid;w}uD; 1963 uae 1973 xd axmifcsxm;cJhw,f? axmifxJxnfhxm;±HkeJ@ tm;r&ao;bJ'aD usmif;om;i,fEpS af ,mufuu kd |e;f txdy@dk cw hJ ,f// t!Ge@f csKd ;ypfwo hJ abmvk@d usaemf,lqygw,f? 1967 ckEpS f a&mufvmwJt h cg Armjynforkid ;f rSm wcgrrS ñuHz;l wJh qef&mS ;yg;r_jy\em jzpfvmygw,f? 'gukdppftpkd;&u rajz&Sif;Ekdifbl;? 'Dawmh xHk;pHtwkdif; w±kwfArmta&;tcif; tjzpf vrf;a=umif;v$Jypfvkdufygw,f? w¶kwfqef@usifa&; vlxkv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ay:vma&;

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(7) Zlvkdif twGuf wbufvSnfheJ@tm;ay;w,f? òrd@awmfawmfrsm;rsm;rSm v_yf&Sm;r_awGay:vmw,f// 'DrmS ppfwyft¶_u d x f ;dk cHvu kd &f ovkd jzpfomG ;wmwck&w dS ,f? tJ'guawmh rE aW v;wuUov kd ef @J rE Wav; (GTI) u w¶kwq f ef@usiaf &;v_y&f mS ;r_awGukd aºuG;a=umfoaH jymif;ay;vku d w f u hJ pd yP ?J “ppftm%m&Sifpepfqef@usifa&; æ wdk@ta&;” “ae0if;/ pef;,k usqHk;ygap” “qefjy\em ajz&Sif;ay;yg” pwJhaºuG;a=umfoHawG jzpfoGm;w,f? rar#mfvifhwmjzpfvmawmh olawmfawmfpdwf qkd;w,f? awG@wJhausmif;om; tukefzrf;awmhwmyJ? 1967 ckESpf/ Zlvdkif (8) &ufae@u ppfum; }uD;awGeJ@ tjynfhwifxm;wJh ausmif;om;awGudk eef;wGif;xJuaxmifudk wa0ga0geJ@ armif;ykd@ wmjrifvkduf&wJh rE Wav;ol rE Wav;om;rsm;u 'Dae@txdrarh=ubl;? Auoqdw k mtaqmuftOD;r&Sad wmhayr,fh b,fvrdk S aysmufu, G rf oGm;bl;? jynfol awGeJ@twl xm0&&Sdaew,fqkdwm jynfolawGu ,Hk=unfaeovkd ppfwyfuvnf; oabm aygufaew,f? 1967 ckEpS =f o*kwv f a&mufawmh &ckid jf ynfe,frmS qefvyk aJG wGjzpfvmw,f? jynfwiG ;f rSm qefawG&Smr&jzpfvm+yD; tpkd;&uawmh EkdifiHjcm;udkykd@zdk@ oabFmwifaew,f? &cdkifausmif; om;awGu v_y&f mS ;r_rmS yg0ifc=hJ uw,f? ppfwyfu t=urf;zufypfcwfòzdccJG w hJ ,f? aoG;acsmif;pD; yJ? &ckdifausmif;om;rsm;u 'geJ@ywfouf+yD; ‘=o*kwfaoG;’pmapmifudkjzef@a0&if; qufvuf qef@usifcJh=uw,f? usaemfwkd@ ausmif;om;awG[m b,fvkdtcuftcJrsKd;rSmrqdk aemufus usef&pfcJhrSmr[kwfbl;qkdwm xif&Sm;ygw,f? tcGifhom&if omovkd tajctaeay;&if ay;ovkd ppftm%m&Sifpepfukd awmuf av#mufqef@usiw f u kd cf u dk cf w hJ ,f?1969 u|e;f qG,v f y_ &f mS ;r_rmS vnf; ppftpk;d &&JŒ 'Dru dk a&pDrrhJ _ ESihf ausmif;om;tcGit hf a&;ydwyf ifxm;r_awGukd tm&Strd ef ;D em;csi;f Ekid if aH wGukd azmfxw k jf yo ay;EkdifcJhygw,f? 'DvkdeJ@ rqvppftpkd;&u jynfolukd wrsKd;wzHkvdrfnmzdk@ 1974 ckESpf tajccHOya'qkd wmukd vkyv f mjyefw,f? 'DOya'udk jynfol (90) &mckid Ef e_ ;f ausmaf usmu f axmufcw H ,fqw dk hJ ºuGm;vHk;eJ@ jynfol@tpkd;&w&yfukd jynfolawGudk,fwkdif pdwfygvufyg axmufcHzGJ@pnf;vmav [ef urBmudk vdrfnmvdkufw,f? jynfolawGuawmh ausmcscHxm;&olrdk@ "m;jyrSef; aumif; aumif;odaeygw,f? urBmhjynfolrsm;uyg &Sif;&Sif;vif;vif; odoGm;Ekdifatmif aoG;rD;armif;xdk;jyvdkufwm uawmh 1974 ar/ ZGef taxGaxG tvkyform;oydwf}uD;ygbJ? 'Dtvkyform;oydwf}uD;rSm ausmif;om;xk[m yHko¿meftrsKd;rsKd;eJ@ yl;aygif;qifE$JcJhw,f?

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(7) Zlvkdif nmxm;or# t&Suf&oGm;wJh ppftpkd;&[m tvkyform;bJjzpfjzpf ausmif;om;bJ jzpfjzpf ol@&ŒJ vufr&G@H a=u;pm;wyfudk tpGr;f ukeaf csre_ ;f cGihf csay;cJw h ,f? &efuek u f dk ppftyk cf sKyf a&;a=unmcJhw,f? wkdif;rª; Akdvfrª;csKyfciftkef;ukd xifwkdif;=uJcGifhay;vkdufw,f? yk'fr 144 a=unm+yD; '&=urf; ypfcwfErdS ef if;cJw h ,f? orkid ;f csnrf #iEf iS hf txnfpuf¶/kH +yD;awmh qifrvdu k f oabFmusif;rSm tvkyform; (200) ausmf usqHk;cJh&+yD; tvkyform;aygif;rsm;pGm zrf;qD; ta&;,lcH&w,f? ordkif;csnfr#ifpuf&JŒ oydwfpum;ajympifjrifhrSm tvkyform;awG&JŒtoJESvHk;udk zJh,l vdkufovdk v_yfcgapcJhwJh ausmif;om;wa,mufta=umif;udk csnfpufu tvkyform; a[mif;}uD;awG tckxd csD;usL;*k%fðyvkd@ rqHk;bl;? +yD;cJhwJhtacguf tif;pdefaxmifrSm twl aecJ&h wJh (74/ 75) wdu k yf 0GJ if tvkyo f rm;a[mif;}uD;awG&ŒJ ajymjycsut f & tJ'D qHyif&n S &f n S ef @J ausmif;om;[m (RIT) ausmif;om; udw k ifat;=uL (,ck trsK;d om;Edik if aH &;wyfaygi;f pk taxG axGtwGif;a&;rª;) jzpfaerSef; od&ygw,f? ausmif;om;qkdwm qHyif&Snfcsif &Snfr,f? wdkcsif wdrk ,f? jynfoal wGe@J twlwu kd yf 0JG if&w J ahJ e&mrSmawmh wxyfwnf;yJqw dk mukd awG@&ygw,f? usaemfu 1974 atmufwb dk mrSmrS ausmif;udak &mufwmyg? orkid ;f ausmif;aqmifrmS ae&wmqkdawmh orkdif;csnfpufu ,rf;aiG@awGukd&aeao;w,fvkd@ tjrJcHpm;&ygw,f? tvkyf orm;awG usqHk;cJh&wmukd ukd,fhtukdawG usqHk;cJh&ovkdrsKd; cHpm;aerdw,f? 'g[m usaemfwkd@ ausmif;om;xkxJrSm wlnDpGmcHpm;ae&wJh (74) a0'emvkd@ usaemfwkd@odaerdw,f? “' gukd bma=umifhajymEkdifovJ” qdkawmh 1974 OD;oef@v_yf&Sm;r_udk=unfh&if awmf awmf&Sif;oGm;r,fvkd@ xifygw,f? 1974 ckEpS f 'DZifbmrSm OD;oef@q;kH w,f? OD;oef@ukd Adv k af e0if;u trke;f &Sw d ,f? 'ga=umifh todtrSwrf ðycsib f ;l ?rwufrºuGypJ smyeudpu P 0dk wfauswef;ausavmuf vkyaf y;xm;w,f? psmyeaumfrwDukd OD;oef@&JŒtudk OD;cef@udk r¾dKifxm;+yD; tjzpfavmufzGJ@xm;w,f? 'DrSm ausmif;om;xku 0ifulzkd@qHk;jzwfw,f? 'DZifbm (5) &ufae@ &efukef usKduUqH jrifuGif;[m usaemfwkd@ausmif;om;xku Akdvfae0if;&JŒ&ufpufr_udk vufwkef@jyefzdk@ b,f avmufxd nD!GwfaeovJqdkwmukd azmfjyvkdufwmygbJ? ausmif;aygi;f pHu k ausmif;om;awG[m(Main) uae usKu d q U u H iG ;f OD;oef@¶yk u f vmyf&dS &mudk csDwufcJh=uw,f? usKduUqHuGif; a&mufvkvkxd ausmif;xJuxGufaewJh ausmif;om; wef;u rqHk;ao;bl;? ig;a,mufwwef; wef;pD+yD; csDwuf=uwmyg? ppftpkd;&&JŒtpDtpOft& OD;oef@&JŒ¶kyfuvmyfukd =uHawmocsKõif;ukd ykd@aqmifoò*õvfrSmjzpfygw,f? usKu d q U u H iG ;f xJrmS ausmif;om;awGe@J jynfoal wG[mpkrad e=u+yD;r=umrDrmS bJ toHcsŒJ pufu tvGefyDowJhtoHwck ay:vmygw,f?

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(7) Zlvkdif “rdbjynfolrsm;cifAsm; æ ckcsed u f p+yD; usaemfw@kd ausmif;om;awGe@J &[ef;oHCmawmfrsm; yg0ifwhJ jynfo@l psmye aumfrwDudk zGJ@pnf;vkdufyg+yD? psmyeaumfrwDta[mif;ukdvnf; zsufodrf;vdkufyg+yD? jynfol@ aumfrwDopfu qufvufwm0ef,al qmif&u G Ef idk &f eftwGuf r¾yftwGi;f rS roufqidk af om olrsm; csufcsif;xGufay;=u&efjzpfygw,f?” 'DvkdeJ@ OD;oef@&JŒ¶kyftavmif;udk bkef;}uD;/ ausmif;om;/ jynfol yl;aygif;zGJ@pnf;xm;wJh jynfol@psmyeaumfrwDu odrf;ykdufvkdufygw,f? OD;oef@±kyftavmif;udk udk,fykdifwJhausmif; 0ef;xJukd jyefo,fcJhw,f? jcaoFhESpfaumifwHcg;xdyfu=unfhvkduf&if wuUokdvf&dyfomvrf; wav#muf ausmif ; qD u d k c sD w uf v mwJ h vl v _ d i f ; }uD ; wvd y f v d y f w uf v mwmud k awG@ae&w,f? wuovkd@ pmwrf;xdk;xm;wJh tvHawG&,f/ oCFef;ukdv$ifhxm;wJh tvH&,f/ ukvor*~ tvHtkyfxm;wJh OD;oef@&JŒacgif;wifxm;wJh um;txufykdif;&,fuvGJ&if vlyifv,f}uD;udk rsufpdwqHk; wtdtdawG@ae&w,f? ppftpkd;&&JŒrzG,fr&mvkyfr_ukd onf;rcHEkdifwJhvlxk}uD;eJ@ ausmif;om;xk}uD;[m tiftm;&Sd&Sdaygif;pnf;rdoGm;wmukd awG@=u&wJholawGrSm rsuf&nf rqnfEkdifatmifygbJ? 'Davmufrsm;wJh vlxck sw D ufy}JG uD;ukd ppftpk;d &&JŒzdEydS rf r_ sm;atmufrmS yJ &J0phH mG aqmif &Gufvkduf=uwmyg? ta=umufftvef@qkdwm &J&ifhwJh ausmif;om;eJ@jynfol=um;rSm b,fvdkrS &Smvkd@rawG@awmhbl;? ausmif;xJrSm (bGJ@ESif;obifcef;ra&S@rSm) yxr xm;=uw,f? aemuf cef;rxJudk a&$ Œ w,f ? ae@a&mnyg vl x k w &m;yG J a wG usif ; yw,f ? tpk d ; &&J Œ rw&m;r_ e J @ 'Drkdua&pDpdwfokOf;r_ukd &ifzGifh=uw,f? vlxkvlwef;pm;aygif;pHkbJ? ppfjyefawGawmif ygw,f? ‘OD;oef@tkwf*l b,frSmvkyfrvJ’ ‘uefawmfrifyef;jcHrSm ay;rvm;’ ‘q&m}uD;ocifukdawmfr_dif;*lab;rSm ay;rvm;’ ‘=uHawmrSmawmh rxm;Ekdifbl;’ ‘tcsdefrDta=umif;rjyef&if or*~jrufcif;jyifrSm *loGif;r,f’ 'g[m jynfol@psmye aumfrwD&JŒawmif;qkdcsufbJ? jynfolawG&JŒqENvnf; jzpfw,f? tcsdefrD jyef=um;n‡dE_dif;r_vkyfrvmwJhtwGuf (8/ 12/ 74) &ufae@rSm (RIT) Adokumausmif; om;awGuyHkpHqGJay;+yD; or*~jrufcif;jyifrSm *lloGif;vkdufygw,f? EkdifiHwumuodaewJhyk*~dKvfjzpfaewJhtwGuf rwkd@&J rxd&J c%apmifh=unfhaewJh ppf tpkd;&[m 'DZifbm (11) &ufae@ n (2) em&DavmufrSm xkd;ppfqifwdkufckdufygawmhw,f? rsu&f nf,Adk ;kH eJ@c/JG aoewfe@J ypf/ bufeufe@J x;dk / bl'Zdk meJwu dk zf su/f u&de;f eJ@ rcs+D yD;xkw/f ausmif;

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(7) Zlvkdif 0ef;wckvHk; i&JyGufawmhw,f? 'gurdk auseyfwv hJ x l }k uD;uòrd@xrJ mS qlyv l y_ ±f mS ;=uw,f? ausmif;om;awGukd pmem=u vGef;vkd@yg?'DvkdeJ@ausmif;awG&uftuef@towfr&Sdydwf+yD;&efukefrSma&m/e,fjyefwJh ausmif; om;yg'&=urf;zrf;awmhwmygyJ?tJ'Dwkef;utif;pdefaxmifwdkufcef;wcef; wcef;wdkif;rSmvl (10) a,mufuae (20) a,muftxdxm;cJw h m vSrJ tdyaf vmufv@dk ikww f w k if u dk cf &hJ w,f? 1975 ckESpf arvqef;rSm ausmif;jyefzGifhw,f? ppftpkd;&[m pdwf}uD;uawmh awmf awmf0ifyHk&w,f? ausmif;om;xk[m a=umufoGm;vkd@bJjzpfjzpf/ olwkd@ukd em;vnfoGm;vkd@yJ jzpfjzpf/ +idrfoGm;vdrfhr,fvkd@xifyHk&w,f? aemufb,fEkdifiHukd yHkwlul;csovJ rqdkEkdifbl;? ‘oufqdkif&m0ef}uD;awGuXmetvdkufatmufajcqif;+yD; 'l;wkdufaqG;aEG; tajz&Sma&; ay:vpD’ukdcs vkdufw,f? 'Dvekd @J ynma&;0ef}uD; a'guw f mcifarmif0if;eJ@ use;f rma&;0ef}uD; a'guw f mvS[efw@kd 1975 ck/ ZGef (5) &ufae@rSm wdarG;ukwuUodkvfudk vmawG@w,f? ZGef (6) &ufae@rSm (RIT) udkvmawG@w,f? “tcuftcJ&Sdor# yGifhyGifhvif;vif;wifjyyg? aqG;aEG;&if; tajz&Sm=ur,f? usaemfwkd@ ausmif;om;awGajymwmukd wdwf&Daumf'geJ@ zrf;xm;r,f? vHk;0ta&;r,lbl;? ” 'Dvq kd w kd mud;k æ? tajymuawmh a&$ref;yJ? 'gayr,fh apwemu rrSeb f ;l ? vkyw f muku d twkyJ? wu,fhwu,faqG;aEG;+yDqdkawmh olwkd@rsufESmysufukef+yD? olwkd@vkdcsifwJhar;cGef;awG upwkid yf ifw;kd ay;ygw@dk /taqmifp&dwrf wufyge@J w@dk avmuf rSe;f yH&k w,f? ausmif;om;ta&;rS wu,fhukd tay:,H&Syfajy;wJh taetxm;rsKd;? ausmif;om;awG aqG;aEG;=uwmu æ ‘Armjynf&ŒJ vuf&t dS ajctaewk;d wufajymif;vJomG ;zk@d q&dk ifwenf;yJ&ydS gw,f? tpd;k & wzG@J v;kH E_wx f u G af y;zk@d ygy?J wjcm;Ekid if aH wGrmS pDru H ed ;f wckratmifjrif&if (ok@d r[kwf ) t±_;H ay: &if oufqkdif&m0ef}uD; E_wfxGufay;&w,f? usaemfwkd@qDrSm pDrHudef;awGysuf/ pD;yGm;a&;awG usqif;jzpfaeayr,fh tpdk;&utðyH;rysufjzpfaewm obm0rusbl;’ qdkwmawG jzpfvmw,f? ol@wkd@xnfhxm;wJhausmif;om;awGxJu olwkd@ar#mfvifhwJh ar;cGef;taygpm;av;awG ar;ay;=uyg&JŒ? =umvmawmh qufem;raxmif&Jawmhbl;? 0ef}uD;awG rsufpdrsufESmysuf+yD; wcgwnf; jyefajy;=uawmhw,f? nae v_difaumvdyf (Natural Science) rSm qufaqG;aEG; r,fqdkwJh uwdvnf;ysufoGm;w,f?olwdk@rvm&J=uawmhbl;? ausmif;om;awGu wapmifh apmifhe@J rkd;csKyfcgeD;vmawmh ausmif;om;xkudk apmfum;wm/ csdef;+yD;rvmbJ xif&mpkdif;wm awG@awmh ar/ ZGef ESpfvnfv_yf&Sm;r_qdkwmay:vmw,f? tJ'DrSmvnf; olwkd@&JŒtwkqkdwm

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(7) Zlvkdif xif&mS ;vmawmh onf;rcHEidk af wmhyJ ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_jzpfvmw,f? aºu;G a=umfoaH wGu æ 1? ausmif;om;or*~zGJ@pnf;a&; æ 2? tzrf;cHausmif;om;rsm;jyefv$wfay;a&; æ 3? tzrf;cHtvkyform;rsm;jyefv$wfay;a&; æ 4? tvkyform;ausmif;om;vufwGJa&; æ 5? ukefaps;E_ef;usqif;a&; æ 'DvkdeJ@ &uftuef@towfr&Sd ausmif;awGydwf/ zrf;qD;axmifcs tjyif;txefvkyfcJh w,f? yl;aygif;zkd@jyifqifwJh tvkyform;awGukd zrf;qD;axmifcsypfcJhygw,f? 1976 azaz:0g&DvrSm ausmif;jyefzGifhw,f? usaemfwkd@&JŒab;cHkawGrSm ausmif;om; uGufvyfawGrsm;vmw,f? 'DjrifuGif;awGu ausmif;om;awG&JŒ&iffudk eifhapw,f? 'DvkdeJ@ rwfvxJa&mufvmw,f? q&m}uD;ocifukdawmfr_dif;u (23/ 3/ 76) qdk&if ESpf (100) jynf+h yDy?J usaemfw@dk pw d rf mS q&m}uD;&mjynfyh v JG yk cf siw f ,f? q&m}uD;qkw d m Armjynf &JŒ*k%af qmif +idr;f csr;f a&;erdwb f ?J Armjynforl sm;e@J Armjynf&ŒJ orkid ;f udk tpOfvyS apcJo h jl zpf w,f? usaemfwkd@vnf; &mjynfhyGJvkyfcsifwmaygh? q&m}uD;udk xkdufxdkufwefwef*k%fðycsif wmaygh? tarrmwkd@vnf; jyifqifae=u+yD? &efukefrSmvnf; *lAdrRmefapmifha&Smufa&;aumfrwD u v_yfv_yf&G&Gjzpfae+yD? ÁajENtaumif;qHk;uawmh ppftkyfpk}uD;yJ? Akdvfae0if;u q&m}uD; ukrd ek ;f w,f?wefz;kd rxm;bl;? jynfoal wG&ŒJ tcspcf ifq;kH yk*Kd~ vfuol@twGuaf wmh a=umufp&m/ rkef;p&mtaumif;qHk;jzpfae+yDaygh? 'ga=umifh wcsufvGwftrdef@xkwfvkdufw,f? ‘b,folrS &mjynfhyJGrvkyf&’ usaemfw@dk u em;raxmifEidk b f ;l ? uk, d b hf momuk, d v hf yk zf @dk pDpOf=uw,f? 'Dvedk @J rwfv (23) &ufae@ r_dif;*ludk csDwuftav;ðy=uw,f? 'kw, d (Seven July) jzpf+yv D @dk toHawGxu G af ew,f? *lArd mR efuo kd mG ;&mvrf;wav#muf eJ@ toHv$ifh¶HkxJrSm bufeufwyf/ ( G3,G4) ukdif ppfom;awGu pdrf;pdrf;arSmifaew,f? wvrf; vHk; "mwfyHk±dkuf&efpaew,f? 'gayr,fh ausmif;om; awGuawmh æ 1? +idrf;csrf;a&; +idrf;csrf;a&; æ æ wkd@ta&;/ wkd@ta&;/ 2? +idrf;csrf;a&;ukd zsufqD;ol æ æ wkd@&efol/ wkd@&efol/ qdkwJhESpfckeJ@ at;csrf;pGmcsDwufcJh=uw,f? *lrSmtav;ðyae=uwkef; 0kdif;xm;wJhppfwyf uowfawmhrvdjk zwfawmhrvkd vkyv f mw,f?'ge@J ausmif;om;awGu ayguu f v JG m+yD; oydwf tjzpf ajymif;vJvkduf=uw,f?

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(7) Zlvkdif aºuG;a=umfoHu ar/ ZGef 1975 ESpfvnfrSm ukdifpGJwJh (5) csufukdyJ qufukdifw,f? 'D v k d e J @ Ad k v f a e0if ; ppf t pd k ; &u ausmif ; yd w f / zrf ; qD ; / axmif c s/ ol u aeus &aoh&Spfaomif;ZmwfyJ qufcif;cJhygw,f? usaemfu 1976 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (28) rSm tzrf;cH&w,f? usaemfwkd@ r_dif;&mjynfh tr_wu JG dk =o*kwrf mS pD&ifcsucf s+yD;+yDr@dk tJ'w D ek ;f urqvvkyx f ;kH vkyef nf;t& usaemfu h kd wv avmufcsKyf+yD; rv$wfcsifv$wfcsifeJ@ jyefv$wfvkdufw,f? vmv$wfwmu (M.I) u Akdvfrª; wa,mufyJ?usaemftygt0if(RIT) u (3) a,mufeJ@( Eco) u (2) a,mufudk naewckrSm axmifyw d cf ge;D rSjyefvw $ v f u kd w f ,f?v$wv f u dk w f ahJ e@u Akv d rf ;ª vkyo f u l ajymvku d w f rhJ ed @f ceG ;f u rSwfom;avmufw,f? ‘rif;wkd@ukd cHk±Hk;xyfzGifh+yD;axmifrcsawmhbl;? ckv$wfvkdufr,f? aemuf+yD;ausmif; xkwfr,f? ausif;xJudk vHk;0jyefroGm;ygeJ@? ck igwkd@ay:vpDajymif;vkduf+yD? (Strike) tjzpf vHk;0 rcHbl;? rjzpfcifuwnf;u rif;wkd@vkdvlawGudk ausmif;xkwfypfr,f/ zrff;r,f’wJh/ tvGefudk ajymifajrmufwJhpum;ygyJ? r_id ;f &mjynfv h y_ &f mS ;r_rmS tjrifq h ;kH tjypf'%fu ao'%f/ csi;f ausmif;om; udw k ifarmif OD;ukd (20/ 3/ 76) rSmzrf;+yD; ao'%fcsvdkufw,f? odyfr=umcifrSmyJ wu,fóud;ay;owf ypfcJhw,f? ausmif;om;tay: tòid;}uD;yHkuawmh atmcsavmufyg&JŒ? 'Daemufykdif;rSm (Strike) xyfrjzpfa&; trsKd;rsKd;vHk;yrf;vmw,f? 1? ausmif;om;awGudk Ekid if aH &;eJ@ywfouf&if ausmif;xkw/f taqmifxw k f jyif;xefpmG owday;cH&r,fqkdwJhpnf;urf;ukd vufrSwfxkd;ckdif;w,f? ausmif;om;udk,fwdkifwif xdk;&wm r[kwfbl;? rdbyg xdk;&wmyg? 2? ausmif;om;udk v#Kd@0Sufpm&if;eJ@ tkyfpk (3) pk aumufxm;w,f? (u) tkyfpku Ekid if aH &;v_y&f mS ;r_wiG f OD;aqmifEidk o f /l (c) tkypf u k aemufuvku d yf gEidk o f /l (*) tkypf u k Ekid if aH &; udk vH;k 0pdwrf ygbJ bde;f / aq;ajcmuf/ t&uf/ taysmt f yg;eJ@aernfo h ?l tJ'pD m&if;t& ausmif; om;awGudk taotcsmapmifh=unfhw,f? 3? ausmif;om;owif;ay;awGarG;w,f?ausmif;om;twkawGausmif;om;xk=um; xJrSmvmxnfhxm;w,f? 4? a'oaumvdyf (16) ckzGifh+yD; ausmif;om;awGudk cGJypfw,f? 5? pmar;yGpJ epfe@J zdp;D w,f? (yxrESp&f rSw/f 'kw, d ESp&f rSwaf wGukd q,fwef;trSwef @J aygif;+yD; wuUokdvf0ifcGifhudk a&G;w,f) twef;}uD;awGvnf; (1) ESpf (3) }udrfppf&muae w}udrfxJppfwJhenf;udk ajymif;ypffw,f? 6? EkdifiHa&;uvGJ&if usefwm tukefvkyfcGifhay;w,f? rodcsifa,mifaqmif+yD;tm;

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(7) Zlvkdif ay;w,f? (bdef;/ aq;ajcmuf/ t&uf/ zJ/ zGef) 'DvkdeJ@ ausmif;om;xkudk toGm;atmif/ EkdifiHa&;vSHoGm;wHk;oGm;atmif/ vkyfEkdifukdif EkdifpGrf;awGenf;oGm;atmif oif;owfypfw,f? 'D=um;xJuawmif ausmif;om;awG[m (7/ 7/ 77) rSm v_yf&Sm;r_wck/ (7/ 7/ 78) rSmv_yf&Sm;r_ wckazmfxkwfzdk@óud;yrf;cJh=uao;w,f? axmufvSrf;a&;awG xlxyfaeatmif csxm;wJhtwGuf vlpkaewkef;rSmyJ òzdcGJzrf;qD;cHcJh&w,f? (7/ 7/ 78) &uf a e@v_ y f & S m ;r_ u k d tpysKd ; ol ( RIT) ausmif ; om; ukdat;aomif;qdk&if ppfa=uma&;'%feJ@zrf;+yD; wESpfcGJavmuftxd nwkdif; vef@vef@+yD; *a,mifajcmufjcm;awG atmfae&&Smw,f? ppfa=uma&;jyif;vkd@ a&Smhcf (Shock) &oGm;wm? vGwf+idrf;csrf;omcGifhtrdef@ trSwf (2§80) vmrSyJ vG w f o G m ;&awmh w ,f ? a=umuf + yD ; evef r xl E k d i f a tmif v k y f v k d u f w m? ppf t m%m&S i f p epf w nf j rJ a &;twG u f 'D r k d u a&pD v d k v m;ol r S e f o r#ud k ppf a =uma&;pcef ; rS m b0 ysuf o G m ;/ 'k u Q j zpf o G m ;/ wcsKd @ ¶l ; oG y f o G m ;/ wcsKd@toufygqHk;&H_;oGm;atmif tjyif;txefESdyfuGyf cJhygw,f? ppftkyfpk&JŒ 'Dvdk ^m%feD^m%feufrsm;[m/ ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_udk &yfwef@apEkdifyg ovm;? 'Drkdua&pDeJ@ vl@tcGifhta&;qdwfokOf;aeor# jynfwGif;ppfrD;avmif u|rf;aeor#/w&m;r#wr_/vGwfvyfr_/nD!Gwfr_awGr&Sdao;or#/ ppftm%m&Sif pepfoufqdk;&Snfaeor#/ ppfrSefwJh 'Drkdua&pD EkdifiHawmfopfudk vGwf vyf trSDckduif;rJhpGmrwnfaqmufEkdifao;or#/ jynfolawG&JŒb0 rvHkðcHao;or#/ vlxv k y_ &f mS ;r_rsm;/ ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;qdw k mawG[m qufvuf &Sad erSmyJ jzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifhvnf; 'DavmufjzwfawmuftarSmifcsxm;wJh=um;u 1987 pufwifbm vrSm aiGpuULv_yf&Sm;r_ wuUokdvftESH@tjym;rSm ay:cJhwmyg? tjyefp&dwfay;/ ausmif;ydwfay;+yD; =uyfylwdkuf qDref;ref;ay;±HkeJ@ v_y&f mS ;r_[m&yfwef@roGm;ygb;l ? c% ikwcf sif ikwaf er,f? 'gayr,fh ppftm%m &Sipf epf[m emwm&Snaf &m*gvkd jzpfaewJh Armjynf&ŒJ uH=urRmudk b,fvw kd nf+idrf at;csrf;atmif aqmif&GufEdkifrSmvJ? 'ga=umifhvnf; 1988 rwfv (13) eJ@ (16) rSm bufeufawG=um;/ aoewfawG=um;/ 'dkif;awGwkwfawG=um;/ aoewfawG=um;rSmudkbJ &J&J&ifh&ifh v_yf&Sm;cJhwJh ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ awGjzpfay:chJw,f? qufwdkufbJ 1988 ZGef/

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(7) Zlvkdif ajreDukef;v_yf&Sm;r_/ aemufb,fvdkrS +idrf;owf r&awmhwJh &Spfav;vHk; ta&;awmfyHk}uD;txd jzpfvmcJh&w,f? 'Daemufydkif;rSmvnf; 1993 (NC) qef@usifa&;v_yf&Sm;r_/ 1996 'DZifbmv_yf&Sm;r_/ 1998 =o*kwf0ef;usifv_yf&Sm;r_/ 1999 pufwifbm0ef;usifv_yf&Sm;r_/ qdkwmawG[m umva'oeJ@udkufnDwJh aºuG;a=umfoHawGeJ@ qifhuJqifhuJ rem;wrf;ay:aygufvmaewmawG[m ausmif ; om;eJ @ jynf o l w xyf w nf ; / wom;wnf ; jzpf a ew,f q d k w m &Sif;vif;vSygw,f? 1988 ZGev f xJrmS &efuek w f uUov kd af usmif;0ef;xJrmS Auo taxGaxG twGi;f a&;rª; udkrdk;oD;ZGefajymwJhpum;&Sdygw,f? ‘usaemf w d k @ ck v _ y f & S m ;aewJ h u d p P u uG e f y gbl ; r&wJ h u d p P / pmtk y f rvHkavmufwJhudpP a=umifh r[kwfbl;? jynfolvlxk&JŒ a0'emawGa=umifh/ jynfolawG&JŒ 'kuQawGa=umifhjzpfw,f’ qdkwJhpum;[m tzdk;wefvSw,fvdk@ usaemf,Hk=unfrdw,f? 1989 ck E S p f / rwf v (13) &uf a e@ zk e f ; armf E S p f v nf ( RIT ) jrufcif;jyifrSm Auo OuUÏ udkrif;udkEdkif&JŒpum;uvnf; æ ‘jynfolawG&JŒaoG;awG vrf;ray:rSm rajcmufao;bl;? aoG;nD‡eH@awG ck x uf x d & aewk e f ; yJ ? 'D t csd e f r S m usaemf w d k @ u'*H k y ef ; jcH r S m oG m ;+yD ; aysmfoifhygovm;? *k%fwk*k%fòydifjyZmwfudk oGm;=unfhaeoifhygovm;? usaemfwdk@tvkyfawGtrsm;}uD; qufvkyf=u&vdrfhr,f’ 'Dpum;awG/ 'D&yfwnfcsufawGa=umifhvnf; ppftkyfpk[m a=umuf oxufa=umuf vm=u+yD; abmvDabmawGykwfukef=u+yD? tjypfawG [dkv$Jcs 'Dv$Jcs vkyfvm=u+yD? ord k i f ; qd k w mcJ z suf e J @ zsuf + yD ; jyef a &;vd k @ &aumif ; aomt&m r[kwfbl;qdkwmawmh olwdk@vnf; &dyfrdpðyvmyg+yD? 'ga=umifh (Union) udk rd k i f ; cJ G ò zd c scJ h w mb,f o l v J q d k w meJ @ ywf o uf +yD ; Ad k v f a tmif } uD ; &J Œ 1975 ZGefpmwrf;rSm Adkvfausmfpdk;eJ@Adkvfoef;pdefudk v$Jcsxm;w,f? Adkvf ae0if;&JŒ (237-88) ta&;ay:nDvmcH rdef@cGef;rSmawmh tJ'g[m Adkvfatmif}uD;&JŒvufcsuf ygvdk@ qdkjyefw,f? Adkvfatmif}uD;uvnf; tif;vsm;uefabmif wHwm;eD wdkufyJGudk usL;vGefwm[m ( Human Rights) udpPjzpfoGm;+yD? tJ'g OuUÏ}uD;eJ@ rqdkifbl; wJGzuf}uD; (AdkvfpdefvGif) wm0efbJvdk@ qdkvmjyefw,f? b,f o l u d k b ,f o l u v$ J c scs?ord k i f ; qd k w mysuf r oG m ;bl ; ?

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(7) Zlvkdif udk,fpdkufxm;wJhtyifudk ukd,fudkwdkifyJ &dwf=u&ygvdrfhr,f? Adkvfae0if;vm;/ Adkvfatmif}uD;vm;/ Adkvfausmfpdk;vm;/ AdkvfpdefvGifvm; æ? b,folyJjzpfjzpf wae@rSm taotcsm&Sif;=u&rSmyg? ordkif;[m ordkif;tjzpf urBm wnfoa&G@ &Sdaeygvdrfhr,f? usaemfhaqG;aEG;csuf tawmfav;&SnfoGm;yg+yD? usaemftav;teufwifjycsifwmuawmh Auoqdkwm xm0&&Sifoef aer,f qdkwm &,f æ/ b,fvdktm%m&Sif b,fvdkwefcdk;&SifurS òzdzsufvdk@ ròydbl;qdkwm&,fygyJ? (Union) tqmuftOD&Sdonfjzpfap/ r&Sdonfjzpfap Auouawmh xm0& &Sifoefaer,fqdkwm ppftkyfpktaeeJ@ owdcsyfxm;zdk@ vdkvdrfhr,fqdkwJh ta=umif; udkawmh usaemftav; teuf owday;vdkufyg&ap æ? ? usqHk;oGm;oltaygif;eJ@ wdkufyJG0ifaeoltaygif;wdk@udk txl;v_dufvSJaompdwfeJ@ OD;!$wf tav;ðyv#uf æ ZGefr_dif; (7/ 7/ 2002) Ö om,m0wDtusOf;axmifxJwGif usif;yðyvkyfonfh Zlvdkif (7) &ufae@ tcrf;tem; wGif zwf=um;onfhpmwrf;jzpf+yD; tusOf;axmifxJwGifxkwfa0onfh a'gufðzwfoHpmapmifwGif az: jycJhygonf? ZGefr_dif; (7/ 7/ 2006)?

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(7) Zlvkdif

(7) *sKvkdif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;v+yf&Sm;r+oydwf}uD;ukd Oya'ykdif;qkdif&m¶+axmifhrS csOf;uyfavhvm a0zefokH;oyfjcif;

OD;atmifxl; (J)

EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif; jzpfay:vmykHtusOf;csKyf (7- 7- 1962) &ufae@wGif jrefrmhausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_orkdif;wGif &mZ0ifwifusef &pfaprnfq h AJ if;*sLvkid af usmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_ taxGaxGoydw}f uD;ay:aygucf &hJ ayonf? 1962 ckEpS /f rwfv (2) &ufae@wiG f Akv d af e0if;OD;aqmifonfh ppfwyfrS jynfo@l tcsKyftjcmtm%mrsm; ukv d ufeuftm;uk;d jzifh twif;t"rRord ;f ,lvu dk cf sed rf pS I ausmif;om;or*~rsm;onf t"du qef@usiu f ef@uu G cf o hJ nfh trmcHtiftm;pktjzpf &yfwnfvm&mrS pwifcjhJ cif;jzpfonf? ausmif; om;or*~rsm;onf ppftm%modrf;+yD;p rwfvwGifw}udrfESifh ZlvkdifvwGifw}udrf pkpkaygif; ESp}f udrw f idk w f idk f ,if;ok@d qef@usiu f ef@uu G cf jhJ cif;jzpfygonf? yxrt}udrf +idr;f csr;f pGm qef@usif uef@uu G cf o hJ nfah usmif;om;or*~rsm;. acgi;f aqmifrsm;ukd rw&m;zrf;qD;ESyd pf ufI wu|e;f yk@d jypf'%frsm;csrSwfI ukdukd;u|ef;okd@ykd@aqmifcJh+yD; tcsKd@ausmif;om;rsm;ukd ausmif;rSxkwfy,f vku d +f yD; tcsK@d rmS 0&rf;ajym;b0ok@d a&muf&o dS mG ;&ygonf? ppftm%m&Sirf sm;onf xko d @dk ðyvkyf ¶kHr#ruyJ +idrf;csrf;pGm ynmqufvufoif=um;aeaom ausmif;om;rsm;. aea&;/ pm;a&;/ ynmoif=um;a&;ponfh ausmif;om;rsm;. tajccHtcGit hf a&;rsm;ukd uef@owfcsKyfcs,o f nfh trdef@/ Oya'/ !$ef=um;csuf ponfwkd@ukd jyif;xefpGmxkwfjyefvmcJhygonf? xkdokd@ taxGaxG

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(7) Zlvkdif zdEydS cf sKyfcs,rf r_ sm;ukd enf;aygi;f pkjH zifh ðyvkyv f maoma=umifh aemufxyf (4) vausmcf ef@t=um wGif }uD;rm;jyif;xefaom qJAif;*sLvkdif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;v_yf&Sm;r_ taxGaxGoydwf}uD; ay:aygufvmcJh&jcif;jzpfygonf?,if;okd@ ZlvkdifvwGif qufvufjzpfyGm;cJh&aom ausmif;om; or*~rsm;v_y&f mS ;r_oydw}f u;D wGiaf usmif;om;rsm;. t"duOD;wnfco hJ nfh &nf&, G cf surf sm;rSm æ (1) 1962 ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &uf ppfwyf. rw&m;tm%modrf;,lcJhr_ESifh (2) ausmif;om;rsm;. vGwv f yfpmG ynmoif=um;Ekid cf iG rhf sm;ukd zdEydS cf sKycf s,o f nfh rw&m; onfhtrdef@rsm;/ pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;/ !$ef=um;csufrsm;/ Oya'a=unmcsufrsm;ukd ¶kwfodrf; ay;&efwkd@jzpf+yD; +idrf;csrf;pGm qef@usifuef@uGuf qENjyoydwfarSmufjcif;yif jzpfayonf? ,if; oydw}f u;D onf wEkid if v H ;Hk &Sd ausmif;om;xkrsm;t=um; v#ijf refpmG ys@H E@HS u;l pufum Zlvidk v f qef; wGif wjznf;jznf;ESifh }uD;rm;jyif;xefvmcJhygonf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;rS OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;cJh +yD; ppftm%m&Sipf epfEiS hf w&m;r#wr_r&Sad om Oya'rsm;tm; qef@usicf o hJ nfh orkid ;f wGi&f pfrnfh qJAif;*sLvkdif ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_ taxGaxGodydwf}uD; ay:aygufcJh&jcif;jzpfayonf? ,if; ausmif;om;oydwf}uD;tm; 1962 ckESpf/ Zlvkdifv (7) &ufae@nae (18 ; 30) em&Dcef@wGif ppftm%m&Sif. cg;ykdufaqmifppfwyfrS ,rf;aygufuGJzsufqD;r_tm;jyif;xefvSonfh *sDo&D;/ *szD ;dk pufaoewfrsm;jzifh t=urf;enf;ok;H um &ufpufpmG ypfcwfowfjzwf ESrd Ef iS ;f òzdciG ;f cJyh gonf? xkad =umifh ausmif;om;or*~tzG@J 0if wuUov dk af usmif;om;aygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGm aoG;ajrusI aoausysufpD;cJh&ygonf? raobJ usefaecJhol tcsKd@ausmif;om;rsm;ukd zrf;qD;I axmifcs ESdyfpufjcif;/ ukdukd;u|ef;okd@ykd@aqmif ESdyfpufjcif;/ tcsKd@ausmif;om;aygif;rsm;pGmukd &mESifhcsDI wuUov dk af usmif;rS xkwyf pfjcif;/ tcsK@d ausmif;om;rsm;rSm xGuaf jy;wdr;f a&Smifc&hJ +yD; ‚if;wk@d . aumif;rGeaf om tem*wfb0rsm; aysmufq;Hk ysupf ;D um 0&rf;ajy;rsm;tjzpfo@dk a&muf&cdS jhJ cif; ponft h jzpfq;dk rsm;ukjd zpfay:apcJygonf? xk@d tjyif ausmif;om;rsm;. Ekid if aH &;vkyaf qmifvm cJhr_orkdif;ukd azsmufzsufypfvkdaom ,kwfrmyufpufonfht=uHrsm;jzifh oydwfarSmufausmif; om;or*~tzGJ@0ifrsm;. t"dupk¶kH;pnf;a0;&mae&mjzpfonfh orkdif;0if &efukefwuUokdvf ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;ukv d nf; Zlvidk v f (8) &uf reuf (03 ; 30) em&Dcef@wiG f rkid ;f rsm;jzifh òzdcGJzsufqD;I tpazsmufcJhygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;v_yf&Sm;cJhaom oydwf}uD;ESifh ausmif;om;or*~rsm;jzpfay:vmykH (1) vGwfvyfa&;twGuf óu;yrf;cJhaom ausmif;om;oydwf}uD;rsm; orkdif;tusOf;csKyf (1920 rS 1948 xd) yxrausmif;om;oydwf}uD;ukdvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdatmifpwifóud;yrf;cJhonfh wuUokdvf

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(7) Zlvkdif ausmif;om;}uD; (21) OD;rS OD;aqmifv_yf&Sm;cJh+yD; 1920 &efukefwuUokdvfausmif;om;oydwf }uD; jzpfyGm;cJh&onf? xkdrSwqifh tusKd;quftjzpf jrefrmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdatmif t"du óud;yrf;aqmif&u G cf o hJ nf“h jrefrmtoif;csKyf}uD;”(GCBA) ukd zG@J pnf;wnfaxmifEidk cf yhJ gonf? 1962 ckESpfwGif a'gufwmOD;nKdrS wuUokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or*~jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf aiG om; wodef;ckESpfaomif;usyfukd apwemxufoefpGm vSL;'gef;cJhygonf? 1927 ckESpftwGuf Armjynfb&k ifcrH S tkwjf rpfcsay;cJu h m 1929 ckEpS w f iG f or*~taqmuftOD;ukd pwifaqmufvyk f cJh+yD; 1930 ckESpf ESpfv,favmufwGif +yD;ajrmufcJhygonf? (31/ 1/ 1931) &ufae@wGif &efukef wuUokdvfausmif;om;rsm;or*~ukd atmifjrifpGmzGJ@pnf;xlaxmifEkdifcJhygonf? ausmif;om;oydw}f uD;onf 1963 ckEpS w f iG f jzpfymG ;cJ+h yD; ,if;oydw}f uD;ESit hf wl ‘Arm Ekid if v H ;Hk qkid &f mausmif;om;rsm;or*~’ ukzd @JG pnf;wnfaxmifEidk cf yhJ gw,f? 1938 ckEpS w f iG f 1300 jynfh a&eHajrta&;awmfyo Hk ydw}f uD; jzpfymG ;cJ+h yD; ‘&efuek w f uUov dk f ausmif;om;rsm;or*~’ESihf ‘ArmEkdifiHvkH;qkdif&m ausmif;om;rsm;or*~’wkd@onf ,if;ta&;awmfykH}uD;ukd axmufcHcJh+yD; oydwf}uD;twGif; wufºuGpGm yl;aygif;yg0ifcJhygonf? 1938 ckESpf/ 'DZifbmvxJwGif ausmif; om;acgif;aqmif Akdvfatmifausmf usqkH;cJh&ygonf? xkd@a=umifh wwd,ausmif;om;oydwf}uD; qufvufjzpfyGm;cJhygonf? ukdvkdeDacwf ausmif;om;or*~rsm;ESihf ausmif;om;v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G cf rhJ r_ sm;.ausm¶k;d onf +Adwo d #e,fcs@J ukdvkdeDpepf qef@usifa&;ESifh trsKd;om;ynma&; tqifhjrifhwkd;wuf&&Sda&;wkd@twGuf t"du xm;vkyfaqmifcJhjcif;jzpf+yD; Oya'abmiftwGif;rS v_yf&Sm;aqmif&GufcJhonfh 'Drkdua&pDwkdufyGJ rsm;omjzpfcJhygonf?xkd@tjyif +Adwdo#ukdvkdeDacwfwGifausmif;om;or*~rsm;ukd tpkd;&rS w&m;0if&yfwnfcGifhrsm; ay;xm;cJhygonf? jrefrmjyn ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;or*~ rsm;onf jrefrmjynfvw G v f yfa&;&&Srd t _ wGuf OD;aqmifrt _ cef;u¾rS pGe@f vw $ t f epfemcHum vGwfvyfa&;&onftxd wkdufyGJ0ifoGm;cJh=uygonf? (2) vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd+yD; ordkif;tusOf;csKyf (1948-rS 1958-xd) ygvDref'Drdkua&pDacwf vGwfvyfa&;&&Sd+yD;acwftapmydkif;umvrsm;wGif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;.v_yf&Sm;r_ rsm;onf udkvdkeDacwf vGwfvyfr_rsKd;twdkif;yJ &&SdcJhygonf? 1949-ckESpfwGif Oya'twGif; vlxv k w l ef;pm;wdu k yf rGJ sm;jzpfay:cJ+h yD;aemuf wufºuGpmG yg0ifvy_ &f mS ;cJo h nfh “ArmEdik if v H ;kH qdik f &mausmif;om;rsm;or*~”rS tvkyt f r_aqmiftcsK@d vufeufuikd af wmfveS af &;bufuakd &muf oGm;=uygonf? 1951-ckESpfwGif “ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif;om;rsm;or*~” (ABSU) udk zsufodrf;+yD; “ArmEdkifiHvHk;qdkif&mausmif; om;or*~rsm;tzGJ@csKyf”(ABFSU) tjzpf yxr t}udrfnDvmcHrS jyifqifzGJ@pnf;cJhygonf? “&efukefc¶dkifausmif;om;rsm;or*~” (ARSU) udk

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(7) Zlvkdif vnf;zGJ@pnf;cJhygonf? 1953-ckEpS /f rwfvyxrywfxw J iG f ausmif;om;or*~rsm;rSO;D aqmifI atmufwb kd m ausmif;wvydwfa&;oydwfudk jidrf;csrf;pGmjzifh qENjyoydwfwdkufyJG0ifawmif;qdkcJhaoma=umifh (zqyv) tpdk;&rS ypfcwfESdrfESif;cJhygonf? 1956-ckESpf/ atmufwdk bmvxJwGif (zqyv) tpdk;&u ausmif;om;or*~rsm;/ tpdk;&txufwef;ausmif;rsm;twGif; r&Sd&? ausmif;wGif; pnf;¶Hk;a&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rðyvkyf&[k trdef@rsm;xkwfjyefvmcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ausmif;om; or*~rsm;tpm;ausmif;aumifprD sm;udzk @G pJ nf;ay;vmcJyh gonf? ,if;!$e=f um;csut f rde@f rsm;udk qef@usifuef@uGufqENjyoydwfarSmufcJhaoma=umifh ausmif;om; (50) ausmf tzrf;cH+yD; (250) ausmf ausmif;xkwfcHcJh&ygonf? 1956-ckEpS /f rwfv (17) &ufrS (22) &ufae@xd usi;f yðyvkyo f nfh owWrwef;ar;cGe;f rsm; tpHkvdkufayguf=um;cJhaoma=umifh ,if;udpPtay: rauseyfr_rsm;jzpfay:vmcJhygonf? ,if;udp&P yftay: ausmif;om;or*~rsm;rSO;D aqmifI oydwaf rSmufqef@usiu f ef@uGurf r_ sm;ðy vkycf o hJ jzifh (zqyv)tpd;k &rS ajcmufveS @f ypfcwfcahJ oma=umifh pdeaf ygvaf usmif;rS owWrwef; ausmif;om; [,f&Dwef aoeyfxdrSefI aoqHk;cJh&ygonf? 1958-ckEpS /f pufwifbmvxJwiG f oef@&iS ;f zqyvtpd;k &xHrS ppfwyfu yxrt}udrf ajrmuf tm%modrf;,lcJhr_udkðyvkyfcJhygonf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;onf ,if;tm%modrf; ,lru _ q kd ef@usicf +hJ yD; wjynfv;kH od@k pnf;¶H;k v_@H aqmfc+hJ yD;uef@uu G f qENjyoydwaf rSmufc=hJ uygonf? oydwaf rSmuf&mwGiyf g0ifcahJ om or*~0ifausmif;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;I udu k ;kd u|e;f odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhygonf? (3) ygvDref'Drdkua&pDESifhppftm%m&Sifxlaxmifvdkr_ tm;òyifaeonfhacwf tusOf;csKyf (1958-rS 1962) ausmif;om;or*~0ifausmif;om;rsm; xdkodk@ta&;,lcH&aomfvnf; ppftm%m&Sif pHepfukd wyfO;D rS &J&0J 0hH q hH ef@usicf o hJ nfh v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;a=umifh ppftpd;k &onf 1960-ckEpS /f azazmf 0g&Dv yxrtywfxJwGif taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJjyefvnfvkyfaqmifay;cJh&ayonf? ,if; taxGaxGa&G;aumufyw JG iG f 0ef}uD;csKyfa[mif;OD;Ek. (yxp) ygwu D tEdik &f &Scd yhJ gonf? (yxp) tpdk;&onf (9) wef; (10) wef; cGJjcm;onfh wef;cJGwef;cstrdef@wckudk ynma&;0ef}uD;Xme rSwqifh a=ujimxkwjf yefcyhJ gonf? ,if;a=ujimcsuu f kd ausmif;om;or*~rsm;rS acgi;f aqmif+yD; uef@uGufqEN jyoydwfarSmufcJh=uygonf? 1960-ckESpfaESmif;ydkif;rSm uGefrifwefw¶kwfjzLvufusefrsm; jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; usL; ausmf 0ifa&mufvmcJhygonf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;onf w¶kwfjzLeJ@ e,fcsJ@qef@usifa&;udk

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(7) Zlvkdif tar&duefoH&Hk;a&S@rSm qef@usifuef@uGufqENjyoydwfarSmufcJh&m tpdk;&rS rD;owfydkuf/ rsuf &nf,dkAHk;rsm;eJ@omru aoewfrsm;eJ@ygypfcwfcJhaoma=umifh &[ef;wyg; ysHvGefawmfrlcJh&yg onf? 1962-ckESpf/ rwfv (2) &ufae@wGif Adkvfae0if;OD;aqmifonfhppfwyfrS 'kwd,t}udrf tm%modrf;cJhjyefygonf? ,if;tm%modrf;r_tm; t"duqef@usifuef@uGufcJhonfh tiftm; pkrsm;rSm ausmif;om;or*~rsm;/ vli,ftzG@Jtpnf;tcsKd@/ EdkifiHa&;ygwDtcsKd@/ wdkif;&if;om; tzGJ@ tpnf;tcsdK@/ q&m}uD;ocifudk,fawmfr_dif;. vli,frsm;or*~ ponfwdk@yg0ifcJhygonf? ,if;od@k oydwaf rSmufqENjyaom or*~0ifausmif;om;acgi;f aqmiftcsK@d udk zrf;qD;cJ+h yD; udu k ;kd u|ef; odk@ ydk@aqmifcJhygonf? (4) ppftm%m&Sifacwf (1962-ckESpfrSpwifcJhjcif;jzpf+yD; ,cktcsdeftxd) ppftm%modrf;,l+yD;aemufydkif;wGif vGwfvyfa&;acwftapmydkif;acwfrS ausmif; om;or*~eJ@ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;&&SdcJhonfh vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;udk ppftpdk;&rS wjznf;jznf; ESiu hf ef@owfcsKyfcs,v f mcJyh gonf? ppftpd;k & (awmfveS af &;aumifp)D onf arvrSpI ausmif; aqmifaeausmif;om;rsm;udk rw&m;zdESdyfcsKyfcsK,fonfh ausmif;aqmifpnf;urf;csuf (22) csufudk xkwfjyefvmcJhygonf? &efukefwuUodkvf tufOya'udk¶kwfodrf;onfhOya'udkvnf; Adkvfae0if; (awmfvSefa&;aumifpDOuUÏ) rS arv (9) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefa=ujimcJh+yD; arv (10) &ufae@wGif wuUodkvfaumifpDudkyg zsufodrf;vdkufygonf? arv (17) &ufae@wGif awmfveS af &;aumifp. D a=ujimcsut f rde@f trSwf (30) jzifh wuUov kd af usmif;om;rsm;ryg0ifbJ Adv k rf ;ª csKyfrsm;omyg0ifonfh wuUov kd af umifpu D kd jyefvnfz@JG pnf;ay;cJyh gonf? Zlvikd f (6) &uf n (20 ; 00) em&DtcsdefwGif ppftpdk;&rSwuUodkvfe,fajrudk yk'fr (144) trdef@xkwfjyefcJhyg onf? xdn k OD;wGif rE aW v;aqmiftygt0if awmifial qmif/ tr&aqmifrsm;rSm rD;jywfawmuf oGm;cJhygonf? xdkrD;jywfoGm;jcif;udk taqmifr–;rsm;u ajyvnfatmifrajz&Sif;ay;cJhaom a=umifh rE Wav;aqmifrSpI wuUodkvf0if;twGif; +idrf;csrf;pGmqENjyvSnfhvnfaºuG;a=umfcJhyg onf? xdt k iftm;pktwGi;f od@k a&$bakd qmif/ '*Hak qmifrsm;uyg yl;aygi;f yg0ifvm+yD; ausmif;0if; twGif; jidrf;csrf;pGmvSnfhvnfqENjycJhygonf? ppftpdk;&.rw&m;aom zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_rsm;udk qef@usifuef@uGufcJhonfh ausmif;om;xktpnf;ta0;}uD;ESifhqENjyoydwfarSmufyGJ}uD;udk (7/ 7/ 1962) &ufae@wGif &efukefwuUodkvf0if;twGif;ESifh ausmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD; twGif;Y ðyvkyfcJhygonf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;rS yk'fr (144) udk qef@usifuef@uGufcJh=u ygonf?,if;oydwf}uD;ðyvkyfcJhonfh Zlvdkifv (7) &ufae@nae (18 ; 30) em&Dcef@wGif qENjy aºu;a=umfaeonfh ausmif;om;rsm;udk ppftpdk;& (awmfvSefa&;aumifpD) . cg;ydkufaqmif

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(7) Zlvkdif ppfwyfrS &uf&ufpufpufypfcwfowfjzwfI t=urf;zufenf;oH;k um òzcGi;f cJyh gonf? Zlvikd v f (8) &uf/ reuf (03 ; 30) em&Dcef@avmufwiG f wuUov kd af usmif;om;or*~taqmuftOD;udk rdik ;f jzifòh zcJzG suq f ;D ypfvu kd yf gonf? or*~ (3) ckrS xif&mS ;onfah cgi;f aqmifrsm;/ tjcm;ausmif; om;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rS xif&Sm;onfhausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;/ tjcm;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;ESifh vli,ftzGJ@tpnf;rsm;rSacgif;aqmifrsm;udk zrf;qD;ESdyfpufI yk'fr (5) eJ@ta&;,lcJh+yD; tcsKd@udk udkudk;u|ef;tusOf;axmifodk@ ydk@aqmifcJhygonf? tcsKd@ausmif;om;rsm; &mESifhcsD+yD; &moufyef ausmif;xkwfcH&ygonf? (5) ordkif;qdkif&mESifh Oya'ydkif;qdkif&m¶_axmifhrsm;rS a0zefoHk;oyfjcif; ,if;odk@ppftm%m&Sifxlaxmifvdkolrsm;taejzifh wdkif;jynftwGif; wm0efrJh¶dkif;jypGm ðyrlcJhjcif;rsm;/ rdrdEdkifiHom; ausmif;om;rsm;tygt0if wdkif;&if;om;vkyfom; jynfolw&yf vHk;tm; Oya'rJhpGm zdESdyfowfjzwfaejcif;rsm;/ Oya'udkckwHk;ðyvkyfI w&m;rJhzrf;qD;ta&;,l axmifcsaejcif;rsm; aemiftem*gwfwGif avsmhyg;oGm;Edkifapa&;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm;tygt0if EdkifiHom;rsm;. tajccHtcGifhta&;rsm; tjynfht0cHpm;Edkifa&;wdk@twGuf Oya'ydkif;qdkif&m ¶_axmifhrsm;rS atmufygtwdkif;oHk;oyfwifjytyfygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;. vGwfvyfpGmynmoif=um;EkdifcGifhrsm;ukd zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fonfh trdef@rsm; pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;/ !$ef=um;csufrsm;/ Oya'a=unmcsufrsm;? 1962 ckEpS f rwfv (2) &ufae@wiG f ppfwyfrS tm%mudrk w&m;odr;f ,lc+hJ yD; (awmfveS f a&;aumifpt D pd;k &) tjzpfa&muf&v dS monft h csed rf pS I wEkid if v H ;kH &Sw d ikd ;f &if;om;vkyo f m; jynf olw&yfv;kH tygt0ifausmif;om;rsm;.vGwv f yfru _ zkd Ed ydS cf sKyfcs,v f akd omqENrsm;jzifh w&m;r# wr_r&Sdaomtrdef@rsm;/ pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;/ !$ef=um;csufrsm;/ Oya'a=ujimcsufrsm;udk xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhygonf? ppftpdk;&rS ausmif;om;rsm;tay: rw&m;zdESdyfcsyfcsK,fvdkaom qENrsm;jzifh atmufaz: jyygtrdef@a=ujimcsufrsm;udk arvwGif xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhygonf? (u) ausmif;aqmifaeausmif;om;rsm;udk rw&m;zdESdyfcsKyfcsK,fonfh ausmif; aqmifpnf;urf;csuf (22) csufudk xkwfjyefvmcJhygonf? (c) &efuek w f uUov kd t f ufOya'ud¶k w k o f rd ;f onfOh ya'udv k nf;Adv k af e0if; (awmfveS f a&;aumifpDOuUÏ) rS arv (9) &ufae@wGif xkwfjyefa=ujimcJhygonf? (*) arv (10) &ufae@wGif wuUodkvfaumifpDudk zsufodrf;vdkufonfha=ujimcsuf?

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(7) Zlvkdif (C) arv (17) &ufae@wGif awmfvSefa&;aumifpD.a=ujimcsuftrdef@trSwf (30) jzifh wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;ryg0ifbJ Adkvfr–;csKyfrsm;omyg0ifonfh wuUodkvfaumifpDudk jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;ay;cJhonhfa=ujimcsuf? Zlvdkifvodk@a&muf&Sdvmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm; qef@usifuef@uGufaer_rsm;udk a=umuf&GH@aoma=umifh æ (i) Zlvdkif (6) &ufn (20 ; 00) em&DtcsdefwGif ppftpdk;&rS wuUodkvfe,fajrudk yk'fr (144) trdef@xkwfjyefcJhonfh a=ujimcsufrsm; ponfwdk@udk xkwfjyefvmcJhygonf? trSwpf Of (u) yg ausmif;aqmifpnf;urf;csuf (22) csux f yJ g tcsKŒd tcsurf sm;rSm æ ausmif;0ifcGifhESifhtaqmifae&a&;wdk@twGuf vHkðcHa&;ESifhtkyfcsKyfr_aumfrwDrsm;. axmufcHcsufjzifh av#mufcJh&onfh pnf;urf;csuf? rdbtkyfxdrf;ol. 0efcHuwday;csufESifh ausmif;tyf&onfh pnf;urf;csuf? taqmifaeausmif;om;rsm; reuf (07 ; 30) em&DcGJrS reuf (10 ; 00) em&DtwGi;f reufpmxrif;udk rjzpfraepm;&rnf? naepmudk nae (18 ; 00) em&DwiG pf m;&rnfqakd om pnf;urf;csu?f n(20 ; 00) em&Dx;kd &iftaqmifwcH g;ydwI f vH;k 0 tjyifrxGuf&[laom pnf;urf;csuf? taqmifrª;rsm; ppfaq;aomtcsdefwGif r&Sdv#if ta&; ,lrnfqdkaompnf;urf;csuf? ponfhpnf;urf;csufwdk@onf aumif;rGefoifhawmfonf[k ,l q&aomfvnf; vdkufemEdkif&efcJ,Of;vSayonf? wuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;. vGwfvyfcGifh t&omudk tqHk;¶_H;cHvdkuf&jcif;yifjzpfayonf? ,if;pnf;urf;csuf wyk'fqHk;wdkif; pnf;urf; twdik ;f rvdu k ef mEdik u f ausmif;aqmifrx S w k yf pfrnfqakd om tjypfay;ta&;,lro _ nf vGepf mG rS qdk;&Gm; aumufuspfaomjcdrf;ajcmufr_rsm;yifjzpfayonf? ausmif;wufcsdef (75 &mcdkifE_ef;) jynfhrDSrS pmar;yGJajzqdkcGifh&Sdrnfh pHepfopfudkjyXmef;vmcJhygonf? (9) wef; (10) wef; cJGjcm; vmr_rsm;/ 0dZ…m-ody`H cJGvdkufaygif;vdkufvkyfaeonfh ynma&;vkyfaqmifr_rsm;udkvnf; vkyf aqmifvmygonf? xdkodk@ðyvkyfjcif;onf ynma&;pHepfaumif;rGefvmap&ef ESifh ausmif;om; rsm;ynmoif=um;r_w;kd wufaumif;rGeaf p&ef&nf&, G cf sux f m;+yD;vkyw f mrsK;d r[kwb f J ausmif; om;or*~rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk uef@owfxdrf;csKyf&ef &nf&G,fcsufrsm;ESifh ppf tpd;k &rSpeH pfwus vkyaf qmifvmjcif;jzpfygonf? ppftm%m&Sipf eH pfxal xmifvmr_ukd qef@usif uef@uGufcJhonfh ausmif;om;or*~ESifhausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk t"duwm0ef,lonfh ausmif;om;acgif;aqmifrsm;udk &meJ@csD+yD; ausmif;rSxkwfy,fvm+yD; ynmoif=um;cGifhESifh ausmif;aqmifaecGifhrsm;udkyg ydwfyifvmcJhygonf? ppftpdk;&. wuUodkvfausmif;aqmifae ynmoifausmif;om;rsm; vdkufem&eftwGuf xkwfjyef jyXmef;cJhor# pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;/ trdef@rsm;ESifhn$ef=um;csufrsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;pnf;urf;&Sdvmap&efESifhynma&;

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(7) Zlvkdif tqifjh rifw h ;kd wufvmap&ef &nf&, G I f xkwjf yefcjhJ cif;rsK;d r[kwb f J ausmif;om;rsm;pdwyf ikd ;f qdik f &m/ ¶kyfydkif;qdkif&mrsm; csKd@wJhysufpD;vmapa&;udkom t"du&nf&G,fcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? odk@rSom ‚if;wdk@.ppftm%m&Sifxlaxmifvdkr_udk taESmifht,Sufjzpfaprnfh +idrf;csrf;pGmqENjyvmrnfh ausmif;om;rsm; pdwfydkif;qdkif&m¶kyfydkif; qdkif&mrsm;csKd@wJhvm+yD; EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;wGif 0if a&mufygrvmap&ef &nf&G,fcJhjcif;omjzpfygonf? trSwfpOf (c) ESifh (*) yg&efukefwuUodkvf tufOya'udk¶kwfodrf;onfhOya'ESifh wuU odv k af umifpu D kd zsuo f rd ;f onfOh ya'rSm 1958-ckEpS f yxrt}udrf ‚if;wd@k ppftm%m odr;f ,lchJ pOftcsdefrSpI trmcHtjzpf&yfwnfum qef@usifuef@uGuf qENjycJhonfh ausmif;om;rsm; tay: t"du&efot l jzpftòid;xm;cJjh cif;a=umifh xkwjf yefjcif;jzpfygonf? xd@k a=umifh 1962 ckEpS f 'kwd,t}udrftm%modrf;,lr_t+yD;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;tm; rw&m;onfhOya'rsm;/ trdef@ rsm;/ pnf;rsO;f pnf;urf;rsm;/ !$e=f um;csurf sm;jzifh xdr;f csKyfzEd ydS v f mcJjh cif;jzpfygonf? wuUov kd f ¶Hk;rS,cifuJhodk@or*~0ifa=u;aumufcHay;r_udkvnf;&yfqdkif;ypfcJhygonf? ausmif;om;or*~ taqmuftOD; ðyjyifxdrf;odrf;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udkvnf; vkyfaqmifray;bdk@ ðyjyifxdrf;odrf;a&; Xmeudk ppftpdk;&rS!$ef=um;csufay;vmcJhygonf? xdkodk@jzifhppftpdk;&onf ausmif;om;rsm;. aexdkifpm;aomufa&;ESifhvGwfvyfpGmynmoif=um;a&;rsm;udkwdkuf¶dkufxdef;csKyfvm¶Hkr#ru bJausmif;om;rsm;ESix hf pd yfywfoufor# ¶ky0f wÎKypPn;f rsm;udyk gwqifw h ;kd I xde;f csKyfzEd ydS rf r_ sm; ðyvkyv f mygonf? ,if;od@k ðyvkyv f mjcif;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;. Edik if aH &;qdik &f mv_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udk t"dutaxmuftyHhðyaeaom ¶kyf0wˆKypPnf;t&mtm;vHk; csKd@,Gif;ysufpD;aerSom ‚if;wdk@ ppftm%m&Sipf eH pf xlaxmifrnft h ajctaet&yf&yfukd t"duqef@usiu f ef@uu G rf nfh ausmif; om;rsm; tiftm;csKd@eJ@aeap&ef &nf&G,fcJhjcif;r#omjzpfygonf? trSwfpOf (C) Adkvfrª;csKyfrsm;omyg0ifaom wuUodkvfaumifpDjyefvnfzGJ@pnf;jcif; a=ujimcsufESifhtwl awmfvSefa&;aumifpDwufvmcsdefrSpI wuUodkvfaumifpDwGif&Sdaom ausmif;om;or*~udk,fpm;vS,frsm;udk xkwfy,fvmcJhygonf? ,if;ae&mrsm;wGif wuUodkvf ausmif;om;rsm;r[kwfonfh ppfAdkvfr–;csKyfrsm;udk tpm;xdk;cef@tyfvmcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;ESifhausmif;om;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk xdrf;csKyf&eftwGuf ausmif;om;rsm; tcsi;f csi;f =um;xJwiG v f nf; ausmif;om;a&;&mr–;rsm; (od@k ) ausmif;om;ykvyd rf sm;[kac:onfh ausmif;om;pnf;urf;xdr;f odr;f a&;rª;rsm;udpk pftpd;k &rScef@tyfvmcJyh gonf? xdo k @kd vyk af qmifchJ jcif;onf wuUov kd af usmif;om;}uD;rsm;udk teD;uyf zdEydS t f yk cf sKyftwGuyf ifjzpfygonf? trSef wu,fjzpfoifhonfrSm ppftpdk;&onf ‚if;wdk@,Hk=unf&aom ppfAdkvfrª;csKyfrsm;udk wuUodkvf 0ifwef;atmifap&ef t&ifq;kH óud;pm;cdik ;f &rnfjzpfayonf? xd@k aemufro S m wuUov kd af usmif;

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(7) Zlvkdif udkwufcdkif;I ausmif;om;xkrsm;t=um; vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waom a&G;aumufyJGjzifh 0if a&muf,SOf®yifta&G;cs,fcHum wuUodkvfaumifpDwGifyg0if&rnfjzpfayonf? ,ckrl ppftpdk; &onf enf;vrf;rusonfu h pd &P yfrsm;udk aumufusp, f w k rf maomenf;aygi;f pHu k t kd oH;k csum ðyvkyv f mv#u&f ydS gonf? vuf&dS wuUov kd af usmif;om;b0wGif &Srd aeaom ppfAv kd rf ;ª csKyfrsm; udk wuUov kd af umifpw D iG cf ef@tyfcjhJ cif;rSm vGepf mG rSq;kd &Gm;vSygonf? xd@k tjyif ausmif;om;xk rsm;tcsif;csif;t=um; aoG;cGJaoG;xdk;I tdrf=uufjcif;tdk;rJokwf tkyfcsKyfonfhpHepfudk usifhoHk;um tkyfcsKyfvmcJhjcif;rSm atmufwef;usnpfywfvS+yD; (udkvdkeDpHepf) rS tkyfcsKyfa&; pHepfrsKd;udk jyefvnftwkcdk;toHk;ðycJhjcif;yifjzpfyg onf? xdkodk@jzifh tm%m&Siftpdk;&rsm;onf jrefrmjynf.ynma&;avmuudkvnf; rdrdwdk@.0g'jzef@csDa&;ae&mtjzpf toHk;ðyvm+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;udk ydrk zkd Ed ydS cf sKyfcs,rf r_ sm; ðyvkyv f mcJyh gonf? xd@k o@kd zEd ydS cf sKyfcs,rf r_ sm;udk ðyvkyf vmcJhjcif;a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;. vGwfvyfpGmynmoif=um;Edkifonfh tcGifhta&;rsm;udk xdyg;vmapcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;or*~rsm;onf vGwfvyfa&; r&&SdrDu EdkifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;ðyvkyfcJhonfrSmrSefaomfvnf; ,cktcsdefwGif ausmif;om;rsm; onf Edik if aH &;v_y&f mS ;aqmif&u G &f ef rvdt k yfawmha=umif; ausmif;om;rsm;ESiEhf ikd if aH &;t=um; cGJjcm;r_rsm;udk ppftpdk;&rSðyvkyfvmcJhygonf? ordkif;tpOftqufEkdifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;aqmif&Guf r_rsm;udk a&S@qHk;wyfOD;rSpGef@v$wftepfemcHum 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh wdkufyJG0ifcJhaom ausmif;om;rsm;onf ,cktcsdefwGif EkdifiHa&;v_yf&Sm;cGifhrsm;r&Sdawmhovdk ppftpdk;&. taxG axG zdEydS cf sKyfcsK,frO_ ya'rsm;udo k m &ifqikd ñf uHawG@vm&ygonf? xdu k o hJ @kd tm%m&Sit f pd;k &. enf;aygif;pHkjzifhðyvkyfvmaom taxGaxGzdESdyfcsKyfcs,fr_ESifh ESdyfpufr_rsm;'%fudk onf;rcHEdkif awmhaom ausmif;om;xk}uD;. qef@usifuef@uGufr_rsm;onf Zlvdkifvqef;wGif ydkrdkIjyif; xefvmygonf? trSwpf Of(i) Zlvikd f (6) &ufn (20 ; 00) em&Dtcsed w f iG pf pftpd;k &rS wuUov kd ef ,fajr udk yk'fr (144) trdef@xkwfjyefcJhonfha=ujimcsuf? ausmif;om;or*~rsm;ESiahf usmif;om;v_y&f mS ;r_rsm;udak vhvm=unfah omf ‚if;wd@k onf acwftqufquftpdk;&rsm;. rw&m;zdESdyfcsKyfcs,fvmr_rsm;udk r[kwfrcH &J&J0Hh0Hh&ifqdkifum 'Drdkua&pDenf;vrf;rsm;jzifh w&m;Oya'abmifrsm;twGif;rS +idrf;csrf;pGmqENjycJh=ujcif;udkom ðyvkyfcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? ‚if;wdk@ppftm%modrf;pOfu vufcHusifhoHk;aeqJjzpfaom 1947 ckESpf/ zG@J pnf;tkycf sKyfyt kH ajccHOya'yg tcef; (2) rlvtcGit hf a&;rsm;yg vGwv f yfrt _ cGit hf a&;rsm;. tydk'f (17) wGif? w&m;Oya'ESifhvnf;aumif;/ +idrf0yfydjym;a&;ESifhvnf;aumif; jynfol@udk,f usifhw&m;ESifhvnf;aumif; rqef@usifv#if/ EdkifiHom;rsm;onf atmufygtcGifhta&;rsm;udk

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(7) Zlvkdif vGwfvyfpGmoHk;pGJEdkif&rnf? (u) rdrd.,Hk=unfcsuf/ xifjrifcsufwdk@udk vGwfvyfpGm xkwfazmfajymqdkEdkifaom tcGifh ta&;? (c)vufeufrygbJ +idrf;csrf;pGm pka0;EdkifaomtcGifhta&;? ponf w d k @ azmf j yyg&S d y gonf ? ,ck j zpf a y:cJ h a om ausmif ; om;v_ y f & S m ;r_ oyd w f } uD ; rsm;wG i f ppf t m%m&S i f r sm;onf vd k u f a v#maqmif & G u f a y;cJ h j cif ; rsm; wpHkw&mr#r&SdcJhay? w&m;Oya' abmiftwGif;rSjidrf;csrf;pGmqENjyawmif;qdkaecJhaom ausmif;om;rsm;udt k =urf;zufenf; rsm; oH;k um &uf&ufpufpuf ypfcwfowfjzwfIwrsK;d / w&m;r#wr_ r &S d a omtrd e f @ rsm;/ Oya'rsm;/ pnf ; urf ; csuf r sm;/ !$ e f = um;csuf r sm; xk w f j yef I wzH k ponf h vl r qef o nf h v k y f & yf w d k @ jzif h o m ajz&S i f ; ay;cJ h = uygonf ? ausmif;om;rsm;wuUov kd 0f if;twGi;f vufeufrsm;rygbJ +idr;f csr;f pGm qENjyaer_tay:wGif yk'fr (144) xkwfjyefcJhjcif;rSm w&m;Oya't& vGJrSm;aejcif;omjzpf ayonf? ‚if;wdk@ xkwfjyefcJhaom w&m;r#wr_r&Sdaomtrdef@rsm;/ Oya'rsm;/ !$ef=um;csuf rsm;onfvnf; rlv&Sd+yD;om;Oya'rsm;ESifh yÉdyuQjzpfaponfh Oya'rsm;omjzpfygonf? ppf tm%m&Sifrsm;onf ausmif;om;/ tvkyform;/ v,form;ponfh tkyfcsKyfcH wd k i f ; &if ; om; jynf o l v l x k w pf & yf v H k ; ud k ,if ; od k @ w&m;r#wr_ r &S d a omOya'rsm;/ ppfvufeuf tiftm;rsm;jzifh zdEydS t f yk cf sKyfc+hJ yD; ‚if;wd@k . ppftm%m&Sipf eH pfwnfjrJa&;udo k m t"d u xm;aqmif & G u f v k y f u d k i f cJ h j cif ; yif j zpf a yonf ? w&m;Oya'pd k ; rd k ; r_ & S d a &;onf acwfrSDzGH@òzd;wdk;wufaom wdkif;jynfrsm;wGif r&Sdrjzpfvdktyfygonf? ppftm%m&Sif vufxufrsm;wGif +idrf;csrf;pGmqENjyoydwfarSmufae onfh rnfol@udkrqdk/ rnfonfh tzGJ@tpnf;udkrqdk jypfr_usL;vGefcJh=uonf[k owfrSwfum }uD; rm;jyif;xefaom tjypfrsm;udo k may;avh&+dS yD; ,if;oydwu f kd &uf&ufpufpufacsre_ ;f ypfcwfchJ aomolrsm;ESihf ,if;odk@ðyvkyf&ef trdef@ay;cJhonfholrsm;udk w&m;Oya't& ðyvkyfcJhjcif;jzpfonf [k owfrSwfavh&Sdygonf? xdkodk@jzifh ppftm%m&Siftpdk;&onf w&m;Oya'pdkrdk;r_&Sda&;qdkonfh pum;&yfudktoHk;csum rdrdtm%mwnfjrJa&;twGuf ,if;pum;&yfudk vufeufaumif; wck tjzpf toHk;ðyaecJhygonf? ppftm%m&Siftpdk;&ESifh ‚if;wdk@. bufawmfom; aemufvdkufrsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;/ tvkyform;rsm;/ v,form;rsm;ESifh wdkif;&if;om; vkyo f m;jynfow l &yfv;kH tygt0if &[ef;rsm;tay: owfjzwfusL;vGecf o hJ r#jypfrr_ eS o f r#ukd ppftpd;k &rS w&m;Oya' t& aqmif&u G jf cif;jzpfonf[k qifjciftrsK;d rsK;d udo k may;cJyh gonf? vGwfvyfI w&m;r#w aom w&m;pD&ifa&;pHepfxGef;um;onfh rnfonfhwdkif;jynfrsm;wGif rqdk w&m;pD&ifa&;u¾udk cdik cf ikd rf mrmwnfaqmufxm;a=umif; awG@&&dS ygonf? xd@k tjyif

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(7) Zlvkdif zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'ESif hjyXmef; xm;aomOya'rsm;tm; qef@usifaeaomOya'rsm;udk ta&;ay:tajctaet& xkwfjyefrnf qdkygu ,if;Oya'rsm; xkwfjyefoifh roifh/ zG J @ pnf ; yH k t ajccH O ya'ES i f h x d e f ; n‡ d a y;rnf h zG J @ pnf ; yH k tajccH O ya'w&m;¶H k ; rsm; zH G @ òzd ; wd k ; wuf a om tjcm;wd k i f ; jynf r sm;wG i f wnf a xmif x m;&S d + yD ; jzpf y gonf ? aemiftem*gwfwGif jrefrmjynfYvnf; xm;&Sdoifhayonf? odk@rSom wdkif;jynf twGif; tpkvdkuftðyHvdkuf towftjzwfcH&rnfhtajctaersKd;rS uif;a0;Edkifrnfjzpfayonf? xdk@tjyif vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waomw&m;pD&ifa&;pHepfwGif jypfr_usL;vGefcJhonfh w&m;cH r sm;ud k * vJ h p m;acsa&;0g'usif h o H k ; um ppf a q;pD & if j cif ; rðyoif h o vd k / jypfr_usL;vGefcJholw&m;cHrsm;udk vnf; oifykef;acsa&;0g'usifhoHk;um tjypf'%frS rv$ w f o if h a y? ,if ; od k @ jypf r _ u sL;vG e f o l u d k w&m;Oya't& ta&;,l j cif ; r&S d b J cG i f h v $ w f c J h r nf q d k v #if buf v d k u f r _ & S d o nf h w&m;pD & if a &; rsKd ; jzpf + yD ; 'D r d k u a&pD EdkifiHawmfopfxlaxmifEdkif&eftwGuf vGefpGmrS cufcJ=urf;wrf;OD;rnfjzpfayonf? xdk@a=umifh jypfr_usL;vGefcJhjcif;rsm;&SdcJhv#if &SdcJhonfhtwdkif; vGwfvyfIw&m;r#waom w&m;pD&ifa&;pHepfjzift h a&;,lro S m aemifvmaemifom; tm%m&Siv f ufopfrsm; jypfru _ kd tvG,fwul usL;vGef&Jawmhrnfr[kwfovdk 'Drdkua&pDEdkifiHawmfopfxlaxmifEdkif&ef eD;pyf vm+yD[k ajym&rnfjzpfayonf? qJAif;*sLvdkif ausmif;om;or*~rsm;v_yf&Sm;r_wGif aoG;ajr usaoa=uysufpD;cJh&aom ajrmufrsm;pGmaomtjypfrJh ol&Jaumif;tmZmenf usqHk;ausmif; om;rsm;tm; rarhravsmhaom owdw&m;wdk@jzifh *k%fðyOD;!$wfv#uf tvm;wl t jzpf q d k ; rsKd ; aemif t em*gwf w G i f y aysmuf + yD ; rjzpf a y:vmap&ef &nf&G,fcsufrsm;jzifh txufaz: jyyg qJAif;*sLvdkif ausmif;om;or*~rsm; v_yf&Sm;r_ oydwf}uD;tm; Oya'ydkif;qdkif&m¶_axmifhESifh ordkif; qdkif&mtcsuftvuf¶_ axmifhrsm;rS csOf;uyfavhvm a0zefoHk;oyf t=uHðywifjytyfygonf?

Ö

OD;atmifxl; (J) EdkifiHa&;tusOf;om;a[mif;

73


(7) Zlvkdif

Zlvkdif (7) &uf 1962 ta&;awmfykHtwGif; aoqkH;ol/ '%f&m&ol/ aysmufqkH;ol/ zrf;qD;cH&ol ausmif;om;rsm;pm&if;? 1? armifcif!$ef@ (ac: ) cifarmif!$ef@ 2? armifpef;a&$ 3? armifausmf0if; 4? armifpdef0if; 5? armifusifrkd; 6? armifoef;xGef; 7? armifwif!$ef@ 8? armifpdef0if; 9? qlAm; 10? ukdwifxGef;

'k-ESpf (bDat) tcef; (83)/ ppfukdif;aqmif/ Oypmtykdif; (c) rE Wav;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) tcef; (91)/ awmifilaqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) xm;0,fausmif;/ Am;u&m awmifil}uD; wuUokdvf0if pmppfa&;Xmepma&; xGef; tvGwfoifynmoifausmif; tvkyform; yJcl;aqmif

'%f&m&olrsm;pm&if; 1? ukdrif;vGif 2? ukdpkd;!$ef@ 3? ukd^m%f 4? ukdwifv_dif 5? ukdwifxGef; 6? ukdpkd;0if; 7? ukdat;=unf 8? ukdcifOD; 9? ukdatmifrif; 10? ukdxGef;+idrf; 11? ukdxGef;v_dif 12? ukdcspfatmif 13? OD;zkd;pdef 14? ukdaxG;Ekdif 15? ukdausmfodef;

74

yif;,aqmif/ bDtufpfpD (c) wef; waumif;aqmif/ tkdiftufpfpD (c) wef; '*kHaqmif/ tkdifat (c) yk*Haqmif/ tkdifat (c) waumif;aqmif/ bDat (at) jynfausmif;aqmif/ tkdifat (at) ae@ausmif;om;/ tkdiftufpfpD (at) yif;,aqmif/ bDat (bD) ae@ausmif;om;/ bDtufpfpD (bD) rE Wav;aqmif/ bDat (bD) oxkHaqmif/ bDat (bD) oxkH (3) vrf;/ bDtufpfpD (bD) "mwkaA'enf;jy rE Wav;aqmif/ bDat (bD) *kHavsmfpuftvkyform;


(7) Zlvkdif 16? rpPwmtm*,Drif; 17? armifpdefoD 18? ukdpm&Dvdwf 19? ukdaevif; 20? ukd^m%f 21? ukdwif&Sdef 22? ukdausmfrif; 23? ukdwifatmif 24? ukdjrifhvGif 25? ukdbaomf 26? ukdatmifjrifh 27? ukd*gemywf 28? ukd[ife&D 29? ukdjrwf+idrf; 30? ukdxGef;jrifhqefeD 31? ukdarmifarmifvwf 32? ukdvSatmif 33? ukdcifOD; 34? ukdrkd;pdef 35? ukdpwefavaomif; 36? ukdoef;aX; 37? ukda&Gat; (c) tuf'0yfat; 38? ukdpdefwD 39? ukdpkd;0if; 40? ukdjrifhodef; 41? ukdpEN&mwm; 42? OD;pdefarmif 43? armifpdef0if; 44? ukdcspfarmif 45? rjrifhjrifh 46? roef;&if

wHwm;jzLae tvkyform;wef;vsm; Oypmody`H (c) Oypm (u) Oypm (c) jynfaqmif/ 0dZ…m (u) yJcl;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) yJcl;aqmif/ 0dZ…m*k%fxl; waumif;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (u) ykH*Haqmif/ Oypm (c) yif;,aqmif/ Oypm (c) yif;,aqmif/ 0dZ…m*k%fxl; yif;,aqmif/ Oypm (u) rE Wav;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (u) Oypm (u) Oypm (c) 0dZ…mwef; 0dZ…m (c) 0dZ…mody`H Oypmody`H Oypmody`H t&yfom; t&yfom; t&yfom; t&yfom; rmvDrª; vuform; pufr_vufr_ausmif;om; pufr_vufr_ausmif;om; wuUokdvf0if;/ t&yfol wuUokdvf0if;/ t&yfol

75


(7) Zlvkdif

tzrf;qD;cH&olrsm; 1? ukdjynf!$ef@ awmifilaqmif/ 0dZ…m (u) 2? ukdwifaiG (45) tmwD;,m;vrf;/ Oypm (u) 3? ukdwifxGef; (c) ukdodef;xkduf Oypm (u) 4? ukdcspfarmif tr&aqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) 5? ukd0if;=unf rE Wav;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) 6? ukdxdef0if; rE Wav;aqmif/ 0dZ…m (c) 7? ukdb&if ouf}uD;wuUokdvf/ 0dZ…mody`H (u) 8? ukd}uD;pdef Oypmody`H (u) 9? ukd^m%f0if; (&uo twGif;a&;rª;) 10? ukdouf (Auo 'kOuUÏ) 0dZ…m*k%fxl;aemufqkH;ESpf 11? ukdAaqGav; (wuo OuUÏ) 12? ukdouf0if; yJcl;aqmif/ Oypmody`H (c) 13? ukdnDav; (c) ukd&Jatmif ynmwefaqmifausmif; 14? ukdapmr& tif;0aqmif/ 0dZ…m (u) 15? ukdcsKdcsKd (c) ukdjroef; oxkHaqmif/ 0dZ…mody`H (c) 16? ukdrif;atmif (c) ukdatmifatmif awmifilaqmif/ Oypm (c) 17? ukdxGef;wif aq;ody`HaemufqkH;ESpf 18? ukdcifxGef; atmuf=unfhjrifwkdif/ t&yfom; 19? ukdav;cspf (c) ukdwifv_dif trSwf (72) v_difjrpfvrf;/ t&yfom; 20? ukdwifat; awmifilaqmif 21? ukd0if;=unf rE Wav;aqmif

pm&if;rjyEkdifol / aysmufqkH;ol ausmif;om; (40) yg0ifonf? Ö

Ö

atmifapmOD; vGwfvyfa&;a&G&wk (jynfwGif;ppfESpfig;q,f) rS xkwfEkwfwifjyonf? 76


(7) Zlvkdif

(7) Zlvkdif 77

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(၇) ဇူလိုင္

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