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Report Social Mapping exercise – Moldova Nouă Participatory research through Photo Voice

Patrick Van den Nieuwenhof In collaboration with Lisa Van Herpe, Maria – Laura Van Gool, Rauke Hetzheim, Sofia Leeters, Stien Boonen, Saar Cooremans, Sam De Beuker, Shelly Van Dooren, Nienke Henselmans, Maxime Van den Bosch, Filip Bode, Ria Bruijn, Jozef Goebels, Ioan Suru

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March-December 2018

Content

1. Introduction social mapping Moldova Nouă 2. Photo Voice 3. Social investments in Romania 4. Moldova Nouă – General information 5. Moldova Nouă – Demography 6. Moldova Nouă – Economy 7. Moldova Nouă – Migration 8. Moldova Nouă – Medical data 9. Conclusion

03 04 05 07 10 16 20 25 27

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1. Introduction social mapping Moldova Nouă The purpose of a social map is to bring together information about Moldova Nouă in order to find out the needs of the local community. It will be based on:  Quantitative data (statistics): for this reference can be made to the data available at the website of the Romanian National Institute for Statistics (www.insse.ro).  Qualitative data (interviews, movies, focus groups…) The result of a social mapping results in an overview on developments in domains such as: population, employment, ageing, education…. It’s inspired by the Flemish community profiles of communes and villages. ADR-Vlaanderen/The Open Network for Community Development Foundation (TON) are using this social mapping as a mean to analyses localities to see how cooperation can be improved or set up in a way local development is possible. For the visit in March 2018, the focus was put on the qualitative analysis and information gathering and are illustrating the quantitative data.

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2. Photo Voice Community-based participatory research has become a popular approach for mapping complex public needs.1 Photo Voice is one of the several qualitative methods utilized. It is a participatory method that has participants use photography, and stories about their photos to identify and represent issues of importance to them, which enables researchers to have a greater understanding of the issue under study. Sometimes the term photo novel is used to describe the process of using pictures to tell a story. Important in this is that community members are not considered as passive subjects, but as active contributors. As base there’s a strong belief that ‘locals’ are best able to define to articulate their own needs and that they ought to be the most important actors in designing efforts to address those needs. Photo Voice has three main goals: 1. to enable people to record and reflect their community's strengths and concerns, 2. to promote critical dialogue and knowledge about important issues through large and small group discussion of photographs, 3. to reach policymakers.

Specific task during visit in Moldova Nouă – March 2018 There were 10 students from Belgium (5 social work and 5 nursing & midwife students) together with 10 Romanian students. Students were be divided over different areas in Moldova Nouă. The purpose was to make 2 kind of pictures: 1. The outsiders view: students chose places or situations that represent for them (best) the socialeconomic state of the community. Minimum 1 – maximum 3 pictures are made in order to keep control on the essence of the need/problem 2. The insiders view: students are coming in contact with locals: free to choose with who students want to talk with. Students are asking people to choose a place or situation that represent for locals (best) the social-economic state of the community. Also here minimum 1 and maximum 3 pictures. The person can be into the picture but it’s not necessary. Important is to have a short story about what is photographed: why they chose this place/situation, why important, what’s the personal link…. This inter-subjective base is the base for further development of the social map.

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3. Social investments in Romania2 Social investment policies in Romania in the last ten years (2008-2018) were represented by unsustainable measures promoted by political factors, punctual projects proposed by civil society through different social – economical - inclusive programmes; regionally measures according with the political parties that have the local coordination tasks and according with their electorate. Punctual programmes and projects realised by non-governmental sector, “pilot programmes” initiate by different government agencies could not replace a systemic access to qualitative and quantitative needed social services. Many of the applied measures regarding social investment were more punctual responses that Romanian Governments were given to European Commission and European States members’ questions and raised problematical issues and less - part of a certain strategy in the policies country reforms. Coming up with strong “financially cuts” reforms in 2008 that keep Romania on a solvability track at European level, improving an integrated social assistance system (for poor people from rural areas, unemployed population, children and Roma), the political administrations are confronted with the effects of a very long social disinvestment period and here we are not talking only about the raising of economical crisis but also of the whole period in which social investment was not a priority or a known concept communist time and pre-accession to European Union membership. As the Global Financial Crisis hit Romania after 2008, government responded with an austerity program (2010) which public salaries (-25%) and social benefits (-15%), except for the pensions. All social benefits accorded by Romanian Governments are not sufficient adequate in supporting a family in need (financial amount and social policies measures), but the lack in according adequate social benefits can not be seen as a political “bad – will” but as a lack of state financial resources. Part of this lack is also the informal/unpaid employment (work into black market) – employment situation that is responsible also of the precarious welfare situation in many families. With a big awareness campaign and with many legislative changes the Romanian Governments are trying to find a way in changing the will of the Romanian participants into the labour market. In addition of this situation, all employment services are focused on passive measures (subsidies and European projects of re-conversion with subsidies for participants) and not active participation, failing in reaching the population in a big need of work integration (long-term unemployed, Roma, rural active population, young people inactive). Romania has unfortunately priority places in statistics with a huge importance regarding needs of social investment in terms of accessibility and affordability to basic services for the vulnerable groups. We have high score on “infant mortality”; “neo-natal mortality rate”, population experienced unmet needs for medical examination with a percentage of 8,4% in 2011 with a consequent gradual decline to 5,2 in 2015; severe housing deprivation rate – almost 20% in 2014/2015; single person with dependent child going to almost 48% of families that have arrears on utility bills; highest percentage of 44% unemployed population with difficulties in accessing bank. Most affected present project sectors in the crisis period (education and health) were directly influenced by expenditure in social protection as % of GDP that in Romania was 14,8% - the third lowest in all European Union member states rank in 2014 (situated with 0,03 in front of Latvia and with only 0,01 in front of Lithuania). Romania is even today (2018 – 11 years after European Union admission as a member state) in an extreme position on all European statistics regarding the poverty rates across Europe, regarding disadvantages to

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which children in rural areas, Roma children, children from poor families, youths are exposed in regards with education, health, and all public services access. Starting from 2008, because of the financial cuts into health system, the entire Romanian population encounter a low access to health public services, the amelioration of overall welfare indicators in 2013, compared to 2011 and 2012, is rather shallow, as it is associated with a polarization of welfare (increased inequality, increased relative poverty gaps). Starting with the felt effects of the economic crisis rising in 2008 the whole health system in Romania that was confronted with this financial cut was oscillated between serving on Romanian health system and a big migration of the “white collars” to other European countries associated also with a “witch hunting" - personal from health system public accused in taking black money (hospital managers imprisoned because of false public acquisition with European money) and with a list of hospitals that were closed in a night and not as a last effect, with a lack in access and affordability to health services for the vulnerable groups. Education (starting from pre-schools and ending with universities) was systematically under-financed going to a teacher’s dis-investment (many of them migrating as “strawberry pickers” in welfare states in Europe just for having a better income), poor quality of the formal educational process and poorly educated schoolchildren. The National Strategy for the Protection of Children’s Rights, an important means for promoting a social investment perspective, although finalized in February 2014, was only adopted at the end of the year (HG 1113/2014). The National Strategy for Social Inclusion and Poverty Reduction, although expected in 2013, was only drafted and made available for public debates in January 2015. The strategy for protecting the rights of disabled persons was first drafted in the spring of 2014 and highly contested; it was re-drafted and made publicly available for debate during the last days of 2014. The Roma inclusion strategy, strongly contest almost since its adoption in 2012, entered a re-drafting process that ended only in November 2014, when a new strategy was drafted. The strategy was approved January 15th, 2015. The national strategy on active ageing was made available for public debate in December 2014. According with the World Bank experts, “Romania has one of the highest poverty rates in the EU. The share of Romanians at risk of poverty after social transfers increased from 21.6% in 2010 to 25.3% in 2016. However, the share of the at-risk population decreased from 41.5% in 2010 to 38.8% in 2016”. The same experts are coming with encouraging news that “Romania's priorities for 2017–20 include investments in infrastructure, health care, education, job creation, and small and medium enterprise development. Country's economy grew by 4.8% in 2016, the highest since 2008 and the third fastest in the EU, growth is expected to remain solid in 2017”. Despite inside Romanian population concerns about governance there are many improvements in recent years, and it is a must that the Romanian administration has to give an urgent response to stop the cycle of social disinvestment (enforced by the economic crisis) and also to plan a long-time strategy framework for policies reform on social investment for a better future of Romanian population inside of a common and solider Europe. ADR-Vlaanderen and The Open Network for community are contributing to this by making social maps of needs at the local and regional level. The results are supporting local collaboration groups to develop social investments strategies and put a pressure on local authorities to handle in the interest of the general public.

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4. Moldova Nouă – General information3 Moldova Nouă is a town in South Western part of Romania in Caraș-Severin County (the historical region of Banat). It is located on the shores of the river Danube. Moldova Nouă is an old village, documented already in the XVII century, but it has become town only in 1956. Urbanization was intense during communism, by the emphasis of the communist regime on the mining industry, the main economic branch of Moldova Nouă. Moldova Nouă experienced a great development after the Second World War, when it became the main economic center of Southern Banat. In 1950, Moldova Nouă became a district capital within the Banat region. Moldova Nouă's economic development occurred especially after 1960, when mining resources were rediscovered in the area. The town administers 4 villages: Moldova Nouă, Măcești, Moldova Veche and Moldovita.

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During our walk in the town, we stumbled on a man who was willing to tell us what he wants to see improved in his village. He has been living in the village since he was born, and he is very disappointed with this situation. So, the roads who are broken and hard to driven on are really upsetting to him. In 2015, the roads got redone to put in road drainage. Before there was no drainage in the village and during rains or snow, it would cause some hindrance on the streets. But no inhabitants ever really complained, the man told us that is was due to political influences the street got renewed. The job was very poorly done, the streets were left in bad conditions. Many of the locals are unhappy about this situation because it harms the cars driving over these roads. The man said that this is just another example of political corruption.

Photo Maxime and Rauke When we were walking downs the streets, we met Babba. Babba is the car you see on the pictures. It means ‘old lady’. The man owns already the same car for his whole life. He bought Babba, his first car, 32 years ago. We can’t imagine somebody driving the same car for that long. You should also know he saved up his money for three years to buy this car. Before he owned this car, he had to go everywhere by bus. He is really proud of his car.

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5. Moldova Nouă – Demography According to the 2011 census, which counts the persons having their residence in the commune (not only domicile but also present) the population of Moldova Nouă is 12.350 inhabitants, 1.667 less since the previous census in 2002 when there were 13.917 inhabitants.4 The population counts around 12.350 inhabitants.

2002: 13.917

2011: 12.350

The share of population in the 4 villages is the following:  Moldova Nouă (3.500 inhabitants)  Măcești (600 inhabitants, majority Serbians +/- 500)  Moldova Veche (9.500 inhabitants)  Moldovița (300 inhabitants) Historically the resident population of Moldova Nouă was strongly growing from 1956 onwards until 1992. Due to economic difficulties, the population since then is declining. Evolution population Moldova Noua city according to census 18.000

15.973

16.874

16.000

13.917

14.000

12.350 10.868

12.000 10.000 8.000

6.220

6.000 4.000 2.000 0 1956

1966

1977

1992

2002

2011

A same evolution can be seen in the evolution of the population since 1992 according to the population by domicile.5

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Evolution population Moldova Noua city according to domicile 18.000 16.789

16.000

14.000

13.238

12.000

92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 00 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 19 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

Differences can be seen for each village. Moldova Veche is following the general trend of the city in demographic evolution: growing until 1992 and then declining. The village Moldova Nouă is knowing a declining population since 1966. This can be explained through the a inter city migration to Moldova Veche, because of the investments done by the mine. The small villages Macesti and Moldovita are staying relative stable.6 Evolution population villages Moldova Noua, 1966-2011, based on census 14.000 11.793

12.000

10.371 9.510

10.000

8.619

Village Moldova Noua

8.000 6.000

Macesti

5.838 3.954

Moldova Veche 4.468

4.030

4.000

Moldovita 3.492

3.021

2.000 0 1966

1977

1992

2002

2011

At the 2011 census, 81.2% of inhabitants were Romanians, 12.8% Serbs, 3.2% Roma, 1.3% Hungarians and 0.8% Czechs. Due to the location close, the Serbian border a significant share of Serbian population is present in Moldova Nouă. This share evolved during the last decades. But also other ethnicities were evolving in time (see graph).

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Evolution share population groups in % 100% 90% 80%

23,7

16,0

14,8

13,9 11,2

Others

70%

Roma

60%

Hungarian

50% 40% 30%

72,1

78,1

79,3

Czech

80,8

74,6

Serb Romanian

20% 10% 0% 1966

1977

1992

2002

2011

In general can be seen that the share of Serbs is declining and the group of Romanians is growing. Some groups are disappearing, such as the Czechs and Hungarians. The Roma population is growing a bit. In the 2011 census the group, ‘others’ is taking a big portion. This reflects the chancing policy and mentality towards ethnicity: somebody can not be forced to be assigned to a certain ethnicity. More interesting is to see the evolution of the groups in each village. The Romanians for example follow the general trends, the graph is very comparable with the above mentioned demographic evolution of the villages. Evolution Romanians Moldova Noua, 1966-2002 16000 14000 12000 Moldova Noua

10000

Village Moldova Noua

8000

Macesti Moldova Veche

6000

Moldovita

4000 2000 0 1966

1977

1992

2002

The Serb population stays rather stable until 1992 and since then knows a decrease in most of the villages. Also in the village of Macesti where they form a majority among the population.

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Evolution Serbs Moldova Noua, 1966-2002 3000 2500 2000

Moldova Noua Village Moldova Noua

1500

Macesti Moldova Veche

1000

Moldovita

500 0 1966

1977

1992

2002

The picture for the Roma population is diverse: for the city the Roma are increasing between 1966 and 1992, afterwards a slight decrease. But on the village level differences can be seen. In Moldova Veche village, a continuous growth can be seen. Probably because of the closing of the mine, apartments came empty and Roma were moving to this apartments. In this graph, we can suppose that an internal city migration has taken place from Moldova Nouă to Moldova Veche. At the city hall, someone was responsible for working with the Roma community. Evolution Roma Moldova Noua, 1966-2002 350 300 250

Moldova Noua Village Moldova Noua

200

Macesti 150

Moldova Veche Moldovita

100 50 0 1966

1977

1992

2002

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Photo Lisa and Shelly We started our visit of Moldova Nouă by having a look at the homes of the Roma. They were very warm and welcoming. The elder woman on the picture showed us her home. She told us the story about how her husband was in the woods to collect wood for the stove. We also spoke to a man who just had a six days old baby. He lived together with his wife and three other children in a little room. As a social work student, it was surprising to see how friendly they were. During our visit in Romania, I noticed that many people talk bad about the Roma but when I met them, they were very kind and friendly. I was shocked by the way that they live. There is a lot of trash lying around in the neighbourhood and their houses were basically made out of everything they could find to fill up the old, previously built buildings. As a nurse, I noticed that they have al little amount of resources to achieve a healthy lifestyle. Because their houses are built from items, they have found on the street, they often do not have the right sources for a good hygiene. They do their best with the things they have but they do not have sources that promote their health like; a clean environment, shower,.. They live especially in barmy conditions such as; mouldy rooms, they often sleep with many in one room and have a poor air quality. Because the father of the 6-days-old baby’s family has a relatively good job, they have the possibility to go to the doctor with one of the other children and to provide medication for him. Also Maria-Laura and Sam observed big needs in the Roma community: This is a picture taken in the Roma Community. It shows the conditions of life they are living in. The people living in this hallway told us all of the children are sick because of the moisture in the walls and the building. That’s why they were cuffing so much. It was shocking to see how these people lived with so many in such a tiny “house”.

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There were 3 little children and the parents, in a tiny little room, cuffing their lungs out. They didn’t have a lot of food and there was also no proper shelter. I was really shocked about the conditions of their ‘home’. What I’ve seen there, I never seen before. Nobody should live in the conditions their live in.

Photo Maria-Laura and Sam

This woman is living in the Roma community. She used to be a Romanian but met a man who was a Roma. She fell in love with him and chose to come and live with the Roma people. She told us it was a hard decision and she had to adjust a lot. Otherwise, she told us she was happy, she showed us our house and it felt like she was very proud of it.

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6. Moldova Nouă – Economy For a long time Moldova Nouă was depending on the mining industry. The Suvarov mine opened in 1963 and after that some other mines. In 1965 was established the Mining Company (MOLDOMIN) Moldova Nouă, which triggered the entire economic and social activity in the area. Since 1976 began the surface exploitation of the banatite minerals. In order to process the extracted ore, there were built two other plants. The Mining Company is also serviced by the Industrial Harbor, which was opened in 1966. In connection with the mining activity there was built the "New Town (Orasul Nou)", with over 3.000 apartments and other socio-economic utilities (crèches, schools, hospitals, clinics, etc.). From about 3.500 inhabitants in 1956 the mining town reaches 16.000 residents before the Revolution. Restructuring programs after the Revolution for the mining industry has led to a dramatic drop in occupancy rate in the city. The next 2 graphs are very well illustrating the dramatic drop in employment rate in Moldova Nouă.7 Evolution employees Moldova Noua 9.000 8.000

7.880

7.000 6.000 5.000 4.000 3.000

2.299

2.000

1.419

1.000

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

0

In 1991, still 7.880 people were at work. In 2016 2.299. Or a decline of 5.581 work places which is almost a decline of 71%. In terms of percentage of active population, this means the following: 1992 Active population (age 20-64) Employees Difference Employment rate

9.229 7.247 1.982 78,5

2016 10.204 2.299 7.905 22,5

Due to the specific Romanian unemployment support (limited in time), a small group of persons are in unemployment with a social benefit.8

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Evolution people in unemployment Moldova Noua 800

752

700 600 500 400 271

300 200 100 0 2010

2011

2012

2013

2014

2015

2016

2017

This means that only a small amount of people can count on a stable monthly salary, based on employment or social benefit. Photo Lisa and Shelly

Photo Maria-Laura and Sam

When we (Lisa and Shelly) wanted to go to the centre of Moldova Nouă, we came across this. It turned out to be a place where a lot of people go to gamble. It was very surprising to see that people who don’t have so much money come here to gamble. It seems as if the hope to win a lot of money never dies. We also decided to ask a sixteen-year-old boy if he sometimes gambles. He proudly answered yes. We were surprised that he was proud to say this. Maria-Laura and Sam give another point view: In this picture, we can see a man who is fishing. We asked him why he was fishing here. He told us that he likes to fish, but it was also a way to get some food. In our opinion, this wasn’t a really good idea, because we could see that the water was really contaminated with garbage and dead fish. He told us, that when you have no money to buy food, and you need to feed your children, you just have no choice

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With or without restructuring, many people would have gone anyway: due to geographic isolation. Even the communist regime had problems in providing with specialists in the area. As such, even before the Revolution there was a great fluctuation of engineers, professors or doctors in Moldova Nouă, fixing. After the Revolution, mining resize has made the number of people with a job drop by almost 80%. Economic problems and social aspects of the city have been complicated by an increased level of pollution, due to obsolete techniques used. The neighbouring state, Serbia, urged Romania to take action to reduce pollution (copper, zinc, manganese and lead dust from the mines) affecting the inhabitants of the Serbian side of the Danube.

This picture was taken in front of a school. We met a sixteen-year-old boy nearby this school and asked him what he thought was the most important aspect of his live. He told us that he thought that it was the hospital. He said that if you aren’t healthy, you can’t do anything in your life.

Photo Lisa and Shelly

Privatization attempts do not have led to an improvement of the situation in the city. Even these companies are now confronted with and they have had to restructure and send part of their employees to unemployment. Symptomatic is the closing of a big company in the beginning of the year. Delphi Packard factory in Moldova Nouă was closed at the end of March 2018 due to “constraints caused by the limited workforce available in the region”. Moldova Nouă factory was opened in 2013 and produced electrical, electronic distribution systems. Almost 700 people will remain jobless.9

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We met a woman who used to work in the electricity company in Moldova Nouă. The politics had forced the company to close. Because of the closure, the lady is unemployed. She told us that the lives of the inhabitants of Moldova Nouă turned into a disaster. She hopes that there will come investors in the city, who create more working opportunities. Otherwise, inhabitants will be forced to move, because it will not be liveable in Moldova Nouă any longer. We think it’s terrible that people would be forced to move from their hometown, where they lived their whole life, because the standard of living would be to low.

Photo Maxime and Rauke

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7. Moldova Nouă - Migration One of the strategies to escape from economic difficulties is migration. To have a better understanding of the phenomenon of (e)migration, the social map uses 2 ways of mapping migration: one is making up a migration balance and one is calculating the difference between the population by domicile and residence.10 The first approach shows a clear emigration patron in both domicile and residence. This means that more people are leaving the city (both internal and external migration).

Migration by domicile Moldova Noua 1000

800 600

400

Arrival domicile Departure domicile Subtotal domicile

200

2015

2016

2013

2014

2012

2010

2011

2008

2009

2006

2007

2004

2005

2002

2003

2000

2001

1998

1999

1996

1997

1994

1995

1992

1993

1990

1991

0 -200

-400

Migration by residence Molodova Noua 1600 1400 1200 1000 800

Arrival residence

600

Departure residence

400

Subtotal residence

200

2015 2016

2011 2012 2013 2014

2007 2008 2009 2010

2003 2004 2005 2006

2000 2001 2002

1996 1997 1998 1999

1992 1993 1994 1995

-200

1990 1991

0 -400

The next graph summarizes the emigration trend for Moldova Nouă. Whereas until 1990-1991 Moldova Nouă was still an attracting pole because of the mine, a strong decline in population can be seen after the 1995 which reflects the impact of the economic restructuring.

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Migration balance Moldova Noua 1000 816

800 600 400 200

103

41

0

1

40 -32

-200

-166 -144 -253

-400

-150 -254

-86

-39 -128 -244

-291

-173

-196

-245 -282 -368

-297

-242 -258

-205 -185 -199

2016

2015

2014

2013

2012

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

1999

1998

1997

1996

1995

1994

1993

1992

1991

1990

-600

The second approach reflects another interesting phenomenon, namely the difference between people having an official address in Moldova Nouă but not staying in the city. The table below makes the exercise for 2011. The 2011 census is chosen because the data for ages are available. 2011 domicile

14.403

2011 residence

12.350

Difference %

2.053 14,3

This means that 14.403 have an official address in Moldova Nouă but 2.053 persons or 14,3% are not living permanently in Moldova Nouă.

As we were walking through the town, we also came across a playground. A few minutes later, we saw some kids waiting at a bus stop. We asked them what the playground meant to them. They said they really love to go to the playground, because it was a place where they could play and relax. They also really enjoyed it that it was an opportunity for them to meet other kids from the community to play with. They thought it was very good that the playground was well maintained.

Photo Saar and Stien

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This difference in domicile and residence can be further explored for the different age categories, which results in next table Domicile Residence Difference % 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 >85

592 709 745 819 1189 1023 1146 1265 1341 965 1080 1072 899 544 473 248 205 88

544 650 671 680 777 772 907 1051 1216 816 955 974 833 551 449 254 180 70

-48 -59 -74 -139 -412 -251 -239 -214 -125 -149 -125 -98 -66 7 -24 6 -25 -18

-8,11 -8,32 -9,93 -16,97 -34,65 -24,54 -20,86 -16,92 -9,32 -15,44 -11,57 -9,14 -7,34 1,29 -5,07 2,42 -12,20 -20,45

For the young active population (20-35 year) between 1/3 and 1/5 is not present in Moldova Nouă although they have an address there. Referring back to the decision of Delphi Packard: young educated people are leaving the country, which can indeed lead to a shortage of workers. One of the consequences of this young emigration can be a ageing of the population. Although Moldova Nouă is still under the general medium of share of elderly (65+), this age group is growing fast. In 1992, 5% of the population was 65+. The share was increasing to 12% and 14% in 2011 and 2016. In the near future, this amount will grow and will have an impact on health and health care. A study of Caritas estimates that 20% of the elderly will need home care.

Photo Lisa and Shelly We also met two elder women. There was only one of them who wanted to go on the picture with us. The two women told us that they regret many young people are leaving the small villages. They often go to the big cities to study and to work. The women consider a diploma as important, because it gives the youngsters the chance for a better future. They hope that in the future the youngsters will return to Moldova Nouă so there will be young welltrained doctors. They also indicated they regret a lot of money is being invested in

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the construction of the hospital and the equipment instead of training the doctors and the patient’s residency. These are outdated and urgently need a renovation. On the other hand, they are happy there is already an improvement.

On the other side, the consequences can be also see in schools. A school report of 2016 pointed out the problem of children leaving school before the end of the year. Data are available for the school year 20142015.11 Level education Primary school Gymnasium Lyceum Post-lyceum Second chance TOTAL

Number of inscribed students Number students at the end of school year 479 456 457 442 802 771 53 48 46 36 1.837 1.753

Photo Saar and Stien Our last stop during our walk was a school. We went in and met an English teacher from the 8th grade. We were invited in the classroom and met the students. They told us that to them it was very important to get a degree. Almost all of them wanted to go to high school and after that, to the university. Not because their parents want it, but because they want a degree. The teachers encourage the children to study well and do their best, because they believe that a degree is the key to have a good life out of poverty. One of the kids told us that a degree does not really make a difference in order to get a job. She said that you have an equal chance of getting a job with or without a degree.

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Another voice comes from Nienke and Sofia: For our assignment, we were looking for the pastor of the village. For this, we went to church. Behind us was a boy who told us that the pastor is gone. We asked the boy if we could have a conversation with him. We saw that the boy was a gypsy. We asked him why he was not in school. He told us he was removed from the school. He had a fight with a girl. This girl had fallen and blamed the boy. She was going to tell this to her fellow classmates and a fight arose. The boy was blamed for this. The boy is not allowed to go to school anymore and hangs around all day. We asked what he liked to do at school, what his wishes are and his dreams. He loved Romanian at school and was good at it, he likes to sing and he would like to become a singer in the future. He had gone to get his brother through the conversation. His brother is physically disabled. The brother of the boy did not go to school because either he has a disability or this is too difficult for the teachers at school. They live together in an old building without windows and doors.

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8. Moldova Nouă – Medical data12 Moldova Nouă City Hospital is a general hospital for acute patients with a capacity of 140 continuous hospitalization beds organized on the specialties: INTERNAL MEDICINE SECTION - 65 beds of which pulmonology compartment - 5 beds GENERAL SURGERY SECTION - 25 beds of which: orthopaedic and traumatology compartment - 5 beds OBSTETRICA - GYNEACOLOGY - 15 beds PEDIATRIC SECTION - 30 beds of which neonatology compartment - 5 beds COMPARTIMENT A.T.I. - 5 beds

In Moldova Nouă the following medical professionals are active:  Family doctors in contract with CJAS (social security agency) : 7  Dentist doctor in contract with CJAS :1  Pharmacy in contract with CJAS :2  Private dentist cabinet : 8  Private pharmacy : 6  Private lab : 2 According to the data provided by the institution last year, most peoples from Moldova Nouă suffered from heart disease, which was also the main cause of death. Arterial hypertension can be kept under control if it is discovered in time, but even around 2.500 people have died of this, a sign that people rarely go to a doctor. In the second place, tumours are the leading cause of death, while respiratory diseases are third. Diabetes is growing steadily over the past few years. The number of people with diabetes type I and II in Moldova Nouă is 810 or around 7-8% of the population.

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This is comparable with national averages. There were over 1.5 million cases of diabetes in Romania in 2015. Total adult population: 14.623.000 Total diagnosed diabetes in adults: 1.544.100 Prevalence of diabetes in adults: 10,6 % Total diagnosed diabetes in adults: 670.200 Rural area: 8,32 % Urban area: 12,42% In Europe, Romania has a high average of % diabetes.13 The number of diabetic patients treated with antidiabetic drugs in 2017 in Caras Severin County was 11.544. The number of patients is growing every year:  2015 - 10.546  2014 - 10.097  2013 – 8.853 of which o 2.338 patients who were prescribed and released insulin (704 of whom were hospitalized and 1959 received monthly prescribing); o 8.754 patients treated with ADO; o 1.677 patients with mixed treatment (insulin + ADO).

Given that just a few years ago (for example in 2012) consultations in the specialty diabetes and nutrition diseases in Caraş Severin County were granted only through sanitary units in Resita, we currently have the following distribution:  4 specialists diabetes and nutrition diseases in Resita;  3 specialists diabetes and nutrition diseases in Caransebes;  Specialist diabetes and nutrition disease in Mehadia - every Monday of the week;  Specialist diabetes and nutritionist in Oraviţa - every two weeks on Thursday;  Specialty diabetes and nutrition diseases in Moldova Nouă - every two weeks on Thursday, alternating with Oraviţa. This as a concrete outcome of the visit. The advantages are obvious: the cost of the road to Resita is eliminated; time savings "pending" due to the limited area of patients (Danube Clisure); it is possible to make appointments to the numbers displayed in the cabinet, the possibility of withdrawing medication from the pharmacies in Moldova Nouă; services of maximum professionalism from Mrs. Cristina Papava.

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9. Conclusion This version of the Moldova Nouă social map combines quantitative and qualitative data concerning social and medical needs. It’s the base for further research and action. The analysis shows the disadvantaged position of Moldova Nouă in the region: economic difficulties are causing problems in other domains: social, health, environment…. New tasks for students and other actors from the Belgian Romanian collaboration can be:  Setting up a screening of the health status of the population. This can be objective by analysing the health of people (screening blood pressure, diabetes…) but also subjective by asking how people feel. The last one can be comparative with European data on the quality of life.  Developing and maintaining a strong connection towards ADAM Slatina-Timis (Asociatia De Ajutor Mutual).  Establishing contacts and collaborations with civil society organizations (for example for elderly and children with disability).  Setting up concrete actions by using the social cultural methodology. This can be done in the context of a long-term internship.  Continuation of the qualitative analysis through other target groups: ethnicity based for example the Serb population or needs based for example disabled persons….  Further contact with primar@moldovaf.com

the

local

council

through

collaboration

with

the

mayor:

This was a bench at a beautiful point of the Donau. We talked to a man who was sitting here while enjoying the view. We talked to him and asked him about what he was thinking. He told us he was very happy and he had everything he needed right there. This was a very beautiful moment because it became clear how people can be happy with so little. It gave us an insight in the dominating materialism in our country. This awareness brought up an interesting talk after the meeting.

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Eindnoten ReInvest Methodological Toolkit, 2017, 87 p. CHERT, Cristina & VAN DEN NIEUWENHOF, Patrick, Towards inclusive service delivery through social investment in Romania, research report, 2018, 65 p. 3 https://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moldova_Nou%C4%83 http://www.moldovanoua.com/ Oras Moldova Nouă, Plan de Mobilitate Urbană Durabilă, 2017 126 p. 4 http://www.recensamantromania.ro/ (Census 2011) www.kia.hu/konyvtar/erdely/erd2002/csetn02.pdf (Census 2002) 5 POP107D - POPULATIA DUPA DOMICILIU la 1 ianuarie pe grupe de varsta, sexe, judete si localitati 6 http://www.recensamantromania.ro/ (Census 2011) www.kia.hu/konyvtar/erdely/erd2002/csetn02.pdf (Census 2002) FOLEA, Ionel, Interculturalitate zona Moldova Nouă, 2007, 12 p. 7 http://statistici.insse.ro:8077/tempo-online/#/pages/tables/insse-table FOM104D - Numarul mediu al salariatilor pe judete si localitati 8 http://statistici.insse.ro:8077/tempo-online/#/pages/tables/insse-table SOM101E - Someri inregistrati la sfarsitul lunii, pe sexe, judete si localitati 9 https://expressdebanat.ro/fabrica-delphi-din-moldova-noua-se-inchide-cei-700-de-disponibilizati-sunt-dirijaticatre-subsidiarele-companiei-din-arad-si-timis/ SIEMENS, Raport, Apusul industriei socialiste si orasele mici ale Romaniei. Studiu de caz pe patru asezari in declin, 2011,13 p. About the history of Moldova Nouă http://www.cniptmoldovanoua.ro/index.php/en/ About the mine https://www.industryabout.com/country-territories-3/2163-romania/copper-mining/33901-moldova-noua-coppermine-shutdown https://www.mindat.org/loc-2596.html Problem of mine https://stirileprotv.ro/stiri/consecintele-periculoase-ale-poluarii-de-la-moldova-noua-de-care-statul-s-a-spalat-pemaini-ce-amenzi-risca-romania-din-partea-ce.html https://www.cotidianul.ro/pericolul-care-pandeste-romania-dupa-poluarea-de-la-moldova-noua/ https://www.digi24.ro/special/campanii-digi24/raport-de-tara-2013/raport-de-tara-mina-de-cupru-de-la-moldovanoua-caras-severin-polueaza-intreaga-zona-66404 http://www.ecoterra-online.ro/files/1501685950.pdf http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-14-1149_en.htm?locale=FR http://radioresita.ro/282183/cel-mai-mare-angajator-din-clisura-dunarii-pleaca-de-la-moldova-noua 10 http://statistici.insse.ro:8077/tempo-online/#/pages/tables/insse-table POP308A - Plecari cu domiciliul (inclusiv migratia externa) pe judete si localitati POP307A - Stabiliri cu domiciliul (inclusiv migratia externa) pe judete si localitati POP305B - Plecari cu resedinta pe judete si localitati POP304B - Stabiliri de resedinta pe judete si localitati 11 Planul de actiune al Liceul Tehnologic ‘Clisura Dunarii’ Moldova Nouă, 2016, 58 p. 12 Data provided by Ioan Suru, medical assistant ADAM Slatina-Timis, October 2018. 13 : International Diabetes Federation, http://www.diabetesatlas.org/ 1 2

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Social Map Moldova Noua  

Report Social Mapping exercise – Moldova Noua Participatory research through Photo Voice The purpose of a social map is to bring together...

Social Map Moldova Noua  

Report Social Mapping exercise – Moldova Noua Participatory research through Photo Voice The purpose of a social map is to bring together...

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