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JANUARY

1st New Year The Day of the year or New Year is the first day of one year. By extension term also indicates the celebrations of this first day of the year. As any birthday of a given calendar, the day of the year can seem mobile in a calendar work-

Capodanno The Romans prepare for the New Year celebrations with great excitement and joy. The New Year is known as 'January Kalends'. The preparations start with decoration of houses and work places. Lights are adorned and greenery is given much preference during the New Year Italian decorations. The Italian people wear new clothes and exchange gifts on these days. The gifts play very vital role in brining fortune to homes. People are extra careful in choosing the right presents for their loved ones. The Italian New Year gift items that are considered very lucky sweets, honey jar, Gold, silver, money, coins and lamps. Every gift denotes something very special features and this is the reason that Italian people love spreading their happiness by sharing these gifts. Another funny tradition in Italy on New Year is to wear red inner wears. It is auspicious to welcome the new beginning by ringing in 'La Fiesta di San Silvestro' which means - New Years Eve in Italy.


New Year New year is celebrated by all people who live in Poland. This day is free from school and from work. Of course except for jobs which are necessary. Town`s inhabitants usually go to the center place in town and celebrate. Next the party begins. Bands play concerts, people dance and sing. Everyone is happy and when they come back home it`s late.

New Year It is a tradition in Portugal for people to gather in small groups and to go from house to house to sing the “Reis� (meaning "Kings") which are traditional songs about the life of Jesus. The singers also bring greetings to the owners of the house. After singing for a while outside, they are invited in, and the owners of the house offer them

Saint Basil Day This is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ. Eastern Christians, Romanians too, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Blessing of Waters: The Orthodox Churches perform the Great Blessing of Waters on Theophany. Following the Divine Liturgy, the clergy and people go in a Crucession (procession with the cross) to the nearest body of water, be it a beach, harbor, quay, river, lake, swimming pool, water depot, etc. (ideally, it should be a body of "living water"). At the end of the ceremony the priest will bless the waters. In the Greek practice, he does this by casting a cross into the water. If swimming is feasible on the spot, any number of volunteers may try to recover the cross. The person who gets the cross first swims back and returns it to the priest, who then delivers a special blessing to the swimmer and their household.


JANUARY th 6 Epiphany

The arrival of the 3 kings, is celebrated January 6. In Italy, children hang their stockings the night before waiting for gifts from La Befana. Live nativities are performed around Epiphany, too.

This is a non-working day. People go to church and pray. On the entrance door people write with chalk K+M+B=(current year). K means Kacper, M- Melchior and B- Balthazar.

Dia de Reis It is a tradition in Portugal for people to gather in small groups and to go from house to house to sing the “Reis” (meaning "Kings") which are traditional songs about the life of Jesus. The singers also bring greetings to the owners of the house. After singing for a while outside, they are invited in, and the owners of the house offer them sweets, liqueurs, and other Epiphany delicacies. These “Reis” usually begin on Epiphany eve and last until January

Theophany/Blessing of Waters This is a Christian feast day that celebrates the revelation of God the Son as a human being in Jesus Christ. Eastern Christians, Romanians too, commemorate the baptism of Jesus in the Jordan River, seen as his manifestation to the world as the Son of God. Orthodox Churches perform the Blessing of Waters: The Great Blessing of Waters on Theophany. Following the Divine Liturgy, the clergy and people go in a Crucession (procession with the cross) to the nearest body of water, be it a beach, harbor, quay, river, lake, swimming pool, water depot, etc. (ideally, it should be a body of "living water"). At the end of the ceremony the priest will bless the waters. In the Greek practice, he does this by casting a cross into the water. If swimming is feasible on the spot, any number of volunteers may try to recover the cross. The person who gets the cross first swims back and returns it to the priest, who then delivers a special blessing to the swimmer and their household.


th 7 John the Baptist

On the 7th of January Romanians celebrate John the Baptist. He was an itinerant preacher and a major religious figure mentioned in the Canonical gospels. Most biblical scholars agree that John baptized Jesus at "Bethany beyond the Jordan," by wading into the water with Jesus. Christians commonly refer to John as the precursor or forerunner of Jesus, since John announces Jesus's coming. His Baptism was one of forgiving the sins and repent. Christian Church celebrates John the Baptist as the greatest of the Saints after Saint Mary. The orthodox iconography show him parying with Saint Mary as mediators for humans’ sins. Almost 2 millions Romanians, named Ion, Ioan, Ioana, Ionela, Ionica,etc celebrate their anniversary on the 7th of January.

th 15

Mihai Eminescu

On the 15th of January, Romanians celebrate the birth of the great poet Mihai Eminescu.He was a poet, novelist and journalist, often regarded as the most famous and influential Romanian poet. Eminescu was an active member of the Junimea literary society and he worked as an editor for the newspaper "The Time”, the official newspaper of the Conservative Party (1880–1918). His first poems volume was published when he was 16 and he went to Vienna to study when he was 19. The poet's Manuscripts, containing 46 volumes and approximately 14,000 pages, were offered by Titu Maiorescu as a gift to the Romanian Academy during the meeting that was held on January 25, 1902. Notable works include Luceafărul ("Evening Star"), Odă în metru antic (Ode in Ancient Meter), and the five Letters (Epistles/Satires). In his poems he frequently used metaphysical, mythological and historical subjects. In general his work was influenced by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer.


th 21

th 22

Grandma’s Day /Granpa’s Day Every year in Poland we celebrate Grandmother‟s Day on 21st January and Grandfather‟s Day on 22nd January. These‟re really unforgettable days. Each grandchild must visit its relatives and give them beautiful gifts. We can give them for example: a bouquet of flowers, greetings cards, big bars of chocolate etc. However, the most important things are honest wishes and a friendly smile for our lovely grandparents

th 24 On the 24th of January 1859, Romanians celebrate that Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza under the name Romania (but until December 1st, 1918 when the final unification took place, Transylvania and other regions were still missing at that time).


February th 14

Valentine’s Day

This day is celebrated all over the world and has become very popular in France, Italy, Poland, Portugal and RomĂŠnia, in recent years. Couples and people in love send valentines and spend happy time together.


th 21

th 22

Grandma’s Day /Granpa’s Day Every year in Poland we celebrate Grandmother‟s Day on 21st January and Grandfather‟s Day on 22nd January. These‟re really unforgettable days. Each grandchild must visit its relatives and give them beautiful gifts. We can give them for example: a bouquet of flowers, greetings cards, big bars of chocolate etc. However, the most important things are honest wishes and a friendly smile for our lovely grandparents

th 24 On the 24th of January 1859, Romanians celebrate that Wallachia and Moldavia are united under Alexander John Cuza under the name Romania (but until December 1st, 1918 when the final unification took place, Transylvania and other regions were still missing at that time).


February th 14

Valentine’s Day

This day is celebrated all over the world and has become very popular in France, Italy, Poland, Portugal and RomĂŠnia, in recent years. Couples and people in love send valentines and spend happy time together.


February th 24 DRAGOBETE Dragobete is in essence one of the many protectors of love, similar with Eros or Cupid. There are many hypothesis concerning his name. One of them states that it would come from the old Slave words, "bragu biti", which means "to be loved". Dragobete is a being with mythical-heroic aptitudes. The folk fantasy imagined him as a handsome kind young boy, who inspired to young people trust and pure love. Dragobete, a magic personification of love, was attended by the fairies called Dragostele, messengers of fate. Girls and boys would meet and celebrate the holiday of Dragobete to be in love the whole year

February/ March Carnival February is the season for Portugal’s Carnaval, a four-day celebration held the week before the season of Lent. Parades and pageants have been part of Carnaval celebrations throughout Portugal for centuries. During Carnaval, the streets are filled with parade floats, lively music, dances, colorful costumes and revelers wearing outlandish masks.


One of the oldest carnivals in Italy and also one of the most popular, in Sicily is back to dazzle with its spectacular parades of allegorical floats varying in size and detail.

MARCH th 1

Mărţişor

Mărţişor is a traditional celebration of the beginning of Spring, on 1 March. It is a tradition in Romania, Moldova, and all territories inhabited by Romanians. Almost the same custom can be found in Bulgaria and similar ones in Albania and Italy. The name Mărţişor is the diminutive of marţ, the old folk name for March (Martie, in modern Romanian), and thus literally means "little" or "dear March". It is also the folk name for this month. Mărţişor, Mărţişor, marţ and mărţiguş are all names for the red and white string, from which usually a small decoration is tied, and which is offered by people on the 1st day of March. Giving this Talisman to other people is an old custom, and it is believed that the one who wears the red and white string will be powerful and healthy for the year to come. It is also a symbol of the coming spring. Usually, women wear it pinned to their blouses for the first 12 days of this month, until other certain spring celebrations, or until the bloom of certain fruit-trees. In modern times, the Mărţişor lost most of its talisman properties and became more of a symbol of friendship and love, appreciation and respect.


1 to

th 9

The old Ladies Every year between 1-9th of March people choose in advance a day that is said to be “our old lady”. People may choose the day randomly or according to the date of birth. “The old ladies” were believed to be witches able to influence the weather, and thus to predict your destiny for the year to come. It is said that if the day is sunny and beautiful, you are going to have luck and be merry the whole year, while if the day is gloomy, so will you be and the year to come won’t be the

th 8 Women´s day It‟s a great celebration for women. They are usually given flowers (mimosas in Italy) and presents by men in thanks for their work and dedication. In Italy, restaurants have special meals and there are often small local festivals or concerts.


th 19 Father´s Day In the Roman Catholic tradition, father’s day is celebrated on Saint Joseph's Day, commonly called Feast of Saint Josep.

th 21 The First Day of Spring

People celebrate the beginning of spring. Children usually prepare special celebrations at school. Here it‟s known as “Dzień Wagarowicza”. Students leave school and „have one day off‟.

Festa della Primavera

A spring festival, which is held many places in Italy on March 21. Often the festival is centered around a regional food. Spring festivals are sometimes held to coincide with Saint Joseph's Day on March 19, too.


EASTER CELEBRATIONS

March/April

Easter

Pasqua

Easter

The date of Easter changes every year, it is a "mobile" holiday. It is determined in comparison with the lunar calendar, in spring, on the 1st Sunday which follows the full moon. However, the date of Easter is always between the 22nd of March and the 25th of April.

Italian Easter celebrations start during the week before Easter and continue through Easter Monday. It’s on Easter Monday and a national holiday and a day where you may find some very interesting festivals

In Poland we celebrate Easter in spring. The date of this holiday is different every year. It is a very nice time for the whole family. The day before Easter we go to church with a big basket full of food and consecrate it. Next day we can eat food for breakfast. We also believe that Easter Bunny brings us chocolate eggs which we can find under beds, in the boots and in the other strange places.


Easter fasting

Easter fasting – which could also start in February, depending on the day Easter is. Fasting starts 40 days prior to Easter, the most important holiday for Christians. For the orthodox, fasting means giving up eating all foods of animal origin, together with a period of praying, reconciliation. Fasting is considered to have liberating effects both materially and spiritually. In the practice of fasting it is important to re­member that we are not fasting simply for the sake of fasting. Our observance of the fasting days and periods of the Church is for our spiri­tual growth and greater communion with God. No matter how austere our fast or how much in accordance our fast may be with purely technical “rules,” it is void of faith and grace if we are not also committed to prayer and worship, study and growth in our knowledge of our Faith.

Palm Sunday is a Christian moveable feast that falls on the Sunday before Easter. The feast commemorates Jesus' triumphal entry into Jerusalem. On this day the sermons for the Holy Week begin. On this day too, all Romanians who have names of flowers celebrate their anniversary

Easter

Easter is the most important Christian holiday, celebrating the resurrection of Jesus Christ on the third day after his crucifixion. Easter is a moveable feast, meaning it is not fixed in relation to the civil calendar. There is a very beautiful tradition in the northern part of Romania. On the Easter Sunday, children aged up to 9 go to friends and neighbours to announce Christ’s resurrection. The hosts give each child a red-painted egg. The first child to enter the house must be a boy if people do not want to have fights the whole year. In Arges (southern Romania), among the sweets prepared for Easter, there are also the egg-pretzels (named this way because for 1kg flour 10-15 eggs are added). This is a symbol of wealth. Generally the Easter meal includes lamb borsh, roast lamb, pasca, sweet bread and painted eggs.


Páscoa Easter is the perfect time to try specialities of Portuguese cuisine. After the fasting of Lent, the best delicacies are eaten, such as roast kid, lamb stew, meatballs, buns, chocolate and almond eggs. Just a few of the delicious dishes you can try. During Holy Week, thousands of pilgrims travel to Braga, in the northwest, home of the Portuguese Archbishopric. The town celebrates with a series of nocturnal processions, including the Maundy Thursday Ecce Homo procession, known locally as Senhor da Cana Verde – literally, the Lord of the Green Cane – and the Good Friday Burial Procession of Our Lord, led by the farricocos (barefoot penitents in hooded tunics).

April

1st Dia das mentiras People trick their friends and relatives saying “Prima Aprilis”.

Fool‟s Day


th 23 Saint George For Romanians , Saint George is one of the most important saints. There cities named Saint George as well as one of the Danube branches. The old flag of Moldavia had the image of Saint George killing the Dragon.

April 25 is a national holiday celebrating liberation day in Italy. Some services may be closed but there will be festivals and concerts in many places.

Liberty Day Liberty Day is celebrated in Portugal to remember the famous Carnation Revolution that took place on April 25, 1974. Often referred to simply as 25 de Abril, the day is a remembrance of the oppression that led to the revolution and is a renewal of the countryâ€&#x;s democratic values and ideals of liberty, equality, justice, solidarity, and fraternity.


May

1st Workers day It is a celebration of the international labour movement and left-wing movements. It commonly sees organized street demonstrations and marches by working people and their labour unions throughout most of the world

Arminden day

On 1st of May, Romanians also celebrate the Arminden, which is in fact a either a green branch or a tree with its branches cut and made with flowers and wheat ears, symbolizing an old God of fertility and protector of crops and animals. The Arminden is brought on the 30th of April, planted in front of the house till the reaping time. Then, the wood is used to make fire for the first loaf of bread made of the new wheat. It is said that on Arminden day it is goog to stay near a blooming apple tree if you want to have luck the whole year. On this day, people have parties and hope to have a beautiful summer. It is said that if it rains on this day, it will rain for the next 40 days


1st Sunday of May

Mother’s Day On this day children thank their mothers for care and affection they get. Mothers usually get flowers, sweets or presents.

nd 2 The Flag Day

It‟s the day of the Polish flag. It‟s a non-working day for people of Poland

rd 3 The Day of Polish Constitution of 3rd May People celebrate the day of establishing the first Polish constitution. It‟s a day free form work


th 16 Traditional fair

16th May is the day of our town, known for the traditional fair. In the past this fair was the only one open to everybody, it was called "franca" or free because people could trade without paying taxes. Nowadays besides the traditional fair, there are also fair ground attractions like merry-gorounds, bumper cars and many other things to make children and adults dream... Year after year the highlight of the event remains the livestock competition and cattle fair and a special race of horses. These are just some of the numbers that come integrated into shows because there is a parallel program of musical entertainment and fireworks.

th 26 Mother’s Day

On this day children thank their mothers for care and affection they get. Mothers usually get flowers, sweets or presents.


May/June Corpus Christi The Feast of Corpus Christi (Latin for Body of Christ) is a Latin Rite liturgical solemnity celebrating the tradition and belief in the body and blood of Jesus Christ and his Real Presence in the Eucharist. It emphasizes the joy of the institution of the Eucharist, which was observed on Holy Thursday in the somber atmosphere of the nearness of Good Friday.

Ascension Ascension is a christian holiday celebrated forty days after Easter. « the Thursday of Ascension: Jesus goes up to the sky ».

JUNE

1st

Parents celebrate this day together with their children. Kids usually get presents or sweets. Parents also organize surprise trips or other events for their kids.

Children’s day

Children's Day is the day when allchildren should hav e fun, receive gifts. On this day, everyone remembers th e good times of childhood, returning to the happy moments, reliving them thro ugh the eyes of a child


nd 2 Festa della Repubblica Italiana

The Feast of Corpus Christi or Corpus Domini, 60 days after Easter, and the Feast Day of San Giovanni (St. John the Baptist), June 24, are two June holidays that will be celebrated in many parts of Italy.

th 10 Portugal Day Portugal Day or Portugal National Day or Dia de Camoes, de Portugal e das Comunidades Portuguesas is a day when Portuguese across the world celebrate their heritage and cultural traditions. The day is celebrated in different styles throughout the world but there is the common thread of pride in Portuguese identity.


th 13 End of the school year

June the 13th is an important day for students in our country signifying the end of the school year. On this day all schools organize a festivity in which all the achievements of the students are rewarded. Younger students usually organize a celebration in which they recite poems, sing songs or dance and are awarded by the teacher.

th 23 Father’s Day

Children celebrate fatherâ€&#x;s day to thank their dads for care and love they get. Fathers usually get presents or sweets


th 24 Sanzienele„ Sanzienele„ represent a Romanian tradition with pre-christian roots which is celebrated on June 24, which coincides with the Orthodox holiday Ioan Botezatorul (St. John the Baptist). It is a midsummer tradition which celebrates nature and fecundity.The Sanziene night (June 23rd to June 24th) is considered a mystical moment, when the nature is at it peak and displays its most vital force. The traditional belief is that miracles can happen during the Sanziene night, when the skies can open.

JULY th 14 Anniversary of the French revolution Bastille Day is the name given in English-speaking countries to the French National Day, which is celebrated on the 14th of July each year. In France, it is formally called La Fête Nationale (The National Celebration) and commonly le quatorze juillet (the fourteenth of July). It commemorates the 1790 Fête de la Fédération, held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille on 14 July 1789; the anniversary of the storming of the Bastille fortressprison was seen as a symbol of the uprising of the modern nation, and of the reconciliation of all the French inside the constitutional monarchy which preceded the First Republic, during the French Revolution. Festivities and official ceremonies are held all over France. The oldest and largest regular military parade in Europe is held on the morning of 14 July, on the Champs-Élysées avenue in Paris in front of the President of the Republic, French officials and


Saint Elijah

Elijah, or Saint Elias, is arguably the greatest prophet of the history of the kings of the Jews and the first since Moses himself to have been granted a theophany — a conversation with God. In Hebrew he is called LYHWH, or Elyahweh / Eliahu, meaning "Yahweh is God". To Christian and Druze Arabs he is Elyas. To certain Muslims, Sufis in particular, he is Khizr or Khidr. By confusion of history and mystery he may also be the original of Saint George the Dragonslayer

AUGUST th 15 Ferragosto Ferragosto is an Italian holiday celebrated on August 15. Originally, it may have related to a celebration of the middle of the summer and the end of the hard labour in the

Assumption of Mary The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary into Heaven at the end of her earthly life is a defined dogma of the Catholic Church. The Feast of the Assumption, celebrated every year on August 15, is a very old feast of the Church, celebrated universally by the sixth century.


SEPTEMBER th 8 Saint Mary’s

September begins with a holiday - Saint Mary’s birth. It is celebrated on September the 8th. The Holy Scripture tells us about this event.

th 14 Holy Cross On the 14th of September we celebrate the Holy Cross on which Christ was crucified for our salvation. The Holy Cross on which Christ was crucified was discovered in Jerusalem by Emperor Constantine’s mother – the Empress Elena. The Orthodox Church honors the Holy Cross three times a year : the third Sunday of the Lent, on the 7th of May and 1st of August.


th 30 Boy’s Day Boyâ€&#x;s Day is on the 30th of September every year. Girls usually buy gifts for boys in their classes. Women give presents to men in their families : husbands, brothers, uncles, grandfathers, etc. Gifts are usually chocolates, ties, socks, DVD movies. Women usually go to with men to the restaurants or cinemas, to parks or swimming pools. We spent more time with them in this special day.

OCTOBER th 5 Republic Day

Celebrates the end of Monarchy and the beginning of the Portuguese Republic


th 14 Teacher’s Day

On this day students thank teachers for work and dedication. In Poland it‟s free form lessons. We usually have celebrations at school. Students give flowers to their teachers.

th 31 Halloween Halloween is a holiday which takes place on October 31st. This holiday is celebrated in Ireland, in Canada, in Australia, in and in the United States, and also in France... The children dress up with frightening costumes and ask: A Trick or a treat! Or simply « Happy Halloween! ».


NOVEMBER

1st

All Saints’ Day We celebrate this Day on November in honor of all the saints, known and unknown. In West Christian theology, the day commemorates all those who have attained vision in heaven. The first day of November is a non-working day, which means that many people travel great distances to visit graves of their loved ones. People visit cemeteries to decorate graves with flowers, light candles and pray. Itâ€&#x;s a great day to spend some time with family and friends.


th 8 Archangels Michael and Gabriel The Orthodox Christians celebrate the Archangels Michael and Gabriel, the heads of angels. In the folk calendar, the Holy Archangels Michael and Gabriel are perceived as divine beings, always present in people's lives, guiding them in heaven and, especially, on earth, taking care of their souls to be cleaned of sins on and praying God for them. The Archangels have wings and carry swords as a symbol of victory over the Evil, and guide the souls in their journey to heaven

th 11 The Day of gaining Independence The 11th of November is a very important day for all Poles. In 1918 after 124 years Poland declared The Declaration of Independence. The main hero of this event was general Józef Piłsudski. Every year Poles celebrate the anniversary of that patriotic elation, so we often hang flags on the streets, buildings etc. The Independence Day is one of these days which are free from work and we can spend it with whole family.


Veteran's Day of the First World War

Veteran's Day of the First World War (November 11th, 1918). Anniversary of the end of WWI.

th 15 Begins the Advent or Nativity Lent On November the 15th begins the Advent or Nativity Lent. The Lent lasts 40 days and ends on December 24th, the day before Christmas. The 40 days of fasting remind believers of Moses on Mount Sinai, when he expected to receive God's words , according to Orthodox Christian. Near the time of Filipii autumn is the beginning of Advent traditionally associated with a series of ritual acts. Anointing with garlic doors, gates and windows, chasing evil spirits by noises and gunshots are only some of them. It is also common for wild birds to be fed table scraps from Shrove Tuesday not to spoil future crops. On the Shrove Tuesday, there are attested very rich dishes in all ethnographic regions of Romania

th 30 St. Andrew’s Day We celebrate St. Andrewâ€&#x;s Day (Andrzejki) on30th November. On this day we make magic tricks, foretell future and go to parties. Girls usually want to foresee if they ever have a husband. Some of people make a magic trick pouring wax through a key hole.


DECEMBER

1st Restoration of Independence Day Celebrates the reinstatement of sovereignty after the period of Spanish rule between 1580 and 1640. Portugal was plunged into a a royal crisis in 1587 following the death of the young King D. Sebastião at the battle of Alcácer Quibir in North Africa. The King of Spain, Philip II, seized this regal vacuum and invoked his right to succession he was the grandson of D. Manuel I of Portugal. He ascended to the throne and managed to achieve an Iberian Union for the first and only time. Fearing for the loss of portugal's status, a revolution was led by the nobility and high bourgeoisie on December 1, 1640, 60 years after the crowning of Philip I. They restored the Portuguese monarchy and founded a new ruling dynasty, the House of Bragança.

th 6 Saint Nicolas’ Day He is the popular image of an old man who appears on a white horse (an allusion to the first snow). He brings to good children gifts on the night of 5 – 6 December, so they prepare their shoes and place them near the door, and to the disobedient ones he brings a stick


th 8 Immaculate Conception's day

On the Roman Catholic Church calendar of holy days, December 8th is celebrated as a holy day of obligation, commemorating the Immaculate Conception of Mary. The observance of this feast began with a Papal encyclical by Pope Pius IX, when he formally defined the dogma of the Immaculate Conception, INEFFABILIS DEUS, on December 8, 1854.

th 13 St. Lucia is the patron saint of the city of Syracuse (Sicily), where she was born. Celebrations take place on the 13th of December and in May. St. Lucy is also popular among children in some regions of North-Eastern Italy, namely Trentino, East Lombardy (Bergamo, Brescia, Cremona and Mantua), parts of Veneto, (Verona), parts of Emilia-Romagna, (Piacenza, Parma and Reggio Emilia), and all of Friuli, where she is said to bring gifts to good children and coal to bad ones the night between December 12 and 13. According to tradition, she arrives in the company of a donkey and her escort, Castaldo. Children are asked to leave some coffee for Lucia, a carrot for the donkey and a glass of wine for Castaldo. They must not watch Santa Lucia delivering these gifts, or she will throw ashes in their eyes, temporarily blinding them. In Sicily and among the Sicilian diaspora, cuccĂŹa is eaten in memory of Saint Lucy's miraculous averting of famine.


th 20 Ignat –the sacrificing of pigs

The pig is the spirit of wheat, and sacrificing it at dawn announces the renewal of time in winter solstice

24/25 and

th 26

Christmas Celebration´s

Every year on 24th of December we celebrate Christmas Eve .On that day women cook amazing dishes , men with children decorate Christmas trees. On the table are carp , Christmas cakes and mushroom soup. At supper we share the Christmas Wafer. Next we sing Christmas carols. Children are waiting for Santa Claus. He gives them a lot of presents. On 25 and 26th people celebrate the day of birth of Jesus Christ. They usually visit relatives or spend time home with their families


Eve (December, 24th) or Santa Eve in the folk calendar, the day before Christmas is the last day of fasting days, which ends with the ritual meal that brings together the whole family and Christmas carols.In some regions (Bucovina) there are 12 kinds of food, one for each month of the year or for each sign. Dishes are offered to neighbors, relatives, as alms for the soul of the dead, commemorating the laIn some regions (Bucovina) there are 12 kinds of food, one for each month of the year or for each sign. Dishes are offered to neighbors, relatives, as alms for the soul of the dead, commemorating the late dear ones. Foods on this day celebrate Jesus (the dry flat cakes remind us of Jesus’ diapers).The carols singers are organized in groups (young children, teenagers, adults, boys or girls) and they sing from door to door religious texts, mostly reminding of Jesus‟ birth. They receive from hosts fruits, knotshaped bread, or in modern times, money. Christmas (25/26 december - comes for Latin < creationem, meaning creation) it‟s the celebration of Jesus‟ birth.

Christmas is a Christian holiday celebrating every year the birth of Jesus, conscript Christmas. Besides, it is a commercial period. This holiday allows families to be together around a meal and to offer presents to the children.


Christmas celebrations in Sicily begin in earnest on 8th December, when families traditionally start decorating their homes for the festive season. While Christmas trees are now common, it was only during the 2nd World War, during the Allied occupation that they first became popular. A much more widespread custom is the nativity scene, invented, so they say, by Saint Francis of Assisi. While popular all over Italy, Sicily is probably second only to Napoli in the magnificence of its “Presepi”, which can be found in most homes and the vast majority of churches. One of the most intriguing nativity scenes on the island is the “Presepe Vivente” in Custonaci, between Trapani and San Vito lo Capo. Here, deep in the enormous Mangiapane cave, is a little hamlet which, until about 60 years ago was still inhabited. Now it provides an extremely evocative backdrop for the Presepe, in which the locals dress up and re-enact the Nativity from 25th December to Epiphany. It is tradition that the Sicilians (and Italians) have a 7 fish dinner on Christmas Eve. Some think that it is perhaps one representing each day of the week, but most traditions come from the observance of the Cena della Vigilia, the wait for the miraculous birth of Christ in which early Christians Catholics fasted on Christmas Eve until after receiving communion at Midnight Mass. In later years it became a penitential day, meaning that all foods exFollowing dinner, parents will read aloud letters written by their children. In the letters, children wish their parents a good Christmas and promise to be well behaved in the coming year. Once the letters have been read, the father burns them in the fireplace. Candles are light around the presepio and at about nine o‟clock, everyone goes to church for the traditional Christmas Eve Mass. Another wonderful tradition that can be seen in many small towns, such as Isnello and Collesano in the Madonie mountains, is the night of the Luminari on 24th December when large bonfires aLa Festa di Santo Stefano -


One of the major components of Christmas celebrations in Portugal is the Christmas tree. The tree is charmingly festooned with wonderful items of decoration. Right from lights to small decorative pieces and sometimes, even edibles, Christmas tree is full of amazing stuff, which makes it look extremely gorgeous and striking. Apart from this, each of the Portuguese houses is stunningly adored to celebrate the occasion. A distinctive factor about Portuguese Christmas decoration is that every house has a piece of oak that is kept burning on the hearth all through the Christmas day. This wooden piece is known as the „Cepo de Natalâ€&#x; or the Christmas log. Setting up the cribto represent the Nativity is a major custom followed in Portugal, on Christmas. The materials for the crib are traditionally collected by children. While some families only display the three main figures - Infant Jesus, Virgin Mary and St. Joseph, many fancy displaying an elaborate Nativity scene. In the country, Christmas celebration usually starts on the Christmas Eve and is quite similar to the tradition practiced in the West. On Christmas Eve, Portuguese families gather around the Christmas tree and the crib to celebrate the birth of Lord Jesus. At around midnight, Portuguese people attend the Midnight Mass, which is known as Missa do Galo, after which they head straight to their homes to gather and enjoy over their midnight supper. Known as Ceia de Natal in local language, During thehe Janeiras is a Portuguese tradition consists of a group of people strolling the streets of a town singing in the New Year. To the modern eye, Janeiras is like Christmas caroling as this tradition involves a group of friends or neighbors going from house to house singing and sometimes playing instruments. Traditionally, people go out to the streets to sing Janeiras between December 25 and January 6. While singing, they review the most important events of the year with a spirit of happiness and great humor. holiday season towns are decorated with lights. The festivities end on January 6, "Dia de Reis."


th 31 New Year’s Eve

People celebrate the upcoming New Year with parties. They call or visit friends and relatives to wish them a very happy New Year

The New Year (the contemporary New Year‟ s Eve) is a nocturnal ceremony of celebration of the death and the symbolic rebirth of the time and of the adored divinity at the lap between the years – 31st of December - 1st of January). Turning off the lights at midnight and turning them on symbolises the death and the rebirth of time. The process is accompanied by a explosion of joy, fireworks, hugs and wishes of health and plenty.


La Festa di San Silvestro- New Year's Eve

St. Sylvester was a Roman. He was ordained a priest, and later chosen as Pope in 314. He oversaw the building of famous churches, notably the Basilica of St. Peter and the Basilica of St. John Lateran. It is quite probable that the first martyrology (list of Roman martyrs) was drawn up during his reign as Pope. St. Sylvester died in 335. He was buried in a church which he had built over the Catacomb of St. Priscilla on the Via Salaria. His feast day is on December 31.

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