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perspectives

Liverpool 2008


contents

perspectives

Georgina Humphreys (2008 Winner) ...............................4 Nick Bredenkamp ..............................................................5 Jamie Brown .......................................................................6 Sarah Brown .......................................................................7 Maria Canal .......................................................................8 Paolo Carampin ................................................................9 Julia Collins .......................................................................10 Ian Couchman ................................................................11 Laura Crack .....................................................................12 Olga DenBesten ..............................................................13 Berenice Golding ............................................................14 Alison Graham .................................................................15 Jennifer Hannant ........................................................... 16 Alana James .................................................................. 17 Gaurav Khanna ............................................................. 18 Daphne Kounali ............................................................. 19 Katherine Leney ............................................................. 20 Jad Marrouche .............................................................. 21 Sarah McBurney ............................................................. 22 Satomi Miwa ................................................................... 23 Charlie Mydlarz .............................................................. 24 Ciprian Plostinar ............................................................. 25 Sara Rafice ..................................................................... 26 Ruby Raheem ................................................................ 27 Luc Rock ......................................................................... 28 Steven Rossington .......................................................... 29 Lori Snyder ....................................................................... 30 Mury Thian ....................................................................... 31 Sarah Tomlinson ............................................................. 32 Elizabeth Tunbridge ....................................................... 33 Gert Verheyden ............................................................. 34 Alison Wallace ................................................................ 35 Tom Wells ........................................................................ 36 Paul Williams ................................................................... 37


welcome! perspectives: the poster session with a difference

perspectives

perspectives is a poster competition for PhD students and postdocs at the very start of their research careers that challenges them to think about the social implications of their research. The competition is organised by the British Science Association and funded by Research Councils UK.

The aim of the competition is not only to challenge young scientists to communicate complex ideas at the cutting edge of scientific discovery but also to develop their communication skills and gain a real appreciation for the impact that their research could have on society. This year, 33 finalists were selected from over 100 applicants to present their posters at the British Science Festival in Liverpool this September. These finalists were visited by a panel of judges including scientists, science writers and communicators who chose a final winner. Every year this task becomes more difficult as the judges comment on the outstanding quality of both the posters and the finalists’ delivery.

Alice Taylor-Gee, Science in Society Manager British Science Association, 2008


It’s not all about Dolly‌ Society and stem cells

Ethics and stem cells

Boosting the immune system from stem cells The thymus shrinks as we age Fewer T cells are made

Higher rates of infection Decreased response to vaccines Increased autoimmunity

Can we grow a thymus from stem cells? Thymic epithethial stem cells from donor tissue

A whole, functional organ from stem cells

Potential clinical benefits Immune boost after bone marrow transplant

Organ transplant tolerance

Better vaccine responses

Fighting autoimmune diseases e.g. diabetes


600,000 people lie on the autism spectrum in the UK. That is nearly 1% of the whole population. We must start learning now... Learning in autism

Clearly, the way autistic individuals learn is unusual. Studying

Why must we be cautious?

their learning patterns in carefully controlled tasks allows us to Try to describe the many rules of English language or the many

‡ The disorder spans a wide spectrum of behaviour. However,

establish why this might be so.

we are only able to work with more able individuals. Will our

movements you make when kicking a football. Do you remember

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sitting down and learning when you should speak and when you should listen; when you should laugh and when you should frown; or when you should look someone in the eye and when Autism you should not?

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communication. As a result, autistic individuals and their families can face profound challenges in completing apparently mundane

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important for autistic people’s quality of life. Understanding the

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By being vigilant of such pitfalls, we have made a successful

start: we now know that unintentional learning is not always been able to tell the day of the week for any date many years This research can also help us understand how learning processes impaired in autism. On a range of our tasks children with and into the future or to memorise whole train timetables.

typically develop.

without autism performed equivalently. We must keep learning.


Hi, I’m the Nanodetective. I’m on the hunt for a target within the body that may hold some important information.....


Mind the clock

We all have a clock in the brain that controls daily changes in: Sleep, Hormones, Temperature, Blood pressure, Digestion…

Modern life disturbs the clock: Shiftwork, Jet-lag…

Leading to sleep problems, depression, cancer, accidents…

My research: HOW CAN WE FIX A BROKEN CLOCK?


Nanoparticles are "nano" object ("nano" originates from the Greek word meaning dwarf: one nanometre is one billionth of a metre and is tens of thousands of times smaller than the width of a human hair) that can host a drug, protecting it and transporting it until a release takes place. With smart nanoparticles, the release of the encapsulated payload (for instance an anti-inflammatory drug) is not Body with unspecific, but on the contrary it takes place only in inflammed tissue response to a specific signal (e.g.: oxidizing conditions, like in inflammed tissues), that triggers a complete Injection of smart rearrangement of the nanoparticles nanoparticles and the release of their encapsulated payload. Smart nanoparticles reach their target (inflammed (inflammed tissue) and specifically release their encapsulated drug

My research has been shaped by the need of the society for systems that can target pathological environment in a specific way, trying to provide a tool that can improve the treatment of common diseases.

The body is healthy again!


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financial district

shall we mix things up a little? can we CONTROL how mixed two fluids are by looking how they are arranged and then stirring them? The SYSTEM is the two fluids, the INPUTS are how much we stir them and in what way. The aim is to mix the fluids together as quickly as possible using the least amount of effort.

stirred not shaken, please… many applications need to mix fluids e.g. a beer factory, a microprocessor cooler or a paint making facility. In one approach, the fluids to be mixed are put together and shaken and left. This uses lots of energy and is time consuming. It cannot detect poorly mixed regions and choose to focus the effort on just this space.

advantages? if we can mix fluids quickly and without much effort, the process is more efficient. So if the SYSTEM is a chemical factory, we could make more chemicals in a day and using less electricity, so reducing the CARBON FOOTPRINT and the PRICE OF PRODUCTS.

stirring up trouble… ETHICS: If we can mix free radicals better before they reach the ozone layer, we could release a lot more. But is this really a good idea? DANGER: If we want to mix really well, we might design a factory that is very difficult to CONTROL. This means that if the controller breaks humans will not be able to stabilize it...

this work is EPSRC funded which is the UK Government's leading funding agency for research and training in engineering and the physical sciences

the control centre CONTROL is the study of how we can influence the behavior of a SYSTEM with certain INPUTS. INPUT: if the system is a space rocket the inputs might be how much the thrusters are turned on. SYSTEM: for example a chemical factory, a bouncing ball, a space rocket or a fridge.


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A new kind of science Uncovering the magic...

...and re-building life

What is systems biology? In the past...

Now

In the future...

/͛ŵĂ computer modeller. I can predict how Y interacts with K and help you design better experiments to save time and money.

I know all about protein X and protein Y and what they do together. I know about protein K and how it interacts with X, but what does it do with protein Y? I must do an experiment.

And synthetic biology? L

Gene(s) for X inserted into chromosome

K

Y X

Microbe

A

B Z Protein X produced

We will be able to build elaborate predictive models (in the computer for example, of the liver) to aid design of experiments.

What can computer models do?

Why now?

Identify gaps in knowledge and predict the outcome of experiments. As a result, we can design better experiments.

Biological techniques can collect large amounts of information, imaging techniques have improved and computer power has expanded enormously.

Models can be used to understand the factors contributing to complex disease e.g. diabetes, obesity, hypertension, cancer, ageing and also infectious disease.

Diagnosis of disease

Issues What if the model is wrong? Will it blur the distinction between machines and life forms?

Bioterrorism

How will society be affected?

‡ Clinical and genetic information combined and used to identify ĚŝƐĞĂƐĞ͞ďŝŽ-ŵĂƌŬĞƌƐ͘͟ ‡ Aids future diagnoses. ‡ Prevent disease before it happens? µ What about patient confidentiality?

Personalised healthcare. Match treatment to an ŝŶĚŝǀŝĚƵĂů͛ƐŐĞŶĞƚŝĐŵĂŬĞ-up.

Bioremediation Engineer microbes to degrade pollutants.

Production of medicines ‡ Maximise production efficiency of existing medicines or find new production methods. ‡ e.g. use engineered microbes to produce an anti-malarial drug at a lower cost than extracting it from plants. ‡ Not climate-dependent. ‡ Allows land re-use µ Regional unemployment?

µ Risk of microbes being engineered for malicious use. µ Needs regulation.

Organ modelling ‡ e.g. heart, liver, gut, skin. ‡ Used to predict safety of medicines and cosmetics. ‡ Helps reduce the number of animals used in drug testing. ‡ Saves time and money. ‡ Cheaper drugs.

Tissue engineering Use microbes to produce a scaffold on which to grow human skin.

Image shows electrical activity in the heart during the onset of cardiac arrest and is courtesy of Dr R Clayton (University of Sheffield). Funding from the British Heart Foundation.

Real life There are already computer models of diabetes, obesity, rheumatoid arthritis and asthma being used in the design of clinical trails. A heart model has been used to assess drug safety.

Biofuels ‡ e.g. hydrogen gas from microbes. ‡ Use bacteria to convert feedstocks to fuels (e.g. bioethanol).

Biomaterials/bioplastics Use microbes to produce synthetic materials or to make a natural product more readily available (e.g. spider silk).


Making technology come alive How can the building blocks of life make the technology of the future? Nanotechnology is the power of the small. So what is nano? One nanometre is one billionth of a metre. This is effectively the size of a marble compared to the size of the earth. Nanotechnology is a way of creating unique new devices on the nanoscale.

iNanotechnology Nanotechnology

>>

DNA Interface Ethics – should we?

DNA is the ABC of life. We can manipulate the body's expertise on self-assembly for use in technology. These building blocks can be used as a scaffold to build our own technological structures onto.

These new materials will be much smaller and faster than our current technology. However, to make things smaller we need to the help of something which is already on that scale. DNA can be used as it is measured on the nanoscale so effectively becomes an interface between biology and technology.

Nanotechnology

Should we be making technology come to life? •In our research, we are not using DNA to create any new biology •Our technology will offer many applications that can help improve tools that can be used from electronics to medicine and from crime to the environment •However, with new technology, operating standards need to be adhered to, to ensure this new nanotechnology is safe and does not get out of control


Even when it it’’s Grey, Grey, Concrete is Green (1)

Concrete: The second most commonly used material on plant Earth after water.

What is Concrete? Concrete is a common construction material. It plays a key role in meeting society's needs for housing and basic infrastructure like schools, hospitals, malls, bridges and airports. In fact, concrete serves us everyday!

TYPICAL INGREDIENTS OF CONCRETE

Cement

Sand

Aggregates

Water

Concrete is made from the cement which is the main binding agent that holds sand and other aggregates together in a hard, stone-like mass.

Construction Worker Pouring Concrete

Issue: Global Warming – Climate Change Said,

Our Responsibility: Be Sustainable

Solution: Engineering

Said,

“Cement Industry is at Center of Climate Change Debate”

“100 months to stop overheating” The Guardian, August 1, 2008

The New York Times, October 26, 2007

Cement production for concrete accounts for 5% of the global carbon dioxide emissions.

S P RT L V E N I E R E S E V A N

CO N C R E T E

(2)

YN T I S R U CG I E A Y R L F N T WA A U C I H L B L E L E L E R E E Cement: A Global Pollutant Smoke from a Cement Plant, NYT – 25.10.07

OPEN Questions?

Could concrete be produced without cement?

X P E N S I V E

What Researchers Do to Answer These Questions?

Lab Work

Could any other material replace cement in concrete? Prediction and Risk Assessment

Could waste from other industries be a substitute for cement? Could these structure be made safe then? Could this be economically and environmentally valuable? Could results be adopted globally?

7th International Congress

Concrete: Construction’s Sustainable Option 8 – 10 July 2008 I Dundee, Scotland

Please ask me more…

Field Work

References (1) Progress Report on “The Cement Sustainability Initiative”, June 2005, World Business Council for Sustainable Development. (2) Industrially Interesting Approaches to “low-CO ” cements, Gartner E, Cement and Concrete Research, Vol 34 (9), Sept 2004, pp 1489 – 1498. 2

Educate and Communicate Further Information www.global-greenhouse-warming.com/cement-CO2-emissions.html www.concretethinker.com/technicalbrief/Concrete-Cement-CO2.aspx


es? l b ta e u g lea l o cho s don n a b e a w uld o h S

The best school

SCHOOL LEAGUE TABLES

SCHOOL CHOICE

The IMPLICIT assumption in the publication of tables with school test results each year is that the schoolâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s position in these tables is a measure of quality of their educational provision. In fact two different statistics are available.

Averages and Value-Added scores.

Our studies show that there are many factors that affect the performance of children in tests that we can not collect or even measure. This increases the uncertainty of our estimates so much that most schools are indistinguishable. This in turn reduces the accuracy of our predictions.

Comparing simple averages of test scores For each school is similar to comparing apples with oranges. These will mainly reflect the quality of their pupilsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; prior attainment and socio-economic background rather than true differences in the quality of schooling they provide.

Our studies show that the exam performance of pupils starting secondary school, will be a poor guide to performance at their GCSEs. So, school league tables are not fit for the purpose of informing parental choices.

The value-added scores are test score averages adjusted for individual pupil and school characteristics that can affect performance in school tests. So, these averages are better for comparisons.

The uncertainty in STATISTICS All these statistics are ESTIMATES of how most pupils in each school did in their tests. We also need to know how good these estimates are. Good estimates are those that do not vary very much when we calculate them repeatedly e.g. from year to year. This uncertainty can make the comparisons more difficult e.g. consider a school with a higher average than another but both having a lot of variability. Then we cannot tell which is best. The uncertainty that accompanies official statistics is NOT widely published.

Markets in education The school choice political agenda has a broad aim of raising standards in ALL schools. The idea is that competitive pressure is applied to schools when parents see a better chance for their children elsewhere. This potential loss of children and funds will push schools to raise their standards. If this worked, it would be beneficial to all pupils. Our research in education suggests that:

Poor children are less likely to go to good schools. Half of secondary school pupils do not attend their local school. BUT Is our school system a system of equal choice? If choice is unequal, do poor pupils get a fair deal? How should school places be allocated?


W hat i s everythi ng m ade of?

Hi gh Energy Physi cs

How does i t al li nteract? I ma g i ne t r y i ng t ol ea r nt he r ul es of c hes s , us i ng onl y phot osofpa r t soft heboa r d. S c i en s t sa r et r y i ngt odoj us t t hi swi t ht hel a wsofna t ur e. T hepi c t ur est he yneedc ome f r om c ol l i di ngpa rc l esa thi g h ener g y . . .

. . . t hehi g hert heener g y , t hebi g g ert hepi c t ur e! Wha tha v ewel ea r nt ? Bes i desf ur t her i ngourf unda ment a l k nowl edg eof phy s i c s ,s pi noffsf r om t hefiel di nc l udemedi c a l a nda i r por ts c a nner s , a ndt heI nt er ne t .

Howdowepr og r es s ? T heL a r g eHa dr onCol l i deri st he fiel d’ sl a t es te x per i ment .I tc os t ov er£6bn,i s27k ma r ound,a nd ha s15, 000peopl ewor k i ngoni t ! Whopa y sf ort hee x per i ment s ? Wher edowebui l dt hem? Whodec i desont hedes i g n? Wha tdowes e toutt ol ookf or ?


For a century and a half, our life expectancy has been increasing by 2.5 years per decade – which is 5 hours a day. Age group

1990

2050

100+

Is there a limit to the human life span? Do longer lives mean more diseases? Scientists will develop a magic bullet to

90-99 80-89 70-79

‘cure’ ageing….?

60-69 50-59 40-49 How will we use the extra time we gain? Can we afford increasing life spans? What will the future society become like?

30-39 20-29 10-19 0-9 12

9

6

3

Ageing is malleable.

3

6

9

12

Population (in millions) (Japanese females. Source: U.S. Census Bureau, International Data Base)

Longevity and health span are influenced not only by genes, but also by environmental factors such as nutrition, lifestyle, socioeconomic status and attitude. So how does ageing occur? The mechanisms of ageing and longevity are intriguing and challenging themes being sought by human beings since an ancient era. But now has become more than just a matter of scientific curiosity. Age is the largest single risk factor for many diseases, and often treatment of one disease only reveals the occurrence of another. Therefore, understanding the nature of ageing and why aged cells and organs are more susceptible to diseases are crucial for healthy ageing and increasing life span. My research focus are the roles of oxidative stress on the ageing process. Oxygen free radicals are produced as by-products during normal metabolism as well as under stressful conditions. They can sometimes overwhelm body’s antioxidant systems, causing ‘oxidative stress’. Many molecules such as DNA, proteins and lipids are susceptible to damage under oxidative stress, and accumulation of such damage is hypothesised to result in decline of tissue function and lead to ageing. How are oxygen free radicals produced? What are the regulators? Can we control free radical generation and change the pattern of ageing? Can damaged molecules be turned over more effectively? We look for the answers to these questions by utilising a number of different model systems as well as mathematical modelling.


fingers tapping, fans blowing, engines roaring, drums banging

passing, buses grumbling, hands clapping, glass breaking

With your help we can make the world sound better

‡ By determining the influential characteristics of the soundscape we can predict the effect it will have on people, giving us new insights into how humans react to their sonic environments

 ‡ Mobile phones will be used because of their popularity in society, widespread use and sophisticated processing power contained within their small designs

 ‡ We want to turn your phone into a cutting edge recording device enabling you to capture the sounds around you and express your opinions of them

‡  The appreciation of soundscapes can be affected by age, gender, cultural background or education, or a combination of all of these factors

,

bouncing, thunder clapping, rain pouring, lightning cracking, cars

pumping, footsteps falling, dogs barking, kids shouting, balls

crying, cats purring, keys jangling, glasses clinking, speakers

‡ With 28 million people living in areas where their quality of life is affected negatively by noise levels, there is a drive to design spaces that are truly appreciated in terms of their sound environment

What are we doing and why?

 ‡  We need to know the impact and effect these environments have on your everyday life so we can work to make them sound better

which can make you feel comfortable, productive and happy, or uneasy, distracted and stressed

 ‡  Whether on a conscious or subconscious level you are affected by the sound around you,

A soundscape is all the sound around you wherever you are

slamming, car radios booming, smokers coughing, babies

birds singing, roadworks drilling, mobiles ringing, doors

What are you listening to?

YOUR SONIC ENVIRONMENT


The World of Particle Accelerators Particle accelerators are some of the most amazing scientific tools known to man. These gigantic instruments speed up and increase the energy of a beam of particles using electric fields to accelerate them and magnetic fields to steer and focus them. At CERN near Geneva, in the new LHC accelerator, protons will be accelerated to very high energies and they will travel at 99.9% of the speed of light. That’s more than 7 times around the Earth in just 1 second.

How does it affect me? Many accelerators are being used for research that has a direct impact on our daily lives. Many of the everyday products we take for granted from chocolate to cosmetics, from revolutionary drugs to computers have been improved or developed using particle accelerators.

Fundamental Research In particle accelerators, particles of higher and higher energies are collided headon or fired at fixed targets in order to answer the latest questions concerning the ultimate structure of matter. Each leap in energy gives a fascinating insight into the particle world, showing detail never seen before. The latest and largest accelerator ever built, the LHC@ CERN, will answer some intriguing questions:

• • • • •

What is the origin of mass? What is 96% of the Universe made of? What happened to the antimatter? What are the secrets of the Big Bang? Are there other worlds hidden in extra dimensions of space?

Why Fundamental Science? Some areas of fundamental research seem remote from everyday life and unlikely to bring immediate and practical applications. Are they worth the effort in human and material resources? Fundamental science is where new ideas and methods begin that later become commonplace. The research may take us away from everyday life, but because it continually pushes the boundaries in thinking and technology, it is a springboard for many new developments. Science needs the space for curiosity and imagination!


Why research the Human Body?

IT FRU

B E A N S

ENERGY

Protein rich food Magnification of protein food

My Enzyme

How my research affects YOU?

Enzymes break proteins to release Energy


MAKING BABIES ART ’ficially Girls are born with life supply of eggs whereas sperms are regenerated every 90 days

It takes a healthy egg and 20 million healthy sperms to make a baby naturally

The reality of having a baby is a Grim Fairy Tale: The race is not merely to the swift or strong sperms. Often it is a tale of endurance, patience, determination and teamwork.

DNA health of eggs and sperms used in ART become critical for severe cases of infertility

1 in 6 couples can’t have babies

? Sperm injection helps men with severe infertility, but the sperm health becomes a major concern

Reproductive cells age as men and women age. Environment, stress & illness effect cell health

Test tube babies help men and women with mild cases of infertility

Artificial Reproductive Technology (ART) What Nature does with 20 million healthy sperms, medical technology (ART) can achieve with one. But… How healthy are these ART sperms?

Injecting sperm into an egg (ICSI)

When the number of healthy sperm cells are low, the the egg can be fertilised in a clinic by dumping millions of sperms on an egg placed in a glass dish

Conventional In-Vitro Fertilisation (IVF)

Laser screening of live sperms for DNA damage

Laser Probe

Broken DNA

DNA fingerprints

Laser Probe Healthy DNA


Tracking Pollutants: Searching for Fingerprints

Isotopes in Action Polluted Rivers raise Questions such as:



² Where did the pollutant come

from?

Pollutant Source: Manure

² What happens to a pollutant? ² How much did a specific pollutant

source contribute to the pollution?

Scientific Tool used: ² measurement of the isotopic

composition of a compound (e.g. nitrate)

‚

What is an isotope? ² a chemical element (e.g.

Nitrogen, N) can have different isotopes (e.g. 14N, 15N), each having a different mass ² an isotopic composition is like

Pollutant Source: Sewage

a ‘fingerprint’, it helps to identify sources of pollution

Impacts on Society:

ƒ

² provides data to reduce

and to prevent pollution ² influences environmental

policies

Pollutant Source: fertilizer

² raises awareness of

sources of pollution

Moral and Financial Dilemmas: ² economic growth versus

environmental protection ² ‘fingerpointing’ at a particular

group

Other Applications of Isotopes: ² sustainability ² climate change ² food authenticity - traceability ² sports doping


“Spirit” Rover

Do you know that cellular base stations in the UK produce 600,000 tons CO2 per year? WHY DO WE NEED POWER AMPLIFIER (PA)?

F-22 Raptor jet fighter

NO. MANY systems from electronic warfare to medical imaging (see the pictures on the right) require PA.

WHY DOES THE EFFICIENCY OF THE PA NEED TO BE IMPROVED?

TO MAKE the signal much more dominant than the disturbances/’noise’ (lightning, tall buildings/mountains, electronic equipments). Analogy: In a noisy football stadium, we can hardly hear someone next to us talking in a normal tone.

Spy satellite

ENERGY IS expensive nowadays and the PA is the most power-hungry component in the transmitter. Higher efficiency means: Longer talk time or longer period between recharging mobile phone Smaller and lighter mobile phone due to reduced battery size Cooler running leading to longer life of equipment Better value for money: > For companies: increased profit > For society: cheaper mobile phones Saving our planet from global-warming

FACTS:

IN THE UK, there are 74 million mobile phone subscriptions exceeding the population of 60 million.

MYTHS: MOBILE PHONE can cause a fire on the forecourt of a petrol filling station. You can cook popcorn using mobile phones.

To increase the PA’s efficiency

THAT

BENEFITS FROM THIS RESEARCH?

IN WIRELESS link, the farther away the signal has to travel, the weaker it will be. PA is therefore needed to strengthen the signal before it travels. Analogy: We need to increase our voice volume when speaking to someone at a far distance.

RESEARCH OBJECTIVE:

IS IT ONLY THE MOBILE PHONE

STRATEGY:

‘Don’t use a cannon to kill a mosquito’ The PA is not run at FULL power all the time but instead it is dynamically adjusted according to the size of the input signal

Medical imaging

RADAR


Some photos taken from bbc.co.uk and flickr.com


This pill will make you smarter! Drugs that can COMBAT FATIGUE and IMPROVE CONCENTRATION are available now Would you take them?


Be a Hero Suspect a stroke? Act FAST and contribute to life after stroke What is a stroke? A stroke is a brain attack. It happens when the blood supply to the brain is disrupted. Most strokes occur when a blood clot blocks the flow of blood to the brain. Some strokes are caused by bleeding in or around the brain from a burst blood vessel.

Facts about stroke Every five minutes someone in the UK has a stroke. Each year over 150,000 people in the UK have a stroke. Stroke is the third most common cause of death in the UK and the leading cause of adult disability in the UK.

Suspect a stroke? What are the common signs of stroke? Remember FAST but what does that mean?

F

acial

weakness

A

rm

weakness

S

peech

problems

T

ime to

call 999 999

Does the face look uneven?

Does one arm drift down?

Is the speech coming out strangely?

999!

Life after stroke Mobility and balance problems are common after stroke. People after stroke might have difficulties with reaching for a cup or might have trouble walking. Rehabilitation in general and physiotherapy in particular can help. One thing physiotherapists do is training the muscles of the trunk, which is the anchor of the body, in order to provide a good stable foundation for movements of the arms and legs. By optimising mobility and balance after stroke, people are assisted to the best possible return to function and their roles within their family, community and society. Stroke will become increasingly significant in the developed world as people expect to live longer and consume more, exposing themselves to a range of risk factors which could lead to a stroke. So go on, be a hero!


Car Parking scheme

Permit Holders Parking Only Please note this land is privately owned Do not park in this car park unless you have a current valid permit on display at all times In fact, don t bother parking here at all, whether you have a permit or not. Why not leave you car at home for a change? Cars cause climate change, which by common consent is the most severe threat facing humanity. Driving is as unacceptable, in terms of its impact on human wellbeing, as physical abuse. The fact that the victims live in far-away countries and decades is hardly a valid defence. You might as well just hit them at 70mph. You probably think this is an extreme point of view, but are you rationally able to refute it?

Do not park here unless you agree to the contractual consequences Payment Line: 0871 2727572. Web payments / Appeals / View offence: www.carparkingscheme.co.uk Postal Payments and Appeals: Car Parking Scheme, PO Box 926, Northampton NN9 3PD. If a parking ticket is not paid, the vehicle keeper details will be requested from the DVLA. By entering and remaining on the property, you have agreed to these conditions and contracted with The Car Parking Scheme to be legally bound by them. The Car Parking Scheme is the trading name of Freedom. Company No: 9648159. Freedom is an Approved National Parking Organisation Operator and follow their code of practice. The Car Parking Scheme, PO Box 1759, Thornton Heath, Surrey CR2 1NT.

N P O NATIONAL PARKING ORGANISATION

perspectives 2008  

At the British Science Festival in Liverpool in 2008, scientists from PhD to postdoc level were challenged to think about the social implica...

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