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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO

AIR DESIGN JOURNAL

ALICE KHOURY 587451 TUTORS: HASLETT AND PHILIP


CONTENTS INTRODUCTION PART A: CONCEPTUALISATION

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PART B: CRITERIA DESIGN

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PART C: DETAILED DESIGN

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INTRODUCTION ABOUT ME

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y name is Alice, and I am a third year architecture major in the Bachelor of Environments at The University of Melbourne. I’ve always had an interest in both architecture and design, and after completing a Visual Communications and Design subject in year 12 I knew that architecture was going to be my path of choice.

This quote signifies the creative relationship that both architecture and music share, where they can both portray ‘design intent’, both containing composition and an experiential journey. The only difference is that the ‘designer’, in each respective case, is either a musician or an architect.

I like to think that architecture exceeds building, just as music exceeds sound. Even in the most simple and My interest and hobbies don’t lie simply within architec- pure of forms, architecture can tell the story of a time ture; as a creative individual I have an intense passion and can create an experience that can’t be felt any for music. I play the guitar and find it to be a creative other way than being in its presence. outlet just as much as it is a hobby. Whilst my knowledge of the architectural field is limited, As the German writer Johann Wolfgang von Goethe the multi-disciplinary approach in the Bachelor of Enonce quoted, ‘Music is liquid architecture; Architecture vironments has allowed me to explore other notions of is frozen music’. Architecture, Building and Planning that I may not have discovered otherwise.

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INTRODUCITON


PAST EXPERIENCES

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y first experience with digital design was using Rhino 4, where the plugin Panelling tools aided in the design and fabrication of a lantern. this was for the subject Virtual Environments, where the brief was to produce a lantern based on the analysis of a dynamic process of our choice.

paper and the computer screen and actually take on a physical, tangible form. Previous to this, the Adobe Design Suite has been my main medium for digital design, being Photoshop and InDesign.

This lantern had to be wearable, therefore the form of the lantern needed to be influenced by the shape of the human body.

I am excited to expand my knowledge in the field of digital design and explore Grasshopper this semester, as it is a necessary skill that architects and those in the field need to have in order to fulfill the modern day The physical product of creating a lantern, using the requirements of designing a structure. Digital Design is laser cutter, was the most rewarding part of the educa- a field that is constantly changing and evolving, allowtional process, as I was able to see my ideas leave ing us to explore new programs and methods.

INTRODUCITON

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PART A

CONCEPTUALISATION


PART A CONCEPTUALISATION A.1. Design Futuring A.2. Design Computation A.3. Composition/Gener ation A.4. Conclusion A.5. Lear ning Outcomes A.6. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

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A.1. DESIGN FUTURING INTRODUCITON

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rchitecture is a design practice that contributes ideas to the ongoing disciplinary discourse and culture at large. As a field of study, architecture is generally associated with both the visual and constructed world, however it plays a key role in multiple disciplines of study and future potential for the sustainability of our Earth. In terms of materiality and resourcefulness, there is a relationship between creation and destruction. This is not a problem when a resource is renewable, but only provides disaster when it is not (Fry, 2008). As a field, design plays a key role in the sustainability and creation of renewable ways of thinking and living, and the role of the architect lies within these key issues in the design sphere. In order to answer the ‘design futuring’ question, a designer needs to have a clear sense of what design needs to be mobilized for or against. This may mean that as designers, we need to change our ways of thinking in order to make a change to how and what we design. Creation and destruction is also a problem in terms of designing, exceeding materiality, in the sense of the ‘dialectic sustainment’. Whenever we bring something into being, we also destroy something ourselves. In order to fulfill these issues of design futuring then, we muse bring both the state of the world and the state of design together. [1] Design futuring needs to be thought of as a ‘redirective practice’ where the needs of people and cultures are still fulfilled at a sustainable level. In order to think

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at this ‘redirective’ level, design intelligence needs to be adopted by architects and creative people alike. Changing how design practice is understood, developed and employed, then adopting strategies to enable change and finally taking it all back to the context in one of the ways in which designers can address the futuring needs of architecture. The Land Art Generator Initiative (LAGI) addresses these elements of design futuring in the brief, where sustainability and renewable energy are the central ideas driving the project. The brief outlines the need for a ‘pragmatic’ and ‘constructible’[2] way of designerly thinking, employing technology that can be scaled and tested. The three dimensional sculptural form outlined in the brief should aim to ‘solicit contemplation’ from viewers on a sustainability level of thinking, where computation will be employed to aid in the design. A parametric approach to the design challenge ahead will give way to a multitude of explorative design methods and techniques, where computational design has broken, and will continue to break, many of the previous barriers in the design world. In terms of employing a ‘redirective practice’[1], as mentioned in design futuring, my ideas for the project proposal will aim to employ a generative approach to design thinking and deployment, where materiality can now be utilized in the design stages, thanks to computation.

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LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE SCENE SENSOR, 2012 CROSSING SOCIAL AND ECOLOGICAL FLOWS

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cene sensor, as designed by James Murray and Shota Vashakmadze for, was the 2012 first place award winner for the Land Art Generator Initiative. It focuses on ‘Key interactions of human and ecological energies, above and below the surface of Freshkills, drive complex environmental flows, allowing us to question how to sense, channel, and harness their energies in a productive tension, revealing their interconnected fluctuations in beneficial ways’. [3] It situates itself at the intersection of flows, which both join and separate opposing landforms as a channel screen. It harnesses the flow of wind through the tidal artery and vantage points, whilst in conjunction with pedestrian flows through the park space. The rolling

landscape, being both below and above the surface, is the products of natural and artificial composition, in terms of duality. This design focuses on flowing energy, being wind power from the tidal coast. It harnesses wind power in a beautiful way, as the mirror components and lighting of the site and structure reveal a majestic feel to the design. In terms of responding to our brief, it successfully captures energy from nature and creates an interesting and captivating structural form in a pragmatic and constructible manner.

[Fig 1.1]

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LAND ART GENERATOR INITIATIVE DESIGN FUTURING

BLOSSOMINGS, 2012 HAPPENINGS OF INTUITION

Ar tist Team: Inki Hong, Solim Choi, Walter Sueldo (Architectur e i.S) Ar tist Location: Union City, USA [Fig 2.1]

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CONCEPT: As a flower opens up to r ecieve the sun, ‘Blossomings’ opens up to harness photovoltaic ener gy during the day and close up at night funcitoning as a ver tical wind turbine. [4]

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[Fig 2.2, projected use at day and night]

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he idea of harnessing photovoltaic energy, and subsequently turbine at night when the sun is no longer in the sky, is a good idea in terms of functionality. It does, however, take up a multitude of space on the given land, where there may be opportunities for other means of renewable energy to take effect. The ‘blossoms’ are interactive with visitors, where public engagement can occur on three levels, being: - witnessing - utilizing plots of wasted land

- using blossoms as a docking station with plugs for their personal electronic devices This design does create an interesting spatial feel, however the issue of cost efficiency would come in to play. The blossomings look interesting on the projected landscape, where they dot the free flowing terrain. They present themselves as a landmark, almost in the same manner as a wind turbine, however I doubt they would generate crowds.

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DESIGN FUTURING HYDRO ELECTRIC BARREL GENERATOR

RENEWABLE ENERGY [Fig 3.1]

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his is a floating waterwheel that can generate electricity when suspended over a river or other flowing water regardless of the depth. The unique chevron shaped paddle treads give the barrel the ability to rotate about its horizontal axis in fast flowing water, entering the water smoothly and resurfacing without lifting water.

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The merit of this design is the significant reduction of any down force (Coanda 10 effect, the tendency of a fluid jet to be attracted to a nearby surface) [5] and the bow wave in front of the barrel, thus increasing the efficiency of the machine. This would be an ideal product for today’s demands for cheap renewable energy. This is a much smaller scale renewable source of energy, so it may not prove useful in the project brief design.

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FEATURES • Quiet operation compared to conventional waterwheel • Easy to transport and install • Environmentally friendly • Cost effective to manufacture • Does not significantly interrupt river flow and can roll over debris • Adjusts to water level • Many possible applications:- Re- mote area power supply for battery charger

[Fig 3.2 Hydroelectric Barrel Generator providing power for a buoy]

FUTURE POTENTIAL: In terms of applying the design to other objects, it could easily be used as a navigation boy, or a power buoy. The light inside the buoy would be powered by two internal flywheel magnet generators, and the design of the hydroelectric-barrel would prevent it form being sucked down.

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A.2. DESIGN COMPUTATION CONTEMPORARY COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN DIGITAL IN ARCHITECTURE COMPUTATION

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he integration of digital architecture in the preexisting architectural word is a recent revolution, where by ‘synthesizing material culture and technologies within the expanding relationship between the computer and architecture’ is a phenomenon that defines as a digital range from design to production, and form generation o fabrication design. The digital in architecture has enabled the ability for designers to create a set of symbolic relationships between the formulation of design processes and developing technologies. [6] As a culture, architecture has attempted to divert itself into the representational as the dominant logic and mode of formal generation in design. The cultural transformation of an age where there was an emergence and use of the digital created a shift in thinking, where a complex and new approach to design and thinking was apparent. Computational design is more or less a discipline, where one is able to develop and apply computational approaches to problems that originate in design. Architect John Frazer describes the confusion of design computation as a situation where many view it as ‘just a tool, and remote from the real business of creative design[…]’. [6]

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Computational thinking is the new way of approaching design and thinking for the 21st century, in the most basic of terms, it enables you to bend computation to your needs. It allows for an understanding of what aspects of a problem are amendable to computation, evaluation between tools and techniques, understanding of the limitations and power of computational tools and recognizes strategies and opportunities. It also provides a technical means to develop new structural forms. This has been a focal point for nearly 20 years, addressed by all major architecture schools and many large design firms around the world. However, architects usually focus on the design of complex geometries and not on the performance of structures. As students, we have the opportunity to explore further means in computation, where materiality is a current focus of the design world. 3-D modelling allows for innovation not only in architecture. Progress in the field of computational mechanics and simulation technologies also offer new opportunities, though are seldom recognised.

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AS AUTUMN LEAVES BEIJING CHINA, LCD: LABORAROTY FOR COMPUTATIONAL DESIGN, 2013

[Fig 4.1 Entrance to Dashilar Factory]

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s Autumn Leaves (AAL) is a spatial installation designed by students of LCD:Laboratory for Computational Design for Beijing Design Week 2013. Located in an historic hutong district in Beijing, AAL highlights the existing entrance to Dashilar Factory where emerging designers exhibit their work. Students began by studying geometric growth patterns and geometries related to natural logics and materials. Elements of variation can be seen in the design, where the ‘leaf’ elements

vary in concentration and distribution. AAL uses parametric design tools that not only define systemic and formal languages, but catalogue and locate components for ease of assembly. [7] Individual components were digitally fabricated using laser cut acrylic and pre-assembled into “families,” then aggregated on site. This installaiton reminds me of the previous acrylic installation in the Old Architeture Building at the Universoty of Melbounre in the foyer.

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SALTWORKS WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY IN ST. LOUIS STUDNET PROJECT esign computation, facilitated by digital technology, is profoundly altering the ways we measure, create, and ultimately inhabit space. Digital Design is practised by integrating computation, material systems and performance. Through utilising digital design/fabrication, a relationship between social and ergonomic codes, as well as the physical artifact, is able to be noted.

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The research and design process focused on parametric explorations of reticulation: division, marking, and assembly with the intention of forming programmatic and structural networks. [8] The designers were seeking creative architectural solutions based on material properties, formal geometry and the spatial implications of a full-scale installation.

Saltworks is an innovative outdoor installation designed, fabricated, and assembled at Washington University in St. Louis.

Form making, such as the reticulated surface and skin of animals, was the main form of inspiration. The design aims to systematically engage building, landscape and program as self-generating and multi-dimensionally connective systems. The project uses plywood to create a physical model of the ‘Saltworks’ installation.

[Fig 5.1 (below) 9 different design iterations of the original form, parametric ideas] [Fig 5.2 (opposite) Construction of Saltworks]

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DAL CANOPY DESIGN DIGITAL ARCHITECTURE LAB (DAL) CHANGSHA HUNAN, CHINA

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he canopy design starts with the basic functional criteria of a canopy: to provide a shade. The base surface is shaped into a dynamic appearance that offers both shade and seating underneath. Curvature varies across of the surface due to the dynamic form. Optimization steps have been taken to subdivide the surface, mainly being a balance between the grid and the grid shells. Panels have also been employed in a hexagonal manner. [9] The panels are curved, and considering the current fabrication technique the gradient panels have been laser cut straight with plywood. Notions of drastic change in the size of the grid, grid plane and panels allude to the computational design techniques that have been employed. A steel mesh cable is designed as an intermediate support structure between the primary frame and the hexagonal panels. These elements have all been achieved through employing computational design stages and parametric modeling techniques. These are the techniques that I will need to master and employ in order to fulfil the Land Art Generator Initiative brief outline.

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A.2.

[Fig 6.1 (above) Design computation of canopy] [Fig 6.2 (opposite) Completed canopy]


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A.3. COMPOSITION/GENERATION

COMPUTATION REDEFINING ARCHITECTURE ‘When architects have a sufficient understanding of algorithmic concepts, when we no longer need to discuss the digital as something different, then computation can become a true method of design for architecture.’ Brady Peters, 2013 [10]

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omputation is redefining the practice of architecture. The architect’s ability to create, develop and utilize digital tools creates opportunities in the design process, fabrication and construction. Computation, differing to computerisation, allows designers to ‘extend their abilities to deal with highly complex situations’ (Peters, 2013). The term computation means the use of the computer to process information through an understood model, which can be expressed as an algorithm. Further to this, computation also has the potential to provide inspiration and go beyond the intellect of the designer, through the generation of unexpected results. Architects have the ability to use scripting language such as RhinoScript or Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) to write programs customizing their design environments. In this current studio, we will be using Robert McNeel & Associates’ Grasshopper® visual programming language to use computation in practice.

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Algorithmic thinking means taking on an interpretive role to understand the results of the generating code, knowing how to modify and explore new options and accessing further design potentials. [10] The structure of architectural firms is changing in response to the work of computational designers, where internal specialist groups are separated from the design team, or can be integrated. Architecture is currently experiencing a shift from the drawing to the algorithm as the method of capturing and communicating designs. This computational way of working allows us to capture the complexity of a project, the multitude of parameters needed for formation and the designer’s intellect. Computational tools can be used to increase efficiency and allow for better communication, similar to the attributes of the pen and pencil.

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ALGORITHM GENERATIVE DESIGN ALGORITHM

ALGORITHMIC THINKING

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lgorithms in the simplest term, according to Eric Dietrich, are a ‘recipe, method, or technique for doing something’, where the essential feature is that it embodies a finite set of rules or operations that are unambiguous and simple to follow. [11]

In the same way, algorithms are the systems that can both generate and build architectural forms. Generative design is the new age ‘shift’ from compositon [11], where conceptual changes instigated by computing are changing the way designers think about spaces and forms.

In terms of computational design, it is a list of simple operations, which can be applied mechanically and systematically to a set of objects, telling a computer what to do. It is important however to remember that whilst the computer has the ability to create an object through an algorithm in seconds, the design process that goes into the algorithm can take hundreds of hours to compile. Just as English architect Lars Hesselgren once said,

In terms of the Land Art Generator Initiative, these conceptual changes instigated by computing become the most important element of designerly thinking. We are no longer solely working with physical mediums and ideas; we are now able to incorporate notions of algorithmic thinking and parametric modelling. These generative processes within design will allow my ideas and concepts to take form in the digital realm.

“GENERATIVE DESIGN IS NOT ABOUT DESIGNING THE BUILDING – IT’S ABOUT DESIGNING THE SYSTEM THAT BUILDS A BUILDING.”[12]

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COMPOSITION GENERATION

SHIFT IN THINKING COMPOSITION AND GENERATION

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s previously discussed, the new age design tools and techniques of algorithmic thinking, parametric modeling and scripting cultures have all aided in the shift from composition to generation. In simple terms, design computation has been the leading tool that has influenced this shift. There is now a ‘new momentum for a revitalized involvement with sources in material practice and technologies’ [13], where digital generation and the development of algorithmic thinking and scripting cultures has brought on a generative process within design, particularly in material optimisaiton.

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COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE ALGORITHMIC THINKING FOLDING MICHAEL HANSMEYER

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ichael Hansmeyer, a computational architect, has explored the use of algorithms and computation to generate architectural form. Hansmeyer puts forward the idea of freeing ourselves from our own bias, preceding us to ask ourselves what forms we would generate without any prior knowledge of design. In order to cerate something that is truly new, we should look to nature. We shouldn’t mimic nature, but rather

‘borrow natures processes and abstract them to create something new’[14]. Hansmeyer folds a cube to create a column that has such exceptional detail that no physical model can decree the same architectural qualities as the computer generated render, as well as materiality. The final designs are stunning, highlighitng the sher power and capabilities of computers and computational design with algoithmic thinking.

[Fig 7.1 Columns generated through algorithms]

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AA/ETH PAVILION ZURICH, 2011

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hrough a collaboration between the Emergent Technologies and Design program (EmTech) of the Architectural Association in London, and the and the Chair of Structural Design at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (ETH), Zurich, a temporary light timber construction was designed as a sun shade for the grand stairs. This experimental construction was designed and intended to explore the intricate relationship between material, form and force. [15]

This design was based on the relationship between form and material, where form is the direct result of the acting forces. Plywood was the material of choice, where notions of bending and curves enhanced the design response, being the forces acting upon the material and living organisms. [15] The precedents of this work reflect on the designs of Alvar Aalto an Charles Eames in plywood, where an array of techniques of scoring, cutting and bending have achieved the curvature of the design. Similar to the previously This precedent displays an extensive focus on material discussed precedent of Saltworks (pg 16), the use properties. Traditionally, the discourses within architec- of plywood proves to be an adaptable and successful ture and the visual techniques of architectural design material in terms of construciton. practice have ‘privileged form over material, with material rarely examined beyond its aesthetic properties or This pavilion design resonates with the conceptual its technological capacities to act as a servant to form’. ideas of the brief for our proposed project, as it It has only been in recent years, where contemporary responds to the current use of generation in design, methods of digital design have placed an emphasis on where parametric modeling and algorithms have the materiality of forms and concepts. An emphasis on enhanced the form of the construction. Materiality was NURBS-geometry within a computational environment also a clear design intent, as the plywood enhances and information-driven design leads materiality to be a the design concept and responds to the current shift later phase in generative design. in design from composition to generation. In this way, the conceptual changes instigated by computing are apparent in the pavilion construction, where current computational design techniques allowed for the integration and focus on materiality in the generative design process.

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[Fig 8.1]

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[Fig 8.2 (above) Pavilion shading entrance stairs] [Fig 8.3 (below) Laser cut prototype of structure]

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GEHRY PARTNERS’ FONDATION LOUIS VUITTON PARIS, 2006 - PRESENT

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hen discussing the conceptual changes instigated by computing, one architect stands out against most, being Frank Gehry. His ability to start with a simple sketch concept and turn it into a construction that embodies his iconic visions are enhanced and exemplified through his use of computational design techniques.

The building counts twelve immense glass sails, joining a longstanding tradition of glass architecture in Paris. The Fondation Louis Vuitton pour la création is projected to open in Paris in 2014. Gehry’s concept for this art and culture space was a vessel whose sails soar amidst the trees of the Bois de Boulogne. [17]

In the past, generative methods have been largely The complexity of the mass-customised forms of Gehry used for ‘design explorations, often assuming that Partner’s new art museum in Paris, the Fondation implicit geometry or a very few rules of thumb suffice Louis Vuitton pour la creation, takes ‘high-definition for validating design feasibility’[16]. However, the mesimulation techniques and embedded intelligence to chanical processes of fabrication often have decisive a new level’ [16]. The realization of the Fondation impacts on the design geometry itself, particularly at required the development of a 3D concurrent design the detail level, as explored by the Fondation Louis system, synchronising hundreds of participants. The Vuitton. For this construction, Gehry technology consulmajor design challenge of the Fondation was the tants worked directly with project engineers to create implicit material optimisaitons. intelligent reusable models, which validated details both automatically and in a generative way. Mass customizing glass and concrete panels to specific curvatures on an unprecedented scale is no easy feat, and required the embedding of fabrication and geometry rules in the model itself. This was mainly inclusive of optimisations, which is a new step in generative design and simulation. Prior to the use of generation in the design process, many large-scale constructions did not have the technology, and virtual world presence, to be realized. There were no notions of scripting cultures and parametric modeling coupled with algorithmic design thinking, which has opened the door to endless [Fig 9.1(right) Sketch possibilities of virtual forms and functions. concept to model] [Figure 9.2 (next page) Fondation Louis Vuitton]

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A.4. CONCLUSION

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he Architectural world has experienced a shift in design techniques, where the virtual world now has a stronghold in the design process and outcomes of ideas and projects alike. Architecture is not solely created to be viewed; it is made to be felt, and through modern parametric designs, emotive states of mind can be created through the design of spaces. Many opportunities can be made by exploring the ‘future’ qualities of design, where design computation plays a key role in the way architecture is headed for the next decade.

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Through the use of parametric modeling and scripting on GrasshopperÂŽ, the Land Art Generator Initiative design concept will reflect on the abilities and intensity of computation and materiality in this day. The proposed design concept for the task will incorporate algorithmic thinking, parametric modeling and scripting culture, where conceptual changes instigated by computing will lead the design idea to a vast selection of opportunities.

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A.5. LEARNING OUTCOMES

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n terms of the main individual learning outcome from the past few weeks, I feel that the shift in thinking from ‘paper’ to ‘screen’ in parametric terms has a large impact on the way the Land Art Generator task will be both thought about and designed. Discussing parametrics and algorithmic designs and ideas has opened up a new way of thinking, where computation is a central designing tool.

to the notion of ‘generation’, where we should look to nature to borrow processes and abstract them to create something new. The columns that he was thus able to create through layered laser cuts were impossibly detailed and intricate, and reminded me of the constant details that embody not only architectural design, but also the different spheres within life. Within every complicated object, arrangement, thought, structure, design, or whatever you can think of, it all stems off from a simple idea. Hansmeyer’s idea was that of a cube, and his intense ability to cerate such a magnificent form from a single cube became my main notion of inspiration from this unit. This sort of design would not have been possible without the use of computers and algorithmic programs.

Computational design is a term that has been discussed heavily in the past month, and the introduction of the grasshopper tutorials strengthens the desire to continue to explore computation in the design sphere. Whilst the tutorial videos, and supplementary videos in the lectures, are incredibly inspiring, there is always a feeling of doubt when I begin to attempt the demonstration video tasks on my own. My abilities on the computer can only get better, so with more research, time and patience, the Grasshopper and Rhino components of this task will be easier to conquer and understand. Personally, the most inspiring video from Part A was the TedTalk featuring Michael Hansmeyer, a computational architect, which featured in the third lecture. His examples of folding, inspired from morphogenesis, link

In terms of the relation to the designer, computational design has opened a whole new world of ideas where the architect’s limitations are little to none. Part A has explored many new elements of the design world, and going into Part B, I now feel that we are equipped with knowledge that will both aid and inspire us to seek creative solutions to the task set by the Land Art Generator Initiative.

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A.6. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

Approximating 2D geometries using 2D elements - placing a rectangular surface on the points within a curved plane.

In terms of algorithmic sketches, the following two forms resonate with the Land Art Generator Initiative in the most sense. Both forms were based on curves, however the shape, slope and flowing nature of these curves were generated from the ideas of the surrounding landscape in the brief. Water is a contextual element of the brief, where the Copenhagen site is situated along the water front. Choosing to construct curved and flowing forms, I aimed to embody the experiential qualities of water such as freedom, flexibility and adaptability. Bruce Lee once said, “You must be shapeless, formless, like water. When you pour water in a cup, it becomes the

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cup. When you pour water in a bottle, it becomes the bottle. When you pour water in a teapot, it becomes the teapot. Water can drip and it can crash. Become like water my friend.” For me, this quote symbolizes being adaptable. When a new challenge rises, one should not shy away from it. Most of the time, a challenge leads to a trigger, which leads to an unexpected result, and in the designing world this is a useful and insightful way to go about generating ideas. These forms created in Grasshopper thus instigate a sense of flow and movement, where the notion of ‘water’ is a leading idea.

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REFERENCES

[1] Fry, Tony (2008). Design Futuring: Sustainability, Ethics and New Practice (Oxford: Berg), pp. 1–16 [2] Review: Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI- 2012/> [3] Scene-Sensor: Murray James, Vashakmadze Shota, 2012, <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ AP347043/#> [4] Blossomings: Honh Inki, Choi, Solim, Sueldo Walter, 2012 http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ sr9h9523/ [5] The HEB Generator: Hicks, D, 2013 <http://www.hydro-electric-barrel.com> [6] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture [7] Jose Luis Gabriel Cruz, LCD Exhibits “As Autumn Leaves” at Beijing’s 2013 Design Week (23 November 2013) <http://www.archdaily.com/451572/lcd-exhibits-as-autumn-leaves-at-beijing-s-2013-design- week/> [accessed 11 March 2014]. [8] Amelia Taylor-Hochberg, Student Works: “Saltworks” from Washington University in St. Louis (October 2013) <http://archinect.com/features/article/82684993/student-works-saltworks-from-washington- university-in-st-louis> [accessed 11 March 2014]. [9] “DAL Canopy Design / Digital Architectural Lab” 01 Sep 2011. ArchDaily. Accessed 19 Mar 2014. http:// www.archdaily.com/?p=165298 [10] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 [11] Definition of ‘Algorithm’ in Wilson, Robert A. and Frank C. Keil, eds (1999). The MIT Encyclopedia of the Cognitive Sciences (London: MIT Press), pp. 11, 12 [12] Generative Design <http://generativedesign.wordpress.com/2011/01/29/what-is-generative-desing/> [accessed 18 March 2014]. [13] Oxman, R. and Oxman, R. (2010), New Structuralism: Design, Engineering and Architectural Technolo gies. Archit Design, 80: 14–23. doi: 10.1002/ad.1101 [14] Building Unimaginable Shapes (2012) <http://www.ted.com/talks/michael_hansmeyer_building_un imaginable_shapes> [accessed 19 March 2014]. [15] Kotnik, T. and Weinstock, M. (2012), Material, Form and Force. Archit Design, 82: 104–111. doi: 10.1002/ad.1386 [16] Nolte, T. and Witt, A. (2014), Gehry Partners’ Fondation Louis Vuitton: Crowdsourcing Embedded Intel ligence. Archit Design, 84: 82–89. doi: 10.1002/ad.1705 [17] Florence Joubert, Fondation Louis Vuitton pour la création () <http://www.lvmh.com/lvmh-patron-of-the- arts-and-social-solidarity/fondation-louis-vuitton-pour-la-creation> [accessed 25 March 2014].

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IMAGES

[1.1] James Murray, Shota Vashakmadze, 2012, Scene-Sensor, < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ AP347043/#>> [2.1] Inki Hong, Solim Choi, Walter Sueldo, 2012, Blossomings, < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ sr9h9523/> [2.2] Inki Hong, Solim Choi, Walter Sueldo, 2012, Blossomings, < http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI-2012/ sr9h9523/> [3.1] D Hicks, 2013, Hydro-Electric Barrel Generator, <http://www.hydro-electric-barrel.com> [3.2] D Hicks, 2013, Hydro-Electric Barrel Generator, <http://www.hydro-electric-barrel.com> [4.1] Jose Luis Gabriel Cruz, 2013, LCD Exhibits “As Autumn Leaves” at Beijing’s 2013 Design Week http:// www.archdaily.com/451572/lcd-exhibits-as-autumn-leaves-at-beijing-s-2013-design-week/ [5.1] Amelia Taylor-Hochberg, 2013, Student Works: “Saltworks” from Washington University in St. Louis <http://archinect.com/features/article/82684993/student-works-saltworks-from-washington-university- in-st-louis> [5.2] Amelia Taylor-Hochberg, 2013, Student Works: “Saltworks” from Washington University in St. Louis http://archinect.com/features/article/82684993/student-works-saltworks-from-washington-university- in-st-louis [6.1] Digital Architecture Lab, 2011, DAL Canopy, < http://www.archdaily.com/165298/dal-canopy-design- digital-architectural-lab/> [6.2] Digital Architecture Lab, 2011, DAL Canopy, < http://www.archdaily.com/165298/dal-canopy-design- digital-architectural-lab/sony-dsc-143/> [7.1] Michael Hansmeyer, <http://www.michael-hansmeyer.com/projects/columns. html?screenSize=1&color=0#1> [8.1] EmTech (AA) + ETH, 2011, Pavilion / EmTech (AA) + ETH, <http://www.archdaily.com/221650/pavil ion-emtech-aa-eth/pav_02/> [8.2] EmTech (AA) + ETH, 2011, Pavilion / EmTech (AA) + ETH, <http://www.archdaily.com/221650/pavil ion-emtech-aa-eth/pav_01/> [8.3] EmTech (AA) + ETH, 2011, Pavilion / EmTech (AA) + ETH, <http://www.archdaily.com/221650/pavil ion-emtech-aa-eth/pav_04/> [9.1] 2006, http://dimg.uscri.be/bd2cd917c3d2541bd083e6dbfa9d9152987ac699.png [9.2] Gareth Harris, CGI of the Frank Gehry-designed Louis Vuitton Foundation for Creation in the Bois de Boulogne, < http://www.ft.com/cms/s/2/c08b6130-3be3-11e3-b85f-00144feab7de. html#axzz2x9v1QZ7u>

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REFERENCES


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AIR_0403_Fractal_Tetrahedra.3dm

PART B

CRITERIA DESIGN


PART B CRITERIA DESIGN B.1. Research Field B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Technique: Development B.5. Technique: Prototype B.6. Technique: Proposal B.7. Lear ning Objectives and Outcomes B.8. Appendix - Algorithmic Sketches

37


CRITERIA DESIGN INTRODUCTION

P

arametric design is a tool that allows designers to constantly change elements of an idea and its fabrication, where designers should question what they are doing and think about why they are doing it. It is such a fast and efficient way to construct a design idea, however on the same token, it can be so easily and quickly modified without putting any real thought into the process. [1] Following on from Part A, where an understanding of the use of parametric and algorithmic thinking in the design world was discussed, ‘Criteria Design’ requires a development of the techniques and systems that will be further explored in the weeks to come. Through case-study analysis, parametric modeling and physical prototypes, major options of our ideas can be evaluated, tested and selected.

38

In terms of approaching the ‘Criteria Design’ and desired outcomes within our group, the ability to modify an algorithm in both an efficient and time-effective manner can be achieved through the advances that parametric design have over traditional designing methods of pen and paper. The explorations and intensity of our ideas will be supported by modeling and scripting on Grasshopper®, where the Land Art Generator Brief will inform our ideas of renewable energy.

B.1.


B.1. RESEARCH FIELD TESSELLAITON

O

ur chosen material system to explore was Tessellation. In oder to further progress with the idea of tessellation, a number of definitions could be applied to the process. In general terms, tessellation is an ‘arrangement of shapes closely fitted together, especially of polygons in a repeated pattern without gaps or overlapping’[2]. In terms of 3D modeling, tessellation combines the techniques used in both mathematics and art to create the process of tessellation within a design. Tessellation maximises the total surface area potential of a surface through this repetition of pattern wihtout overlapping.

Parametric design employs tessellation to create complex surfaces, where ‘tessellation [becomes] an opportunity for articulation, and the difficulty of devising both feasible and elegant tessellations for doublecurved surfaces [became] the occasion that brought parametric modeling and scripting to the fore’[3]. Tessellation is a way of bringing a pattern to life in the new era of parametric architecture, and Schumacher suggests that pattern has become an innovative and powerful register of ‘articulation, providing amplification of surface difference and correlation’ which has resulted in high performance and dynamic ornamentations. [3]

[Fig 1.1 EXOtique project, Projectione]

B.1.

39


PROJECTIONE EXOtique HEXAGONAL INSTALLATION

E

XOtique is a quickly designed, modeled and fabricated installation at Ball State’s College of Architecture. A five day timeline was devoted to the design through to construction of the installation, where the use of computational tools (both software and hardware) harnessed the design fabrication process, drastically condensing the time it would take to construct the installation. The design intention of Projectione was to ‘create a simple, hexagonally based, component system that would act as a lit “drop ceiling” for the space’ [4], and this was achieved directly through the successful use of parametric design. Both Rhino and Grasshopper were utilized to desgn and fabricate the installation, where an initial surface was triangulated then associated into hexagonal groups.

lighting in each hexagon adds a new dimension to the design, where lighting can heavily influence the experiential feel of an art form. Lighting is an aspect of the LAGI site that has mass potential due to the fluctuating averages of daylight in the Netherlands, and the sun path of the site focuses on the Southern side during the day. EXOtique exemplifies in design through the understanding of how the materials react and embed within the lighting technology. This understanding is what we need to further explore in relation to our chosen energy system and the design direction of the LAGI brief.

This was done with an understanding that the bending and folding could achieve non-planer geometry through the correct choice of material. White acrylic, white polystyrene, and 55 cord sockets and bulbs were the materials used for the fabrication of EXOtique. EXOtique combines an understanding of how materials react, and then intelligently embeds that into the design process [4]. Notions of tessellation can be observed through the fabrication and simulation of this design. Each surface intersects with another, where the hexagonal faces take advantage maximizing the total surface area of the installation. The integration of

40

B.1.

[Fig 1.2 (above) EXOtique unrolled assembly] [Figure 1.3 (right) completed installation]


B.1.

41


dECOi AEGIS HYPOSURFACE, 2001 TESSELLATED INSTALLATION

42

he Aegis Hyposurface is a dECOi project, led by the dECOi office along with a large multi-disciplinary team of architects, engineers, mathematicians and computer programmers, among others. The project drew heavily on the expertise of creative mechatronics professors, where the Hyposurface is an interactive piece of artwork.

T

The metallic triangular faces of the surface deform in a multitude of ways, where the 3 sided shape of a triangle allows the most variations of deformations to occur. The triangular shape is the base for tessellation within the design, where it can be adapted to shape into a rectangular pattern or hexagonal shape through the attributes of a triangle.

This project was developed for a competition for an interactive artwork outside the foyer of The Birmingham Hippodrome Theatre situated on a protruding section of wall above the pavement below. Aegis is a metallically cladded surface that deforms physically to electronic stimuli form the environment. This includes the likes of movement, sound, light etc. It is controlled by a bed of 896 pneumatic pistons, working as a real time calculator for the surface to respond to the environment. [5]

The experiential aspect of this design allows the viewers to become participants of the surface, as it responds to their movement and behavior. This surface is a successful example of a design that uses parametric modeling to tempt viewers to enquire about the design. This sort of behavior is what is outlined in the LAGI brief, where our design should inspire the visitors of the site to â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;enquireâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; [14] further about the renewable energy source and inform them within the design.

B.1.


[Fig 2.1 Hyposurface in movement]

B.1.

43


B.2. CASE STUDY 1.0 TESSELLAITON VOLTADOM, 2007 SKYLAR TIBBITS + SJET

V

oltaDom, by Skylar Tibbits - for MIT’s 150th Anniversary Celebration & FAST Arts Festival (Festival of Arts, Science and Technology) - is an installation that populates the corridor spanning building 56 & 66 on MIT’s campus. This installation lines the concrete and glass hallway with hundreds of vaults, reminiscent of the great vaulted ceilings of historic cathedrals. VoltaDom attempts to expand the notion of the architectural “surface panel,” by intensifying the depth of a doubly-curved vaulted surface, while maintaining relative ease in assembly and fabrication. This is made possible by transforming complex curved vaults to developable strips, one that likens the assembly to that of simply rolling a strip of material. [6] The notion of vaulting is one of interest, as it links to the idea of tesselation, where a series of shapes embody the ability to fit into one another [2], creating

44

some interesting sculptural forms and surfaces. An intersting visual and experiential note of this installation is the fact that there are openings within each of the vaults, giving way to different viewports as you walk throgh the design. To explore notions of surface difference and articulation, the VoltaDom project by Skylar Tibbits + Sjet was chosen by our group to create a series of iterations. The original Grasshopper script provided for the project began as a series of coned surfaces, which we then explored and pushed to the limits. The forms generated look entirely different to one another, where a set of six species emerged from the original script. We then reviewed the outcomes and discussed them in terms of the LAGI brief.

B.2.


[Fig 3.1 VoltaDom valuted installation

B.2.

45


MATRIX OF ITERATIONS

46

B.2.

SPECIES 3

SPEC SPHERE CLUSTERS

SPECIES 2 DIVISIONS

CONED/TRUNCATED CONE

SPECIES 1

CLUSTERS

VOLTADOM


SPECIES 6 CONE CLUSTERS

SPECIES 5 CYLINDER CLUSTERS

CIES 4

B.2.

47


CASE STUDT 1.0 SELECTION CRITERIA

U

pon reviewing the 31 iterative designs from the VoltaDom Grasshopper definition, a variety of forms and patterns were created. They all strain form the simple coned pattern that began as the definition; instead a series of six different species resulted from the initial script. Each species displays individual architectural qualities that could be used on both the form of the pavilion as well as the surface of the pavilion. Species 1, 3 and 5 all show potential in form generation and distribution across the site, where a mass form was produced from the grasshopper definition. In comparison, Species 2, 4 and 6 output a surface pattern that could be applied to the forms of Species 1,3 and 5. The spatial qualities and distribution of the forms and patterns generated in Species 4 and 6 show the most potential in application of the LAGI brief and Material System of Tessellation. The forms generated have a capsule like structure, where a skin seems to join the components to one another. The capsulated and pod like nature of the cones allows tessellating patterns to emerge form the iterative design process.

48

B.2.


SPECIES 4 SPHERE OF CLUSTERS

SELECTION CRITERIA: - - - -

Follows some notion of tessellation Visually interesting and intriguing form, straying from original algorithm Potential to be applied to brief Further enhancement in Grasshopper and Material Application

SPECIES 6 CONE OF CLUSTERS

The four most successful outcomes of the iterative process are displayed here in relation to the selection criteria. The first two forms follow the notion of tessellation in repetition of a pattern, however they do not maximize surface are potential. Instead they create an aesthetically interesting form that could be applied to a number of surfaces. The forms of the bottom two iterations proved success in their design potential and application in architectural formation, where they could be applied as the form of a pavilion.

SPECIES 3 CLUSTERS

SPECIES 1 CONE/TRUNCATED CONE

B.2.

49


B.3. CASE STUDY 2.0 TESSELLAITON ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION BOND UNIVERSITY ARCHITECTURE FABRICATION RESEARCH LAB

A

tmospheric Tessellation is an architectural lighting installation, suited to the urban experience of the pedestrian. The proposal is both spatial and aesthetic, in the sense that the project allows subjects to be ‘inside’ the space of the pavilion and experience the project visually. It embodies an atmosphere of patterns and light. The form of the project was derived using Voronoi Tessellation and employing Grasshopper and Rhino to generate and distribute 220 ‘barnacles’ over a double curved surface. This geometry resolves complex surface qualities with an organic array of shapes, similar to what might be found in the cellular structure of bones, in a triangular and hexagonal manner. [7] The skin of the pavilion is CNC cut from flat sheets of high-density polyethylene (as in milk jugs) and is supported by a lightweight plywood frame structure. The material components of the project can be cut, preassembled, and flat packed for shipping to any site. This lighting installation is also interactive, where the

50

lights are combined with physical embedded computing and sensors, which detect motion, changes in light levels and other environmental variables, much like dECOi’s Hyposurface. The installation was designed for the LUX festival in Wellington, where a string of art installations, using light, were located in the alleys, nooks and recesses of the city. Natural forms, hence inspired the designers their biomimetic approach, and the big idea was to ‘create a captivating object that creates a diffuse atmosphere of light blended with geometry to enliven an abject laneway’. [7] This project has been highly successful, where the windy streets and laneways of Wellington allow the interactive art form to hold a presence in the streetscape. The integration of parametric tools and fabrication link to materiality, where plywood was the material of choice. The installation captures the designer’s intent perfectly, where the form is both flexible and easy to move across the city landscape.

B.3.


[Fig 4.1 Atmospheric Tessellation in the streets of Wellington NZ]

B.3.

51


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION DIAGRAM ASSUMED DESIGN PHASES PHASE ONE

PHASE TWO

Formulate the frame/skeleton on grasshopper

Populate a triangle surface with the ‘barnacles’. 3, four edged elements on each triangle.

Triangulate the surface

Combining the two creates the Atmospheric Tessellation installation

52

B.3.


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION REVERSE-ENGINEER STEPS 1-4

1. Tri-grid, 2D grid with

2. Polygon Centre - area

3. Point Component fol-

4. Voronoi component,

triangular cells, size of 6, element X 10, element Y 7

lowing output of polygon centre, X and Y direction

B.3.

centroid of polygon shape focused on

plugged into region intersection

53


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION REVERSE-ENGINEER STEPS 5-6

5. Scale component - objects were then scaled, creating a series of 3 four edges shapes within the triangles, just like the precedent project.

6. Loft - Following graft tree and region intersection, two lofitng processes occur. This is the underside.

54

B.3.


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION REVERSE-ENGINEER STEPS 7-8

7. Loft - Upper loft, attaching to the underside

through a mesh component. The ‘simple mesh’ and ‘mesh join’ components need to be utilised.

8. Loft - Combining the two loft meshes together as one.

B.3.

55


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION REVERSE-ENGINEER

56

B.3.


B.3.

57


ATMOSPHERIC TESSELLATION REVERSE-ENGINEER FAILED COMPONENTS

CLOSED MESH

I

nability to utilise the Patch component and Cap Holes component to cap the ‘barnacle’ shapes produced by the grid points. The Cap Holes component was successfully able to cap only the holes that had 4 corner points, and left the 5 pointed shapes cap less (above). The Patch component was unable to work in the algorithm. The Patch component was only able to close one triangulated grid, instead of the entire mesh created (right). We were also unable to apply the pattern to a curved surface.

58

B.3.


OUTCOMES ATMOSPHERIC TESSELATION

T

hrough the reverse engineering process, we were only able to create a 2D pattern that emulated the patterning and tessellating qualities of Atmospheric Tessellation. In order to further this patterning system and progress with our design, we need to address the limitations of our generated script. Upon reviewing these limitations, we felt that generating a new algorithm may be the way to address these issues.

B.3.

59


B.4. TECHNIQUE: DEVELOPMENT

I

n continuing on with our Case Study 2.0 technique, we developed a series of three scripts that all created a tessellating form over a curved surface. Unlike the inability of the reverse engineered script in B.3, our script could successfully be applied to a curved surface. This was a turning point for our design direction, as the iterative process will display, where a series of pods paneled our surface and curve formations took shape. The potential in the pod design was further explored through precedent projects that used a similar approach to our design direction, being the incorporation of algae biofuel energy in the design of a pavilion.

60

B.4.


PROCESS ZERO: RETROFIT RESOLUTION HOK AND VANDERWELL

P

rocess Zero: Retrofit Resolution, is the winner of a design competition which promotes a radical shift in thinking about green retrofits. The Metropolis Magazine design competition (Los Angeles), to redesign a 60s era Federal Government Office, was won by a team of architects from HOK and Vanderwell, where the conceptual project incorporates an algae farm and bioreactor onto the sunny southern side of the building. This provides energy and cleans both wastewater and air at the same time, where the building integrates with the city, the environment and workers. [8] By incorporating huge glass tubes on the southern façade of the building, to hold algae breeders, the technology uses waste water from the building as nutrients and pumps CO2 laden air from the surrounding freeway environment, to the basic building block for the

plant. The algae then pumps out oxygen and creates fatty lipids, which can be burned in co-generators for heat and electricity. This technology is the kind that we have considered employing as a group, as it is a technology system that is on the rise and can be adapted to ‘pods’. [8] The panel system creates the exterior finish of the building, where they are placed in horizontal strips as clusters. Whilst they are not a great example of tessellation, they do highlight the ways in which a rectangular panel system can provide efficiency for a building that incorporates algae technology. The structure still has an impressive amount of aesthetic quality, where the large scale project shares many similarities in design outcomes as the LAGI project brief.

[Fig 5.1 Retrofit Resolution Building]

B.4.

61


ECO PODS HOWELER + YOON, SQUARED DESIGN LAB

E

co-Pods, Pre-Cycled Modular Algae Bioreactor, is a conceptual structure for an unfinished building in Boston, designed by Boston architects Howeler + Yoon. The building wold be covered in modular pods growing algae for biofuel, similar to the idea that we want to apply to our design.

of the pod design can extend to housing research for scientists (dependent on pod sizing) and an incubator for scientists to ‘test algae species and methods of fuel extraction’. The central location of the Eco-Pod and the public and visible nature of the research, allows the public to experience the algae growth and energy production processes. [9]

The Eco-Pods would be a continuously changing entity, where robotic arms rearrange the pods to ensure the optimum growing conditions for algae in each pod. Much like the LAGI brief, this design aims to inform the public about the potential of micro-algae, which is a biofuel that can be grown vertically. The potential

This precedent embodies many elements of what we aim to achieve in the functionality of our design, however this pod system does not entail it’s roots soley

[Fig 6.1 ECO Pods with robotic arms]

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B.4.


THREE DEFINITIONS REVERSE ENGINEER

T

he three Grasshopper scripts were all developed with the Plugin LunchBox, where we utilized generative geometry. The Triangular Panels, Constant Quad Subdivide and Hexagon Cells components all gave way to the grid forms that we needed to work with in order to create a tessellated geometry that could resemble a pod structure. The following diagrams are the most basic forms of the definitions. BASIC FORM

TRIANGULAR PANELS

CONSTANT QUAD SUBDIVIDE

SCALE

LOFT

POLYGON CENTRES

SCALE

PATCH LOFT

LOFT

HEXAGON CELLS

TRIANGULAR PANELS

SCALE

MOVE Z DIRECTION

PATCH

SCALE

LOFT

LOFT

SUBDIVIDE TRIANGLE

POLYGON CENTRES

SCALE WITH FACTOR

PATCH

SCALE

LOFT

LOFT

[Fig 6.2 Systematic Grasshopper diagrams]

B.4.

63


MATRIX OF ITERATIONS REVERSE ENGINEER PETRUSIONS

SPECIES 1

TRIANGULATED SUB PANEL SCAE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.560 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOOTTOM): 1 PATCH ENABLED

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.450 Z FACTOR: 5 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM):0.371

TRI PANEL CONSTANT QUAD SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 2.3 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM) 0.41

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.225 Z FACTOR: 4 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.130

U DIVISION: 1 V DIVISION: 3 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.488 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.846 Z FACTOR : 2 PATCH DISABLED TRIANGULAR PANELS

TRIANGULATED SUB PANEL SCAE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.560 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOOTTOM): 0.1635 PATCH DISABLED

TRIANGULATED SUB PANEL SCAE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.560 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOOTTOM): 0.162 PATCH DISABLED

U DIVISION: 1 V DIVISION: 3 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.488 Z FACTOR : 2 X FACTOR: 6 PATCH ENABLED TRIANGULAR PANELS

TRIANGULATED SUB PANEL SCAE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.560 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOOTTOM): 1 PATCH DISABLED

U DIVISION: 1 V DIVISION: 3 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.795 Z FACTOR : 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.914

TRIANGULATED SUB PANEL SCAE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOOTTOM): 1 PATCH ENABLED

64

B.4.


SPECIES 2

SPECIES 3

SOLID FORMS

HEXAGONS

HEXAGON SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.417 Z FACTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 1.316 PATH ENABLED

TRI PANEL: CONSTANT QUAD SUBDIVIDE: 2 SCALE FACTOR 1 9TOP0: 0.853 Z FACTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM) 0.964 PATCH DISABLED

HEXAGON SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.097 Z FACTOR: 15 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.854 PATH ENABLED

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.548 Z FACTOR: 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.769 PATCH DISABLED

HEXAGON SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 3.4 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.264 PATH ENABLED

U DIVISION: 4 V DIVISION: 7 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.795 Z FACTOR: 4 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.914

U DIVISION: 10 V DIVISION: 15 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 7 Z AFCTOR: 3 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 1.3

HEXAGON SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.48 Z FACTOR: 3 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.8 PATCH DISABLED

HEXAGON SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 1 PATCH ENABLED

U DIVISION: 5 V DIVISION: 5 SUBDIVIDE: 1 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 Z FACTOR: 2 X FACTOR: 2 Y FACTOR: 2

TRI PANEL CONSTANT QUAD SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.189 Z FACTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.964 PATCH DISABLED

U DIVISION: 1 V DIVISION: 5 SUBDIVIDE: 1 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.908 Z FACTOR: 2

B.4.

65


POD POTENTIAL

SPECIES 4

U DIVISION: 8 V DIVISION: 10 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 Z FACTOR: 5 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 PARAMETER (T): 0.75 PATCH DISABLED

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.928 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.769 PATCH ENABLED

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.680 Z FACTOR: 4 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.807

U DIVISION: 4 V DIVISION: 7 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.795 Z FACTOR: 4 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.914

U DIVISION: 8 V DIVISION: 20 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.0 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.7 PARAMETER (T): 0.8

REVSRF 3: REVERSE UV U DIVISION: 6 V DIVISION: 2 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.8 Z FACTOR: 7 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 PATCH ENABLED, SUBDIVIDED QUAD SKEWED QUADS T: 0

U DIVISION: 13 V DIVISION: 15 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 Z AFCTOR: 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 PARAMETER (T): 0.1, 0.3 PATCH DISABLED

U DIVISION: 6 V DIVISION: 8 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 Z FACTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 CAP HOLES, CULL FACES BOOLEEN (FTFFF)

U DIVISION: 13 V DIVISION: 15 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 Z AFCTOR: 4 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.869 PARAMETER (T): 0.1 PATCH ENABLED

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.555 Z FACTOR: 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.807 PATCH ENABLED

U DIVISION: 6 V DIVISION: 8 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.6 Z AFCTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 PARAMETER (T): 0.75 PATCH ENABLED

66

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.000 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.908

B.4.


U DIVISION: 5 V DIVISION: 8 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.488 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.846 Z FACTOR: 2 PATCH ENABLED RANDOM QUAD PANEL S:5

EXTRUSIVE POD POTENTIAL

SPECIES 5

U DIVISION: 5 V DIVISION: 10 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.3 Z FACTOR: 5 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.3 PARAMETER (T): 0.9, 0.7 PATCH ENABLED

U DIVISION: 3 V DIVISION: 5 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.3 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 Z FACTOR: 5 PATCH DISABLED RANDOM QUAD PANEL S:1, SUBDIVIDE QUAD

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.325 Z FACTOR: 6 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9

TRI PANEL CONSTANT QUAD SUBDIVIDE: 1 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1 Z FACTOR: 1 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 1

REVSRF 3: REVERSE UV U DIVISION: 2 V DIVISION: 1 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.3 Z FACTOR: 7 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 PATCH ENABLED, TRIANGULAR PANELS

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.539 Z FACTOR: 3 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.899

SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1.555 Z FACTOR: 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.807 PATCH DISABLED

TRI PANEL CONSTANT QUAD SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 1 Z FACTOR: 2 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.8 PATCH ENABLED

U DIVISION: 3 V DIVISION: 3 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.3 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.9 Z FACTOR: 7 PATCH ENABLED SUBDIVIDE QUAD, SKEWED QUAD T=0

TRI PANEL CONSTANT QUAD SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.432 Z FACTOR: 8 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 2 PATCH DISABLED

U DIVISION: 1 V DIVISION: 2 SUBDIVIDE: 3 SCALE FACTOR 1 (TOP): 0.427 SCALE FACTOR 2 (BOTTOM): 0.583 Z FACTOR: 2

B.4.

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SELECTION CRITERIA REVERSE ENGINEER ATMOSPHERC TESELATION

T

he iterative process shown displays the vast surface potential that our scripts embody, where a series of ‘species’ could also be generalized to the outcomes. In analyzing the iterations, the five species that I generated were protrusions, solid forms, hexagons, tessellated and extruded pod potential. These species are all related to the chosen Selection Criteria that we discussed and selected as a group. An interesting outcome of the species generation was the fact that all three definitions cross into each species founding.

SELECTION CRITERIA - Ease of fabrication/assembly - Aesthetically pleasing and interesting - Differs from original base pattern - Creation of suitable pod structure to house algae In terms of feasibility and generation of the pod structure, our chosen successes in the iterative process need to be able to be applied to the concept of a ‘pod’. This pod pattern and form must be aesthetically pleasing and intriguing for the viewers of the pavilion, as the form generated will respond directly to the energy source of algae biofuel.

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Second Definition - Hexagonal Pod Potential in tessellating hexagons,

clean form and spatial diversity

Third Definition - Blockwork Interesting surface pattern straying

from original definition, limited pod use

Second Definition - Hexagonal Spacing between pod structures for possible pipes, interesting assembly process

Third Definition - Tri Panel Interesting patterning that varies

on top and bottom of design, pod structures evident

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B.5. TECHNIQUE: PROTOTYPES MATERIALISATION AND FEASIBILITY

I

n order to begin thinking about materialization, in both fabrication and assembly, a solid foundation in our energy system needed to be addressed. Algae Biofuel is an emerging energy source that houses mass potential, but in order to apply it to our design, some notion of feasibility and the relationship it has with the pavilion design was sought after as a group.

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ALGAE BIOFUEL ENERGY SOURCE

M

icro-algae is one of the most promising bio-fuel crops of today, yielding over thirty times more energy per acre than any other fuel crop [9]. Unlike other crops, algae can grow vertically and on nonarable land, is biodegradable, and may be one of the only viable methods by which we can produce enough automotive fuel to replace the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s current diesel usage. This flexibility in growth shows potential to be applied to the surface of a pavilion within pods that could be created in a parametric manner.

Algae contain intracellular oil, therefore to get the oil the cells, they need to be broken down in a process called cell disruption. This process is done through a solvent extractor [11].

Algae are grown in either open-pond or closed-pond systems, which we are hoping to somewhat emulate in the design of a pod. We aim to use a photobioreactor as our form of algae production, which is a self contained system housing a controllable environment in which to grow algae. The supply of light, nutrients, carbon dioxide, air, and temperature can be regulated within this system [10]. Once the algae are harvested, the lipids, or oils, are extracted from the walls of the algae cells.

For this process to take place, a combination of sunlight, CO2, nutrients and water need to combine to aid the growth of the algae across the proposed pavilion. From this phase, the outputs generated from the algae are: - Oil (lipid): Extraction, becomes biodiesel - Carbohydrates: Fermentation becomes bio ethanol - Protein: Cattle feed or plant fertilizer We plan to utilize localized sources within the LAGI perimeter, where a nearby sewage factory (Lynetten) and water from the ocean can be harvested for the production of algae biofuel. In order to convert this algae biofuel into energy however, as outlined in the LAGI brief, the fuel would then need to be burned on site to produced energy.

[Fig 7.1 (far left) open pond algae system] [Fig 7.2 (right) closed pond algae system]

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ALGAE BIOFUEL ENERGY SOURCE

ALGAE PROCESS DIAGRAM

[Fig 7.3 Algae Processing Diagram]

A

fter consulting Dr Greg Martin, a University of Melbourne academic in the field of biofuel production, and his colleagues Dr Ronald Halim and Simon XXX, discussion of the potential in algae biofuel in a pavilion design proved to be feasible.

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The most popular algae species that can grow in salt water, utilised from the site, and tend to have a high oil content and are easy to grow are [10]: - Chlorella sp. - Nannochloropsis sp - Tetraselmis suecica

B.5.


ALGAE BIOFUEL FEASIBILITY

1. Pods full of algae

2. Algae is collected through neighbouring pipes, transfering algae to processing room

3. Once all algae has been collected, the pods are filled with local water from the sea and waste water plant, leaving the pods full of nutrient rich water

4. Pods are full of nutrient rich water and are ready to grow more algae

W

e were generously given a sample of chlorella vul- Design potential in this process could be harnessed in garis by Dr Halim and Simon XXX, where by it will aesthetics, where the pods can be transparent showing provide the basis for our algae growth. Applying this the algae growth patterns and colour differentiation. algae to a pod system can be broken down into a four stage process, where the pods begin with algae growth and transfer through a system of pipes (above).

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PROTOTYPES SELECTION CRITERIA

F

ollowing on from B.4 Techniques Development, the resulting four successful iterations were then discussed in relation to our selection criteria and chosen energy source of algae biofuel. The four iterations were reduced to three, as only three were able to fulfill our ideas as we progress towards a proposal for the LAGI competition brief and Interim Presentation. Our chosen prototypes explore the potential of the surface paneling and pod system as opposed to the form of the pavilion, where our idea to explore the pod potential was the first step in approaching a proposal. Our selection criterion was much like the chosen criteria for B.4, however an emphasis on the pod structure and aesthetics was prevalent in the approach to prototyping.

[Fig 8.1 The first sketch model made, using a hexagonal surface. Mirrored in both directions, maximising surface area in 3D form]

SELECTION CRITERIA - - - - -

Ease of fabrication/assembly Aesthetically pleasing and interesting Differs from original base pattern Creation of suitable pod structure to house algae Potential for lighting to create a new aesthetic quality in openings and shadows


[Fig 8.2 FAB LAB Laser Cut Heagonal Model]

HEXAGON This prototype shows the tessellating grid of hexagons in a 3D manner, achieved through parametric design in Grasshopper. The protruding â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;podsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; maximize the surface area potential as compared to a flat surface. The solidity of the tessellation allows for s well constructed surface that can be free standing.

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PROTOTYPES HEXAGONAL AND TRI PANEL

[Fig 8.3 (above) Card Cutter Model] [Fig 8.4 (below) systematic construciton diagram]

HEXAGON Using the parameter t in the hexagonal component, and changing the value to 0.75 of the hexagonal angle, the shape of each pod was created. The potential of spacing between the pod systems could be used for the pipe works of our design.


TRI PANEL The variety of movement in this tessellated prototype is achieved through the structural component, where the smallest openings of the pods rest. The elements fit together easily on the larger side of the pod, however assembly of the smaller opening was a slow process. [Fig 8.5 (above) Tri panel Laser Cut model] [Fig 8.6 (below) Internal view of model]


AESTHETICS ALGAE SAMPLES

W

e acquired samples of Chlorella Vulgaris, from Dr Greg Martin, a University of Melbourne academic in the field of biofuel production, and his colleagues Dr Ronald Halim and Simon XXX. Chlorella Vulgaris is a freshwater unicellular alga belonging to the Chlorophyceae class (professor reference), housing mass potential for biofuel production as it is a micro algae [10]. These samples show the colour differences in strengths of algae, which we aim to have visible in the appearance of the pavilion. We tested different colours of algae using different concentrated amounts at a time, and we also gathered water samples that had potential for algae growth. Further to this, we tested food dye and strengths of green to have an indication of the aesthetic feel of the pods filled with algae.

OPTIMAL GROWING CONDITIONS

A

study by Scarsella, M, Belotti, G, De Filippis, P, and Bravi, M at Sapienza University of Roma concluded that â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;considering both biomass and lipid productivitity and lipid nonpolar content that, for large scale biodiesel production from Chlorella vulgaris cultures the best option appears to be mixotrophic nitrogen limited and phosphorus deprivated growth conditionsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; [12]. The notion of controlled conditions in nitrogen and phosphorus were conducted using bubble column photobioreactors, and we are aiming to achieve similar results in the use of controlled pods.

The use of such an intensely coloured green will require the users of the site to become inquisitive about both the design of the pavilion and energy source. Adhering to the LAGI brief, the pavilion will inform the users of the site of the potential in algae biofuel energy, which is supported aesthetically through harnessing the green glow of the algae mass as it grows.

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[Fig 9.1 (above) Chlorella Vulgaris samples] [Fig 9.2 (right) algae water samples] [Fig 9.3 (below) food dye exploration]

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AESTHETICS PROTOTYPE PERFORMANCE

[Fig 10.1 (above) Tri panel with algae simulaiton] [Fig 10.2 (right) Hexagonal Exterior] [Fig 10.3 (below) Hexgonal Interior]

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B.5.


AESTHETIC PERFORMANCE Using green cellophane, we attempted to display the projected shadowing and qualities of algae through the pod systems. We aim to achieve a design that utilizes materials with transparency or translucency to achieve the desired aesthetic qualities of the algae reacting to the sunlight of the LAGI site. The experience of lighting within the design will be an engaging and educational one, since the algae needs sunlight in order to grow.

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AESTHETICS ENERGY INFORMS FORM

F

or this pavilion project, the energy choice directly informs our form. Algae biofuel relies on the sun for optimal growth conditions, therefore our pavilion design needs to respond to the sun direction in a yearlong manner. The LAGI site is situated in Copenhagen, Denmark, where the sun rises in the east and sets in the west. The sun takes a southerly direction to the site during the day, however the length of the day with sunlight varies greatly due to Denmarkâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s northern location in Europe.

The climate of Denmark is temperate, made mild mostly by west winds and the seas that surround Denmark [15]. The LAGI site would experience the wind strength in Denmark [Fig 11.2] due to its situation and proximity to the ocean , which becomes a contributing factor to the materiality of the pavilion design and pod structure.

MATERIALITY PLASTIC AND GLASS

82

ollowing an understanding of how we want our pavilion design to feel and respond to the conditions of the site, we have considered a choice between plastic and glass for the pod structures. Both glass and plastic can be utilized as the material for a photobioreactor, the installation for the production of microorganisms outside their natural, but inside an artificial, environment. [11]

F

system [13]. In order to house the pod structures and maintain thermal protection, glazing could be applied to the selected glass choice. Further to this, glass embodies a heavier mass than plastic, and in the construction of a pavilion that has to compete with a western wind and ocean breeze, the heavier material choice may provide a stronger sense of structural stability as opposed to plastic.

Closed bioreactor systems have been known to use segmented glass plates in an outdoor setting as the material choice, as opposed to a more lightweight alternative to glass, such as plexiglass. Closed systems are prone to high construction costs and high maintenance requirements, however they limit wastage of water and contamination in comparison to an open

Stability of the structure could also be ensured through a framing system of steel, which could provide spacing for the pods within the frame. Further to this, the pipes that are necessary to circulate the algae could have potential in their presence as a structural component.

B.5.


[Fig 11.1(above) Contextual site map] [Fig 11.2 (right) Analysis of LAGI site]

N

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AESTHETICS FORM GENERATION

T

he follow iterations display the potential that a curved form embodies in terms of pattern distribution. Each of the three algorithms generated through Grasshopper were able to successfully create a pod exterior across a curved surface. In comparison to the basic form of a single curve, these forms display how dynamic a dynamically curved surface can be. There is an organic flow of movement within these forms, and they all maintain a following of the rules of tessellation, being the joining of shapes corner to corner and maximizing surface area potential. The LunchBox forms to the right highlight the use of the three different grids and cells in our definitions, and when compared to the iterations and application on a surface, the resemblance is difficult to distinguish. The outcomes look entirely different to the original LunchBox forms.

LUNCHBOX BASIC FORM

Constant Quad Sub

Hexagon Cells

Subdivide Triangle

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B.5.


FORM VARIATION

bdivide

e

B.5.

85


AESTHETICS FORM GENERATION AND EXPLORATION

LARGER FORM GENERATION

86


E

xploration of the potential within variations of curves lead to a variety of outcomes. In terms of finalising on a formal process, we chose a simply curved surface [Fig 12.1] as a proposal that was suited to the LAGI site. The curved elements and multitude of ways that the pods can face the environment allow the maximum sunlight to hit the pd structure, thus promoting algae growth. The soft curves provide a visually pleasing pavilion, as it will merge with the landscape through the recession ofthe curves on the corners.

[Fig 12.1 Pavilion Proposal]

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[Fig 13.1 Render to landscape, allowing wind power to seep over the curves]

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B.5.


B.5.

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B.6. TECHNIQUE: PROPOSAL

O

ur design objective from the start of the design task was to create an art form that adheres to the LAGI brief and encapsulates the users of the site to become inquisitive about our chosen energy. Upon technique development and exploration as a group, our chosen energy source of algae biofuel became the central aspect of our pavilion design. Our proposal, therefore, is to create a pavilion that incorporates algae biofuel energy in an integrated and localized manner with the site, through a pod covered surface. We aim to balance an optimised result with an interesting architectural outcome. We aim to utilize the localized facilities of wastewater and seawater near the site in an environmental manner that will benefit not only the users of the site, but also the surrounding Refshaleøen district. The pavilion design will provide both an experiential and informative

90

atmosphere for the users of the site, as it will educate the public on the ease and use of algae as a green alternative fuel source. The contextual and environmental aspects of the site, where the sun plays a key role in algae growth rates, inform the curved form of our pavilion. The proposed closed system of the pods allows control over the functionality of the algae [13], where the aesthetics of the design lay in both the parametric form of the pavilion and the integration it conveys with the algae pods. In comparison to other examples that harness algae biofuel energy, our proposal utilizes parametric design to create the tessellated surface of our pod structure. Our pod system is vastly different to the pipe and panel systems that have been employed by other designers as we pursue a multitude of design outcomes in relation to the LAGI brief.

B.6.


B.7. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES

U

pon developing the tessellated pod patterns and exploring our Grasshopper definitions, we found that there is plenty of potential in our algorithms to create a variety of surface panels and pods that could be applied to our design. Harnessing these forms, however, was not as simple as we expected it to be. I, myself, found many of our generated forms throughout Part B to be visually challenging and interesting, however many were not feasible to construct or emulate in the real world. For this reason, we have settled on a simple pod system that acquires a balance between an architectural outcome that fulfills our design intent and optimization of results from our algae biofuel. Following the Interim Presentation, many new ideas generated from the feedback from our crits and general exploration as a group has been noted. We would like to further develop our algorithm and explore the potential of algae biofuel architecture, since our current definition is a pattern of pods that attach to a surface. Optimization of our form also needs to be addressed, where we need to think about the potential in varying heights of different sections of the pavilion and optimizing the size and angle of our form. We were asked about the real time numbers and statistics of algae production and the size and scale that we would need to produce our pavilion on, however we were unable to provide the right statistics. This simple fact should be the one major component that informs our

form generation, and more thought and research will be focused on that point through group exploration. These ideas can all be addressed in parametric terms, where we can apply our generated knowledge of Grasshopper and the 3D world to out pavilion design. I also feel that more prototyping would greatly benefit our design progress, as we would be able to physically see our ideas come to life and test our concepts. I feel that Part B has been more rewarding than Part A, as we are now able to apply the computational knowledge that we have gathered into effect. I believe that I have come a long way since the beginning of the semester, as the weekly tutorials and group work have boosted my confidence skills in design computation and Grasshopper. We have developed an ability to generate a variety of possibilities for our given situation, as seen in our iterative design stages, and have been able to explore the relationships between architecture and air through the prototyping phase. Through critical thinking and conceptual challenges, I believe that our design can be refined to the point where it could have some potential of being constructed.

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B.8. APPENDIX - ALGORITHMIC SKETCHES

P

art B has expanded my knowledge of the computational world of architecture in a variety of ways. We are constantly encouraged to not only practice using Grasshopper, but we are also encouraged to have fun with it. While it takes some time to get used to as a parametric modeling program, the functions and abilities of Grasshopper itself are quite phenomenal. The general advancement of our designing and modeling techniques in this phase has expanded that of Part A, since we are now able to communicate our design ideas on a computational level.

Personally, I found the Evaluating Fields and Graph Controllers video tutorials to be the most enjoyable, as they produced a series of patterns that were visually intriguing. The addition of a line charge added an interesting angle to the patterns in the Evaluating Fields task. While this will not be used in our design proposal, I still found it to be a valuable task. The reverse engineering task formed the basis for our advancement to our design proposal, and the reverse engineering process was more of a challenge than I expected it to be.

[Fig 14.2 Graph Controllers]

[Fig 14.1 Line Charge]

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[Fig 14.3 Evaluating Fields]

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REFERENCES

1] Woodbury, Robert F. (2014). ‘How Designers Use Parameters’, in Theories of the Digital in Architecture, ed. by Rivka Oxman and Robert Oxman (London; New York: Routledge), pp. 153–170 [2] Tessellations, Available at: http://www.csun.edu/~lmp99402/Math_Art/Tesselations/tesselations.html (Accessed: 16th April 2014). [3] Schumacher, P. (2009), Parametric Patterns. Archit Design, 79: 28–41. doi: 10.1002/ad.976 – page 1,33 [4] (2009) EXOtique, Available at: http://www.projectione.com/exotique/ (Accessed: 16th April 2014). [5] Mark Burry, Aegis Hyposurface, Available at: http://mcburry.net/aegis-hyposurface/ (Accessed: 16th April 2014). [6] Lidija Grozdanic (2011) VoltaDom Instalation, Available at: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom- installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/ (Accessed: 12th April 2014). [7] Chris Knapp (2013) Atmospheric Tessellation Wellington Lux, Available at: http://lux.org.nz/atmospheric- tessellation/ (Accessed: 19th April 2014). [8] Andrew Michler (2011) Algae Powered Federal Building, Available at: http://inhabitat.com/algae- powered-federal-building-retrofit-wins-next-generation-design-competition/process-zero-retrofit-resolu tion-5/?extend=1 (Accessed: 26th April 2014). [9] Sarah Hously (2009) Eco-pods by Howeler + Yoon Architecture, Available at: http://www.dezeen. com/2009/10/02/eco-pods-by-howeler-yoon-architectureand-squared-design-lab/ (Accessed: 30th April 2014). [10] Dr Greg Martin, Dr Ronald Halim, Simon XXX (The University of Melbourne, Academic, Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, Biofuel production processes (Fermentation, microalgae, lignocellulose pro fessors) [11] Algae Photobioreactor, Available at: http://www.growing-algae.com/algae-photobioreactor.html (Ac cessed: 30th April 2014). [12] Scarsella, M., Belotti, G., De Filippis, P., Bravi, M. (2010) ‘(1) Study on the optimal growing conditions of Chlorella vulgaris in bubble column photobioreactors ‘, , (), pp. [Online]. Available at: http://www. aidic.it/ibic2010/webpapers/58Scarsella.pdf (Accessed: 30th April). [13] Clayton S. Jeffryes and Spiros N. Agathos () Algae as a Frontier in Bioprocessing : Technical and Eco nomic Challenges, Available at: http://www.certh.gr/dat/0D92D187/file.pdf (Accessed: 30th April 2014). [14] Review: Land Art Generator Initiative Competition Entries, 2012 <http://landartgenerator.org/LAGI- 2012/> [15] København, Denmark - Sunrise, sunset, dawn and dusk times, table, Available at: http://www.gaisma. com/en/location/kobenhavn.html (Accessed: 2 May 2014).

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REFERENCES


IMAGES

[1.1-3] (2009) EXOtique, Available at: http://www.projectione.com/exotique/ (Accessed: 16th April 2014). [2.1] Hyposurface, Available at: http://mcburry.files.wordpress.com/2012/01/d1_mcb_p_0000011.jpg (Ac cessed: 16th April 2014). [3.1] Lidija Grozdanic (2011) VoltaDom Instalation, Available at: http://www.evolo.us/architecture/voltadom- installation-skylar-tibbits-sjet/ (Accessed: 12th April 2014). [4.1] Michael Parson (2013) Atmospheric Tessellation at Wellington Lux, Available at: http://www.australian designreview.com/features/32398-atmospheric-tessellation (Accessed: 19th April 2014). [5.1] Available at: http://0.static.wix.com/media/2f9c85_acce8fc44ef4927c93815150405ede58.jpg_1024 (Accessed: 26th April 2014). [6.1] Sarah Hously (2009) Eco-pods by Howeler + Yoon Architecture, Available at: http://www.dezeen. com/2009/10/02/eco-pods-by-howeler-yoon-architectureand-squared-design-lab/ (Accessed: 30th April 2014). [7.1] Available at: http://webberenergyblog.files.wordpress.com/2010/02/algae-bioreactors1.jpg (Accessed: 3 May 2014). [7.2] Available at: http://news.thomasnet.com/IMT/wp-content/uploads/sites/3/2013/02/Open-pond-algae- production.-Pacific-Northwest-National-Laboratory.jpeg (Accessed: 3 May 2014).

REFERENCES

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PART C

DETAILED DESIGN


PART C DETAILED DESIGN C.1. Design Concept C.2. Tectonic Elements C.3. Final Model C.4. Additional LAGI Brief Requir ements C.5. Lear ning Objectives and Outcomes

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DESIGN CONCEPT INTRODUCTION

T

he design process from Conceptualization to Criteria Design has inspired and informed us in the progression of parametric design and the capabilities it embodies to be adapted to design in the modern world. In relation to our design concept of an algae biofuel pavilion, the advancements in parametric design allow us to both progress within our concepts and envision a final design proposal in relation to the LAGI brief. The ability to manipulate the pod shape, size and distribution across the site in such an efficient and visionary manner is achieved through the aptitudes of parametric design, which allowed us to reach a final design concept. Following on from the interim presentation, we were encouraged to further explore the potential of our pod structure and placement within the LAGI site. Part B

envisioned a design that incorporated a curved form to flow across the site, covered in algae pods, that would provide an experiential and informative experience for the visitors of the site, through education and a play on the distribution of algae around the pavilion to provide colour enhanced areas. Our physical prototyping process allowed us to explore the potential of different shaped pod designs and test the effects that lighting could have on the generated forms. In terms of progressing with our design, however, more explorations into the breakdown of components within our design needed to be addressed in order to reach a justified design concept that both fulfilled our design intent as well as the LAGI brief.

[Fig 1.1 LAGI site and surrounding district of Copenhagen]

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C.1. DESIGN CONCEPT REQUIREMENTS n relation to the LAGI brief, our design needs to consist of a ‘three dimensional sculptural form’ that has the ability to stimulate and challenge the mind of the visitors to the site. It also needs to ‘capture energy from nature’, and not impact the natural surroundings in a negative manner. [1]

I

are very much part of the solution to create greener living spaces and initiate a healthy, public debate’. These simple notions of green transition and initiating conversation about the importance of renewable energy are supported by our energy choice of algae biofuel.

The overall theme of the LAGI project is the importance of green transition, which is a challenge to achieve in the current day. Hence, our design will respond as a solution to green transition, in finding new ways to integrate renewable energy projects into a cityscape. As quoted in the LAGI Design Guidelines, ‘Art, architecture, and other creative projects and forms of expression

The site location of Refshaleøen was once a shipyard, where it’s rich historical context supports it’s central standing in the city of Copenhagen. The view across the harbor, as well as from the Little Mermaid statue, is a prime site to conceptualize a pavilion that can draw in visitors through the aesthetics and intriguing nature of the design.

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DESIGN CONCEPT REQUIREMENTS

D

uring the conceptualization phase of the design process, and by placing a scaled model to the site, we were able to understand the grand size of the LAGI site, and the relationship that scale plays within our envisioned design. In relation to algae, the green glow and monolithic element of the pod structures will not only be able to be seen from across the harbor, but will also promote a sense of inquiry into the site. In terms of developing our technique, the generated form in Part B does not support these ideas of an eye catching and enhancing design, therefore form progression needs to be readdressed. The chosen technique of algae biofuel will hence form a relationship to the site, as the monolithic structure and honesty in constructability will provide the visitors of the site with a sense of ideology and desire to explore the pod structure that they would not encounter with any other proposal.

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The flows of algae throughout the design, and subsequent processing phases of the algae, are all to be seen and experienced by the visitors. The renewable energy is designed to be informative for the viewers, where they can approach the pavilion design without any prior knowledge of algae biofuel, however upon exploration of the pavilion they will be able to leave with an understanding of the simplicity and accessibility of itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s potential as a green energy source. The pavilion form that we created following the interim presentation (opposite) created through Grasshopper display the initial phases of an organic form flowing across the site, supported by a steel frame underneath. Within this form we found many complications however, that needed to be resolved in order to reach a final design. The proposed pavilion had pods that were 4m in length, and the steel framing created did not follow the pattern of the pod structure. In order to refine this process and give our design some sense of feasibility, the pod structure, steel frame and overall form needed to be altered.

C.1.


Fig 2.1 The pavilion concept above was our first major step towards our final design concept, however pod sizing and overall form need to be addressed. They did not respond to the site in the manner that we had aimed for; instead, we want to create a design that flows within the site, and does not have such a massive size in the pod structure, such as the 4m pods above in length.

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FORM REFINEMENT LADYBUG RADIATION ANALYSIS

I

n order to extend our technique and optimize the form of the pavilion, a radiation analysis was performed in the plugin Ladybug for Grasshopper. Our chosen energy source, being algae biofuel, relies on the sun to promote algal growth in the pods, and our form aims to respond to the sun. In optimizing the form of the pavilion to the sun path and radiation across the site, a series of three species could be identified from the chosen forms that we explored. While there are an unlimited amount of forms that could potentially be placed across the site, our desire to create a flowing and organic structure for the pavilion design was the overarching theme as we experimented with the structure. Each of the species emphasize a point in the design process where a new idea entered the concepts in our minds. The following pages display the matrix of iterations of the form in relation to the results obtained from Ladybug. Large amounts of radiation are specified through the colours red and orange, whereas areas that do not receive the same mass of heat gain are identified with blue.

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SPECIES ONE: INTERIM FORM Adopting a shape that mirrors the LAGI site boundaries, this form shows an overall largely responsive radiation pattern across the entire mesh, at different times. Each iteration highlights minor changes in the height, width and scale of the form in certain areas. The main issue with this form was the simple placement of it within the site. It did not promote a sense of attraction as it was simply located at the center with no interactive elements.

SPECIES TWO: ORGANIC FORM The flow of this form is less rigid than the first species. In responding to the sun, expanding the vertical height of the southern side of the pavilion exposed it to the sun path of Copenhagen. The radiation across the surface, in general terms, however did not average out, where certain shells of the design populated into a blue mesh, indicating the minimum amount of radiation gain.

SPECIES THREE: FINAL FORM The previous forms were all located in the center of the LAGI site, and none explored the potential of the water that surround the site and city of Copenhagen. This third proposal, however, uses a grid shell form, generated in rhino to be positioned over the western side of the LAGI site. Parts of the from flatten out to be uses as an interactive element of the design, where visitors could sit on the pods, and the form creates a point of interest looking out from the Little Mermaid. The radiation mesh highlights the amount of radiation that the surface receives during an annual period from January to December, where there was generally a warm radiation response to the form in Ladybug.

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FORM REFINEMENT LADYBUG RADIATION ANALYSIS SPECIES 2

INTERIM FORM

ORGANIC FORM

SPECIES 1

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FINAL FLOWING FORM

SPECIES 3

LEVELS OF RADIATION HIGH

LOW

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FINAL FORM LADYBUG RADIATION ANALYSIS

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FINAL FORM From the third species iterations, a final form was conceived and refined until it embodied the characteristics we wanted to achieve within our design intent. The form promotes a sense of flow and growth across the site, and incorporates shell forms that reach into the ocean.

The above form depicts the pavilion with pods covering the entire surface. When responding to the Ladybug radiation analysis, the pod structure creates a blue mesh that integrates with the red mesh, indicating high levels of solar radiation as well as lower level in the blue. This differs from the iterative process, which was based solely on a form, rather than a form covered with the pods.

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DESIGN CONCEPT KARAMBA STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

T

KEY/STRESS[kN/cm^2]

he weight of the 11,709 pods that decorate the pavilion structure need to be supported by a framing element that can bear this weight without buckling in compression and forces acting across the design. Karamba provides an accurate analysis of spatial trusses and frames [2] hence allowing us to find the correct dimensions in width of the framing needed to support the weight of the algae pods.

High in compression

Ideal range

1CM THICK

Further to this, the steel-framing element adds another dimension to the design, as it integrates the pods and piping system that run along the design. For an accurate and feasible analysis, the steel structure needed to trace the shape of the pods, unlike it did following the interim presentation. The steel structure that was analyzed in Karamba adheres to the hexagonal pod shapes and traces each outline in a successful manner.

2CM THICK

The red areas in the iterative process outline parts of the pavilion that are under high levels of compression, whereas the blue areas indicate high levels of tension. The aim, through Karamba, was to generate a structure that displayed white across itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s entity, as white indicates structural stability. This was achieved through a steel frame that was 8cm thick across the pavilion design.

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3CM THICK


4CM THICK

7CM THICK

8CM THICK

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DESIGN CONCEPT POD OPTIMISATION

W

hilst a hexagonal pod shape was utilized for the final form, research into the capabilities of a hexagon in comparison to other shapes was explored using certain criteria. The total surface area, volume and shadow casting qualities of five different 3D forms were compared to one another, ultimately supporting the notion that hexagons are well suited to our design intent through notions of tessellation.

Shadow distribution across a cluster of pods aims to highlight the problems with certain pod forms, as ideally the pod system should cast the minimal amount of shadows onto the surface, allowing the natural sunlight to penetrate the algae pods, promoting algal growth. Ladybug was able to aid in applying the sun path of the Copenhagen sun to the clusters of pods, yielding results that support our hexagonal pods.

The Total Surface Area (TSA) and volume of the hexagon exceeds that of the other shapes. The importance of TSA is integral in gaining the most amount of sunlight exposure for the algae pods, which rely on sunlight to grow. This is just one factor as to why hexagons were sselected for the pod structure.

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HEXAGON Least amount of dark grey tones in shadow distribution. This indicates minimal concentration of shadows to the surrounding areas of each hexagonal pod system, as the corners of the pod prevent the occurrence of heavy shadowing. Ladybug also gives insight into the casting properties of the shadows on the LAGI site, which spread across the surface as depicted above.

CIRCLE The shadowing surrounding the pod structures indicates a dark to medium distribution of shadowing. This could be problematic as there is no clear pattern in the shadowing.

TRIANGLE Dark greys surround the triangles, which are the least successful of the chosen five forms in responding to shadows projected on the plane.

SQUARE The square pod systems have similar shadowing capabilities to the hexagon; however contain a darker shade of grey, indicating coolness to the area.

TRI GRID: The tri grid indicates a good distribution of shadows, however lacks in the strengths of volume. The form is a successful attempt of tessellation, where the shapes are able to nest in between one another.

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DESIGN CONCEPT LADYBUG SHADOW STUDIES

U

sing Ladybug again, we projected the sun path of Copenhagen onto the final form with pods. The shadow studies indicate the yearly average of sun vectors projecting over the site, highlighting the areas that will receive more sunlight in the lighter tones.

The shadows project in a northern bearing due to the sun direction, and the overlap of shadows within the surface over the annual rate only appear to cover half of the structure.

The sun projects in a southerly direction in Denmark, hence why the southern facing surfaces appear lighter on the diagram than the northern facing surfaces.

SOUTHERN FACADE

EASTERN FACADE

WESTERN FACADE

NORTHERN FACADE

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DESIGN CONCEPT WORKFLOW OF DEFINITION

LOFTED SURFACE SET POINTS TO EXTERIOR OF LAGI SITE AND OUTLINE ELEMENTS

SET POLYLINE THROUGH POINTS THEN CONVERT TO BOUNDARY SURFACE

APPLY VORONOI IN INNER POINTS, THEN SPLIT INTO CURVE SEGMENTS, THEN TO DELAUNAY EDGES

USE KARAMBA TO APPLY GRAVITY LOAD OF -1, THEN DECONSTRUCT MESH AND RECONSTRUCT UTILISING VERTICES

MOVE CELLS IN THE Z DIRECTION BY 50 CM AND RE-SCALE

LOFT CELLS RESPECTIVELY AND PATCH SECONDARY CELL

POD PATTERN - HEXAGONAL POPULATE SURFACE WITH HEXAGONAL CELLS (U AND V OF 50)

SCALE FACTOR OF 0.8 FROM CENTRE OF EACH CELL

STRUCTURE - STEEL UTILISING A DEFINITION, SET THE HEXAGONAL STRUCTURE ONTO A SURFACE (U AND V OF 50)

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MOVE STRUCTURE IN Z DIRECTION BY -40 CM

FOLLOWING STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS IN KARAMBA, GRAFT AND PIPE THE CURVES AT 8 CM

C.1.

BAKE FINA FORM, USE LADYBUGFOR FURTHER ANALYSIS


NORTH ELEVATION

S

WEST ELEVATION

EAST ELEVATION

SOUTH ELEVATION

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116

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DESIGN CONCEPT SITING AND USE

B

y placing the pavilion design on the edge of the LAGI site, the view from across the harbor would be both intriguing and inviting for potential visitors of the site. The pavilion design, itself, is an energy generating attraction, and the placement and distribution of the installation across the site is an important factor in the feasible success of a design becoming an attraction.

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Copenhagen is a harbor city, where the waterways are used as heavily as the roads; therefore a pavilion design that can be seen from across the harbor will both intrigue and capture attention to the site. The site houses mass potential to be used as a venue for events, such as markets, concerts and productions. The spacing under the pavilion structure both accommodates the sizing of such events and also generates interest in its unique form.

C.1.


SEWAGE PLANT

THE LITTLE MERMAID

LAGI SITE

[Fig 3.1 Site map outlining proximity to the Little Mermaid and waste-water plant]

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[Fig 4.1 Underside of pavilion from harbour view]

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DESIGN CONCEPT SITING AND USE

I

n terms of experience, the canopy provides an experience that is constantly changing and alive. The algae are living, and the algae growth is spanned out across the pavilion in patterns of vivid colour. The pipe system supporting the transport of algae is constantly flushing out at different times across the design, which varies the experience of the site as a whole. Different areas of the pavilion can be adapted to different experiences. On the northern side of the pavilion, as depicted on page 126, a section of the form flattens out onto the ground. This area provides an up close assessment of the algae pods, which can be walked over, climbed and explored by curious visitors of the site. These instances promote an integration of the design with the landscape and users of the site, as the design flows into the ground of the LAGI site.

[Fig 5.1 Underside of pavilion]

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[Fig 6.1 Interactive seating/climbing/exploring element of pavilion]

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C.2. TECTONIC ELEMENTS OVERVIEW

T

he final pavilion concept can be broken down into a series of four major construction phases. These phases are: - Pods - Pipes - Steel - Columns These four broken down construction elements, when combined, provide the final form of the algae pavilion design. Within each of these phases, a number of tectonic elements are used to create the pavilion structure. Through a selection of joints, details and load bearing elements, the pavilion design gains it’s feasibility as a green energy attraction. In terms of addressing the tectonic elements of computational design, design experimentation lead to a desired form and outcome. This experimentation, as outlined in C.1, highlight’s Burry’s contention that scripting, and computational design, can be the ‘antidote to standardization forced by an ambition to lower production costs’, and can even give way to freeing up the designer, allowing them to spend more time on design thinking [3]. In our case, however, I feel that we spent more time understanding and rationalizing the design with the aid of scripting. In this way, we became the toolmaker of a computing program overlay

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STEEL FRAME

COLUMNS

The final form of the pavilion joins the four major constriction elements together as a system, supporting architect Lars Hesselgen’s argument that “Generative design is not about designing the building - it’s about designing the system that

PIPE SPACING

PODS

builds a building” [5]. The technicalities and understanding of the systems within the pavilion are outlined in the next break down of the design.

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TECTONIC ELEMENTS CONSTRUCTION PROCESS

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COLUMNS There are 7 columns that span in a linear manner across the pavilion design. These display the layers of lipid (algae oil), water and biomass that are extracted from the pods. They are supported by a steel framing element that wraps around each column.

STEEL The structural steel component that holds up the design in its entity was rationalized through Karamba. Structural steel traces the shape of each of the 11,709 pods across the design and supports the mass through 8cm thick steel components.

PIPES Although difficult to see, the spacing between the pods functions as the service way for the piping system across the pavilion design. A total of three major pipes, including and input, output and external back up pipe, are utilized throughout the design.

PODS There are a total of 11,709 pods, each containing 76L. The pods cover the entire pavilion structure; therefore they need to be supported by both a structural element to hold up the weight as well as a pipe system that transfers the water and algae across the design.

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TECTONIC ELEMENTS COLUMNS

A

cross the grid shell form of the pavilion, there are seven columns that act as both a structural support for the pods, as well as an informative design intention. A series of output pipes transfer the matured algae to the extractor, situated at the top of the column design. Within this extractor, the contents from the pods are broken down into the three outputs, being lipid (oil), water and biomass. These three outputs can be viewed within the column, which is supported structurally through the steel framing that follows the form of the pavilion. This steel is wrapped around the column, as depicted in the diagram at right.

COLUMNS

BIOMASS TANK

The oil runs through an underground pipe to a tank that is not held above ground for safety reasons, and the clean water pipes run back into the ocean. The biomass pipes run above ground to a tank that is situated within the LAGI site. These outputs are shown visually across the site to stimulate the minds of the visitors, where an emphasis on understanding the accessibility of algae biofuel is emphasized in the design. [Fig 7.1 Site map of biomass tank, viewed as you enter the LAGI site]

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OUTPUT PIPES - ALGAE

EXTRACTOR ELECTRICITY

CO2

LIPID - ALGAE OIL

BIOMASS

STEEL STRUCTURE

WATER

[Fig 7.2 Column detail diagram]

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TECTONIC ELEMENTS PIPES

I

ntegral to the movement, storage, flow and distribution of algae and the outputs in the pavilion, the pipe works form an important element within the design. The capacity of each pod, being 76L, needs to be accommodated by a piping system that can bear the correct amount of algae throughout the pavilion. In order to adapt to these conditions, a series of three service pipes were conceived in the final design phase. The spacing between the pods on the external surface of the structure is used to house the backup pipe, which functions should the internal pipes fail. It also

serves as the means to distribute various amounts of algae across the pavilion to achieve certain patterns of algae colouring across the pavilion. Internally, a collection of pipes from the ocean (direct sea water) and the sewage factory on Refshaleøen merge towards a pump. From here, the input pipes are pumped with the combined water into each algae pod. After seven days, the algae have reached its ideal growth, and the output pipes then drain the algae matter to one of several columns. From here, the columns process the matter into lipids, water and biomass.

BACKUP PIPE OUTPUT

OUTPUT

INPUT

BIOMASS WATER

LIPID OUTPUT OIL WATER

SEA WATER

PUMP

SEWAGE

[Fig 8.1 Pipe system diagram]

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BIOMASS

ALGAL OIL


TECTONIC ELEMENTS PODS

T

he unifying element of the design, embodying the chosen energy of algae biofuel, is the pod structure that traces the form of the pavilion. In many ways, the pod structure is the core construction element of the entire pavilion, as the pods are the visual element that intrigue visitors of the site and inform them of the chosen energy form.

Through design development, we decided that the pod colour should vary between a clear watered down algae pod to the intense green colour of cultured algae. The algae that we intend to use, being chlorella vulgaris, takes approximately 7 days to mature. Our idea, through varying pod intake across the design, means that we would aim to keep the freshest batches of algae at the top of each of the eight shells of the form. The entire pavilion is covered with a total of 11,709 In doing so, the lightest colour of algae would start at pods, varying minimally in size according to the shell the top of the pavilion, and the darkest, oldest algae surface that they are placed over. Each pod can contain would be situated at the bottom. up to 76 liters to house the algae and water that are needed to created algae biofuel, as outlined in Part B.

DAY 1 GROWTH

DAY 5 GROWTH

DAY 2 GROWTH

DAY 6 GROWTH

DAY 3 GROWTH

DAY 4 GROWTH

DAY 7 GROWTH - COMPLETED

[Fig 8.2 Diagram depicting the colour variation across the pod surface over a seven-day occurrence. The lightest algae are situated at the top and the darkest is situated at the bottom]

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TECTONIC ELEMENTS PODS

POD CONSTRUCTION Prefabricated construction would be the chosen construction method for the pod systems, which then clip to the steel-framing element on site. Each of the pods would be constructed off site, ensuring a quick on site assembly process. The steel would be also be welded to each of the pods to ensure stability, and the gaps between each of the pods would be used to accommodate the clip systems for the fitting process.

Further to this, the piping system would work above and below the steel frame, where the input and output pipes underneath the structure could vary in length, showing parts of the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;flushingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; process of the pods to the visitors underneath. In order to test our notions of the pod assembly, both a diagram and physical prototype was assembled to examine the feasibility of our ideas. Utilizing materials such as 3mm thick Perspex as a substitute for the Plexiglas (that could be used in the design), we were able to construct a physical representation.

[Fig 9.1 Perspex pieces of pods]

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POD CONSTRUCTION DIAGRAM EXPLODED POD

CONSTRUCTED POD

BACKUP PIPE EXTERNAL

POD SYSTEM AND EXTERNAL PIPE

STEEL STRUCTURE

INPUT/ OUTPUT PIPES INTERNAL

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COLUMN PROTOTYPE This physical representation of the column system displays the breakdown of the three outputs from the algae biofuel. The oil (lipid) floats on the top, then the water site between the lipid and algae biomass. This prototype was used to test the theory of these three outputs holding separate from each other in the column design, which proved to be successful. [Fig 10.1 Prototype of column]

POD PROTOTYPE Six pieces of Perspex were utilized to close the pod system during fabrication, where different glues yielding different results. Zap-a-Gap proved to be the most successful glue in drying time and minimal clouding on the Perspex. When glued at the correct angles the pod system proved to be watertight by sealing it with UHU glue. We were planning to line the perspex with a watertight casing, however it would not covney the honesty in design.

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[Fig 10.2 (above) Prototype of column] [Fig 10.3-5 (below) Pod assembly process]

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T

he algae filled pods are an example of how the pods would look filled with the algae mass on site. These pods also test the watertight element of our construction models. The clear pod below displays the shadow formation of the pod on a flat surface, where the hecagonal shape casts the minimal length in shading in comparison to other pod shapes (see C.1).

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[Fig 11.1 (top) Watertight prototype filled with algae] [Fig 11.2 (bottom) Shadow studies with clear pod]

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C.3. FINAL MODEL POD SYSTEM

O

ur final models consist of a detail model of two pod systems and a scaled site model. These models both describe the relationship between architecture and air in the form of our pavilion design and LAGI site. POD SYSTEM A series of two pods were constructed in this final stage, which described the relationship between the pod, steel frame and piping system. This serves as a construction detail, were the backup pipe runs along the exterior of the pods, through the generated gaps on the surface. The internal input/output pipes are described in the model with a 3m thick pipe, and the backup pipe utilizes a 6mm thick pipe. This detail model shows the half sized pods, which could be situated at the fold of a shell of the pavilion.

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[Fig 12.1 (top) Underside of steel frame an input/output column] [Fig 12.2 (bottom) Detail of the backup pipe over the internal pipes]

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C.3. FINAL MODEL FORM FORM We chose to create a site model that included the view from the Little Mermaid and wastewater plant at Refshaleøen at a 1:1000 scale. The model includes all of the buildings surrounding the LAGI site on the flat contour of the land. On this site model, we situated a 3D print of our form at a 1:1000 scale, supported with the steel-framing member underneath the print. This model brings the design to life in a three-dimensional sense. The 3D print was offset by 3mm to accommodate for the settings of the 3D printer. A thin layer of hexagonal mesh was used to represent our steel structure underneath the pod surface, which was contoured to the 3D print.

[Fig 13.1 3D print of form at 1:1000 and steel structure] [Fig 13.2 FInal Model]

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SITE MODEL The 1:1000 containing the 3D print emphasises the were used to create the 800 x 900m structure site (to relationship between the Little Mermaid, waste-water 1:1000 scale) as their simplicity in both texture and plant and surrounding context. The form also flows into colour compliment the 3D print. the water, as desired. Balsa wood and foam core

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C.4. ADDITIONAL LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS DESCRIPTION ALGAE PAVILION

T

he Algae Pavilion, in summary, incorporates algae biofuel energy in an integrated and localized manner with the site, where the visitors of the site will be informed about the energy as they explore the pavilion design. The key emphases is about the way that visitors both experience and inhabit the space of the site. The pavilion itself is designed to flow over the site and water

of the harbor at Refshaleøen, where the variance in it’s appearance is controlled through algae growth across the pavilion. The site itself is not just restricted to a simple pavilion design; the heights of multiple peaks in the grid shell form of the pavilion can reach up to 9m, therefore supporting the idea of events to be held under the pavilion structure.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT The algae biofuel pavilion design embodies a sense of longevity that other pavilion designs, such as those explored in Part A – Conceptualization, do not through its constructability. The heavy weight and boldness of the structure are not designed to be in a constant phase of relocation, but instead are designed to generate interest from the LAGI site. Ultimately, we are interested in an energy generating attraction, that responds to both the site and context through its use of local resources, such as the wastewater plant and seawater. The movement of the algae within the pods and the multitude of ways that visitors can inhabit the space, support the notion of the pavilion becoming an attraction where people can learn about the importance of green transition in the current day and times to come. The visual experience of watching the processes that convert algae to energy will inspire the visitors,

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displaying the simplicity and accessibility of renewable energy measures that can be employed on a mass scale around the world. By prefabricating the pods off site, minimal assembly on site would be needed. The steel frame would be the only major component that is constructed on site, and even still, the columns that connect the flow of algae through the pipes and structure would also be constructed off site. Minimal environmental impact would occur on site due to the prefabricated nature of the design, which doesn’t aim to dominate over the existing factory setting of Refshaleøen. Algae are such a promising and exciting new form of renewable energy, and its quick maturing process and visually stimulating presence really aids in the creation of an atmosphere under the surface. Once the first batch of algae culture has matured, the next batch is nearly ready to be processed.

C.4.


STRUCTURAL STEEL

9M

PVC PIPES

ACRYLIC PLEXIGLASS

112M

ACRYLIC PLEXIGLASS

55.4M

MATERIAL SCHEDULE

I

n terms of materiality, the three main materials utilized would be - Structural steel - Acrylic Plexiglas - PVC pipes

Structural steel supports the mass loading of Plexiglas pods on the structure, which also contain the weight of the water and algae contained in each of the 11,709 pods. The pipe system, constructed of PVC, would then transfer the necessary components of the energygenerating pavilion to one another.

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LAGI BRIEF REQUIREMENTS ENERGY

TOTAL: 11709 PODS EACH POD: 76L Dried Algae: 20% lipid 40% carbohydrate 40% protein Algae needs 7 days to grow and mature, and 1 litre of water makes 0.7g of dried algae, therefore: 76L x 0.7 = 53kg dried algae: = 10.6L lipid = 21.2 kg carhbohydrate = 21.2 kg protein Daily algae making rate = 11709 / 7 = 1673 pods with mature algae per day 1673 x ratio of protein etc = 17733.8 L of lipid = 35467.6 kg protein = 35467.6kg carbohydrate Lipid = biodisel Carbohydrate = bio ethanol Protein = fertilizer or cattle feed Annual production = 6,472,837 L of Biodiesal = 12, 945,674 L of Bio ethanol = 12,945,674 Kg of Protein

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Therefore, in totality, the estimate of annual kWh (kilowatt-hours) generated by the Algae Pavilion is: = 151334929.06 kWh

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C.5. LEARNING OBJECTIVES AND OUTCOMES PRESENTATION FEEDBACK

W

e received constructive advice from our panel of crits during the presentation in relation to our design, where the main issues were based on citing, scale and experience.

Water is a central key to the algae pavilion, in terms of functionality, therefore paying homage to the water and including it I the design is an important element of the structure.

We felt that through our diagrams, rendered images and models, we were able to successfully pitch our design idea in a professional and efficient manner. Our feedback in regards to presentation content was positive, as we covered the iterative process in design generation to the final product. In order to fully appreciate the algae pavilion design, an understanding of the research and development phases that took place before our final form is necessary, and as outlined in this journal, they were integral in justifying our final form.

Our crits responded positively to the prospect of an ever-changing environment under the canopy, and suggested that we explore means of using our design to fulfill other functions, such as a night market or concert venue. These are ideas that we had considered during the design process, since our pavilion covers an extensive span and elevates to heights that make a concert or function feasible underneath the canopy.

In terms of improvements, we were encouraged to explore other options for site placement and scaling, as we only covered a small portion of the site. Whilst our design direction was to create a pavilion design that was integrated with the LAGI site, we discussed ways in which we could further broaden our options for placement, but we still feel that the acknowledgment of the water in our design was the right design choice.

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[Fig 15.1 Colourful experience under the canopy]

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LEARNING OBJECTIVES 1-4

OBJECTIVE 1: INTERROGATING A BRIEF Part A of this journal was about conceptualization, and exploring the world of computational design for what it is today. Throughout the journal, I believe that I have considered the process of brief formation in this modern age of optioneering enabled by design technologies. Computational design, as outlined in A.2, is about the digital in architecture, which has enabled the ability for designers to create a set of symbolic relationships between the formulation of design processes and developing technologies [6]. OBJECTIVE 2: GENERATING A VARIETY OF DESIGN POSSIBILITIES In using the skills that we worked up throughout the semester in Grasshopper, a series of iterative design possibilities for a given situation were created. Examples of these are shown in B.2 and B.4 which progresses into refining the chosen form in C.1. Extensive exploration in algorithmic design was explored during these phases, where we were able to yield results that we did not even expect to occur ourselves.

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OUTCOME 3: DEVELOPING SKILLS IN THREE-DIMENSIONAL MEDIA In developing skills within computational geometry and parametric modeling, the Algorithmic Sketchbook outlines a variety of tasks, experiments, failures and successes that I discovered during the studio. It serves as a constant reminder that computational design is an ever changing field, and analytic diagramming was considered in C.1 during the form generative process and analysis of our chosen form. Digital fabrication was a learning objective that was successfully achieved in both Parts B and C, leading to our final model is C.3. OBJECTIVE 4: UNDERSTANDING OF RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ARCHITECTURE AND AIR Through interrogation of the design process, constant refinement and development of our final, we were able to understand the intrinsic relationship between architecture and air. As an object, architecture relates to more than the site and context of a brief; it also relates to the space that it is held in. This notion of place and sizing and status only became apparent to me as we entered Part C of the proposal, through scaling tasks of the pavilion on site. The sheer size of the pavilion, reaching up to 112m in length, changes the air of the space, and this was only realized when the model was scaled against the backdrop of the surrounding Refshaleøen district and by placing people into the model.

C.5.


LEARNING OBJECTIVES 5-8

OBJECTIVE 5: ABILITY TO MAKE A CASE FOR PROPOSALS A development of critical thinking has been identified from Part A through to Part C, where notions of feasibility have been met with the advances in computational design. Part A outlines many of the arguments about contemporary discourse in architecture, and the way that computational design now plays a key role as a way of working. As outlined in A.3, computation allows us to capture the complexity of a project, the multitude of parameters needed for formation and the designerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s intellect, promoting efficiency and better communication [4]. OBJECTIVE 6: DEVELOP CAPABILITIES FOR ANALYSIS OF ARCHITECTURAL PROJECTS Part A outlines a vigorous analysis of example precedents that utilize computation in architecture, and in Parts B.1 and B.2, a more intense analysis of projects was undertaken. These all led way to the reverse engineering project of B.3, which allowed us to both analyse and tamper with the technical elements of computational design in Grasshopper.

OBJECTIVE 7: FOUNDATIONAL UNDERSTANDINGS OF COMPUTATIONAL ELEMENTS In understanding computational geometry, data structures and types of programming, the use of Grasshopper was inherent in each of the design processes undertaken to achieve our final. The final geometry and refinement in C.1, showcase our effort to utilize some of the tools in Grasshopper that go beyond simple designing, such as using Ladybug and Karamba. OBJECTIVE 8: DEVELOPING A PERSONALIZED REPERTOIRE OF COMPUTATIONAL TECHNIQUES I believe that throughout this semester, and as outlined across the entity of the journal, my skills in Grasshopper and computational design have advanced in a vast and efficient manner. Computational design is such a quick means of experimenting with ideas, where we could pump out multiple design concepts in such a short amount of time, once we understood the necessary tools.

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OUTCOMES

T

his design project was a task that I was not at all prepared for at the start of the semester. Through the weekly videos, and a very supportive team, I was able to conquer the weekly tasks and progressive elements of the algae pavilion. This project has taught me a wealth of knowledge about computational architecture, something that I knew very little about before the commencement of this studio. Computational methods have proven to be an easy and quick way to fabricate a design idea, as tectonic assemblies are constantly utilized, making the construction process an easy one to undertake.

of design in drawing and visualization, as well as model making, are integral for an individual on a creative level. The fast paced and efficient nature of computational design though was a major advantage of utilizing algorithmic methods in our design. While people like Mark Burry contend that scripting and computational methods are a ‘driving force for 21st century architecture’ [3], I still believe that traditional methods can play a key role in the design sphere. The skills and techniques used in the history of architecture should not be forgotten in the whim of technological advances in design.

This studio has given me a confidence in the Grasshopper and Rhino spectrum that I did not have at the start of the semester, and the precedent studies were such an enjoyable part of the design process. The most rewarding aspect of the studio, though, was the ability to constantly re-define our project, which was manageable since we were utilizing the speed of computational design. This studio has differed greatly in comparison to other studios that I have undertaken, as it focuses on both the algorithmic aspect of design as well as the energy generating aspect. I also enjoyed the presentation process, as being able to convey your work in a verbal sense, as well as visually, is key to a good design.

For me, parametric design embodies characteristics of repetition and stylistic designing elements, and holds certain dominance in appearance. I believe that through this studio many groups, among us, have achieved a design that embodies these characteristics. The Modern Movement was a cultural domination that significantly altered design and many other means of life, and this ‘Modernization’ is perfectly encapsulated in parametric design [3]. The use of materials on a mass scale, in an efficient manner, is generally influenced by parametric design. Examples of these pre fabricated design concepts can be seen in Part A, in projects such as the The Dal Canopy, or in B.1 in Projectione’s EXOtique installation. Fast conception, production and assembly are all considered and achieved through these designs, which heavily influenced our conception for the construction of our Algae Pavilion.

In terms of a computational approach, I felt that at times it could stifle creativity, as it can be quite constricting. During the design process, I couldn’t help but think ‘will this be feasible in Grasshopper?’, and although so many ideas were able to be created in a three-dimensional sense, I felt that the convenience of algorithmic design could sometimes lead my mind astray from traditional design methods. While this isn’t always a bad thing, I still feel that traditional methods

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At the start of the semester, I was content to draw my conceptual ideas on paper and solely develop them using traditional methods, however I have now gained a wealth of knowledge through this studio that will aid me with future projects in a computational and algorithmic manner.

C.5.


REFERENCES

[1] Competition 2014, 2014 <http://landartgenerator.org/competition2014.html> [accessed 7 June 2014] [2] Karamba Parametric Engineering, 2014 < http://www.karamba3d.com> [3] Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley) pp. 8-71 [4] Peters, Brady. (2013) ‘Computation Works: The Building of Algorithmic Thought’, Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 08-15 [5] Generative Design <http://generativedesign.¬¬wordpress.com/2011/01/29/what-is-generative- desing/> [accessed 18 March 2014]. [6] Oxman, Rivka and Robert Oxman, eds (2014). Theories of the Digital in Architecture

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Design Journal