MORAL MORAL MEAT MEAT ADVOCATE FOR HUMANE LY RA ISED FARM AN IM AL S
Published by Moral Meat Association 737 Post St. Apt 1313, CA 94109 San Francisco, U.S.A. +1 415 367 5999 email@example.com w w w.moralmeatassociation.com
HOW MANY PEOPLE KNOW THAT most farm animals are living in sq ualid and dreadful conditions, are bred extremely in humanely, and furthermore will be fed into the mouths of most consumers soon? In recent years, Many people today are too busy to stop to pay attention to what they eat. In recent years, we have seen more and more incidents pof diseases in the meat and dairy from the news, such as foot and mouth disease, avian flu, swine flu, salmonella, and mad cow disease. Some people will still not care about the food they eat and animal treatment particularly, which they assume is not very critical. Some even avoid learning about more this issue deeper because the fact is bloody and cr uel, and they are unwilling to change the way they eat and buy. There are a few people who are concerned with where the animals come from, what the production process is like, or even wonder what causes these problems. But there are still lots of people who donâ€™t know the seriousness of this topic. Therefore, a large amount of in humane factory farming is still spreading across the United States and increasing in the world. The object of this book is to stop in humane treatment toward farm animals and also to make the meat and dairy products safer and better. It begins by exposing the tr uth of factory farming to let the readers understand meat manufacturing first, and then explains what we, as consumers, can do to make it better. We can not make everyone in the world become a vegetarian, but starting to cart about and inspect our food is the most fundamental way to stop animals suffering, diseases, and pollution.
1 ILLUSIONS p.26—p.43
CAST CAST OVER OVERVIEW VIEW THEY ALL CAME FROM FAMILY FARM
SHERIFF RUDY ROOSTER IDENTITY:
the Buckeye chicken is originated in the state of Virginia
AGE: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: OCCUPATION: PERSONALITY: DEEDS:
8 Weeks 12â€”18 inches tall about 6.25 lbs Law enforcement officer Coos County a lover of freedom, smart, outgoing a win ner of the Super Enthusiastic Award, has a record of a 100% detection rate
FACTORY FARMING Wa nted for crimes againsts society of the worest kind. Outlaw is k now n to be extremely da ngerous a nd should be approached with caution!
FARMER MOODY IDENTITY:
The Blonde d’Aq uitaine breed originated the state of Virginia
AGE: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: OCCUPATION: PERSONALITY:
7 years old 52.89 inches, that’s around 4 feet 4 inches 2,000 pounds A free-range farmer a bold cowboy, impetuous, strict, stern, and obstinate
won best of show at the Texas State Fair for his livestock
SCOOP PORKER IDENTITY:
Lacombe breed, the fifth ranking breed of swine in New Jersey
AGE: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: OCCUPATION: PERSONALITY: SPECIALTY:
2.5 years old 20 inches tall at their shoulders 150 pounds sq uealer for SWINE TRIBUNE humorous, loq uacious, q uirky good at digging at the dirt on the breaking news, a real-go-getter
University of Cambridge
PROFESSOR WOOLY WOOLSWORTH IDENTITY:
Cotswold sheep, a breed of domestic sheep originating in the Cotswold hills of the southern midlands of England.
AGE: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: OCCUPATION:
4.5 years old 35 inches to shoulder 160 lbs phd in zoological science and animal rights advocate from University of Cambridge
has strong thirst for knowledge, emotional, detailed and gr umpy
a lover of freedom, smart, outgoing
MISS BESSIE MAE IDENTITY:
the black-and-white Holsteins, whose popularity stems from their ability to produce more milk than any other breed, are from Wisconsin
AGE: HEIGHT: WEIGHT: OCCUPATION: PERSONALITY: HOBBY:
3 years old around 4 feet 4 inches about 720 lbs best dairy maid in tow n friendly, very kind and caring, zealous, sometimes wordy, always talk about love a win ner of the Super Enthusiastic Award, has a record of a 100% detection rate
ILLUSIONS Err... so what I see ain’t what it is?
FACTORY FARMING WANTS US TO KNOW...
Have you ever thought about where your food comes?
WHAT WE ARE TOLD TO BELIEVE? Are you being duped by advertising? Most of us never stop to thin k about where that perfectly grilled steak, smothered chicken breast or sun ny side up egg actually comes from. If we do, we might have an image of the animal it ca me from, and we likely imagine that animal out in the sunshine on a farm with a big red barn nestled in a valley somewhere. The reality is likely very different! In the last few decades, consolidation of food production has concentrated power in the hands of fewer and fewer corporations. Many of today’s farms are actually large industrial facilities. If you buy your meat, poultry, eggs and dairy from a conventional grocery store, odds are it can be traced back to a factory farm. In fact, 95% of the animals raised for human consumption in U.S. are raised in factory farms. These consolidated operations are able to produce food in high volume but have little to no regard for the environ ment, animal welfare, or food safety. In order to maximize profits, factory far ms often put the health of consu mers a nd r ural com m unities at risk. Are you being duped by advertising? Do you k now where your meat really comes from? Actually, there are fewer and fewer animals raised as the way they were before, or on the farm as the advertising and packages show us. Most of them are from factory farming. Factory farming also k now n as CAFOs (Concentrated Animal Feeding Operations) or IFAP (Industrial Farm Animal Production) facilities, can house up to 125,000 animals under one roof and are designed to produce the highest possible output at the lowest possible cost to the operator. These farms and their associated industrial slaughterhouses produce “cheap” meat, eggs, and dairy by externalizing their costs. The costs to the public from the ecological da mage and health problems created by factory farms are not considered any more than the law req uires, and companies have often found it less expensive to pay fines than to alter their methods. For this reason, the tr ue cost of meat is never reflected in the price consumers pay. Animal suffering is given no meaningful consideration except in a few idiosy ncratic cases. Factory farming now accounts for more than 99 percent of all farmed animals raised and slaughtered in the United States. Farmed animals are remarkable creatures who experience pleasure (pasture-raised pigs, for instance, are k now n to jump for joy) and have complex social str uctures (cows develop friendships over time and will sometimes hold gr udges against other animals who treat them badly). The cheap animal products churned out by factory farms come at a high cost to the animals themselves (many are con fined so intensively that they can not turn around or stretch a wing). The str ucture of factory farming ensures that even the animals’ most funda mental needs— clean air, sunshine, freedom from ch ronic pain and illness—are denied them. The present system of producing food animals in the United States is not sustainable and presents an unacceptable level of risk to public health and da mage to the environ ment, as well as un necessary harm to the animals we raise for food.” –Pew Com mission on Industrial Farm Animal Production.
THE FACTORY FARM RECORD ON THE ENVIRONMENT is no better: World Watch, the Sierra Club, the Pew Com mission, Greenpeace, and other major environ mental watchdogs have singled out factory farms as among the biggest polluters on the planet. There is now a scientific consensus that animal agriculture is the single largest contributor to global warming—outstripping even the transportation industry in its production of greenhouse gases. A 2008 New York Times article reported that “if Americans were to reduce meat consumption by just 20 percent it would be as if we all switched from a standard sedan—a Camry, say—to the ultra-efficient Prius.” The disturbing nature of these problems can make it difficult for many people to accept the tr uth about factory farming when they are first confronted with it: “Surely,” one is tempted to say, “it can’t be that bad.” But once the scale of the devastation that this industry is wreaking on our health, the environ ment, and animals becomes clear, the most surprising aspect of factory farming is how effectively these problems have been hidden from the public in the first place. There are more humane, more just, and more sustainable ways to eat, and, more than ever before, there are numerous, progressive alternatives to factory farms. With your help, we can find a better way forward.
way we eat has changed more in the last 50 years than in the previous 10,000, but the image that’s used to sell the food … you go into the supermarket and you see pictures of farmers. The picket fence and the silo and the 1930s farmhouse and the green grass. The reality is … it’s not a farm, it’s a factory. That meat is being processed by huge multi-national corporations that have very little to do with ranches and farmers.” —Food Inc
Why is it called factory farm? I’m not from a factory.
ING HISTORY HISTORY OF OF FARM FARMING THE MODERN BREEDING STARTS FROM
1960â€™S FACTORY FARMING
AGRICULTURE ADOPTED MORE INTENSIVE methods during the eighteenth century. With this growth in production best characterized by the Agricultural Revolution, where improvements in farming tech niq ues allowed for significantly improved yields, and supported the urbanization of the population during the Industrial Revolution. In novations in agriculture begin ning in the late nineteenth century paralleled developments in mass production in other industries. The identification of nitrogen and phosphor us as critical factors in plant growth led to the manufacture of sy nthetic fertilizers, making possible more intensive types of agriculture. The first animals to be factory farmed were chickens. The discovery of vitamins and their role in animal nutrition, in the first two decades of the twentieth century, led to vitamin supplements, which allowed chickens to be raised indoors. The discovery of antibiotics and vaccines facilitated raising livestock in larger numbers by reducing disease. Chemicals developed for use in World War II gave rise to sy nthetic pesticides. Developments in shipping networks and tech nology have made long-distance distribution of agricultural produce feasible. According to the BBC, factory farming in Britain began in 1947 when a new Agriculture Act granted subsidies to farmers to encourage greater output by introducing new tech nology, in order to reduce Britainâ€™s reliance on imported meat. The United Nations writes that intensification of animal production was seen as a way of providing food security. Factory farming is greatly debated throughout Australia, with several people disagreeing with the methods and ways in which the animals in factory farms are treated. Often animals are under stress from being kept in confined spaces, so will attack each other. This results in them having beaks, tails and teeth removed. Many piglets will die of shock after having their teeth and tails removed. This is due to the fact that painkilling medicines are not used in these operations. Others say that factory farms are a great way to gain space, with animals such as chickens being kept in spaces smaller than an A4 page. Advocates of factory farming claim that factory farming has led to the betterment of housing, nutrition, and disease control over the last twenty years. From its American and West European heartland factory farming became globalized in the later years of the twentieth century and is still expanding and replacing traditional practices of stock rearing in an increasing number of countries. In 1990 factory farming accounted for 30% of world meat production. By 2005 this had risen to 40%.
Iâ€™ve seen so many farm animals produced and sold for so little money but...
THE SCALE OF FACTORY FARMING IN UNITED STATES AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTION ACROSS the world doubled four times between 1820 and 1975 (1820 to 1920; 1920 to 1950; 1950 to 1965; and 1965 to 1975) to feed a global population of one billion human beings in 1800 and 6.5 billion in 2002. During the same period, the number of people involved in farming dropped as the process became more automated. In the 1930s, 24 percent of the American population worked in agriculture compared to 1.5 percent in 2002; in 1940, each farm worker supplied 11 consumers, whereas in 2002, each worker supplied 90 consumers. The number of farms has also decreased, and their ow nership is more concentrated. In the U.S., four companies produce 81 percent of cows, 73 percent of sheep, 57 percent of pigs and 50 percent of chickens. In 1967, there were one million pig farms in America; as of 2002, there were 114,000, with 80 million pigs (out of 95 million) killed each year on factory farms as of 2002, according to the U.S. National Pork Producers Council. According to the Worldwatch Institute, 74 percent of the world’s poultry, 43 percent of beef, and 68 percent of eggs are produced this way. Europe has become increasingly skeptical of factory farming, after a series of diseases such as Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow”) and foot and mouth disease affected its agricultural industries, yet despite these outbreaks there are indications that the industrialized production of farm animals is set to increase globally. According to Denis Avery of the Hudson Institute, Asia increased its consumption of pork by 18 million tons in the 1990s. As of 1997, the world had a stock of 900 million pigs, which Avery predicts will rise to 2.5 billion pigs by 2050. He told the College of Natural Resources at the University of California, Berkeley that three billion pigs will thereafter be needed an nually to meet demand.
Where are all the
ALL ANIMALS Extreme High Severe Moderate None
CATTLES Extreme High Severe Moderate None
BROILERS Extreme High Severe Moderate None
HOGS Extreme High Severe Moderate None
LAYERS Extreme High Severe Moderate None
DAIRY Extreme High Severe Moderate None
Mo-o-ove it! Farms are forced to get big or get out today.
STATS What a shockin’ number of my relatives livin’ in cruel farms!
In the 1970s, there were thousands of slaughterhouses producing the majority of beef sold. Today, we have only 32,000 hogs a day are killed in Smithfield Hog Processing Plant in Tar Heel, N.C, which is the largest slaughterhouse in the world.
In the 1970s, the top five meat packers controlled about 25% of the market in the United States. Today, 4 companies produce 81% of cows, 73% of sheep, 57% of pigs and 72% of chickens. Industrial farming, or “factory farms,” account for most livestock “production.”
568 million tons
The worldâ€™s total meat supply was 71 million tons in 1961. In 2007, it was estimated to be 284 million tons. Per capita consumption has more than doubled over that period. (In the developing world, it rose twice as fast, doubling in the last 20 years.)
animals hogs cows chickens hens
Between 1997 and 2007, the number of U.S. food animals on factory farms grew: hogs by more than a third to 62.9 million; egg-laying hens increased by 24 % to 266.5 million; cows on factory-farm dairies nearly doubled to 4.9 million; beef cattle on industrial feedlots grew by 17 % to 13.5 million; broiler chickens doubled to 1.1 billion.
In 1972, the FDA (Food and Drug Administration) conducted 50,000 food safety inspections. In 2006, the FDA conducted only 9,164.
The US still feeds cows to cows (a cause of mad cow) in three ways â€” In restaurant scraps, blood meal and chicken litter, which can have beef-containing feed pellets in it.
The Eastern Shore of Chesapeake Bay produces 1,000,000 tons of chicken manure a year, enough to fill a large football stadium to the top row.
US animal factories yield 100 times more waste than all US human sewage plants.
There is ample documentation of water pollution from runoff of animal waste. More than half of all US fish kills were attributed to livestock.
Antibiotics administered to livestock in the US annually for purposes other than treating disease: 24.6 million pounds
Percentage of staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1960: 13% Percentage of staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1988: 91%
Reason: Breeding of antibiotic resistant bacteria in factory farms due to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock
Response by entire European Economic Community to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: Ban
Response by American meat and pharmaceutical industries to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: Full and complete support
TRUTH Hush... Yaâ€™ll follow me to see behind the scenes.
“ There is this deliberate veil, this curtain
that’s drawn between us and where our food is coming from. The industry doesn’t want you to know the truth about what you’re eating because if you knew, you might not want to eat it.” —Food Inc
PIG PIG BUSINESS BUSINESS ANOTHER CRUEL MEATâ€”
Modern breeding sows are treated like piglet-making machines, 24/7.
WITH CORPORATE HOG FACTORIES REPLACING traditional hog farms, pigs raised for food are being treated more as inanimate tools of production than as living, feeling animals. From beginning to end, this system is a nightmare from which the animals have no escape, and it all starts with the breeding sows. Modern breeding sows are treated like piglet-making machines. Living a continuous cycle of impregnation and birth, each sow has more than 20 piglets per year. After being impregnated, the sows are confined in gestation crates – small metal pens just 2 feet wide that prevent sows from turning around or even lying down comfortably. At the end of their four-month pregnancies, they are transferred to similarly cramped farrowing crates to give birth. With barely enough room to stand up and lie down and no straw or other type of bedding to speak of, many suffer from sores on their shoulders and knees. When asked about this, one pork industry representative wrote, “ straw is very expensive and there certainly would not be a supply of straw in the country to supply all the farrowing pens in the U.S.” With corporate hog factories replacing traditional hog farms, pigs raised for food are being treated more as inanimate tools of production than as living, feeling animals. From beginning to end, this system is a nightmare from which the animals have no escape, and it all starts with the breeding sows. Modern breeding sows are treated like piglet-making machines. Living a continuous cycle of impregnation and birth, each sow has more than 20 piglets per year. After being impregnated, the sows are confined in gestation crates – small metal pens just 2 feet wide that prevent sows from turning around or even lying down comfortably.
AT THE END OF THEIR FOUR-MONTH pregnancies, they are transferred to similarly cramped farrowing crates to give birth. With barely enough room to stand up and lie dow n and no straw or other type of bedding to speak of, many suffer from sores on their shoulders and knees. When asked about this, one pork industry representative wrote, “ straw is very expensive and there certainly would not be a supply of straw in the country to supply all the farrowing pens in the U.S.” Numerous research studies conducted over the last 25 years have pointed to physical and psychological maladies experienced by sows in confinement. The un natural flooring and lack of exercise causes obesity and crippling leg disorders, while the deprived environ ment produces neurotic coping behaviors such as repetitive bar biting and sham chewing (chewing nothing). After the sows give birth and nurse their young for two to three weeks, the piglets are taken away to be fattened, and the sows are re-impregnated. An article in Successful Farming explains, “Any sow that is not gestating, lactating or within seven days post weaning is non-active,” and hog factories strive to keep their sows “100% active” in order to maximize profits. When the sow is no longer deemed a productive breeder, she is sent to slaughter.
APPROXIMATELY 105 MILLION PIGS are raised a nd slaughtered in the U.S. every year. As babies, they are subjected to painful mutilations without anesthesia or pain relievers. Their tails are cut off to minimize tail biting, an aberrant behavior that occurs when these highly-intelligent animals are kept in deprived factory far m environ ments. In addition, notches are taken out of the piglets’ ears for identification. By two to three weeks of age, 10% of the piglets will have died. Those who survive are taken away from their mothers and crowded into pens with metal bars and concrete floors. A headline from National Hog Farmer magazine advises, “Crowding Pigs Pays...”, and this is exemplified by the intense overcrowding in every stage of hog confinement systems. Pigs will live this way, packed into giant, warehouse-like sheds, until they reach a slaughter weight of 250 pounds at 6 months old.
In six short months, today’s hi-tech hogs gobble their way from birth to 250 pounds.
THE AIR INSIDE HOG FACTORIES is so polluted with dust, dander and noxious gases from the animals’ waste that workers who are exposed for just a few hours per day are at high risk for bronchitis, asthma, sinusitis, organic dust toxic sy ndrome (ODTS) and acute respiratory distress sy ndrome (ARDS). Unlike these workers, the pigs have no escape from this toxic air, and roughly half of all pigs that die between weaning and slaughter succumb to respiratory disease. Poor air q uality, extreme close-q uarters confinement and unsanitary living conditions combine to make diseases such as porcine reproductive and respiratory sy ndrome (PRRS), swine influenza vir us (SIV) and salmonellosis a serious threat to animal welfare.
AMOUNTING IN ADDITION TO their direct effects on animal health, several vir uses are k now n to suppress pigs’ im mune systems, leading to greater risk from opportunistic bacteria which further degrade health and result in on-farm deaths. These viral in fections freq uently go undiagnosed because they are masked by the overlying bacterial disease and testing is expensive. The ove crowding and con finement is un natural and stress-producing since pigs are actually very clean animals. If they are given sufficient space, pigs are careful not to soil the areas where they sleep or eat. But in factory farms, they are forced to live in their ow n feces, urine and vomit and even a mid the corpses of other pigs. In addition to overcrowded housing, sows and pigs also endure extreme crowding in transportation, resulting in ra mpant suffering and deaths. As one hog industry expert w rites: Death losses during transport are too high — a mounting to more than $8 million per year. But it doesn’t take a lot of imagination to fig ure out why we load as many hogs on a tr uck as we do. It’s cheaper. So it becomes a moral issue. Is it right to overload a tr uck and save $.25 per head in the process, while the overcrowding contributes to the deaths of 80,000 hogs each year?
AS FACTORY FARMS CREATE INTOLERABLE suffering under even “optimal” conditions, it should be no surprise that they become even more hellish when things go really wrong, as was the case in June of 2008 when levees broke and torrential rains in the Midwest flooded massive hog farms. While some producers evacuated their animals, several others failed to have evacuation plans for the thousands of animals in need of relocation. Some opened their barn doors before they fled for high ground, leaving the pigs to fend for themselves.
OTHERS LEFT ANIMALS LOCKED in their pens and gestation crates to thrash in vain against the bars as the water rose inexorably over their heads. Rescue workers found their bodies later, some contorted within gestation crates, some trapped in ventilation shafts, their last moments almost too terrible to imagine. In an industry where millions of animals are routinely forced into cr ushing confinement, the inevitable fire, tornado, flood, hurricane or epidemic disease means inevitable tragedy for those trapped within. And yet, such tragedies may be no worse than countless unseen horrors that unfold behind slaughterhouse doors.
The cruel scenes of factory farming were caught on camera. Check online to see the truth.
THE THE TOP TOP MEAT MEAT 95%
OF AMERICANS CHOOSE
CHICKEN These factoryfarmed chicks are no criminals, yet they have no access to outdoors and never see daylight.
WITH A GROWING NUMBER OF CONSUMERS switching from red meat to poultry, the chicken and turkey industries are booming. In addition to the expanding U.S. market, poultry companies are also benefiting from expanding markets around the world. Record numbers of chickens and turkeys are being raised and killed for meat in the U.S. every year. Nearly ten billion chickens and over a q uarter billion turkeys are hatched in the U.S. annually. These birds are typically crowded by the thousands into huge, factory-like warehouses where they can barely move. Each chicken is given less than half a sq uare foot of space, while turkeys are each given less than three sq uare feet. Shortly after hatching, both chickens and turkeys have the ends of their beaks cut off, and turkeys also have the ends of their toes clipped off. These mutilations are performed without anesthesia, ostensibly to reduce injuries that result when stressed birds are driven to fighting. Today’s “broiler” (meat) chickens have been genetically altered to grow twice as fast and twice as large as their ancestors. Pushed beyond their biological limits, hundreds of millions of chickens die every year before reaching slaughter weight at 6 weeks of age.
AN INDUSTRY JOURNAL EXPLAINS that “broilers now grow so rapidly that the heart and lungs are not developed well enough to support the remainder of the body, resulting in congestive heart failure and tremendous death losses.” Modern broiler chickens also experience crippling leg disorders, as their legs are not capable of supporting their abnormally heavy bodies. Confined in unsanitary, disease-ridden factory farms, the birds also freq uently succumb to heat prostration, infectious diseases, and cancer. Like meat-type chickens, com mercial turkeys also suffer from serious physical malformations wrought by genetic manipulation. In addition to having been altered to grow q uickly and un naturally large, com mercial turkeys have been genetically manipulated to have extremely large breasts, in order to meet consumer demand for breast meat. As a result, turkeys can not mount and reproduce naturally, so their sole means of reproduction is artificial insemination. And similar to broiler chickens, factory-farmed turkeys are prone to heart disease and leg injuries as a conseq uence of their grossly-overweight bodies. An industry journal laments that: Turkeys have been bred to grow faster and heavier but their skeletons haven’t kept pace, which causes ‘cowboy legs’.
Com monly, the turkeys have problems standing and fall and are trampled on or seek refuge under feeders, leading to br uises and dow ngradings as well as culled or killed birds. Chickens and turkeys are taken to the slaughterhouse in crates stacked on the backs of open tr ucks. During transport, the birds are not protected from weather conditions, and a percentage of the birds are expected to die en route. Birds freeze to death in winter, or die from heat stress and suffocation in warm weather. It is “cheaper” for the industry to transport the birds in open crates without adeq uate protection, despite high mortality rates. 071
I ca b r e n' t at h !
Their short 42-day-life sentence is horrible!
UPON ARRIVAL AT THE SLAUGHTERHOUSE, the birds are either pulled individually from their crates, or the crates are lifted off the tr uck, often with a crane or forklift, and the birds are dumped onto a conveyor belt. As the birds are unloaded, some miss the conveyor belt and fall onto the ground. Slaughterhouse workers intent upon â€˜processingâ€™ thousands of birds every hour have neither the time nor the inclination to pick up individuals who fall through the cracks, and these birds suffer grim deaths. Some die after being cr ushed by machinery or vehicles operating near the unloading area, while others may die of starvation or exposure days, or even weeks, later. Birds inside the slaughterhouse suffer an eq ually gr uesome fate. Upon entering the facility, fully conscious birds are hung by their feet from metal shackles on a moving rail. 072
E. coli attack Dirty environment of chicken farms
AFTER THE SHACKLED BIRDS pass through the stun ning tank, their throats are slashed, usually by a mechanical blade. Inevitably, the blade misses some birds, who may still be moving and str uggling after improper stun ning. Proceeding to the next station on the assembly line — the scalding tank — the birds are submerged in boiling hot water. Those missed by the killing blade are boiled alive. This occurs so com monly, affecting millions of birds every year, that the industry has a term for these birds: “redskins.” 073
ALTHOUGH POULTRY ARE SPECIFICALLY excluded from the federal Humane Slaughter Act (which req uires that animals be stun ned before they are slaughtered), many slaughterplants first stun the birds in an electrified water bath in order to im mobilize them and expedite assembly line killing. However, stun ning procedures are not monitored, and they are often inadeq uate. Poultry slaughterhouses com monly set the electrical current lower than what is req uired to render the birds unconscious because of concerns that too much electricity would damage the carcasses and diminish their value. The result is that while birds are im mobilized after stun ning, they are still capable of feeling pain, and many emerge from the stun ning tank still conscious.
Americans eat too much meat!
RATE RATE OF SLAUGHTER SLAUGHTER OF CHICKENS, PIGS, AND COWS IN U.S.
NUMBER OF DEATHS / PER DAY
/ PER SECOND
287 per second
3.68 per second
1.12 per second
More than 70% of Americans include too much meat in the diets. Americans eat about the same amount of meat as we have for some time, about eight ounces a day, roughly twice the global average. At about 5 percent of the world’s population, we “process” (that is, grow and kill) nearly 10 billion animals a year, more than 15 percent of the world’s total.
I am a chickem . 95% of chickens in the U.S. live in extremely inhumane conditions.
CATTLE CATTLE INDUSTRY INDUSTRY INHUMANE FEED LOT
I’d ratter be a mean machine than a cattle meat machine!
SINCE THE 1980S A SERIES of mergers and acq uisitions has resulted in concentrating over 80% of the 35 million beef cattle slaughtered an nually in the U.S. into the hands of four huge corporations. Many beef cattle are born and live on the range, foraging and fending for themselves for months or even years. They are not adeq uately protected against inclement weather, and they may die of dehydration or freeze to death. Injured, ill, or otherwise ailing animals do not receive necessary veterinary attention. One com mon malady afflicting beef cattle is called “cancer eye.” Left untreated, the cancer eats away at the animal’s eye and face, eventually producing a crater in the side of the animal’s head. Accustomed to roaming unimpeded and unconstrained, range cattle are frightened and confused when humans come to round them up. Terrified animals are often injured, some so severely that they become “dow ned” (unable to walk or even stand). These dow ned animals com monly suffer for days without receiving food, water or veterinary care, and many die of neglect. Others are dragged, beaten, and pushed with tractors on their way to slaughter. Many cattle will experience additional transportation and handling stress at stockyards and auctions, where they are goaded through a series of walkways and holding pens and sold to the highest bidder. From the auction, older cattle may be taken directly to slaughter, or they may be taken to a feedlot. Younger animals and breeding-age cows may go back to the range.
RANCHERS STILL IDENTIFY CATTLE the same way they have since pioneer days — with hot iron brands. Needless to say, this practice is extremely traumatic and painful, and the animals bellow loudly as ranchers’ brands are burned into their skin. Beef cattle are also subjected to ‘waddling,’ another type of identification marking. This painful procedure entails cutting chunks out of the hide that hangs under the animals’ necks. Waddling marks are supposed to be large enough so that ranchers can identify their cattle from a distance. Most beef cattle spend the last few months of their lives at feedlots, crowded by the thousands into dusty, manure-laden holding pens. The air is thick with harmful bacteria and particulate matter, and the animals are at a constant risk for respiratory disease. Feedlot cattle are routinely implanted with growth-promoting hormones, and they are fed un naturally rich diets designed to fatten them q uickly and profitably. Because cattle are biologically suited to eat a grass-based, high fiber diet, their concentrated feedlot rations contribute to metabolic disorders. Cattle may be transported several times during their lifetimes, and they may travel hundreds or even thousands of miles during a single trip. Long journeys are very stressful and contribute to disease and even death. The Drover’s Journal reports, “Shipping fever costs livestock producers as much as $1 billion a year.” Young cattle are com monly taken to areas with cheap grazing land, to take advantage of this inexpensive feed source. Upon reaching maturity, they are tr ucked to a feedlot to be fattened and readied for slaughter. Eventually, all of them will end up at the slaughterhouse. 082
A STANDARD BEEF SLAUGHTERHOUSE kills 250 cattle every hour. The high speed of the assembly line makes it increasingly difficult to treat animals with any semblance of humaneness. A Meat & Poultry article states, “Good handling is extremely difficult if eq uipment is ‘maxed out’ all the time. It is impossible to have a good attitude toward cattle if employees have to constantly overexert themselves, and thus transfer all that stress right dow n to the animals, just to keep up with the line.”
75% of 90 million american beef cattle’s food DEAD ANIMALS + BLOOD + FECAL MATERIAL + THEIR OWN SPECIES
A cow remains fully conscious throughout the entire process.
MANURE IS USUALLY STORED for ma n y months, often in gia nt outdoor pits k now n as lagoons. As it decomposes, the ma nure emits har m ful gases such as a m monia a nd h ydrogen sulfide. Mea nwhile, these lagoons ca n leak or r upture, polluting the surrounding soil a nd water systems. One study conducted by North Carolina State University in 1995 estimated that as ma n y as 55% of the ma nure lagoons on hog far ms in that state were leaking. Even without leaks, ma nure lagoons are so fragile that major stor ms often result in overflows. Perhaps most fa mously, in 1999, the majority of North Carolinaâ€™s ma nure lagoons spilled over into water ways during Hurrica ne Floyd, leading to widespread water conta mination. W hat made matters even worse was that North Carolina, like most states, req uires no treatment of a nimal waste.
ANIMAL WASTE, THE ENVIRONMENT, a nd Hu ma n Health People often believe that a nimal ma nure is har mless, but in tr uth it ca n be q uite hazardous. Factory livestock facilities pollute the air a nd release over 400 separate gasses, mostly due to the large a mounts of ma nure they produce. The principal gases released are h ydrogen sulfide, metha ne, a m monia, a nd carbon dioxide. Gasses ca n be da ngerous air polluta nts that th reaten both the environ ment a nd hu ma n health. Nitric oxides are also released in large q ua ntities from far ms th rough ma nure application, a nd are a mong the leading causes of acid rain. The risks of lagoon leakage, overflows, a nd illegal discharge of waste also pose a direct th reat to the q uality of soil a nd water systems. A report for the U.S. Geological Sur vey docu mented over one thousa nd spills a nd du mps of a nimal waste in the ten Midwestern states it sur veyed over the course of th ree years. Ma nure from leaky lagoons or saturated far m fields has also been k now n to enter public water sources a nd in fect hu ma ns. For exa mple, a study of waterborne disease outbreaks from 1986 to 1998 conducted by the Centers for Disease Control demonstrated that in every case where the pathogen could be identified, it most likely originated in livestock.
Transcript of New York Times full page ad published June 22, 2001 detailing the horrors of our modern-day slaughterhouses. With 309-330 cows per hour coming by on the â€œdisassemblyâ€? line, there are many who are still fully conscious with eyes wide open when skinned and cut apart. They die literally piece by piece.
Cows are piled up like junk. This drives me mad!
DAIRY DAIRY PRODUCTS PRODUCTS UNSUSTAINABLE & CRUELY RAISED
Mile: It does a body good, but the horrible treatment from farmers makes Cow’s breasts get sick.
TRADITIONAL SMALL DAIRIES, LOCATED PRIMARILY in the Northeast and Midwest, are going out of business. They are being replaced by intensive ‘dry lot’ dairies, which are typically located in the Southwest U.S. Regardless of where they live, however, all dairy cows must give birth in order to begin producing milk. Today, dairy cows are forced to have a calf every year. Like human beings, cows have a nine-month gestation period, and so giving birth every twelve months is physically demanding. The cows are also artificially re-impregnated while they are still lactating from their previous birthing, so their bodies are still producing milk during seven months of their nine-month pregnancy. With genetic manipulation and intensive production tech nologies, it is com mon for modern dairy cows to produce 100 pounds of milk a day — ten times more than they would produce naturally. As a result, the cows’ bodies are under constant stress, and they are at risk for numerous health problems. Approximately half of the country’s dairy cows suffer from mastitis, a bacterial in fection of their udders. This is such a com mon and costly ailment that a dairy industry group, the National Mastitis Council, was formed specifically to combat the disease. Other diseases, such as Bovine Leukemia Vir us, Bovine Im munodeficiency Vir us, and Joh ne’s disease (whose human counterpart is Croh n’s disease) are also ra mpant on modern dairies, but they com monly go un noticed because they are either difficult to detect or have a long incubation period. A cow eating a normal grass diet could not produce milk at the abnormal levels expected on modern dairies, and so today’s dairy cows must be given high energy feeds. The un naturally rich diet causes metabolic disorders including ketosis, which can be fatal, and la minitis, which causes la meness. Another dairy industry disease caused by intensive milk production is “Milk Fever.” This ailment is caused by calcium deficiency, and it occurs when milk secretion depletes calcium faster than it can be replenished in the blood. In a healthy environ ment, cows would live in excess of twenty-five years, but on modern dairies, they are slaughtered and made into ground beef after just th ree or four years. The abuse w reaked upon the bodies of dairy cows is so intense that the dairy industry also is a huge source of “dow ned animals” — animals who are so sick or injured that they are unable to walk even stand. Investigators have documented dow ned animals routinely being beaten, dragged, or pushed with bulldozers in attempts to move them to slaughter.
ALTHOUGH THE DAIRY INDUSTRY is familiar with the cows’ health problems and suffering associated with intensive milk production, it continues to subject cows to even worse abuses in the name of increased profit. Bovine Growth Hormone (BGH), a synthetic hormone, is now being injected into cows to get them to produce even more milk. Besides adversely affecting the cows’ health, BGH also increases birth defects in their calves. Calves born to dairy cows are separated from their mothers immediately after birth. The half that are born female are raised to replace older dairy cows in the milking herd. The other half of the calves are male, and because they will never produce milk, they are raised and slaughtered for meat. Most are killed for beef, with close to one million being used for veal. The veal industry was created as a by-product of the dairy industry to take advantage of an abundant supply of unwanted male calves. Veal calves commonly live for eighteen to twenty weeks in wooden crates that are so small that they cannot turn around, stretch their legs, or even lie down comfortably. The calves are fed a liq uid milk substitute, deficient in iron and fiber, which is designed to make the animals anemic, resulting in the light-colored flesh that is prized as veal. In addition to this high-priced veal, some calves are killed at just a few days old to be sold as low-grade ‘bob’ veal for products like frozen TV dinners.
Two or three times every day, dairy cows are hooked up to milk machines. They are commonly pushe d to produce ten times more milk than is natural. 090
EGG EGG INDUSTRY INDUSTRY 95%
BATTERY CAGE FACTORY FARMING
LAYERS THERE ARE MORE THAN 280 million egg laying hens in the U.S. confined in battery cages — small wire cages stacked in tiers and lined up in rows inside huge warehouses. In accordance with the USDA’s recom mendation to give each hen four inches of ‘feeder space,’ hens are com monly packed four to a cage measuring just 16 inches wide. In this tiny space, the birds can not stretch their wings or legs, and they can not fulfill normal behavioral patterns or social needs. Constantly r ubbing against the wire cages, they suffer from severe feather loss, and their bodies are covered with br uises and abrasions. In order to reduce injuries resulting from excessive pecking — an aberrant behavior that occurs when the confined hens are bored and fr ustrated — practically all laying hens have part of their beaks cut off. Debeaking is a painful procedure that involves cutting through bone, cartilage, and soft tissue. Laying more than 250 eggs per year each, laying hens’ bodies are severely taxed. They suffer from “fatty liver sy ndrome” when their liver cells, which work overtime to produce the fat and protein for egg yolks, accumulate extra fat. They also suffer from what the industry calls ‘cage layer fatig ue,’ and many become ‘egg bound’ and die when their bodies are too weak to pass another egg. Osteoporosis is another com mon ailment afflicting egg laying hens, whose bodies lose more calcium to form egg shells than they can assimilate from their diets. One industry journal, Feedstuffs, explains, “...the laying hen at peak eggshell can not absorb enough calcium from her diet...” while another (Lancaster Farming) states, “... a hen will use a q uantity of calcium for yearly egg production that is greater than her entire skeleton by 30-fold or more.” Inadeq uate calcium contributes to broken bones, paralysis, and death.
Every year, more than 650,000 Americans are sickened from eating Salmonella-tainted eggs. About 600 Americans are killed from eating those eggs. Sounds like a homicide case or two.
AFTER ONE YEAR IN EGG PRODUCTION, the birds are classified as ‘spent hens’ and are sent off to slaughter. Their brittle, calcium-depleted bones often shatter during handling or at the slaughterhouse. They usually end up in soups, pot pies, or similar low-grade chicken meat products in which their bodies can be shredded to hide the br uises from consumers. With a growing supply of broiler chickens keeping slaughterhouses busy, egg producers have had to find new ways to dispose of spent hens. One entrepreneur has developed the ‘Jet-Pro’ system to turn spent hens into animal feed. As described in Feedstuffs, “Company tr ucks would enter layer operations, pick up the birds, and grind them up, on site, in a portable grinder... it (the ground up hens) would go to Jet-Pro’s new extr uder-texturizer, the “Pellet Pro.” In one notorious case of extraordinary cr uelty at Ward Egg Ranch in Febr uary 2003 in San Diego County, California, more than 15,000 spent laying hens were tossed alive into a wood-chipping machine to dispose of them. Despite tremendous outcry from a horrified public, the district attorney declined to prosecute the ow ners of the egg farm, calling the use of a wood-chipper to kill hens a “com mon industry practice.” In some cases, especially if the cost of replacement hens is high, laying hens may be “force molted” to extend their laying capacity. This process involves starving the hens for up to 18 days, keeping them in the dark, and denying them water to shock their bodies into another egg-laying cycle. Com monly, between 5 and 10% of birds die during the molt, and those who live may lose more than 25% of their body weight.
01% 02% 97%
free-fange hens cage-free hens of all eggs produced in U.S. are from hens that live in tightly packed battery cages, with no way to roam outside.
HOW BATTERY CAGE CONFINEMENT HARMS CHICKENS? Denial of Natural Behaviors Hens wants to build private nests, root at night, take dust baths, and explore their surroundings. The prevention of these behaviors results in severe fr ustration. Denial of Movement Battery cages restrict even basic movements like walking a nd extending limbs. United Egg Producers voluntary g uidelines specify 67 sq uare inches per hen, a n area smaller tha n a single sheet of paper.
67 inÂ˛ UEP g uidelines
Illness and Injury Chickens in high-density flocks suffer respiratory disease and eye irritation from exposure to fecal dust, osteoporosis from lack of exercise, and foot disorders from standing on cage wire for their entire lives. Sometimes hens become trapped in the cage wire and die of dehydration.
8.5 x 17 sheet of paper
To increase egg production, factory farms will starve hens for up to fourteen days. this practice is called FORCED MOLTING.
TRANSPORTATION TRANSPORTATION AND SLAUGHTER “CHICKENS FIND TRANSPORT a fearful, stressful, injurious and even fatal procedure.” At the slaughter plant, the chickens are moved out of the tr ucks, dumped onto conveyors, and hung upside dow n in shackles by their legs. Shackling is painful for chickens, especially since so many suffer from bone and joint problems. One group of researchers concluded that “90 percent of broilers had a detectable gait abnormality indicating leg weakness, and 26 percent suffered an abnormality so severe that their welfare was considered compromised. This level of leg abnormality, if representative of com mercial flocks, provides evidence that, potentially, a large number of birds should not be shackled.” One study found that, after shackling, 3 percent of broilers had broken bones and 4.5 percent had dislocations. Another study found a 44-percent increase in newly broken bones following shackling. In the United States, poultry are not included under the federal Humane Methods of Slaughter Act, thus there are no legal req uirements that chickens be made unconscious before they are slaughtered. Electric stun ning is often used to im mobilize chickens before slaughter, making them easier to handle. However, the voltage used may be insufficient to induce unconsciousness. Birds then have their throats cut by hand or machine. Failure by workers or machines to cut both carotid arteries can add two minutes to the time taken for birds to bleed to death. As slaughter lines r un at speeds of up to 8,400 chickens per hour, many workers miss these arteries and most machines are not even designed to cut them properly.
Live animals are housed dead carcasses. This is not what I meant when I said sharing is caring.
ONE RESEARCHER CONCLUDED, the “problems associated with inefficient neck cutting are only too com mon in poultry processing plants.” As a result, birds may be conscious as they enter tan ks of scalding water intended to loosen the birds’ feathers. One study found that up to 23 percent of broilers were still alive when they entered scalding tan ks. Animals go th rough the Kill Line ALIVE all the time, it is so com mon that slaughterhouse workers do not even see it as an in fraction any longer, they are more worried for their ow n safety from dropped carcasses, flying hooves, slashing k nives, faulty eq uipment, and in humanely high speed Lines. The US is the only industrialized country that cools their chicken carcasses in water instead of air cooling, creating a virtual disease pool filthier than a public toilet next to a crack house. W hy? Because water adds weight, so you get the privilege of actually paying increased poundage for the putrid and in fected water your chicken soaked in. 097
GREENWASH I can attest that most of labels you see on the packages are lies.
OTHER LABELS: CANNOT TO BE USED NO ANTIBIOTICS USED The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) does not allow the use of “antibiotic free” labels on meat products because tech nology can not verify that animals were never given antibiotics. USDA does however allow producers to label meats as “no antibiotics used” or “no detectable antibiotic residue,” but it is the producer and not the govern ment that is doing the testing for residue. Producers are req uired to supply documentation that animals have not received antibiotics and whether they have been treated for illness. Antibiotic use is associated with intensive confinement, so the “no antibiotics used” label suggests, but does not g uarantee, that the animal wasn’t raised in a factory farm setting. NO HORMONES ADMINISTERED A “hormone free” label can not be used on meat or dairy products, as all animals produce hormones. Since hormones are prohibited in the raising of poultry, “no hormones administered” can not be used on poultry products unless accompanied by a statement indicating that hormone use is prohibited by federal law. “No hormones administered” or “no hormones added” labels are allowed for the labeling of beef products and generally indicate that the steer or heifer was not confined to a feedlot. As with antibiotics, the govern ment does not test for the presence of hormones to verify accuracy of the claim. HUMANELY RAISED A term not recognized by the USDA for the labeling of animal products. Any humane claim must be accompanied by an explanation of what is meant by the term. An exception is made for products that are marketed under a third-party certification program. For example, “Certified Humane” and “American Humane Certified” are USDA-approved labels that do not req uire an additional explanation. USDA does not verify on-farm compliance with “humanely raised” claims, but third-party certification programs using the label must demonstrate how they verify compliance with their standards.
NATURAL Unquestionably the most misleading and misunderstood food label. The term applies only to products that have been minimally processed and indicates that the product contains no artificial ingredients, coloring ingredients, or chemical preservatives. “No antibiotics used” and “no hormones administered” claims must be made separately from the “natural” label. In fact, meat from animals fed antibiotics or hormones may be labeled “natural” as long as no artificial ingredients or preservatives were added to the final product. “Natural” does not refer to the way the animal was raised, fed, or handled. NATURALLY RAISED Producers and retailers are using this claim to indicate meat from animals who have not received antibiotics or hormones and have been fed only a vegetarian diet. This claim does not specifically address animal care and does not req uire freedom of movement and access to fresh air and sunlight. UNITED EGG PRODUCERS CERTIFIED A third-party certification program developed by the egg industry for the care of egg-laying hens to which about 80% of U.S. producers belong. Unfortunately, the program fails to provide even a minimum level of animal welfare. It allows hens to spend their entire lives cram med into small cages without any access to the outdoors for exercise, litter for dust bathing, or boxes for nesting. The standards also allow for the routine use of antibiotics and permit cutting the beaks off of birds (de-beaking) without pain relief. Some label terms, although tr uthful, have little or no real meaning, no standards for def inition and a high potential to confuse consumers: • • • • • • • • • • • • •
CONTAINS ANTIOXIDANTS DOCTOR-RECOMMENDED GREEN IMMUNITY FORMULA KID-APPROVED MADE WITH WHOLE GRAINS MAY LOWER CHOLESTEROL NATURAL (FOR NON-MEAT OR -POULTRY PRODUCTS) NATURAL GOODNESS NO TRANS FAT NON-TOXIC PARENT-TESTED STRENGTHENS YOUR IMMUNE SYSTEM
“Natural” doesn’t mean anything about humanely raised animals.
ACTION You can act with more respect and love, dear...
What can you do for cleaner and better choices for meat and dairy?
Since some people will never be convinced to go vegan, humane standards are the only way we can help the animals who will be raised for food no matter what else we do.
THERE IS NO SINGLE DEFINITION of the term “humane meat.” Different producers use the term to describe their animal products that they believe were produced under more humane conditions than traditional factory farms. These conditions might include access to the outdoors, larger cages, no cages, no growth hormones, no antibiotics, or a more humane method of slaughter. Cr uel practices such as debeaking, tail docking, and gestation crates may be prohibited. Certification programs each have their ow n standards, and each is different. Certified Humane is backed by The Humane Society of the US and the ASPCA. Animal Welfare Approved is a project of the Animal Welfare Institute. The American Humane Association r uns the American Humane Certified program, and Whole Foods has their ow n humane meat rating system. The search for solutions has focused on two paths, one reforming the system and instituting more humane standards, and the other promoting veganism so that fewer animals are bred, raised and slaughtered. While few animal activists disagree with promoting veganism, some believe that campaigning for reforms and humane labeling is counter-productive. Humane standards might include larger cages, no cages, natural feed, less painful methods of slaughter, or prohibition of practices such as tail docking or debeaking. In some cases, campaigns target retailers or restaurants instead of the actual producers, pressuring the companies to purchase animal products only from producers who raise the animals according to certain voluntary standards. One example is PETA’s McCr uelty campaign that asks McDonald’s to req uire their producers to switch to a more humane method of slaughtering chickens.
ARGUMENT OF HUMANE MEAT • People will continue to eat meat for the foreseeable future, so humane standards will ensure that the animals will have a better life than they have in factory farms now. • Since some people will never be convinced to go vegan, humane standards are the only way we can help the animals who will be raised for food no matter what else we do. • Humane standards have broad-based support, so goals are achievable. Many people are opposed to factory farming, but are not opposed to eating meat or other animal products. • Humane reg ulations on a state or federal level provide relief to millions of animals. • Humane standards are a step towards animal rights. By promoting humane standards, we persuade people to care about animals, which will lead some to vegetarianism and veganism. 107
Where can I buy moral products close to my community?
I want to buy the best products with the the most worth trusting label!
Where do people get the correct information of purchasing humanely raised products?
What else are we supposed to do except recognizing labels?
Does “nature” mean anything of “humane?”
What are the organizations doing and why are they worth trusting? I always buy Free Range eggs!
TOSS TOSS OUT OUT FACTORY FACTORY FARMS FARMS
PEOPLE ARE FIGHTING FOR LOCAL organic food as we speak. The best way to say it is: good, clean, local and fair. We’ve got to cut out the cr uel treatment to animals, chemicals and the poisons. Govern ment has a big role to play – they’re supposed to protect the people and to date they’ve failed to look out for the little g uy. At the same time however farmers, business and govern ment aren’t the only ones who have to change their thinking. Every person on this world has to realize that all this cheap food, using farming that cuts corners is just part of the picture. It’s about the way we view and value food and people and ourselves.
THE REAL REASON WE STARTED USING so much chemicals and so much factory farming is that no one wanted to do hard work, everyone wanted food cheaper and faster. Now we’ve gone too far. Now we don’t even value people who make that food. Our health suffers because we don’t value ourselves or our food. Higher welfare animal products cause less animal suffering. Buying free range or organic will encourage higher welfare farming which poses fewer risks to animals, people and the planet. Eating less meat and dairy reduces the environmental impact of animal farming and can improve human health. With these factory farms almost taking over the dairy and meat industry it seems like there isn’t much we can do. The No. 1 thing we can start to do to help put a stop to the factory farming system is to start buying food from smaller, local farms. As consumers we have the power to end the factory farming and should stop giving money to these enterprises.
LABEL LABEL LESSONS LESSONS FINDING ANIMAL-FRIENDLY MEAT & MORE
WHEN SHOPPING FOR LAMB, pork, poultry or beef, do you ever consider the way the animals are treated before they make it to your table? Unfortunately, food labels are confusing and there is no one label that consumers can rely on to show that the animals used to produce the food were humanely raised and handled. o help consumers find and make more humane food choices at the supermarket, the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA) launched a new website and released a survey ranking 23 U.S. grocery store chains by the availability of humanely labeled food on their shelves. “Many people prefer food from humanely raised animals and are willing to pay more for it,” said Dena Jones, Program Manager for WSPA USA. “Finding these products is often challenging because most food for sale in major u.s. supermarkets comes from animals raised in overcrowded, intensely confined, factory-style farms. Even when consumers find humanely labeled products, interpreting what the labels mean in terms of how the animals are treated is a challenge.” Jones says many Americans want to choose humanely when they order from a restaurant menu or pick a package from a store shelf but don’t know what to look for.
MAKING MATTERS WORSE: there is no one label that consumers can rely on to indicate that the animals used to produce the food were humanely treated. To ease the confusion, wspa has rated humane food labels, such as “cage free”, “free range”, “grass fed” and “organic”. WSPA recently surveyed 200 individual grocery stores throughout the U.S. to assess the availability of animal friendly foods on their shelves. Find out how your favorite store ranked in our report, Finding Animal Friendly Food. “The food buying choices each of us makes every day have a profound impact on the lives of animals,” Jones says. “We hope our survey and new website will help consumers find the products provide the facts they need to make more informed and humane decisions when they shop for groceries.” WSPA staff and volunteers surveyed almost 200 individual stores in 34 states throughout the country including alaska and hawaii. They recorded the availability of humanely labeled products in four categories: dairy, eggs, unprocessed meat and poultry, and processed meat and poultry, and rated stores according to both the q uantity and q uality of the food selection.
FOOD LABELS THAT MAKE THE GRADE GOOD STARTS CAGE FREE: (EGGS) May be placed on eggs or egg products that have come from hens who never have been confined to a cage and who have had unlimited access to food, water, and the freedom to roam. “Cage free” does not have the same meaning as “free range” or “pastured raised,” however, and can refer to birds who have lived their entire lives confined to a building or one room of a building. In fact, the space per hen may not be that much more than for cage birds, but generally the welfare of cage-free hens is superior to those kept in cages.
FREE RANGE: (CHICKEN, GOOSE, DUCK, TURKEY) When used on poultry means that the birds were allowed “continuous, free access to the outside for over 51% of their lives through a normal growing cycle.” However, some free-range birds may be housed in open-air barns with limited exits to the outside that are left open for only a short period each day. In other free range situations the birds may spend a large proportion of their day outdoors and are brought in only at night or bad weather. There is no way of telling which is the case without visiting the farm. Because meat birds are slaughtered at such a young age (6-7 weeks), many “free range” birds raised during winter months never go outdoors.
GRASS FED: (DAIRY, BEEF, LAMB, BISON) USDA defines “grass fed” meat from animals whose diet was derived solely from forage and who had continuous access to pasture during the growing season. The feeding of grain is also prohibited under the label. However, the term applies to diet only and is not synonymous with “free range” or “pastured raised.” It is possible that an animal can be kept in confinement and the meat labeled as “grass fed.”
THE BEST OPTIONS
FREE RANGE: (BEEF, BISON, PORK, LAMB)
CERTIFIED HUMANE: (DAIRY, EGGS, CHICKEN, TURKEY, BEEF, LAMB, GOAT, PORK)
When used with cattle, goats, sheep, and pigs, “free range” means the animals were given continuous, free access to pasture for a significant portion of their lives and were never confined to a feedlot. Therefore, “free range” generally has more meaning in terms of animal welfare when applied to meat than when applied to eggs or poultry. However, unlike third party certification programs (such as USDA Organic, Certified Humane, Free Farmed Certified) the USDA does not verify on-farm compliance with the government’s free range standard.
PASTURE RAISED: (DAIRY, EGGS, CHICKEN, GOOSE, DUCK, TURKEY, BEEF, BISON, LAMB, PORK) The terms “pasture raised” and “pasture grown” are similar in meaning to “free range” when used to describe the raising of cattle, sheep, and pigs. However, the terms have more significance when used with hens and meat birds. “Pasture raised” indicates that the meat or eggs came from birds who were provided genuine access to both the outdoors and natural vegetation. Many pasture operations use mobile shelters with perimeter fencing that are located in a pastured area and moved periodically to protect the plant growth and provide the birds with a continuous source of seeds.
USDA ORGANIC: (DAIRY, EGGS, CHICKEN, GOOSE, DUCK, TURKEY, BEEF, BISON, LAMB, PORK) Currently the only recognized organic program in the U.S. The program’s standards have been written to apply to all farm animals and don’t address many animal care issues such as weaning, physical alterations like tail docking, minimum space allowances, handling, transport, or slaughter. However, the “USDA Organic” label does require animals have access to the outdoors and be provided with fresh air, sunlight, and freedom of movement. As a result, prolonged intensive confinement is probably rare under the label; however, some large producers have gotten away with keeping hens indoors and not providing dairy cows with access to pasture by exploiting loopholes in the Organic program. To find out which organic dairy brands are the best.
A humane food certification program administered by Humane Farm Animal Care and endorsed by leading animal advocacy organizations including the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (ASPCA) and the Humane Society of the United States (HSUS). Species-specific standards require a nutritious diet without antibiotics or hormones, and that animals be raised with shelter, resting areas, sufficient space and the ability to engage in natural behaviors. While certain species of animals (poultry and pigs) are not required to have access to the outdoors, the program requires that indoor housing systems for these a nimals adhere to strict air quality and lighting standards in addition to those that meet the animals’ behavioral and physiological needs.
AMERICAN HUMANE CERTIFIED: (DAIRY, EGGS, CHICKEN, TURKEY, BEEF, VEAL, LAMB, GOAT, PORK, BISON) The first humane food certification program in the U.S., American Humane Certified is administered as an in-house program of the American Humane Association. Its standards are similar to those of Certified Humane. Its auditing process now includes 24/7 video monitoring of all live areas, including transportation and slaughter facilities. The program has attracted some large producers that raise a majority of their animals under intensive “factory-farming” conditions. As with Certified Humane, certain species of animals (pigs, meat chickens, laying hens) raised under the American Humane Certified program may not be provided with the opportunity to go outside.
ANIMAL WELFARE APPROVED: (DAIRY, EGGS, CHICKEN, TURKEY, BEEF, LAMB, GOAT, PORK) The newest humane food certification program is administered by the Animal Welfare Institute. This program currently has the most stringent animal welfare standards and includes certain animals not covered by other programs, such as rabbits and ducks. Animal Welfare Approved requires that all animals have regular access to the outdoors and prohibits physical mutilations like debeaking of hens and tail docking of pigs. This program also requires that producers be family farmers and does not allow producers that have dual humane and factory-farming operations to participate.
ANIMAL WELFARE APPROVED (AWA) was founded in 2006 as a market-based solution to growing consumer interest in how farm animals are raised and desire to know where their food is coming from and how it is produced. The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI), a non-profit charitable organization with a long history of reducing the sum total of pain and fear inflicted on animals by people, made the decision that it needed to create a separate division dedicated solely to certifying and promoting family farms that raise their animals with the highest welfare standards, and AWA was born. The fundamental goal of animal welfare approved is to improve farm animal welfare. Our main tool in this effort is granting the use of the AWA logo to farms that are annually audited and found to comply with our rigorous animal welfare standards. Seeing the AWA seal on meat, dairy and egg products gives consumers a way to identify products which come from humane farming systems, and it gives farmers a way to show their customers how they farm. We offer this certification and other technical and marketing services to farmers at no charge. Because we are not financially dependent on farmer fees, we are able to remain unbiased and transparent in our auditing and certification. The animal welfare approved standards are the most rigorous and progressive animal care requirements in the nation, and the only requiring the animals to be raised outdoors, on pasture or range. Continuously ranked as the “most stringent” of all third-party certifiers by the World Society for the Protection of Animals (WSPA), Animal Welfare Approved systems go beyond a simple set of rules to benefit farmers, animals and consumers alike with the simple philosophy that our own best interests are intrinsically linked to animals and to the environment we share.
A CHOICE YOU CAN FEEL GOOD ABOUT: food labels are packed with information, but some words can be confusing, if not dow nright misleading. A dozen eggs in a carton boasting the statement “farm fresh,” for example, have probably not come from anything that looks remotely like a farm. A dairy cow is far from “happy” at an industrial facility where she never grazes on pasture. Drakes Bay And “natural” is not sy nony mous with “humane”-in fact, the former term refers only to meat processing, not the animals’ lives. The animal welfare approved label has nothing to hide. Animal Welfare Approved’s standards are the most rigorous and progressive animal care req uirements in the nation, as recognized by the World Society for the Protection of Animals for two years r un ning now. Given only to family farms, the Animal Welfare Approved label verifies that participating farms are
putting each individual animal’s comfort and well-being first. The program benefits all of us with the simple understanding that our ow n best interests are intrinsically linked to animals and the environ ment.
HERE ARE SOME THINGS YOU CAN DO TO MAKE A DIFFERENCE:
• Always look for Animal Welfare Approved products at your grocer, farmers’ markets and restaurawa consumer 100pxants. • Ask for Animal Welfare Approved products when they’re not available. Let grocers know the program is free for their farmers to participate in. Here are two sample letters you can dow nload and distribute: a letter to a retail market and a letter to a restaurant. • Use customer com ment cards to show that you care about farm animal welfare and to inform others about the way farm animals are treated by conventional operations. 119
THE CERTIFIED HUMANE RAISED AND HANDLED® program is a certification and labeling program that is the only animal welfare label requiring the humane treatment of farm animals from birth through slaughter. The goal of the program is to improve the lives of farm animals by driving consumer demand for kinder and more responsible farm animal practices. When you see the Certified Humane Raised and Handled® label on a product you can be assured that the food products have come from facilities that meet precise, objective standards for farm animal treatment.
THE CERTIFIED HUMANE RAISED AND HANDLED® LABEL ASSURES CONSUMERS:
• That the producer meets our standards and applies them to animals from birth through slaughter. • Animals have ample space, shelter and gentle handling to limit stress. Ample fresh water and a healthy diet of q uality feed, without added antibiotics or hormones. • Cages, crates and tie stalls are among the forbidden practices, and animals must be free to do what comes naturally For example, chickens are able to flap their wings and dust bathe, and pigs have the space to move around and root. PRODUCERS MUST COMPLY WITH FOOD safety and environ mental reg ulations. Processors must comply with the American Meat Institute Standards (AMI), a higher standard for slaughtering farm animals than the federal Humane Slaughter Act. View hfac’s fact sheets for consumers. The Fact Sheets provide information about specific humane issues as they relate to farm animals covered by the Certified Humane program. Producers must comply with food safety and environ mental reg ulations. Processors must comply with the American Meat Institute Standards (AMI), a higher standard for slaughtering farm animals than the federal Humane Slaughter Act.
THE CERTIFIED HUMANE RAISED AND HANDLED® program is a certification and labeling program that is the only animal welfare label req uiring the humane treatment of farm animals from birth through slaughter. The goal of the program is to improve the lives of farm animals by driving consumer demand for kinder and more responsible farm animal practices. When you see the Certified Humane Raised and Handled® label on a product you can be assured that the food products have come from facilities that meet precise, objective standards for farm animal treatment.
THE CERTIFIED HUMANE RAISED AND HANDLED® LABEL ASSURES CONSUMERS:
• That the producer meets our standards and applies them to animals from birth through slaughter. • Animals have ample space, shelter and gentle handling to limit stress. Ample fresh water and a healthy diet of q uality feed, without added antibiotics or hormones. • Cages, crates and tie stalls are among the forbidden practices, and animals must be free to do what comes naturally For example, chickens are able to flap their wings and dust bathe, and pigs have the space to move around and root.
Pay more attention to these humane certified labels. Have more love.
PRODUCERS MUST COMPLY WITH FOOD safety and environ mental reg ulations. Processors must comply with the American Meat Institute Standards (AMI), a higher standard for slaughtering farm animals than the federal Humane Slaughter Act. View hfac’s fact sheets for consumers. The Fact Sheets provide information about specific humane issues as they relate to farm animals covered by the Certified Humane program. Producers must comply with food safety and environ mental reg ulations. Processors must comply with the American Meat Institute Standards (AMI), a higher standard for slaughtering farm animals than the federal Humane Slaughter Act.
Q&A HOW WERE THE ANIMAL CARE STANDARDS CREATED? The standards were created by a com mittee of animal scientists and veterinarians with expertise in farm animal issues. The team reviewed the latest research and consulted established standards and g uidelines, such as those in use by the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cr uelty to Animals (RSPCA) in England, and other standards and g uidelines recognized for the humane care of animals. The Animal Care Standards are updated by the scientific com mittee as new research and information on farm animal welfare becomes available.
HOW DO PRODUCERS ACHIEVE CERTIFIED HUMANE RAISED AND HANDLED® CERTIFICATION? Producers must apply to the program, by completing a lengthy application. After the HFAC office receives and reviews the application, and determines if it meets the standards, an inspector is assigned to do the inspection. The inspector performs an onsite inspection, including interviews with staff, review of records, and observation and evaluation of operating procedures. Handling and slaughter inspections in conjunction with those animals are also conducted. If the entire operation meets all the standards and the producer passes the inspection, the producer is certified for a one-year period and subseq uently allowed to carry the Certified Humane Raised and Handled® logo on its products. Each certified producer must reapply and be re-inspected an nually in order to maintain certification. Inspections include the entire process, the slaughter process as well and traceability – to make sure the product in the packages/cartons or meat case came from the animals that were inspected. HOW WILL I KNOW WHICH PRODUCTS IN THE SUPERMARKET ARE CERTIFIED HUMANE®? Producers who are certified under the Certified Humane program may use the Certified Humane Raised & Handled® logo on their packaging. Look for the Certified Humane Raised & Handled® logo to ensure that the products you purchase meet the highest farm animal welfare standards.
10 10 WAYS WAYS EVERYONE CAN HELP
LET MONEY TALK As a consumer, you have a great source of power in your back pocket—your wallet. You can choose to buy foods that come from small farms where animals are raised in humane conditions. Buy foods with the Certified Humane Raised & Handled® label administered by Humane Farm Animal Care. This non-profit—supported by more than 36 animal welfare organizations, including the ASPCA— makes every effort to ensure its producers raise animals humanely.
FIND OUT WHERE YOUR FOOD COMES FROM Ask q uestions! Find out whether the products you buy come from a farm that uses intensive confinement practices, or a farm that allows the animals access to fresh air, exercise and good q uality food. Are they produced locally or have they been shipped from thousands of miles away? Read labels. Does the product contain artificial growth hormones or genetically engineered ingredients? Look for the Certified Humane Raised & Handled label. Foods with this label come from humane sources that are inspected an nually.
ASK YOUR LOCAL GROCERS AND RESTAURANTS TO OFFER HUMANELY RAISED FOODS: Food purveyors can make a huge difference by buying fresh, locally grow n products from small producers. If the dishes you’re dining on and the products you’re buying do not come from humane sources, you can write to local merchants asking for foods with the Certified Humane label.
DO A LITTLE DIGGING A little research on your ow n may give you some unexpected answers. The Internet hosts an enormous amount of information about factory farms, from videos to lists of the ill effects that agribusinesses have on our health, the lives of animals and the environ ment. Get started with our farm animal cr uelty glossary.
EAT LOCALLY, THINK GLOBALLY Support your local food suppliers. You can do this by joining a food co-op, buying food at green markets and finding out whether com munity-supported agriculture (CSA) is active in your neighborhood. CSA is a way for com munity members to collectively support local farms by buying shares, working farm shifts and helping with distribution—and you can receive weekly deliveries of fresh dairy, fr uits, veggies, eggs, etc.
JOIN THE ASPCA ADVOCACY BRIGADE Inform your state and federal legislators that you’re disturbed by the in humane treatment of animals in factory farms and would like to see legislation passed ensuring that all animals raised for food spend their lives in healthy, humane conditions. You can stay up-to-date about current farm animal legislation by joining the ASPCA Advocacy Brigade.
GROW YOUR OWN GARDEN Planting, growing and harvesting vegetables—even if it’s just a basil plant in a coffee can— might have a surprising effect on the way you view food. Firsthand experience of the nurturing it takes to grow healthy, unr ushed food can instill a new knowledge and respect for the process of harvesting food, whether it’s animal or vegetable.
THROW YOUR VIRTUAL WEIGHT AROUND Have a website, Facebook page or blog? Get everyone you know on the Web to be conscious about what they’re eating by adding a link to our factory farm section. Explain to them what goes on at factory farms, and let them know they have a choice to buy foods—free of antibiotics and hormones—from farms that raise healthy animals in a humane environ ment.
HEAR IT STRAIGHT FROM THE HORSE’S MOUTH Talk to the farmers at your local green market. They’ll shed some light on the ways factory farms are affecting the livelihoods of local and family farms.
TAKE ACTION IN YOUR COMMUNITY There’s strength in numbers! Start a letter-writing campaign. Send a petition around. Organize a local meeting. Find out if there are any groups in your area working against factory farms and volunteer to help out. If there aren’t any, get your friends and neighbors together to talk about forming a citizens’ action group, or at least working together to buy foods that come solely from humane sources.
Let both of us live a better life.
COVER Binding: Perfect binding with hard cover Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop END SHEET 91 lb grey Canson TITLEPAGE Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper 70 lb Four color-print process Software: Indesign PAGE 6,7 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop TABLE OF CONYENTS Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 10,11 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 12,13 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 14,15 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 16,17 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 18,19 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop PAGE 20,21 Environ ment Natural W hite Neenah Paper Four color-print process Software: Indesign, Illustration, Photoshop
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BOOK: The Face on Your Plate Slaughter House The Omnivoreâ€™s Dilemma FILM: Food Inc. Our Dairy Bread Meatrix Documentary from Farm Sanctuary WEB: http://w w w.farmsanctuary.org
http://w w w.fsis.usda.gov
http://w w w.peta.org
http://w w w.certifiedhumane.org
http://w w w.pratherranch.com
http://w w w.animalfreedom.org
http://w w w.animalliberationfront.com
http://w w w.herondalefarm.com
http://w w w.terrachoice.com
http://w w w.localharvest.org
http://w w w.nytimes.com/2010/10/22/business
http://w w w.localdirt.com
http://w w w.blambot.com
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http://w w w.helium.com
http://w w w.all-creatures.org/hope
http://w w w.themeatrix.com
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http://w w w.time.com/time/health
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http://w w w.animalvisuals.org
http://w w w.scn.org/~bk269/fear.html
http://w w w.happycow.net
http://w w w.sustainabletable.org
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http://w w w.miketuritzin.com/writing/aguide-to-buying-humanely-produced-meateggs-and-dairy-products/
http://w w w.miketuritzin.com/writing
http://w w w.all-creatures.org http://w w w.time.com
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http://w w w.highbeam.com
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http://w w w.all-creatures.org ttp://michaelpollan.com
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http://w w w.youtube.com http://kotorimagazine.com http://blog.now news.com/article. php?bid=13882&tid=1273703 http://w w w.vegetarismus.ch
Copyright ÂŠ Alice Hsu 2011 All rights served. This publication is protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval systems, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.
ISBN: 11:635-5-920-373724-8 109876543 Designed by Alice Hsu Ty peset in Tarzana Wide, Elementa, Serifa Emperor Eight Production and separations by Alice Hsu Tel: +1 415 367 5999 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
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The concept of this topic and the book is to tell the truth of factory farming to people with a more friendly and interesting way, to make t...