History of the Hebrews -2000
Birth of the Mari Kingdom at Tell Hariri in Syria
-1950 -1900 -1850
Mari king Zimri Lim records the Habiru as one of his peoples
Mari Kingdom Age of the Patriarchs
-1820 Babylonians invade Mari Kingdom -1800
Hyksos migrate south
The Hyksos kings govern northern Egypt, establishing their capital at Avaris
Hyksos Rule Lower Egypt
-1600 -1550 -1500
Egyptian king Ahmose reconquers northern Egypt -1550
Conquest of Canaan
In the last year of his reign Amenhotep III (1385-60) erects hundreds of statues to Sekhmet, and decrees that she should replace Mut as the principal goddess -1360 Akhenaton (1360-43) -1320 Joshua conquests Jericho The burning of Hazor -1250 Ramses II (1287-20) rebuilds Avaris as Per Ramessu The Hebrew Tribes: (Edom), Reuben, Levi, Issachar, Joseph, Dan, Gad, Simeon, Judah, Zebulun, Benjamin, Naphtali, and Asher
Termut adopts Kamose -1490
Enslavement in Egypt
Age of Judges
Horned Pole Disc
David captures Jerusalem from the Jebusites Solomon’s Temple built -932
Oldest known reference to domesticated camels -850 in the Arabian Gulf
-900 -850 -800 -750
King Sargon II of Assyria destroys the Kingdom of Israel -722 Assyrian king Esarhaddron (681-665) tries to rebuild Marduk’s tower in Babylon Oldest known form of coinage used by the Lydians -650 Josiah (640-609) sacks Bethel around -620 Nebuchadnezzar plunders Jerusalem Temple -597 1st Temple sacked and razed to the ground following Zedekiah’s rebellion in -587 -539 2nd Temple built During Zerubbabel’s governorship, -525 and Hebrew Bible committed to writing in its present form under the direction of prophets like Haggai and Zechariah
-500 -450 -400
-333 The Nabateans migrate into the Edom Valley and establish their own kingdom by -300
Greek Ptolemy Rule
Greek Seleucid Rule
Septuagint Pentateuch translated by -250 Rest of the OT during the 2c BC
Revolt lead by Judas Maccabaeus
-150 -100 -50 0 50 100 150
Hasmonean Dynasty Roman Annexation Herod’s Temple Hadrian’s Shrine
Qumran monastery built -130
-63 Sabean Stone -19
Jewish revolt of 66 Masada conquered in 73 70 Second Jewish revolt 131 Simeon Bar Kokhba defeated at the fortress of Bethther 135 (about 12 km south west of Jerusalem)
Flavius Josephus writes his Histories of the Jews in 90
The Divided Hebrew Monarchy -931
Jeroboam I -909 -907
Four army commanders as succession of kings, following a series of assassinations and palace coups. Incursions by Syria.
Elah & Zimri war in which Omri triumphs and establishes a new dynasty. Omri Civil New capital built at Samaria. Syrians expelled. Peace with Judah.
Egyptians plunder the Jerusalem Temple. Abijam attacks Israel and sacks Bethel.
Asa forced to withdraw by Baasha, who forms alliance with the Syrians. Peace pact made between Asa and Omri of Israel.
New altar erected at Bethel.
Ahab and his queen Jezebel sanction the Baal cult. The cult opposed by the Prophets Elijah and Elisha.
Erosion of Israel’s territory by Syria. Jehoram and Joram join forces against Syria. After the battle of Ramoth-Gilead, rebel commander Jehu and his troops attack the depleted army and kill both kings Jehoram of Israel and Joram of Judah. Under the influence of Elisha, Jehu overthrows the priests of Baal and has their patron Jezebel stoned to death. Renewed Syrian aggression.
Jehoshaphat Joram Athaliah
Baal cult in Judah.
-848 -841 -834
As the dead king’s son Jehoash is only a child, his grandmother Athaliah becomes queen. She is eventually assassinated in a palace coup and Jehoash becomes king.
Jeroboam II -747 -742 -740 -731 -722
Death of Elisha. Syrians expelled from Israel. Jehoash besieges Jerusalem. Jeroboam captures Syrian capital Damascus. Israel prospers. The Prophet Amos preaches against Bethel and foretells its destruction.
Zechariah & Shallum Menahem Pekahiah Pekah Hoshea Following the assassination of Jeroboam’s successor, Zechariah, by his commander Shallum, there follows a series of military dictatorships. Pekah, the last of the military dictators, marches on Judah and besieges Jerusalem. When Assyrians come to Judah’s aid, the king of Israel is forced to retreat. Pekah deposed in mass uprising and replaced by Hoshea. Hoshea offers allegiance and pays tribute to the new Assyrian king Shalmaneser V. When Hoshea eventually rebels against Assyrian authority, Samaria is besieged. The city holds out for 3 yrs until it falls to king Sargon II. Israel absorbed into Assyrian empire and much of its population are deported into slavery. The kingdom of Israel ceases to exist. 605 Babylonian prince Nebuchadnezzar defeats the Egyptians at the battle of Carchemish and Jehoiakim transfers his allegiance to Babylon. The Prophet Jeremiah foretells that Nebuchadnezzar will destroy Judah. 597 After the Babylonians fail decisively to defeat the Egyptian army, Jehoiakim rebels against Babylon. In reprisal, Nebuchadnezzar, now king of Babylonia, invades Judah and captures Jerusalem. The Temple is plundered and its treasures taken to Babylon. 17000 leading citizens of Judah taken into slavery in Babylon. Puppet king Zedekiah placed on the throne of Judah. 587 Zedekiah leads abortive rebellion against Babylon. In reprisal, the Jerusalem Temple is sacked and razed to the ground. More Jews taken into slavery. 587-539 The Babylonian exile. The Prophets Ezekiel and Daniel in Babylon.
539 Persian king Cyrus conquers the Babylonian empire, allows the Jews to
525 Under the governorship of Sheshbazzar’s successor, Zerubbabel, the 2nd
return to Jerusalem and appoints a Jewish governor, Sheshbazzar, to run the city. Temple is built. Radical reforms in Judaism. Under the direction of prophets like Haggai and Zechariah the Hebrew Bible is committed to writing in its present form.
Amaziah plunders the Temple to pay heavy tribute to Jehoash of Israel. His son overthrows Uzziah him and seizes power.
Uzziah Ahaz is advised by the Prophet Isaiah to stand firm against Israel. Instead, he appeals to the king of Assyria. The Assyrian Tinglathpileser III agrees to assist in return for allegiance from the kingdom -734 Ahaz in effect making the country an Assyrian vassal state. -728 Religious reforms under Isaiah’s direction. Moses’ Snake Staff destroyed by Hezekiah. Hezekiah Expansion of Judah into land of the Philistines. The Prophet Micah preaches against the expansion. Anti-Assyrian alliance with Egypt. Jerusalem survives Assyrian siege but Judah loses much of its territory.
Manasseh (55½ yrs)
Religious decline in Jerusalem Rapid decline of Assyrian empire. Expansion of Judah into territory once belonging to Israel. The destruction of Bethel. Far-reaching religious reforms. Torah discovered in the Jerusalem Temple. Josiah killed in battle against the Egyptians.
Jehoiakim Puppet king appointed by king Necho of Egypt. Zedekiah
-609 -598 -587
Cheat sheet condensing the history of the Hebrews up to the Diaspora.