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SILENT POETRY Chinese

Paintings in

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Douglas Dillon

Galleries

by Wen

Fong and Maxwell Hearn

K.

The

Metropolitan Museum of

Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 速 www.jstor.org


This publicationis dedicated to PhyllisDillon,whose love of and devotionto Chinese paintinghave done so much to make the Museum'scollectionoutstanding.

Winter1981/82 The MetropolitanMuseum of Art Bulletin VblumeXXXIX,Number3 (ISSN 0026-1521) Published quarterlycopyright ? 1982 by The MetropolitanMuseum of Art, FifthAvenue and 82nd Street, New York,N.Y. 10028. Second-class members. postage paid at New York,N.Y.and AdditionalMailingOffices. Subscriptions$14.00 a year. Single copies $3.75. Sent free to MuseumAnn Arbor, Fourweeks' notice requiredfor change of address. Back issues available on microfilm,from UniversityMicrofilms,313 N. FirstStreet, New (1905-1942) availableas a clothboundreprintset or as individualyearlyvolumes fromArnoPress, 3 ParkAvenue, Michigan.VolumesI-XXVIII Yee, J.F Walter issue in this Metropolitan 10028. N.Y. New by York, Gracie Photographs Box the Station, 255, from or N.Y Museum, 10016, York, MuseumPhotographStudio.GeneralManagerof Publications:JohnP O'Neill.EditorinChiefof the Bulletin:Joan Holt.Associate Editor:Joanna Ekman. Design: AlvinGrossman. On the cover: Detailof Finches and Bamboo, by EmperorHui-tsung(see figure 7)

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve, and extend access to The Metropolitan Museum of Art Bulletin 速 www.jstor.org


Director's

Note

One of the most challengingaspects of The Museumof Art'smasterplan for the Metropolitan permanentinstallationof its collectionshas been the strengtheningof its woefullyinadequateholdings in Chinese painting.Althoughit is acknowledged as one of the world'sgreat artistic traditions,Chinese paintinghas never been an easy subject to masterfor Americans,so involved in the art of the West.Onlya very few notablecollectionsof Chinese paintinghave been formedin the UnitedStates, each one largelya resultof unusualopportunitiesand special interests.The holdingsof the Museumof FineArts,Boston,are the legacy of commercial tradingventuresbetween New Englandand the FarEast duringthe late nineteenthand early twentiethcenturies.The FreerGalleryof Art, Washington,D.C., embodies the interestsof CharlesFreer,whose passion for Chinese painting grew out of his earlierlove of Japonismeas expressed in the art of Whistler.DuringWorld WarIIand in the followingdecades, the devotion and exceptionalknowledgeof two connoisseurdirectors,LaurenceSickmanand ShermanLee, enabled the Nelson Galleryand AtkinsMuseum, KansasCity,Missouri,and the ClevelandMuseum of Artto acquireoutstandingcollectionsof Chinese paintings. At the Metropolitan Museum,however,early effortsto collect Chinese paintingwere halfhearted,and the artistictraditionsof Asia have remaineduntilrecentlylargelyunderrepresented

in the Museum'sencyclopediccollections.It is thereforewitha keen sense of personalpleasure and satisfactionthat I have witnessed-in fewer thanten years-the growthof the collectionof Chinese paintingsat the Museumintoone comparablein quality,if not yet in quantity,to the famed holdingsin such otherfields Metropolitan's as Europeanpainting. The force behindthis remarkableachievement has been the HonorableC. DouglasDillon,Chairman of the Boardof Trustees,whose wisdomand farsightednesshave given tremendousimpetusto the creationof a wing for the comprehensiveexhibitionof FarEasternart at the Metropolitan. He not only underwrotethe constructionof the new Chinese paintinggalleriesthat bear his name but also made substantialcontributionsof worksof art. His generous supportof the Departmentof FarEasternArtand his fruitfulcollaborationwith its staff, includingthe authorsof this text-Professor WenFong, Special Consultantfor Far EasternAffairs,and AssistantCuratorMaxwellK. Hearn-has resultedin a remarkablerecordof progressthat sets an enviableexample. Mostimportantly,the establishmentof the DouglasDillon Galleriesof Chinese paintingaroundthe Astor Courtwillundoubtedly,duringthe comingyears, have a majorimpacton the study and appreciationof Chineseartand cultureinthe UnitedStates. Philippede Montebello Director 3

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Since the openingof the DouglasDillonGalleries of Chinesepaintingin June 1981, it has been possible forvisitorsto The Metropolitan Museum of Artto study Chinesepaintingin its fullrichness and complexity.A knowledgeof the workson view in the installation adds tremendouslyto the and enjoyment understandingof Chinese paintings,twenty-eightof whichare published here, manyforthe firsttime.These worksof art, mostlyrecentacquisitionsand promisedgifts, date fromthe eighthto the eighteenthcenturies. Theirsubjectmatter,diverse in originand inspiration,includeshumanfigures,religious images, animals,landscapes, birds,flowers,and dragons.The artists,comingfromvarioussocial and regionalbackgrounds,includea reigning emperor,a Taoistpope, Buddhistand Taoist clerics, courtand professionalpainters,scholarartists,and poets. Togethertheirworksrepresent most of the majorstyles in a thousandyears of Chinese painting. A uniquecharacteristicof Chinesepaintingis its close relationshipto writing.Not only is brushworkthe commontechniquefor paintingand calligraphy,but, in the course of time,the pictorial and verbalmodes of expressionbecame integral to and inseparablein individualworksof art. scholarYenYenAccordingto the fifth-century chih, painting,definedas a visuallanguage "representingnature'sforms,"was but one of three graphicsystems of communicatingideasthe othertwo being the writtenlanguage,defined as "representing concepts,"and symbolical as diagrams(such the magicalhexagramsof the Bookof Changes), which"representednature's principles."Implicitin these definitionsis that painting,likethe writtenwordand the magical diagram,is based on graphicconventions. Nowhereis this belief moreclearlydemonstrated than in the seventeenth-century Mustard-Seed GardenManualof Painting,whichcodifiesthe ancientformtypes and brushformulasinto establishedways of drawingtrees, rock-texture patterns,faces, draperypatterns,birds,flowers, bamboo,and orchids.Yet,justas wordsmust carrymeaningand symbolsmust be magically efficacious,painting,when touchedwithgenius, mustequal or surpass nature'screation. The commontool for both Chinesewritingand paintingis a brushmade of animalhairs-goat, horse, rabbit,weasel, or mouse whiskers,in ascending orderof stiffness-which has been perfectedover the centuries.The Chinese brush, taperingto a point,has been described by LaurenceSickmanas "themost sensitiveand for paintingever richlypotentialinstrument devised."Withthe tip of the pointedbrushthe artistmakesfine lines, and saturatingthe brush withink,he covers broadareas withinkwash.

Because the Chinese perceivethe universeas Yin consistingof contrastingand complementary and Yangqualitiesand substances, brushand blackink-in theirinfiniteline-and-surface, boneand dry-and-wetrelaand-flesh,thin-and-thick, tionships-can representjust about everythingin a monochromeworld.Infact, the remarkable qualitiesof the black inks-which, used in their pureststate, producea lustrousblackand, dilutedwithwater,a fullrangeof translucent grays-have been a vitalfactorin determiningthe natureof Chinese painting. the art of writingideographswitha Calligraphy, brush,imitatesnature'srhythmsand movements and is regardedby the Chineseas a purer,if not higher,formof artisticexpressionthan painting. A superblyexecuted brushstrokenot only is a kinestheticmovementof great beauty and joy, reflectingthe artist'sdelightfullybalancedfinger, wrist,and armactions, but also comes straight fromthe writer'sbellyand mind-thus the Chinese referto calligraphyas an artist's"mind print."Inmakingthickening-and-thinning, twistingand-turninglines-simultaneouslypushingdown and pullingback for heightenedtensionand internalmovementwithineach stroke-the painter'scalligraphicbrushworkcan be infinitely expressive in an inimitably personalway.Thus,as the laterChinesepaintersturnedmoreand more fromformalrepresentationto self-expression,they increasinglysought abstractand expressive qualitiesthroughcalligraphictechniques. Chinesepictorialrepresentation Historically, developed afterthe late sixthcenturyB.C.,firstas monumentaldecorationfor publicbuildings, ceremonialbronzevessels, and grave furnishings, wherefiguraland mythologicalillustrations in flat, two-dimensional formsserved ritualand didactic of Buddhismfrom purposes.Afterthe introduction Indiaand CentralAsia, religioussubjects provided a powerfulstimulusforfiguralrepresentations fromthe fifthcenturyA.D.onward,withan

(1) As Chinesepaintersturnedaway fromformal representationto self-expression,they increasinglyintegratedcalligraphictechniquesinto their works.By the seventeenthcentury,landscape paintingwas based completelyupon calligraphic abstraction.In The SixteenLohans(see also figures 51-53), Tao-chi(1642-1707) drewthe veins of the rocks in the "lotus-leaf-vein" pattern. Holdingthe brushuprightand keeping the tip "hidden"in the center of the stroke,he builtup the formsusing movementsof his entirearmand his body. Maintaining a continuousrhythmicmotion,he created brushpatternsthatbreatheand flowwitha powerfulcompositionalforce. 5


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and plasticfigural increasinglythree-dimensional art reachingits apogee in the eighthand ninth centuriesin T'angChina.Landscapeemerged firstas a backgroundforfigures,becomingan independentsubject in the late ninthand early tenthcenturies.Gradually, landscapedeveloped a unifiedcompositionalstructure,culminatingin the successful creationof illusionisticdepth by the end of the thirteenthcentury.As the landscape skills,he painterimprovedhis representational became involved,as the poet did, withthe problemof probingthe meaningand beauty behindnature'sphysicalphenomena.Leading criticstowardthe end of the NorthernSung period,in the late eleventhcentury,were fond of describingpoetryas "formlesspainting"and paintingas "wordlesspoetry,"and they theorized thatthereshould be "paintingin poetry,and poetryin painting." Tomakea philosophicalgeneralization,the majorachievementsof Sung dynasty(960-1279) and Yuandynasty(1279-1368) painting,represented by the monumentallandscapes and miniaturistbird-and-flower worksof the NorthernSung professionaland courtpainters,and the individualistic,calligraphicbrushdrawingsof the Yuan seem to reflecttwo Neo-Confucian scholar-artists, schools of thought,thatof principles(li-hsueh) and thatof the mind(hsin-hsueh).The former, whichemphasizes "theinvestigationof things leadingto the extensionof knowledge,"implies the objectivestudyof thingswithinthe universe, whilethe latter,believingthat "theuniverseis the mind,and the mindthe universe,"seeks the realizationof what is alreadywithinoneself. By spurningformalrealism,the scholar-artistsof the Yuanand laterperiodssought not to lay bare the "truth" of the universe,but ratherto confrontthe personalpsychologicalrealitiesbehindappearances. Havingconqueredillusionstructurally duringthe Yuanperiod,Mingdynasty(13681644) landscape paintersemphasizedsurface abstractions,and the earlyCh'ingmastersof the late seventeenthand earlyeighteenthcenturies developed calligraphicabstractionsthroughan orchestrationof lines and formsin abstract space. Intheirquest for self-expression,scholarartistsfromthe fourteenthcenturyon learnedto (2) Theswept-backmane, rollingeye, and flaring nostrilsconvey the fierytemperamentof NightshiningWhite,favoritechargerof the emperor to the Hsuan-tsung(reigned712-56). Attributed leadinghorse painterof the eighthcentury,Han Kan(activeca. 740-56), this workshows sensitive contourlines reinforcedby pale ink-washmodeling in a style knownas pai-hua,or "whitepainting"(see also figure3).

blend pictorial,calligraphic,and poetic modes in single worksof art. By referringto paintingas "silentpoetry"-and recallingessayist HanYs's (768-824) words,"wheninjusticeoccurs, one sings out"-scholar-artistsduringthe Yuan,Ming, and Ch'ingperiods,especiallywhen the times were difficult,used paintingnot only as a means of self-expression,but also as a psychological self-defenseagainstan increasinglyturbulentand menacingworld. Duringthe T'angdynastylife in Chinawas brilliantly cosmopolitan.Chinese politicaland culturalinstitutionswere at theirapogee, and duringthis era Chineseinfluencehad its greatest impacton Koreaand Japan.The capitalCh'angan (modernSian)was a centerforforeigntrade. Merchantsfollowingthe caravanroutes from Byzantium,Arabia,Persia,and CentralAsia broughttheirexotic wares to its appreciative inhabitants. Amongthe most highlyprizedforeigntributesto the imperialcourtwere the war-horsesof Arabia and CentralAsia, whichwere larger,faster,and morepowerfulthanthe nativeponies. The most splendidof these animalsbecame personal mountsof the emperor. Night-shiningWhite,a paintingof the favorite chargerof EmperorHsuan-tsung(reigned 712-56), is possiblythe only survivingworkof the leadinghorse painterof the eighthcentury,Han Kan(activeca. 740-56) (figures2,3). The fierytemperedanimal,withits wildeye, flaringnostrils, and prancinghooves, epitomizesChinesemyths about "celestialsteeds" that "sweatedblood"and were dragons in disguise. Althoughthe horse is tetheredto a sturdypost, Night-shiningWhite radiatessupernaturalenergy.At the same time it presentsan accurateportrayalof a strong, restless animal. Thatthe subjectof this paintingis a whitehorse obviouslyexplainswhythe artisthas not used any color.But the uncompromising achievementwould indicatethat HanKan,likeall Chinese paintersa masterof the brushline,mightnaturallyprefer only brushand black ink,restrictingcolor,if presentat all, to areas of lesser importance.This method,calledpai-hua,or "whitepainting,"had a long historybeforeT'angtimes, as is evidenced by its appearancein Buddhistcaves of the first halfof the sixthcentury.Whenthe Indo-European concept of chiaroscuro,knownto the Chineseas "receding-and-protruding painting,"was introduced intoChinathroughCentralAsia, Chinese artists,rejectingits shaded colors, responded by developingtheirown three-dimensional mode of monochromepaintingwitha modulated line.The great eighththickening-and-thinning centuryfigurepainterWuTao-tzu(activeca. 720-60) was said to have done his large 7


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Buddhistimages on templewallswithsuch strokesthatthey forcefulthickening-and-thinning needed neithershading norcolors to be complete. Since most T'angpictorialart exists only as walldecoration,Night-shiningWhitegives us an unparalleledopportunityto observe how a great T'angartistwas able to achieve on paper a fully plasticand livelyimage of a prancinghorse throughthe elegant economyof only a sensitive brushlineand subtle inkshading.The power of Han Kan'sdrawinglies in the qualityof his line,whichis supple and incisive,definingthe sculpturelikeforms.In nature"flat"lines do not exist:a crease in a horse'sneck or below its chest, for instance,representsthe intersectionof two planes. A truecontourline drawnby the artistmustsuggest the curvingsurfaceof a form. Han Kan'sbrushlineprecisely,almosttactually, describes the bulgingcontoursof the horse's powerfulbody and the creases of its quivering muscles. Such effectivedrawing,a unique achievementof T'angpainting,is the productof a mindthatvisualizesformsin organic,threedimensionalterms.The brushlineis beautiful because, in its sensitivemodulation,it describes the formsbeautifully. HanKan'sintuitivegrasp of foreFurthermore, and of animallocomotionhas enabled shortening himto achieve naturalismwithformtypes forthe horse thathad been in use since the Ch'inand Handynasties(221 B.C.-A.D.220). Archaicrepresentationswere merelyflatsilhouettes,a form foundeven in sculpture.Inthe HanFlyingHorse thattouredthe UnitedStates in 1974-75, the two sides of the horse are seen as symmetrical halves,withboth rightlegs extended forwardand both left legs swung backwardin an unnatural gait, reducingmovementand expressiveness to rhythmicabstraction.AlthoughHan Kanfollowed basicallythe same linearconventionsin depicting his horse-smooth, roundhindquartersand strict profilehead withan open mouth-it is now conceived in the roundas a well-integrated, organic entity.The animal'shooves are in propersynchronization:withleft-frontand right-rearlegs touching the groundat the same time.ThusHan Kanwas formtypes to create able to go beyondtraditional animal a superblyarticulated,personality-charged thatwas muchemulatedby ensuing generations of artistsbut never equalled. Landscapepaintingbegan to emerge as a preeminentart format the end of the T'ang dynasty.Painters,escaping the turmoiland destructionthattook place duringthe collapse of the dynasty,retreatedto the mountainsand countryside,wherethey foundspectacular scenery and inspiration.The reclusiveartistsof the ensuing Five Dynasties(907-60) and the 10

earlyNorthernSung dynasty(960-1127) sought of creationby investigating to capturethe "truth" of naturein landscape painting. the "principles" Theydeveloped a monumentalstyle of great powerand simplicitythatconveys the vastness and multiplicity of creationitself.Such paintersas Fan K'uan(activeca. 990-1030) and the great earlyNorthernSung masterscreated worksthat wouldbe admiredand copied for hundredsof years. In NorthernSung landscape, as in the landscapes of centuriesbefore,the principalelements are mountainsand trees, whichare portrayedby an extensive repertoireof systematicallydeveloped formtypes. Inarchaicrepresentationsthese closely resembletheirideographicforms:shan (A\:) comprisingthree peaks, a "host"flanked by two smaller"guest"peaks; and mu ( ) describingforkedbranchesand anchoringroots. By NorthernSung times, differentkindsof rock surfaceswere described by clearlydefined systems of texturestrokesor dots; and the trees were shownas a mixtureof deciduous hardwoods and coniferousevergreens,withthe leaves representedby a varietyof foliageformulasoutlinedpatternsof circularand pointedleaves contrastingwithink-dottedor needle patterns.A NorthernSung landscape, conceived partby part,is read ratherthanexperienced:it has a great intellectualsense of scale but lacks physically described space and recession. The resultis a conceptuallandscapethat representsno mere retinalimage of naturebut a visionof the macrocosm. Landscapein the Styleof Fan K'uan,a large hangingscrollof the twelfthcentury,repeats some of the conventionsof the earliermaster(figures 4-6). Here,for instance,is the strictorderingof the compositionintostages: in this case three, indicatedby a boat landingat the foot of a treecovered bluffin the foreground;travelersheaded towarda temple retreatin the middledistance; and mountainpeaks risingin the background.The dots and angularrockfaces of "raindrop"-texture the scrubbyfoliageon the peaks are also hallmarksof Fan K'uan.Fan'smountainforms reflectthe geologicaltraitsof the rockypeaks of the southernShensi regionof northernChina,where such foliage grows in layersof wind-deposited (4) Thishangingscrollby a NorthernSung artist dates fromabout 1120 and depicts a landscape of mountainsand trees thatevokes the style of the masterFan K'uan(activeca. earlyeleventh-century 990-1030). Neithera realisticportrayalnor a romanticpersonalvision,it emphasizes the vastness and complexityof nature.Inkand pale colors on silk, 647/8x 407/8 inches. Giftof Irene and EarlMorse, 1956. 56.151


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cipal elementsof Landscape in the Styleof Fan K'uan.Here, silhouettedagainst the mist, great deciduoushardwoods withtheirmassive trunksdisplay a varietyof conventionalized foliagepatterns-outlined roundand pointedleaves and inkdots. Ina NorthernSung landscape, mountains,the otherprincipalelement,and trees contrastand complement each otheraccordingto Yin and Yangconcepts in various relationshipsof high and low, hardand soft, lightand darkto create infinitechange, variety, and interestin a timeless landscape.

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soil on the tops of barrencliffs.Inthis scrollthe rocksurfacesare described by angular,nervously dots. chargedcontourstrokesand pointillistic Followingthe Fan idiomas well are the trees, a mixtureof the outlinedfoliage patternsof tall hardwoodspecies in the foregroundand inkdottedevergreenmotifsin the middledistance. The mountainformsof the Metropolitan's scroll are superimposedin overlappingsilhouettes,a compositionaldevice typicalof the twelfthcentury. Thereis no recedinggroundplane to linkor hold the majorelements;onlythe mistthatcurls motifs throughthe valleysunitesthem. Individual are organizedon an additivebasis, and the landscapeis seen, or read, motifby motif.The mist-filledchasms and valleysseem to runin a vast and boundlessspace. By the late thirteenth and earlyfourteenthcenturies,landscape elementsbecame physicallyintegrated,but descriptionof spatialrecessionwas achieved in the laterpaintingsonly withthe loss of the ability on the partof the artistto suggest infinitespace. Quitethe oppositeof the dramaticscope of the landscape is the tranquilmicrocosmshown in the exquisitehandscrollFipchesand Bamboo (figure 7). The paintingis signed witha cypherof the late NorthernSung emperor,Hui-tsung(reigned 1101-25), a rapaciouscollectorand artistand calligrapherof great talent,who did morethan any otherrulerto fosterthe Academytraditionin China.The exactingstyle and high standards of his Academywere inspiredby the emperor's own devotionto the fine art of painting.The meticulousattentionpaid to the depictionof the naturalworldfounda strikingparallelin the Sung Neo-Confucian epistemologyassertingthat "the investigationof things leads to the extensionof knowledge."The ultimategoal of the Academy was not justa fine miniaturist technique,but the carefulstudyof "principles" of naturethrough painting.

InFinchesand Bamboowe lookintothe private worldof a pairof birdscommuningpeacefullyon a springday.The bambooleaves, theirtips brownedby a harshwinter,have regainedtheir lushjade-greenhue, and pinktendrilssproutfrom each branch.The springystalks providesecure perches forthe birds:the sleek male on the lower stalk,tailand wing tips pulledback, is attentive to the female,who is ratheraloof but enjoyinghis attention.Althoughclose examinationrevealsthat the birdsare drawnin conventionalformtypes and brushpatterns,the intentis clearlyto achieve a lifelikerepresentation-eventhe dots of lacquer in the birds'eyes are meantto add life. But the paintingis morethanjust a faithfulreproduction of nature'soutwardappearances.By showing growth,change, and potentialmovement,it communicatesprofoundinsightintothe workings

of the naturaluniverse.By comparison,an Audubonprintor naturephotographseems only a frozenimage. Hui-tsungbequeathednot only his own artistic achievementsand thatof his Academybut also a descriptivecatalogueof his paintingcollection, Hsuan-hohua-p'u(A Manualof PaintingDuring the Hsuan-hoReign, 1119-25; witha preface dated 1120),whichevidences the richnessand diversityof Sung painting.Dividedintoten sections, it lists subjects rangingfromBuddhist and Taoistimages to historyand didactic pictures,to such specializedgenres as architecture,foreigntribes,landscapes, animals,birds, flowers,bamboo,fish, and dragons.The Sung periodwas richin the decorativearts, such as screens and otherfurnishings,and in ornamentedbuildings,whichwere embellishedin earlySung times mainlyby professionalpainters, who also turnedout moreintimateworksfor patronsand collectors. Inthe eleventhcentury,when scholar-officials had replacedChina'shereditaryaristocracyas the dominantforce in governmentand culturallife, a new class of artistappeared.As men of letters, most scholar-officials were trainedpoets and calligraphers,and as manyof themwere connoisseursand collectors,they dabbled in painting.Inemphasizingthe cultivationof the innerself, the scholar-artistssaw painting, calligraphy,and poetryas means for personal expression.Turningaway fromthe minutely descriptivemode of such worksas Finchesand Bamboo,avant-gardecriticsof the late Northern Sung began a search fora radicallydifferent, morepersonallyexpressivestyle. Some two centurieslater,this scholar-painting aesthetic became the accepted credo of the leadingartists of the Yuanperiod. In 1127 Hui-tsung'snortherncapitalwas sacked by the ChinTartars,and the emperorwas carried off,onlyto die laterin captivity.His ninthson, who was proclaimedEmperorKao-tsung(reigned 1127-61), escaped and establishedthe Southern Sung courtat Lin-an(Hangchow)in 1138. A SouthernSung artistdrewthe Museum'sfreehand copy of a tenth-century handscrollby Chou Wen-chOtwo years afterthe move to the new capital(figures8,9). Chou,a SouthernT'ang (937-75) courtpainter,was patronizedby (6) In Landscapein the Styleof Fan K'uanthe rocksurfacesare describedby nervous,angular contourstrokesand mottlingdots, softerversions of Fan K'uan's"raindrop" dots. Superimposedin overlappingsilhouettes,the mountainsare unified by a mist-filledatmospherethatcreates the illusion of space, a device thatdates this scrollto the twelfthcentury. 15


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(7) Anaccomplishedpainter as wellas an activepatronof the arts, the emperorHui-tsung , (reigned1101-25) established a new level of naturalism i:f:::,,; throughthe exactingstandards he set forartistsof the Sung , PaintingAcademy.Whetherili lustratinga line of poetryor makinga studyfromnature, capturingthe spiritof the subject was valuedabove mere literalrepresentation.Theemperor'sFinchesand Bamboo exemplifieshis fastidioustaste. the minutelyobservedfinches and stalksof bambooare exquisitelycomposed and ele;,, gantlyrendered.Thetinybirds . i; - X are imbuedwiththe alertness X, ~~ and sprightlyvitalityof theirlivY1:4 Detailof handingcounterparts. i ",

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EmperorLiY( (reigned961-75), an artistand poet who trainedhis palace ladies to sing and act out his lyrics.Theoriginalpaintingshowingthese womenin the palace was done in fullcolor. Inmakinghis copy the twelfth-century artist chose the "plaindrawing"(pai-miao)style of Li Kung-lin(ca. 1049-1106), the foremostscholarpainterof the late NorthernSung period,whose nephewhad commissionedthe picture.A great and noted calligrapher,Listudiedand antiquarian copied manyancientworks,distillingand transformingthem in a neoclassical,pure drawing style. UnlikeHan Kan'ssubtlymodeled"white painting,"in whichlines describe contours,Li's style is a strictlylineartechniquewithelegant calligraphicbrushstrokesthatare in themselves beautiful. individually Workingin this style, the artisthas not triedto reproducethe originalexactly.He has expanded and transformedit, givingit a fresh understandinvolvesboth imitation ing. Such a transformation and re-creation.The copyistfirsttriesto capture the largermotifsand the obviousbrushmannerisms as well as otherreadilyidentifiableelements, such as hairdoand costume. But to give lifeand energy to his work,he makes subtlechanges more in keepingwiththe aestheticand visual structureof his own time and his own personality. In the Palace is not a laterpaintingin an ancientstyle but an ancientworkreincarnatedin a latervernacular.Concentrating on line,the all eliminated painter suggestions of a settingin be space-which might expected in a tenthcenturyhandscroll-and the well-conceived figuresappearagainsta void. The draperyfolds are drawnin the type of stronglycalligraphicline admiringlycharacterizedby Sung criticsas "iron 18

wire."Thisstyle displaysa self-consciouspreoccupationwithbrushline:perfectlycentered (the brushtip carefullykeptat the center of the and taut, the lines become almost brushstroke) independentof the formsthey describe. Here, ratherthanmodelingthe forms,the brushlines kineticallyrecreatethe rhythmsof the folds. Yet, despite theirfreedom,they are cohesive and well integrated,suggesting the movementand structureof the body underneath. Ina similarspiritof revivingChina'sancient heritage,EmperorKao-tsungsponsoreda number of paintingand calligraphyprojectsthatextolled the virtuesand legitimacyof his "dynastic revival."The largestof these was the illustrating of the morethanthreehundredpoems of the Shih-

ching, or Classic of Odes, as arranged and

interpretedby the HancommentatorsMaoHeng

and Mao Ch'ang. The Six Odes Startingwith

"Wild Geese," illustratedby MaHo-chih(active ca. 1130-70), was partof this ambitiousprogram (figures10, 11). TheSix Odes reflecta new archaizingapproachto paintingtakenby the Academyunderthe personaldirectionof the emperor. (8,9) The artistof In the Palace, a twelfth-century copy of a lost workby Chou Wen-chO(active ca. 940-75), has eliminated color and all suggestion of setting to concentrate on line, turningeach brushstrokeinto an expressive entity,as in calligraphy. Thisstrictlylinear technique, known as "plaindrawing,"can be contrasted to the contour lines and subtle shading of the earlier Nightshining White(figures 2, 3). Details of handscroll, before 1140. Inkon silk, 10/2 x 571/2inches overall. Purchase, Douglas DillonGift, 1978. 1978.4


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Ma's"orchid-leaf" brushline,a stylizedversion of the classic thickening-and-thinning stroke, tradition the from derives scholar-painting clearly of LiKung-lin.Ma'sarchaistic,unrealistic,and deliberatelycalligraphicdrawingstyle is ideally suitedforthe Odes, long regardedas one of the foundationsof Chinesecivilizationand thought. Avoidingthe narrativeor descriptiveapproach, he has infusedhis drawingwithlyricalexpression. a poem describingthe In WildGeese, illustrating misfortunesof the homeless and poor beforethe ChoukingHsuan(reigned827-780 B.C.)gathered them in and housed them, Madepicts a pair of geese flyingeagerlyto theirgoslings hidingin the reeds. Tosuggest theirunhappycondition, the brushstrokesof the reeds aroundthe young birdsare disorderlyand abrupt;and to show their helplessness, the lines describingthe goslings are timid,almostquavering.Incontrast,the parentbirdsare beautifullygroomed,and their verygracefuland tenderpresence seems to spell hope and relief. InCourtyardTorches,an impressivescene of courtiersassembled foran audience, Madrew

figures,trees, and architecturewithan undulating brushstrokein a particularly expressivecalligraphicstyle. (10) EmperorKao-tsung(reigned1127-61) sponsored a series of handscrollsthattranscribedand illustratedthe Classicof Odes, thoughtto have been compiledby Confucius.Forhis illustration WildGeese MaHo-chih(activeca. 1130-70) used an archaistic,simplifiedstyle in keepingwith the great antiquityof the Odes. Detailof handscroll.Inkand colorson silk,individualscene 10 x 301/2inches overall. EdwardElliottFamilyCollec-

tion.Lentby DouglasDillon.L. 1981.15.1

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As we have seen in In the Palace, one artist's style may become the subjectof anotherartist's compositionin a free adaptation,a tradition in Westernart.Thiscombination largelyunfamiliar causes pecof documentationand interpretation uliarproblemsof stylisticanalysisand attribution.

been movedoutdoors,wherethe scholarsand a Buddhistmonkattendedby servantsgatherand converseamiably.One scholar,Idaningagainsta garden rock,is laboringover a poem. The figrocks,and tree are arrangedhoriures, furniture, compositions. zontally,recallingothertenth-century

masterChou copy of a workby the tenth-century Wen-chO,this one by a thirteenth-century painter (figure12). Inthe Palace Museum,Peking,there is an earlier,cut-downversion(onlythe lefthalfof the compositionremains)entitledLiteraryGathering; EmperorHui-tsung,writingon the painting, ascribes it to the eighth-century painterHan is unlikelybeHuang(723-87). Thisattribution cause the costumes-particularlythe men's hats-the chair,and the hairdoof the servantboy are in the style of the tenthcentury,and the drawbrushline" ing of the draperyis in the "tremulous knownto have been used by ChouWen-chO.By comparingthe two paintings,whichare very close in compositionbut differin drawingstyle, we may concludethatbothare copies of an originalby Chou. The originalcomposition,whichis the earliest knownexampleof a populartheme in Sung painting, a literarymeetingin a garden setting,commemoratedthe famouspartieshosted by the eighth-century poet WangCh'ang-linat his residence in Chiang-ning(Nanking),at whichhe entertainedhis poet friendsand held poetrycomand writingimplementshave petitions.Furniture

tenth-century style has been transformedby the artist.Whilethe hats are Souththirteenth-century ern T'angversionsof earlierT'angheadgear,the faces have a late Sung look,typicalof manyof the Buddhistpaintingsnow preservedin Japan. Comparedto the late T'angfaces, they are more schematic;the individualbrushlinesare more rapidand more automaticin feeling. Incontrast to faces of the late Mingdynasty(sixteenthand seventeenthcenturies),however,they are solidly and three-dimensionally conceived.The drawing of the faces begins withthe nose, aroundwhich the eyes, eyebrows,mouth,and ears are builtto convey a definitesense of bone structureand volume.The eyelid has a doublecurvaturethat rises to suggest the bulgingeyeball underneath. has beChouWen-chu's"tremulous brushline" come forthe thirteenth-century artista virtuoso performance,in whichthe elegantflutteringlines, at once playfuland confident,are well integrated. Thehooks and curves representingcreases and pockets in the draperyshow an extravagantrealism matchedonly by the best late SouthernSung Academyfigurepainters. Somewhatapartfrombut clearlyreflectingthe

LiteraryGatheringat the Liu-liHall is another

22

In the Metropolitan'sLiteraryGathering,Chou's


mainstreamof pictorialdevelopmentare Buddhist paintings,whichflourishedduringthe Sung period.ThroughoutBuddhism'searlyhistoryin China,the ascetic aspects of the religion-the practiceof celibacy and self-deprivation-came intoconflictwiththe Chinesefamilysystem and social values. The formof Buddhismthatwon wide popularacceptance by the Chinesewas the less esotericand less demandingPureLandsect, whichpreached universalsalvationthroughmeritoriousworkand frequentinvocationof the names of the AmitabhaBuddha,lordof the WesternParadise, and his Paradisedeities.The large, imposing hangingscrollrepresentsthe compassionate Amitabhawelcomingnewbornsouls intothe Western Paradise(figures13, 14). Such images of the WesternParadisedeities were made by commercial studiosfor privateworshipin the home. Many Buddhistpaintingsof the Sung and Yuanperiods are preservedtoday in Japan,whose merchants and pilgrimsduringthe thirteenthto fifteenth centuriesimportedthem, mainlyfromNing-po,a portcity in ChekiangProvince.A scrolllikethe Metropolitan's appears in a lohanpaintingmade in Ning-pobetween 1178 and 1184, now owned in Kyoto. by the Zen Buddhisttemple Daitokuji Typicalof Buddhistimages, the figureis well drawnin a conservativevein. The face and hands, renderedfirmlyin a three-dimensional manner,are modeled by a pink,flesh-toneshading, reminiscentof the importedchiaroscurotechniqueof the fifthand sixthcenturies.The drapery

is executed in the "scudding-cloudand runningwater"pattern,which,havingoriginatedin the Gandharanstyle, was frequently Indo-European used by Chinesepaintersto recallthe Indianorigin of the Buddha.The modulatedlines of the draperyrecallthe legendarythickening-andthinningbrushstrokesof WuTao-tzu.Comparedto the expressivestrokesof In the Palace, however, these seem tame and almostreducedto a formula.The brilliant colors are typicalof popular

(12)Poetrycompetitionsand literarydiscussions were oftenpaintedby artistsof the Sung (960-1279) and laterperiods. Literary Gathering at the Liu-liHall,a thirteenth-century copy of a workby ChouWen-chu(see also figures8,9), commemoratesa meetinghosted by the poet WangCh'ang-lin(activeca. 713-41). Here,seven scholarsand a Buddhistmonkadmirebooks and scrollsand converse. Twoservantsstand by, whilea thirdgrindsinkon an inkstone.Although the artisthas transformed Chou'stenth-century draperystyle intoa series of complexrococo meanders,the lines never degenerateintotwodimensionalpattern;independently,or in conjunctionwithpale shading,theygraphicallydescribe the folds and creases of the garments.Handscroll.Inkand colorson silk, 123/8 x 49 inches. Gift of Mrs.SheilaRiddell,in memoryof SirPercival David,1979. 1979.49 23


(13) By the twelfthcentury,the mostpopularform of Buddhismin Chinacenteredon the Amitabha Buddha,shownhere welcomingsouls intohis WesternParadise.Standingon lotus pods, Amitabhamanifestshis superhumancharacter throughhis idealizedbody and gestures. His raisedlefthand, withthumband fingerforminga circle,betokenswisdomand compassion;the righthand is loweredin the gesture of almsgiving His elongatedearlobesare or wish-granting. those of an Indianprinceand signifyhis stature as a universalruler;the cranialprotuberance,red bald spot, and halo are signs of enlightenedwisdom. Hangingscroll.Inkand colorson silk,5312x 23 inches. Purchase,TheDillonFundGift,1980. 1980.275 (14) Whilethe formsare seen as elegant linear patterns,theyare also renderedthree-dimensionally.In the detailof Amitabha'shand,fine outlines and flesh-tonedshadingcombineto provide a convincingillusionof the fleshypalmand fingers aroundwhichthe nails are gentlycurved.

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Buddhist paintings of the period. Such intensityof color is the result of a layer of foundation paint on the back of the silk surface-applied before the pigments on the front-which was discovered when the painting was remounted. A very differenttype of Buddhist painting is Meeting Between Yao-shanand Li Ao, inscribed by the well-knownCh'an priest Yen-ch'iKuangwen between 1254 and 1256, when he was abbot of the Ling-yinTemplein Hangchow (figures 15, 16). Antidoctrinaland iconoclastic, Ch'an, or Zen (in Japanese), Buddhism shared with NeoConfucianismand philosophical Taoisma concern for the cultivationof a tranquiland detached mind free of materialinvolvement.Just as the Ch'an master shunned formal learning in favor of intuitive understanding, the Ch'an painter avoided careful drawing and brightcolors in favor of a spontaneous, more elusive brush and ink-wash style. This scroll depicts the famous encounter between the Neo-Confucianscholar Li Ao (active ca. 840) and the Ch'an master Yao-shan. Meeting the renowned master, the scholar was disappointed by his unresponsiveness, and remarked, "Seeing your face is not as good as hearing your name." Whereuponthe master replied, "Would you distrust your eye and value your ear?"Then, pointing up and down, the master indicated that the ultimaterealityis in what you can see, such as "the clouds in the sky and water in my vase." On the painting Yen-ch'iKuang-wen'scolophon reads: come in a flash, Allmomentsof enlightenment Whydistrustyoureye and valueyourear? Just as betweenthe waterand the clouds, Don'tsay thereis nothingthere. 26

The drawing of this scroll is in a style so pale that it has been nicknamed "ghost painting."A relaxed and spontaneous combinationof line and ink wash, this style was said to have been evolved by a late twelfth-centuryCh'an master, Chih-yung.Whilethe forms are vividlyvolumetric and real, the artist is attemptingto express an idea that denied both form and technique. Compared to Li Kung-lin'ssimplified "plaindrawing," the loose brushlines seem shapeless and to critics of classical calligraphy,even "uncultivated." Yetthe great Ch'an works of the thirteenthcenturywere a unique expression of a religious ideal. LaterCh'an-stylepaintings,increasingly rough and eccentric, show interesting but empty brushwork. (15) Meeting Between Yao-shan and LiAo depicts the encounter between the Ch'an (Zen in Japanese) master Yao-shan and the Confucian scholar Li Ao (active ca. 840), who is shown at the left. The Ch'ansect of Buddhism disparaged elaborate ritualsand iconography in favor of a more personal approach to enlightenment. "Encounter"paintings and their accompanying poems challenged the viewer witha conundrum, the answer to which led to the realizationthat the ultimaterealityis simply that which one perceives. Hanging scroll, before 1256. Inkon paper, 12V4x 331/8inches. EdwardElliottFamilyCollection.Purchase, The DillonFund Gift, 1982. 1982.2.1. (16) Yao-shan,at the right, is portrayedin the spontaneous, elusive brush and ink-washstyle favored by Ch'anpainters, who shunned careful drawingand brightcolors. Capturingthe fleeting vision witha minimumof technique, the Ch'an painting style essentially denies all form and technique.


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In 1227 the armiesof GenghisKhansucceeded in drivingthe ChinTartarsfromYen-ching (Peking).In 1234 the MongolscapturedPienching (K'ai-feng)and destroyedit completely. Thirty-sevenyears later,Genghis'sgrandson, KublaiKhan,establishedthe Yuandynastyand, sweeping south, overcamethe last SouthernSung emperor.Until1368, the Mongolsimposedtheir ruleuponthe Chinese,who never beforehad been completelyconquered. Chinaunderthe Mongolconquest became an amalgamof HanChinese,Mongol,Khitan,Jurchen Tartar,CentralAsian,and Tibetancultures,yet Chineseart and culturenot onlysurvivedbut also flourished.Developingnew traditionsas well as carryingon and rediscoveringold ones, Yuan paintersworkedin a wide rangeof styles. Amongthe earlyYuanmasters,WangChenp'eng (ca. 1280-1329) was the leadingexponent of "plaindrawing"in bothfiguraland architectural and the painting.His newlydiscoveredVimalakirti SingleDoctrinewas done, accordingto the artist'sinscription,in 1308 in the Yuanpalace at Pekingat the behest of Jen-tsung(reigned 1312-20), then the heirapparent(figures17-19). Wangfurthernotes thathis modelwas a compositionby a Chinpainter,MaYun-ch'ing(activeca. 1230),whichwas itselfa copy of a workby Li Kung-lin.The Palace Museum,Peking,owns a scrollattributedto Lithatappears to be the work and the acknowledgedmodel of MaYun-ch'ing forWang'sVimalakirti. The handscrolldepicts a passage fromthe Vimalakirti Sutra,a Buddhistscripture,in which the Bodhia layman,and Manjusri, Vimalakirti, sattvaof Wisdom,engage in a theologicaldebate. Accordingto the sutra,Vimalakirti proved the moresubtle by remainingsilentwhen asked to explainthe ultimatemeaningof the Buddhist law.The principalfigures,seated on daises and facing each other,are surroundedby an audience of bodhisattvas,lohans,attendants,and guardians. Wang'sscrollis evidence of the powerfulinfluence of LiKung-lin'sart in laterChinesepainting. Lipaintedmanyreligioussubjects,working mostlyon paper in handscrollsor otherintimate formats.Unlikeotherreligiouspaintings,such as muralsor icon paintingson silk, Li's"plaindrawing"works,richin psychologicalinterpretataste and tion,were done to the scholar-painter's (17) In this detailof WangChen-p'eng'sVimalakirti(figure18), an alertlionand a young boy attend the Bodhisattvaof Wisdom.In describingthe billowingfolds of the garments,the artisthas carefullycenteredhis brushtip forperfectcontrol. 28


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thereforeacceptable to connoisseursas fine art. Wang'sdrawingalso shows the influenceof a leadingcalligrapherand painterof the time,Chao Meng-fu(1254-1322), who transformedLi's"plain callidrawing"by applyingthe "seal-script-style" each stroke is rigidly graphictechnique,whereby centeredwiththe brushand made to lookeven and round.The resultis a totallyuniformand style.Wang'sachieveflowingline,inthe "iron-wire" this to use was his ment perfectlyconability trolledlineto representconvincing,organic figuralforms,ratherthan lettingit turnout merely abstractpatterns. The brushlineand the inkwash, representing contrastingand complementaryYangand Yin principlesin painting,were developed by Chinese paintersbothtogetherand as separatedisciplines.Just as LiKung-linreduced drawingto its linearessence, the SouthernSung landscape painterstransformedthe complicatedNorthern Sung landscape idiomof Fan K'uanand his followersintoa simplified,powerfullyevocativeinkwash style.BeneficentRain,the only surviving Taoistpope, ChangYuworkby the thirty-eighth ts'ai (died 1316), uses a drenching,ink-suffused style to create a dramaticnighttimescene of four dragons,China'smythicalrainmakers,stirringup a tidalwave in an electricstorm(figures20, 21). 30

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(18) Thisdetailof the handscrollby Wang Chen-p'eng(ca. 1280-1329) illustratesa debate a laymanwho achieved between Vimalakirti, supreme enlightenment,and Manjusri,the Bodhisattvaof Wisdom.Accordingto the text, Vimalakirti provedthe moresubtle by remaining silentwhenasked to explainthe meaningof the BuddhistLaw.Seated on elaboratedaises, the principalsare surroundedby bodhisattvas,lohans, and guardians.Inscriptionsby the artistindicate thatthe scroll was drawnin 1308 for EmperorJen-tsung(reigned1312-20) and thatit was preparedforhis approvalpriorto the executionof a colorversion.Inkon silk, 1512x 112 inches overall.Purchase,TheDillonFundGift, 1980. 1980.276

(19) Lohans are ascetics and holy men who practiced austerities and sought individualsalvation. Included as representatives of the earlier Hinayana sect in the later Mahayana Buddhist pantheon, lohans remained popular in Chinese art perhaps because of their distinctlyhuman qualities. The lohan with his head bowed and hands clasped resembles a kindly mendicant monk more than an ascetic.

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Thispaintingis closely relatedto the celebrated Nine Dragons,a handscrollby Ch'enJung, dated 1244, now in the Museumof FineArts,Boston, whichbears a colophonby ChangYO-ts'ai's son, inown Ch'en One of the thirty-ninth Jung's pope. that scroll his the satisfaction scriptionsexpresses had foundits properrestingplace in a "Taoist abode";this abode was, no doubt, MountLungin KiangsiProvince, hu (Dragon-Tiger Mountain), as where Ch'enJung served magistrate. Duringthe Yuanperiodthe Cheng-i("Orthodox Unity")TaoistChurch,residingat Dragon-Tiger Mountain,cast an enormousspell of influence,as the Mongols,who believed in divinationand shamanisticpractices,foundthe more popular aspects of this religion-such as prognostication, alchemy,and the pursuitof immortality-andthe establishedTaoistchurchorganizationusefulin aidingtheircontrolover southernChina.The Mountainand their popes of Dragon-Tiger were repeatedlysummonedto the Yuan disciples received to be honored. ChangYO-ts'ai capital from the commendations Mongolcourtfor special a and rain for subduing "tidalmonster" inducing thathad plaguedthe eastern coast. No doubthis powerfuldragonpaintingadded to his auraas a religiousleaderand rainmaker. The scholar-painting aesthetic,whichfor nearly two hundredyears had emphasizedthe importance of art as a means of self-expression,gained overwhelmingacceptance withthe politicalupheavalsof the Mongolrule.Excludedfrommeangoal of ingfulgovernmentservice-the traditional to the scholar-southern intellectuals"retired" and practicecalligraphy, paint,compose poetry, manyof themto Chiang-nan,in southeastern circumChina.In response to theirunfamiliar turned Yuan scholar-artists stances, awayfrom of the objectivereality Sung painting,combining painting,poetry,and calligraphyin worksthat express theiralienationand unhappiness.

(20) Auspiciouscreaturesassociated withwater and clouds, dragonsin Chinasymbolizethe flux of nature'selementalforces. ChangYO-ts'ai (died Taoistpope, was cele1316),the thirty-eighth bratedforinducingmuchneeded rainand subduing a "tidalmonster";he also gained a reputation as a painterof dragons.Thisdetailof Beneficent Rain,his onlyextantwork,depicts one of these mysteriousbeasts as it weaves and cavorts througha storm-rackedscene of churningclouds and wind-whippedwaves. Handscroll.Inkon silk, inches overall.Lentby Douglas 105/8 x 1063/4 Dillon.L.1981.15.13 32


33


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(21) In Sung dynasty texts, the

dragonis described as having the head of an ox, muzzleof a donkey,eyes of a shrimp, hornsof a deer, body of a serpentcovered withfish scales, and feet of a phoenix. Thisdragon,one of fourin BeneficentRain,clutches a pearl symbolicof its supernaturalpowers. accompaniedby Invariably thunderand rain,dragons move likelightningand whirlwinds-all-powerfulyet totally unpredictable.Accordingto the Han dynastyphilosopher Wang Fu (flourishedca. A.D.

120-60): "Whenit is about to rain,dragonssing out, making sounds like the beatingof bronzebasins. Theirsaliva fracan exude multitudinous grances; theirbreathforms clouds, whichthey use to conceal theirbodies, so thatthey cannotbe seen." Tocreate a murky,turbulentatmosphere ChangYu-ts'aireliedprimarily upon freelyapplied,graded inkwashes.

35


Pear Blossoms, by Ch'ienHsuan(ca. 1235after1301), a leadingartistwho chose to live as a "leftovercitizen"in Chiang-nan,at firstresembles, and may even be derivedfrom,late Southern Sung Academyflowerpaintings(figures22-24). But his poem, inscribedto the leftof the image, makes it clear thatthe realsubject is not pear blossoms but his profoundsorrowat the destructionof Sung civilization:

)

Allaloneby theverandarailing, teardrops the branches, drenching herold Thoughherface is unadorned, charmsremain; Behindthe lockedgate,on a rainynight,how she is filledwithsadness, she lookedbathedingolden Howdifferently beforedarknessfell. wavesof moonlight, UnlikeHui-tsung'sFinchesand Bamboo,which demonstratesa commitmentto an accuraterenderingof nature,Pear Blossoms and the faded beauty it representsare expressionsof the artist's personalfeelings.Tocreate a mood of cool detachmentreflectinghis state of mind,Ch'iendrew in a fine calligraphicline and used flat,schematic patternsin elegant pale colors.The tenderlyricism of the poem is echoed in his calligraphy, and its brushstrokesrepeatthe languid,twisting movementof the pear-branchleaves. Here painting,poetry,and calligraphyare completelyintegratedintoa single work.Movingaway and traditional fromobjectiverepresentation symbolic and allegoricalconventions,the subtlyinterwoven literaryand pictorialimages, purposely vague but evocative,defy simpleexplication. Since no one willread the poem in quitethe same way,each willsupplyhis own mentalimages; and thoughan actualfloweris shown,one has to guess at the artist'smotivationand feelings. Thusthe vieweris involvedin the painter's 36

artisticconsciousness and is compelledto explorehimselfand his own experience. (22) Afterthe Mongolconquestof 1279, Yuan roles in scholar-artists,excludedfromtraditional from the turned objectiverealaway government, alienationand their to of ity Sungpainting express on PearBlosinscribed In his poem unhappiness. 1235-after Hsuan soms, Ch'ien 1301) com(ca. a to sequestered beauty pares the floweringpear who has survivedthe fallof the Sung dynasty.The cool pastel colorsand flatschematicbranches create a mood reflectingthe artist'sdetachment. Handscroll.Inkand colorson paper, 12V2x 371V2 inches.Purchase,TheDillonFundGift,1977.1977.79 (23,24)Thegracefulcurves of the artist'ssignatureembodythe lyricalqualitiesof the poetry,as do the languidlytwistingleaves-demonstrating the intimaterelationshipbetween the poetic, calligraphic,and painterlymodes of expression.


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In landscape,as well as in flowerpainting,the subjectbecame first,and foremost,the artist'sinthe nerfeelings and second, and less important, actualscene set down by the artist.A lonelyrecluse livingin the mountainssees and paintsnot a realmountain,but the mountainof his mind. SpringDawnover the ElixirTerraceby LuKuang (ca. 1300-ca. 1371) epitomizesthis new kindof landscapeart (figures25, 26). LuKuangfled his nativeSoochowto escape the rebellionsagainstthe Mongolgovernment thatbrokeout in Chiang-nanin the late 1350s. He paintedSpringDawnafterreturningto the LakeT'aiarea, followingthe establishmentof the Mingdynasty,for his TaoistfriendPo-yung.Created to celebratetheirreunionafterlong years of warand separation,it depicts a Taoisttemple,at daybreak,nestled in a mountainravine,and is accompaniedby Lu'spoem expressinghis feeling of joy and contentmentat seeing his old friend: Forten years I wandered,homelessand away fromworldlyentanglements; Now,returninghome by the river,I see things frommostothers. differently

Jadelikevaporfloatinginthesky,it is spring butno rain, Elixir raysemittedfroma wellturnintoclouds at dawn. StandinginthewindI leanon mydragon staff, I havelongmissedhearingyourmouth-organ musicby moonlight. I amhappyto be withthevenerableimmortal, andawayfromthemilitary strategists; andtalkabout Wesit lookingat paintings literature. LuKuanghas treatedhis paintingas the "writing of ideas,"using calligraphicbrushstrokesto "writeout"his feelings;but to communicatehis thoughtsto a friend,he incorporatesa poem into his painting.Often,in late Yuanworks,there is a prefacethatmay explainthe reasonforthe painting. The poem thatfollows,likethe image, is a

(25,26)In SpringDawnoverthe ElixirTerrace,Lu Kuang(ca.1300-ca.1371)builtup brushstrokesin layersto fuse foreground,middleground,and far distanceintoa convincingillusionof receding space. As expressiveas poetry,Lu'sanimated brushwork exemplifiesa new kindof landscape in painting whichthe subjectbecomes the artist's feelings. Theplatformon the escarpment(right) representsthe ElixirTerrace,wherea Taoistadept mightpracticemindand body controlto refinehis "innerelixir." Hangingscroll.Inkon paper,241/8x 10 inches. EdwardElliottFamilyCollection.Purchase, TheDillonFundGift,1982.1982.2.2 39


40


lyricalexpressionof whatthe artistsees and feels, concentratingmoreon the essence of the experienceratherthanthe detailsof the scene. These verbalimages provideclues to the true meaningof the artist's"mindlandscape."On this springmorning,for instance,LuKuangsaw "jadelikevaporfloatingin the sky.... Elixirrays emittedfroma wellturnintoclouds."The mood is both contentand optimistic.The imagerypossibly refersto the concept of "internal alchemy"-the regulationwithinthe body of thoughtsand ch'i, or to refineone's "innerelixir"-a concept "breath," thatevolvedduringYuantimes when the earlier practiceof laboratoryalchemyhad largelydied out. Thusit may be said that Lu'sSpringDawn was also an exercise in the "internal alchemy" thatwouldbringharmoniousresolutionto the hardand restless lifeof a wanderer. If Lu'sworkis comparedto the twelfth-century Landscapein the Styleof Fan K'uan,it can be seen thatthe visualstructureof landscape painting had changed by late Yuantimes. LuKuang's calligraphicbrushworkis verydifferentfromthe descriptivestyle of the NorthernSung. The looselydirectedkinestheticstrokesbuild,layer upon layer,untilthe landscapeformsemerge. Yet they are not justenergized,abstractbrushpatterns;they representan illusionistictechniqueof fused brushlineand inkwash thatsuggests blurredformsin atmosphericspace. LuKuang's landscapeformsare physicallyconnected,organic masses. Allthe elementsof near,middle, and far distanceare fused, partsof an integrated visionthatextends along a continuous,receding groundplane.Thus,despite the open disregard forformlikenessas expressed by such an influas Ni Tsan(1301-74), late entialscholar-painter Yuanlandscape paintingshows a fullyrealized, realisticspatialstructure. SpringCloudsover a Pine Studiois another witha exampleof a late Yuanscholar-painting

(27,28)Paintedaboutthe same timeas ElixirTerrace (figure25), SpringCloudsover a PineStudio by ChangYO(1333-85) has a similarcomposition,a diagonallyrecedingstreamconnectinga foregroundbanktopped by talltrees to a distant templecomplex,and bothare concernedwiththe themeof a scholar'slife in reclusion.Butin contrastto the understatedmonochromebrushwork of LuKuang,ChangYO'srichinkwashes and daubs of blue green manifesta moreeffusivesensibility.Theimpressionisticink-dotidiomand soft inkwashes tingedwithcolorrecallthe style of the artistMiFu (1052-1107). Hangingscroll,dated' 1366. Inkand colors on paper, 361/8 x 123/8inches.

Giftof DouglasDillon,1980. 1980.426.3

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realisticallyrecedingmountainvista (figures 27-29). Itwas paintedby ChangYu(1333-85), a poet who exhibitssurprisingskillsas an artistin this work,his only knownone, whichis dated 1366, when he was livingin Soochow.Paintedin the horizontal"Mi-dot" idiom,it may have been Mountains and Pines, now in inspiredby Spring Palace which is attributedto the Museum,Taipei, MiFu (1052-1107),forwhomthis techniqueis named.The compositionof a scholar'sthatched studiohiddenin a pine grove by a streambecame popularin late Yuanpaintingas a symbol of the scholar'scondition-a life in reclusion.The poet's lyricalsentimentsare expressed through the subtle use of inkwash and pale colors and the suggestionof dense, moisture-filled clouds a This after shower. dissipating spring landscape, paintedtwo years beforethe establishmentof the Mingdynasty,shows the reclusivepoet in a tranquilstate of mind.He accepted an appointment to serve the Mingcourtin 1371, but in spite of his loyalservices, he was drivento suicide by the founderof the dynastybecause of his earlier associationwitha politicalrival. The Chineseregainedcontrolfromthe Mongols underthe leadershipof the firstMingemperor, ChuYuan-chang(reigned1368-98), a capricious and vengefulmanwho was deeply suspiciousof the independentand oftenarrogantscholarsof the South.Some thirtythousandpersons died as a resultof one of his persecutions,and several painters-aside fromthe ill-fatedChangYudied in his service, deliberatelyput to death as a

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(29) Inthe fourteenthcenturyscholar-painters preferredto workon paper, which,because of its textureand absorbency,offereda responsive mediumfor energizedcalligraphicbrushwork(see figures25, 26); the moreconservativecourtand professionalpainterscontinuedto workon smooth nonabsorbentsilk in a descriptiveink-washstyle. SpringCloudsover a Pine Studio,by the scholarpainterChangYi, is a rareand successful example of this soft atmosphericstyle on paper.This detailis devoted to a subjectpopularin late Yuan painting,a thatchedhut by a stream,symbolizing the scholar'svillaor retirementcottage. 43


warningto othersagainst unbridledbehavior. Inthis periodof politicaland culturalrestoration, paintingwas valued for its originality only when it was presentedin the guise of tradition. DragonPine by WuPo-li(ca. 1400), a Taoistpriest of the Shang-ch'ing("UpperPurity") Templeon an bears Mountain, appreciative Dragon-Tiger colophonby ChangYu-ch'u(1361-1410),the forty-third pope, himselfa distinguishedscholar (figures30, 31). Morethanjusta workby a cultivated Taoistclergymanof the time,Wu'sDragon Pine is a paintingof extraordinary powerand exanimation of the tree The intense pressiveness. the a recalls descriptionby tenth-century painter ChingHao of "a giganticpine tree, its aged bark overgrownwithlichen,its winged scales seeming to ride in the air.Instature,it is likea coiling dragontryingto reachthe MilkyWay."Wu'scalligraphicbrushwork-around,centered strokeappliedto fine absorbentpaper,withjustthe right amountof inkgiven up by the twistingbrushcreates a livelytexturedeffect thatheightensthe three-dimensional qualityof the drawing.The and writhing surging,serpentliketree, its many "claws"and "whiskers" dartingout and swaying alive.The seems the supernaturally sky, against Taoist the of a "perthan is more symbol painting Mountainitself;it is fect being"or of Dragon-Tiger a vitalmetaphorof the cosmic unionof all the Yin and Yangforces-brush versus ink,inkversus paper, movementversus inertia,push versus pull. At the imperialcourttaste was moreconservative, and courtpainterswere encouragedto returnto the descriptiveink-washidiomof the SouthernSung Academy.Typicalof this genre is AutumnLandscapewithHeronsand Ducks by Lu Chi,a professionalpainterfromChekiangProvince summonedto the courtat Pekingduringthe Hung-chihperiod(1488-1505) (figures32, 33). InAutumnLandscape LOcombines masterful

(30,31)Resemblinga dragonin its whiskerlike needles and serpentinetrunk,thismajesticpine is the workof a Taoistpriest WuPo-li(active ca.1400). Accordingto Taoistgeomanticbeliefs, vitalenergies collect at the base of a mountainby a stream-the locationof this tree. Nurturedby these forces, the pine may symbolizea sage, or "perfectbeing."Greenall winter,it is also symbolic of the virtuousman in adversity.Wu'sindividualisticbrushstrokes-scumbledbarktexture, dragged outlinestrokesof the rocks,and sharp, sooty needles-add a personalintensityto the painting.Hangingscroll.Inkon paper,47/4 x 133/16

inches. Edward Elliott Family Collection.

Lentby DouglasDillon.L.1981.15.2 44


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realismof drawingin the birdsand flowers,with and inkwash in the rocksand virtuosobrushwork techtrees, creatinga dashingdisplayof brilliant with a The however, brushwork, applied niques. wet brushon nonabsorbent,slick silk, is flatand lacks the internaltensionand dynamismof Wu Po-li'scalligraphicstrokes. On a comparableworkby Lu,now in the Palace Museum,Taipei,Shen Chou(1427-1509),a of Soochow,inscribed prominentscholar-painter the followingremark:"MasterLi depicts lifewith his hand,/whilethis old rusticcontemplateson things in his mind."Thiscomment,contrastingthe "hand"and the "mind,"a somewhatdistorted view of the old Neo-Confucianargumentof objective natureversus subjectivemind,pointedup for the Mingscholar-artistswhatthey saw as the difference betweenthe worksof the "professional and artisans"and those of the "scholar-amateurs" laidthe foundationforthe theoreticalseparation of the so-called Northernand Southernschools of paintingin the late Mingperiod.Led by Shen Chou,the southernartistsof Soochowsoughtto express themselvesthroughthe morepersonal idiomsof the Sung and Yuanmasters.The analogy between paintingand calligraphybecame complete.Just as calligraphersexpressed themselves throughthe styles of past great masters, Shen Chouand his followerspracticedthe styles of Sung and Yuanmasters,simplifyingthem into identifiableand repeatablebrushpatterns,which out"theirfeelbecame a languagefor "writing in a work over technical ings. Valuingpersonality aimedfor masskill,the Mingscholar-painters teryof performanceratherthanfor laborious workmanship. Althoughthe Mingcapitalmoved northto Pekingin 1421, the Yangtzedelta regionremained the empire'seconomicand culturalcenter.The commercialhub, as well as the artisticcapitalof the area, was Soochow,located in the Wuregion. (32,33) UnlikeYuanscholar-artists,who preferred the absorbent qualities of paper, Lu Chi (active ca. 1488-1505), a court painter,worked withrich colors on silk in the descriptive ink-washidiom of the SouthernSung Academy. His AutumnLandscape with Herons and Ducks is self-conscious in its conception and brush manner and lacks the intensity of scholar-artistworks such as Dragon Pine (figure30). LOChi may have established a workshop to meet the demand for his paintings; the authorityof this scroll, however, is verifiedby the lively drawingof the birds, virtuoso brushwork and washes of trees and rocks, and in the fine signature and seal. Hanging scroll. 5814 x 211/2 inches. DorothyGrahamBennett Fund, 1980. 1980.414 47


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Lyingnearthe northeasternshore of LakeT'ai and on the GrandCanalnearthe pointwherethat mainnorth-southwaterwaycrosses the Yangtze, Soochowhad a temperateclimateand enjoyed and commercialwealth,which great agricultural of the upperclasses to members encouraged lavishtheirresourceson culturaland artisticactivities. Soochow,or Wuschool, paintersupheldthe ideal of scholarsof moralintegrity,pursuinga life of the arts in retirement. Althoughmanycarried out this lifestyleto exquisiteperfection,others sufferedgreat personalhardships. T'angYin(1470-1524) was an extraordinarily talentedmid-MingSoochowpainterwho, disgraced as a scholar,was forcedto become a professionalartist.Forfeitingall chances of an officialcareerafterbeing involvedin an examinationscandal in 1499, T'angturnedto selling paintingand poetryfor his livelihoodand died in executed MoonGoddess poverty.The brilliantly is a 0 Ch'ang poignantreminderof T'angYin's dashed dreamsforsuccess in the officialexaminations-symbolized by the cassia branchheld in the goddess's lefthand (figures34, 35). (The word"cassia"[kuei]is a pun on "nobility" [also pronouncedkuei]).T'ang'spoem, in bold calligraphy,reads: Shewas longago a residentof the Moon Palace, Wherephoenixesandcranesgathered,and embroidered bannersfluttered inheavenly fragrance. Ch'ang0, in lovewiththegiftedscholar, Presentshimwiththetopmostbranchof the cassiatree. A frequentvisitorto Soochow'snotoriouspleasure quarter,T'angYinmay have paintedthis glamorous figure-a portraitperhaps-for a favorite, whomhe regardedas a goddess condemnedto mortalsufferings. (34,35)Theflat,oval face and elegantfluttering draperyfolds of MoonGoddess Ch'angO, by T'angYin(1470-1524),reflectthe Mingemphasis on beautifulcalligraphicline ratherthanthreedimensionalform.Hangingscroll.Inkand colors on paper,5314x 23 inches. Giftof DouglasDillon, 1981. 1981.4.2

49


Pictorially, T'ang'sMoonGoddess derivesfrom the ChouWen-chOtraditionof palace ladies, as seen in In the Palace. Thispalace lady,fullymade up witha powderedface, rouged lips, finelypenciled eyebrows,and lacqueredcoiffure,and gorgeously dressed and decorated,is a symbolof the frailtyand transienceof humanexistence. It seems inevitablethatT'angYinwouldcompare his own destroyedcareerwiththatof the tenthcenturypoet-emperorLiYO,who, losing his throne, told of "sheddingtears before[his] palace ladies." Structurally, T'angYin'sfigureis visualizedin flat lines, two-dimensional shapes, and surfacemovements. Comparedto faces in the twelfth-century copy of ChouWen-chu'spalace ladies, Ch'ang O's is an animatedmask,withgracefuland expressivedrawingon a flatsurfaceand witha smooth,egglike facialcontour,indicatingno flesh and bone behindit. The elegant draperyfolds ripple and flutterin dreamlikeperfection,yet the figure is absolutelyflatand weightless.Althoughtoday we admireT'angYinalso as a fine landscape painter,popularacclaimduringhis lifetimewas based on such figurepaintingsas Ch'ang0. OtherWupainters,adamantlyrefusingto sell theirworksforgain, were forced to be content witha penuriousexistence, oftenwhen livingin remotemountainareas. Some, such as LuChih (1496-1576), neverthelessexecuted paintingsto barterfor smallfavors.Lu'sPlantingChrysanthemums was presentedto his friendT'aoin excuttings change forsome rarechrysanthemum at his home flowers Lu cultivated 36, (figures 37). below Chih-hsingMountain,on the shore of Lake T'ai,to whichhe had retiredin the early 1550s. He evokes the beauty of autumnin his poem inscribed on the painting:

(36,37)A superb colorist,Lu Chih(1496-1576) capturesthe luminousclarityof autumnin Planting Combiningrestrainedearthen Chrysanthemums. hues and monochromeinktones in his loosely brushedcontourlines, Lucreates a mesh of color thatallowsthe paper to show through,thusincorporatingit intothe veryfabricof the mountains. Risingin the tallnarrowformat,the peaks appear almosttransparent,creatinga dreamylandscape in keepingwiththe artist'sown simple,sheltered lifestyle.At the righta scholarwatchesa boy whilea gentlemanand tendingchrysanthemums, servantcarryingflowersapproachthe gate. Hanging scroll.Inkand colors on paper, 42 x 103/4 inches. EdwardElliottFamilyCollection.Lentby DouglasDillon.L.1981.15.5 50

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I hearyouhaveopenedup a T'aopathnear theocean, Wherecloudsof leavesandfrost-covered blossomsvie inwondrous splendor. I too havebuilta newresidenceat Chih-hsing Mountain; MayI sharesomeof yourautumncolors alongmyeasternhedge? The firsttwo lines alludeto the well-knownstory "PeachBlossomSpring"by T'ao'sillustrious namesakeT'aoCh'ien(365-427), who told of a fishermanstumblingupon a hiddenutopiaredolentwithblossomingpeach trees; in the last two lines,the paintersuggests thathe has planned his own utopianretreatand refersto the growing of chrysanthemums, a passion he sharedwith T'aoCh'ien.Awashin soft colors,the crystalline mountainsrisingfrommistin Lu'spaintingevoke perfectlythe dreamlikePeach BlossomSpring,a hermit'sparadise. Structurally, althoughthe Yuanpainterswere concernedwiththe problemsof creatingdepth and recessionand the treatmentof formsin space, the Mingpaintersturned,moreand more, to problemsof surfaceabstractionthroughsurface patternand stylization.Comparedto Lu Kuang'ssolidlybuiltmountainforms,whichmove in space, both LuChi'sand Lu magisterially Chih'smountainslookpaper-thin,and they are consciouslycut and framedby the pictureborders in an increasinglyattenuatedformat.Lu Chih'setherealmountainscape,withpeaks superimposedalong its narrow,verticalpictureplane, seems to exist in its own timeand space. Likefissures in a moonscapeor cracklesin glass, the abstractbrushstrokesare beautifullyheld together by theirown tensionand apparentlyseamless internalstructure. Incontrastto LuChih'sascetic existence, some Wupaintersled the richand cultivatedlifeof a of means.Bornto a wealthyfamgentleman-scholar Shun Ch'en (1483-1544) was free to pursuethe ily,

(38,39)In SummerGardenCh'enShun(14831544)uses bold brushstrokesand vibrantcolorto suggest a refreshingoasis in the midstof sultrysummerweather.Variousstrokesdescribe spikytwigs,waxenmagnoliapetals, or tissue-thin pomegranateblossoms. Foliageis swiftlyrendered withblack veins over daubs of blue wash, yet each leaf clusterspringsnaturallyfromthe is branches.Thevitalityof Ch'en'sbrushwork in the detail of the lower corleft readilyapparent ner. Theseals are those of two collectors.Hanging scroll.Inkand colorson paper, 126/8 x 391/4 inches. Lentby DouglasDillon.L.1981.15.17 53


lifeof a scholar-artist, frequentlyfindinginspiration at his gardenestate near Soochow,wherehe entertainedhis friendsand paintedforthemwhilehe was intoxicated.SummerGardenis of a grand scale (morethan 10 feet high),appropriatefora large pavilionor receptionhallin a sumptuousgarden, and shows a profusionof lotus blossoms and otherblossomingtrees growingnear a tall LakeT'ai rock,a featureof most Soochowgardens (figures 38, 39). A superb stilllifeexecuted in bold calligraphicbrushwork,Ch'en'spaintingshows flowers brilliant withcolorand very lifelike.On it the artist has writtena poem: Insteamysummerthe daysareunbearably long, Witha linenkerchiefanda palm-leaf fan,I mountmyrattancouch; Whentheflowers'shadowsmeetwitha cool breezefromthewater, Whereelse wouldyoufindsucha heavenly WhiteJade Hall? By the late Mingperiod,towardthe end of the sixteenthcentury,Wuschool paintingsbegan to show signs of fatigue.Scatteredburstsof new creativeenergy appeared in late Mingworksthat experimentedin new forms,often gloryingin eccentricity.WuPin(activeca. 1583-1626), who 54

began paintingin his nativeFukienProvince, latermovedto Nanking,wherehe served as a court-appointedpainterspecializingin landscapes and Buddhistsubjects.A lifelongdevotee of Buddhism,Wu,in Nanking,joinedan order of untonsuredmonksaffiliatedwiththe Ch'an BuddhistCh'i-hsiaTemple.InTheSixteenLohans (in Sanskrit,arhats,or "saints"),dated 1591 and one of WuPin'searliestextantworks,he uses an eccentricarchaismthatwas to influencemanylate Mingfigurepaintersand wood-blockartists(figures 40-42). In Chinesepopularliterature,mendicant monks,conjurers,and even mysteriousbeggars oftenturnedout to be disguised "livinglohans,"or Buddhistholymen, capable of magic and miracles; and when governmentcorruptionand ineptitude imperiledsocial order,as it did in late Mingtimes, superstitiousmessianicbeliefs became morewidespread. The theatricalnatureof WuPin'slohan figuresalso suggests thathe may have been inspiredby popularreligiousdramasor festival outline performances.Combiningan "iron-wire" with brilliant Wu these colors, portrays technique weirdand deliberatelyrepulsivefiguresas mysterious messengers fromanotherworld.Revelingin eccentricityand attentiveto its own innervoice, the art of WuPin representsa fin-de-siecle


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rebellionin paintingstyle. Strikingout againstwhathe called "sweet"and tendencies in late Mingpainting,the great "vulgar" theoristand painterTungCh'i-ch'ang(1555-1636) prescribedas a cure a returnto the basic tenets of artistsfollowingancientmodels the scholar-painters, and applyingthe principleof calligraphyto painting. Indefiningan ancient,"orthodox" heritagein landthe scape painting,Tungproposed creationof a "GreatSynthesis"(Ta-ch'eng)of Sung and Yuan callistyles, to be practicedas complementary in The chief desideratum brush idioms. graphic to brushwas landscape painting,according Tung, "Ifone considers workratherthan representation: the wondersof brushand ink,truelandscapecan neverequal painting." Inan album,EightLandscapes, dated 1630, Tungdemonstrateshow he interprets-"imitates" as he says-the wholespectrum or "reproduces," of Sung and Yuanstyles in a set of contrasting brushstrokemethods,whichcan also be used for depictingactuallandscape (figures43, 44). Tung tookas his pointof departurethe worksof the YuanmasterNi Tsan,whose paintingswere convenientlyregardedas calligraphicabstractionsof earlierSung styles. Inthe firsttwo leaves, he shows-in whathe regardsas the earlyand late

styles of Ni Tsan'sart-an "earthen"landscape withround,parallel("hemp-fiber") brushstrokes,

(40, 41) WuPin (activeabout 1583-1626) develstyle throughthe oped a distinctive"primitive" eccentricarchaismof his figuredrawing.He specializedin depictionsof lohans,ancientIndian holymen who, the Chinesebelieve, have remainedin the worldto guardthe BuddhistLaw and protectthe faithful.In The SixteenLohans, an earlyworkdated 1591, WuPin has already achieved a highlypersonalstyle. His figures, rhythmically arrayedagainsta blankbackground in the classical manner,are conventionalin their strongoutlines,but Wuhas transformedthem into whimsical,iconoclastic,and even grotesque images intendedboth to shock and to amuse. Thelohansare shown accordingto a Buddhist scripture,Fa-chu-chi(Recordon the Durationof the Law),livingin theirmountainabode and attended by theirdisciples whileawaitingthe advent of the FutureBuddha,Maitreya.Detailsof handscroll.Inkand colors on paper, 123/4 x 163/8 inches overall.EdwardElliottFamilyCollection. Lentby DouglasDillon.L.1981.15.6 55


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(42) Traditionallohan images

evolvedfromtwo basic types: seated, representingthe contemplativeaspect of saintly life;and standing,or walking, representingthe active aspect. Seated figuresinclude the ancientimage of an ascetic meditatingin a cave or undera tree (figure40), as well as the later"patriarch of a holy man "enportrait" throned,"seated in a chair. Standingimages show the lohansas mendicantmonks travelingor performingmiraculous deeds. In this detailof WuPin'sThe SixteenLohans, the figureridingon wheels over the river,followedby an attendant,derivesfromthe the legend of Bodhidharma, firstCh'anpatriarchto come to China,crossing the Yangtze Riveron a reed. Thehumorous attitudessuggest the influence of populartheater.

57


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contrastedwitha "rocky"landscape withangular, brushstrokes.Then,prooblique("folded-ribbon") he recreatesthe with the round method, ceeding masters southern late the of tenth-century styles and with the and Yuan angular Chu-jan, Tung northmethod,the styles of the earlytenth-century ern mastersChingHao and KuanT'ung.Inthe remainingtwo leaves, he combinesthe roundand angulartechniquesto create scenic compositions.

larrocksbringsto mindthe lonely"pavilionunder the pine trees,"his favoritecompositionalmotif. Ina colophondated 1630, writtenoppositethe last paintingof the album,Tungremarksthathe has paintedforfifty-twoyears and thathe has not been able to establishhis own distinctivestyle. Althoughthis commentrevealsa poignanttruth about Tung'spainting,it in no way diminisheshis to laterChineseart. It tremendouscontribution was Tung'sgenius to bringpaintingout of stagnant,late Mingdecorativeconventionsand back to basic principlesupon whichit could rebuildin orderto extend its potential.Duringthe second halfof the seventeenthcentury,when painting once moredisplayedvastlyexpanded aesthetic horizons,not a single painterof any importance, and inspiration, esregardlessof his affiliation caped indebtednessto the teachingsof Tung Ch'i-ch'ang. In 1644, the Manchus,a tribalpeople on the northeasternfrontierof the Mingempire,captured Peking,overthrewthe Mingand establishedthe Ch'ingdynasty,whichlasted untilthe foundingof the Chinese Republicin 1911. Underthe K'anghsi emperor(reigned1662-1722),the early afterlate Ch'ingworldwas one of reconstruction to aimed Orthodox painters Mingfragmentation. traditional of the former painting glories recapture by studyingand copyingancientmodels. By infusingold conventionswithrenewedenergy, paintersattemptedto achieve a truecorrespondence (ho) to ancientmodels. On the otherhand, some artistsscorned the new orthodoxconservamastersoften tism.The so-called individualist calligraphicmanpaintedin a free, emotion-filled ner.Because of theirloyaltyto the fallenMing dynasty,they expressed a strongsense of dislocationand alienationin theirworks.Avoidingthe and methodologyof the orthodox rationalism the preferredto derive painters, individualists

On one of them, ChimneySmoke Mingled with

EveningMist,paintedmostlyin Ni Tsan's"rocky" style, he wrotethe followingpoem (figure44): smokemingledwitheveningmist, Chimney Hiddeninthe distanceis a pavilion underpinetrees; Inthe pavilion is a quietrecluse, Sutra. Insolitudehe recitestheVimalakirti The compositionshows neitherchimneysmoke, normist,nora man in a pavilion.Onlythe beginningof a mountainpath beckons to the viewerto search forwhat is "hiddenin the distance."Thus the paintingand the poem extend each otherwiththe paintingprovidinga visualsettingforthe poetic image, and the poem helpingto fillout the Ni Tsan's image in the viewer'smind.Furthermore, distinctivebrushidiomof sparse trees and angu58

(43,44) Tung Ch'i-ch'ang(1555-1636), the most

importanttheoristof his day, sought to redirect paintingfromlate Mingdecorativeconventions throughthe revivalof ancientmodels. Inhis album EightLandscapes,dated 1630, Tungreinterpretedselected Sung and Yuanstyles, using the worksof the YuanmasterNi Tsan(1301-74) as his primaryreference.In LeafOne (above) Tung echoes Ni Tsan'ssoft, or "earthen," style, withits In Seven Leaf brushstrokes. rounded,parallel and soft the master's combines he "rocky" (right) styles, using mostlyangular,obliquebrushstrokes. Inkon paper, each leaf 95/ x 65/16 inches. Edward ElliottFamilyCollection.Lent by Douglas Dillon. L.1981.15.7


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theirart directlyfromnatureand to express it throughmorepersonalartisticmeans. Bothapproachesin paintinghad been anticipated by TungCh'i-ch'ang,who believedthata scholarmust"readten thousandbooks and travel ten thousandmiles."Tungwrote:"Apaintermust imitateancientmasters.... Advancingone more step, he mustadopt natureas his teacher.... The transmissionof the spiritdepends on the form. Whenthere is totalaccord betweenthe form,the heart,and the hand, each forgettingthe other's separateexistence, and when the spiritis lodged in a painting,therewillbe nothingthatdoes not lookwell in a painting!" The 1650s throughthe 1670s saw the burgeoning of artistictalents.Manymen who wouldhave otherwisestudiedforthe imperialexaminations and enteredgovernmentservice saw theireducationalcareers disruptedby the fallof the Ming dynasty.Threeof the six great orthodoxmasters, WangHui(1632-1717),WuLi(1632-1718),and YunShou-p'ing(1633-90), lacked degrees. Beginningin the 1650s, a remarkablegroupof young artists,among themWangHuiand WuLi, gatheredaroundthe venerableorthodoxpainter WangShih-min(1592-1680) in T'ai-ts'ang, KiangsuProvince.A grandsonof a formerMing primeminister,WangShih-minhad been tutored in his youthby TungCh'i-ch'ang,who had also helped himto forma wonderfulcollectionof Sung of these masterand Yuanpaintings.Twenty-four in reduced recorded were copies in an pieces entitledWithinSmallSee albumappropriately Large(Hsiao-chunghsien-ta),whichis now in the Palace Museum,Taipei.Thisalbumwas a prime source of Sung and Yuanmodels duringthe 1670s and 1680s-for WangHui,WuLi,and othersluckyenough to have access to it. In a smallhangingscroll,probablydone in the 1670s, WuLicarefullycopied one of Wang Shih-min'ssmallalbumpictures,Travelers Among Streamsand Mountains,afterWangMeng(ca. 1308-85), a late Yuanmaster(figures45-47). Accordingto TungCh'i-ch'ang'sinscriptionon the painting,WangMeng'scompositionwas, in turn, based on a workby the tenth-centurypainter TungYuan.Therefore,in orderto imitateWang Mengsuccessfully,WuLihad to striveto recreate TungYuan.Such a commitmenton the partof an artistto a totalmasteryof his artisticheritagewas typicalof the orthodoxmasters,who were convinced of the unityand timelessness of the Tao, of painting.As if reinforcingthe strength or "Way," of his commitmentto the past, WuLi'srivalWang Huidevised a seal, used on a numberof his paintings,whichreads:"Itravelup and down fromthe past to the present." WuLihimselfwrote:"TopaintwithoutSung and Yuanstyles as a foundationis likeplayingchess 60

withoutchess pieces. Facingthe emptyboard, wheredoes one begin?"The chess pieces, for the Ch'ingpainters,are the recognizedbrushformulas.Forinstance,WangMengis said to have texturemethod; followedTungYuan's"hemp-fiber" but he added to it a controlledenergy,shown by round,dense, curlingbrushstrokesand by stippled texturedots. Ina paintingby WuLiin Wang Meng'sstyle, therefore,the basic pictorialvocabularyis the texturepatternof dense, curling brushstrokesand stippleddots. Incalligraphic painting,as in calligraphy,althougheveryformis builtup of a recognizedset of brushstrokes,the executionof these formsis, each time,a new and uniquepersonalperformance.EventhoughWu Li'sTravelers AmongStreamsand Mountainsfollows closely a given composition,the brushwork grows on paper,strokeafterstroke,withthe "momentum"and "force"(shih)of each formbuilding up and being carriedintothe next in one continuous "breath" (ch'i).Throughoutthe performance, there is continuousinteractionbetweenthe brush, the ink,the paper,and the observedform,with the painterconstantlyrespondingand adjustingto each newlyrealizedbrushstroke. Insuch a work,we experiencethe force of the painter'sconvictionand his exaltationbeforehis model.As the modelcomes intohis consciousness, the paintercreates a picturethat is more thana copy or a landscape:it is a composition that "breathes"with"life"(sheng) and "motion" (tung)."Truelandscape can neverequal painting,"as TungCh'i-ch'angwrote. WhatTungbequeathedto paintingwas a systematized calligraphicformulatransformedintoa

(45) In this detailof TravelersAmongStreamsand Mountainsby WuLi (1632-1718), a mountaininn, of buildingsand courtyards,serves as a resting place for wearymen and animals.Thestructures on pilings,upstream,permita fine view of the water.A detailsuch as this allowsus to savor every brushstroke.Each line is distinctive,yet so naturallyintegratedinto the whole that WuLi's paintingis read as a complexfabricof different patternsand ink tones. Thesilvery,dry-inktexture strokes,set off by sooty black dots, vibratewitha gentle, rhythmicenergy thatis the artist'shallmark (see also figures46, 47).


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pictoriallanguage,whichenabledthe earlyCh'ing mastersto create a new pictorialstructure.Rather thandescribingthree-dimensionally conceived mountainformsplaced firmlyin recedingspatial planes, as in an originalYuanlandscape,Wu's shows a dynamicorchestration of lines and forms in abstractspace. Individual brushstrokesare now the sole conveyorsof lifeand energy;they grow and expand continuouslyuntilthe wholeformsa greatflowingpatternof undulatingmovements, whichWangHuicalled the "dragonvein"(lungWuLidemmo). Inadditionto superb brushwork, onstratesa genius for using ink;withindifferent grades of gray,he creates a luminous,atmosphericqualityfor his landscape. WangHuispent years as a guest and retainer in WangShih-min'shousehold,paintingand copying ancientworksof art. Inthe 1660s and 1670s, he masteredthe calligraphicidiomsof the late Yuanartists,summingup his approachto painting as follows:"Imustuse the brushand inkof the Yuanto move the peaks and valleysof the Sung. ... I willthen have a workof the Great Synthesis."

Inthe 1680s he became increasinglyinterestedin recreatingthe monumentallandscapestyle of the NorthernSung. InTheK'ang-hsiEmperor'sSouthern InspectionTour,WangHuisuccessfullyapplies his monumentalstyle to the occasion, which was one of the proudestmomentsof the Ch'ing empire(figures48-50). Afteryears of unrest caused by the dangerousRebellionof the Three Feudatoriesin the southernprovinces,the country was at peace. Taxeswere lowered,waterways were underconstruction,and people felt prosperous and secure. ToconsolidateManchurule,the

(46,47)WuLiprovedone couldtransformancient brushidiomsintoa new and personalstyle. Followinga small sketch by WangShih-min (1592-1680),whichpreserves,in turn,a fourteenth-century compositionby WangMeng(ca. 1308-85), WuLi'sTravelersAmongStreamsand Mountains evokes the spiritof the earliermaster's style withoutattemptingto reproduceit. Each rock, tree, and buildinghas been recreated throughWuLi'skinestheticbrushstrokes,which pile up and coalesce intoa vibrantflowingpattern of undulatinglandscape forms.Hangingscroll.Ink on paper,2312 x 1011/16 inches. EdwardElliott FamilyCollection.Purchase,TheDillonFundGift, 1981. 1981.285.6 63


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K'ang-hsiemperormade six grandtoursof the South.Afterhis second journeyin 1689, Wang Hui,thenthe mostcelebratedpainterin the South, was summonedto courtto supervisethe creation of the SouthernInspectionTour,a series of twelve handscrollsrecordingthe event. As head of the project,WangHuidesigned the series, breaking downthe journeyintotwelvemajorepisodes; he paintedmost of the landscape himself,but leftthe drawings,and moreroutine figures,architectural workto his assistants. The Museum'sscroll,the thirdin the set, shows the routeof the emperorand his entouragefrom the city of Chi-nanto MountT'ai,in Shantung Province,a distance of about thirtymiles,which the partycovered on February5 and 6, 1689. Alongthe lengthof the scroll,whichis morethan forty-fivefeet, soldiers,porters,and officialsin the advance partywend theirway on horsebackand on foot throughthe countryside,up winding mountainpaths, and throughpeacefulvillageson the routeto MountT'ai-the "CosmicPeak of the East"-where the K'ang-hsiemperorwas to conduct a heaven-worshiping ceremony.People turn the in to masses out imperialprocessionas greet in a blaze of it passes splendorand martialpageantry.As the advance partymakes preparations at the footof the mountain,the multiplepeaks rise to a joyouscrescendo: heaven seems to smile uponthe ManchuSon of Heaven. this magnificentachievementof Wang Ironically, Hui'sproveddetrimentalto his reputationin the eyes of bothhis contemporariesand laterart historians.Forthe latter,this great imperial commissionof the 1690s markedthe end of a prodigiouslysuccessful career:these imposing narrativescrollsbelonged to the realmof

(48) The K'ang-hsiEmperor'sSouthernInspection Tourwas commissionedby the emperor(reigned 1662-1722)in 1691 to commemoratehis seventyone-dayjourneyfromPekingto Soochow, Hangchow,Nanking,and return.Executedunder the supervisionof WangHui(1632-1717), the projecttookthreeyears to complete.WangHui laid out the compositionon twelveoversized handscrollsand paintedthe landscapes;his disciples paintedthe animals,figures,and buildscroll,the thirdin the set, ings. TheMetropolitan's recordsthejourneythroughShantungProvince, culminatingin the arrivalat MountT'ai(figures48, 50). Detailof handscroll.Inkand colorson silk,

2611/16inches x 45 feet 81/2 inches overall. Pur-

chase, TheDillonFundGift,1979. 1979.5 64

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publicart ratherthanto thatof creativeselfexpression.As forWang'scontemporaries,many of them livingbleak lives as "leftovercitizens"of the fallenMingdynasty,they did not share his officialexuberancein celebratingthe new dynasty. Tao-chi(1642-1707), bornChuJo-chi,a scion of the Mingimperialfamily,escaped death in his youthby takingrefugein the Buddhist priesthood.In 1662 he became a discipleof a powerfulCh'anmaster,LO-anPen-yueh.Inthe late 1660s and 1670s, whilehe was in seclusion in temples aroundHsuan-ch'eng,nearthe YangtzeValley,AnhweiProvince,he trainedhimself to paint.Inhis earliestmajorextantwork,a large handscrollentitledTheSixteenLohans, dated 1667, the young painter,then twenty-six, has drawnpossiblythe most effectivefigures since the Yuanperiod(figures1, 51-53). Unlike WuPin'slohans(figures40-42), whichby comparisonseem to be merelygrotesquecaricatures, Tao-chi'sare carefullyobserved, showingsuch thoroughlyhumanqualitiesas humorand curiosity.Thisis a rarereligioussubjectforTao-chi, knownfor his brilliant visionarylandscapes. Iconographically,it is based on traditionallohancompositions,inspiredby writingsin the Fa-chu-chi (Recordon the Durationof the Law),in whichsixteen guardianlohanswere orderedby the Buddha to live in the mountainsto waitforthe comingof

(49,50) The earliestvisitby a Chineseemperorto MountT'aiwas made by the FirstEmperorof Ch'in(reigned 221-210 B.C.),who reportedly

markedthe event by plantinga group of pines near the summit.Thereafter, on several politically sensitiveoccasions, Chineserulersascended the sacred peak to performritualsgivingthanksto heaven forpeace and prosperity.In figures48 and 50, dignitariesof the city of T'ai-an,at the footof the mountain,are gatheredaround an altaranxiouslyawaitingthe arrivalof the K'ang-hsiemperor.On the morningof February 6, 1689, the emperorand his partywere carried in sedan chairs to the summit.Todepict the heroic mountainscenery (overleaf)WangHuiused the style of Fan K'uan(see figure4); the minutelydrawnfigures,painted withthe best azurite blue availableto only the imperialworkshop, were done by his assistantShang-kuanChou (1664-1743). 69


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Tao-chi's,commentsthat LiKung-linwas the ultimate modelof the "plain-drawing" style, but that he himselfhad neverseen an originalworkby Li. Neither,apparently,had Tao-chi.Insteadof the drawingsand abtypicallate Mingflat "iron-wire" stractsurface patterns,however,Tao-chi'senergetic calligraphicbrushworkenlivenshis forms and momentum.But the withpalpable"breath" faces of Tao-chi'slohansare merelyformulas; when comparedwiththose by WangChen-p'eng

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massive rock outcroppings. Referringto himself in his inscriptionas the spiritual "son"and "grandson"of two eminent Buddhist masters, Tao-chidisplays the discipline and drive of a true devotee in this painting, which took a year to complete. In this section of the nearly twentyfoot-long handscroll, the "dragon-tamer"lohan releases a dragon from a vial while three other lohans look on. Ink on paper, 18V2x 236 inches overall. Lent by Douglas Dillon. L. 1981.164 71

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bouldersare Tao-chi'sown invention."Thebeards and eyebrowsof the ancientsdo not growon my face," he wrotein his treatiseon painting.And,he noted in one of his lateralbums:"Thisstyle is no style. I merelyuse my own style." KungHsien(1619?-89), a friendof many prominentfiguresat the SouthernMingcourtin Nanking,fled the city when it fell to the Manchus in 1645. Returningto Nankingin the mid-1650s, he graduallycame to termswithlife underthe

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new dynasty.Yethis poems and paintingscontinued to express his bitternessover the devastation of his homeland. Inthe albumSixteenInkLandscapeswith (53) Twofavoritelohans were the "dragontamer" and the "tigersubduer,"who masterednature's elementalforces. In this section of The Sixteen Lohanstwo holy men and attendantswalkwitha

mythologicalbeast called a ch'i-lin-a variation on the "tiger-subduing" theme thatappears elsewherein the scroll. Therocks, renderedin flat patternsby WuPin (see figure40), have become a dynamicconceptionof the "bones"of nature throughTao-chi'senergizedbrushstrokes.The swirlingrockveins intertwinedwithgrass and foliage are done witha single, centered strokethat anticipateswhat Tao-chiwouldlatercall "onestroke"painting. 75

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Poems, dated 1688, a year beforehis death, the recluse-paintercompares his favoritehauntsin and aroundNankingwiththe abodes of the immortals(figures54-56). As a teacher and author of several painter'smanuals,Kungperfecteda brushstrokeand ink-dottechniquethatenabled himto achieve incredibledensityand translucency, creatingboth powerand lyricbeauty.In these remarkableworks,Kungexpresses grief and sorrowwithextraordinary intensityand attains new heights in paintingwithwords and images. InBramblesand Orchids,a thoroughlyprickly yet harmoniouscompositionin bristlyand intertwinedbrushstrokesand dots, the painteruses orchids to symbolizegentlemenof principles;the lowlybramblesrepresentsycophantcollaborators who sold theirservices to theirManchuoverlords: Onthe mountainside thornybramblesmix withfragrantorchids; The orchids,withtheirpervasivefragrance, hide amongthe brambleclusters. The brambles,as firewood,willbe pickedup by the woodcutters, Leavingbehindthe orchidsto survivethe cold winter. Kung knew that although the gentleman-recluse's

art wouldendure,he wouldfind it difficult"to 76

survivethe cold winter"thathe had so willingly chosen. On a leaf entitledWhichGod Is Being Worshiped in ThatTemple?,Kung,who believed in neithersages norgods, writes: bluffby the river'sshore, Ontheglimmering inthatancient Whichgod is beingworshiped temple? whatmerithaveyou Please,YourExcellency, achievedon thisearth? I believeyouwerea drunken poetof former times. The dense rockand foliage patterns,builtwith short,staccato brushstrokesand dots, seem to echo the anger and bitternessof the poem. where On a dramaticbut bleak mountaintop, the bare and silentpeaks and the wind-bentpine trees seem to date back to the time of creation, Kungwrites: Whereheavenwas openedby an ax splitting the peaks, Themarksof the ax remainwherethegreen mossgrows; I'dliketo ask the old pine tree at the top of the cliff, Ifit had met and witnessedsome ancient sages?


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We hearthe lonelyhermitcarryingon a monologue withheaven and earth,askingfortestimonies of sages froma utopianage. Just as each poem establishes its own mood, each image has its own brushvocabularyand thereforean individualstructureand feeling. Bason the systems taughtby Tung ing his brushwork Ch'i-ch'ang,Kungwas able to treatthese album leaves as a series of isolatedcompositions, matchingpaintingand poem perfectly.Kung's landscapes are often spectacular,yet they give littleindicationof realtimeor space. Theyare truly"silentpoems,"providingimages and moods, withcalligraphicbrushstrokesservingas alphabetsfora new poetic pictoriallanguage.As poem afterpoem creates a contextfor a whole range of the artist'sanguishedemotions,the successive pictorialimages, some darkbut often tender,providestunningvisualsettingsforthe poet's soliloquy.

scapes withPoems,dated 1688, Kungexploits the ambiguitiesof lightand dark,solid and void, the densityof his brushstrokesto manipulating create dramatichighlightsand contrasts:in Brambles and Orchids(left)pale wispyarcs of orchid leaves arejuxtaposedwithspikybrambles;in WhichGod Is BeingWorshipedin ThatTemple? (above)a clumpof darktrees is played against the lightareas of riverand sky;and in Where HeavenWas Opened(overleaf)spindlypines are superimposedacross sheer clifffaces. Kung's calligraphyis animatedby a similarcombination of vigorousbrushstrokesand contrastingtones. Inkon paper, each leaf 1315/16 x 209/16 inches. Gift of DouglasDillon,1981. 1981.4.1,a,c,l

(54-56) Duringthe last decade of his life Kung Hsien(1619?-89) transformedthe dense ink-dot style of his middleyears intoan integrateddrawing and dottingtechniquein whicheverybrushstrokeis charged withits own energy. In these threeleaves fromhis albumSixteenInkLand77


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Notes Page 5 Laurence Sickman, Chinese Calligraphyand Painting in the Collectionof John M.Crawford,Jr.,exh. cat., New York,Pierpont Morgan Library,1962, p. 18. 7 See Wen Fong, "Ao-t'u-huaor 'Receding-and-Protruding Painting' at Tun-huang,"in Proceedings of the InternationalConference on Sinology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, forthcoming, section on Historyof Art. 10 "Thereclusive artists. . ." See Wen Fong, SummerMountains: The Timeless Landscape, MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York,1975. 15 Finches and Bamboo. See Chinese Calligraphyand Painting in the Collectionof John M. Crawford,Jr., no. 15, pp. 75-77. 15 For discussion of another section of the scroll In the Palace and full bibliography,see EightDynasties of Chinese Painting: The Collections of the Nelson Gallery-AtkinsMuseum, Kansas City,and the Cleveland Museum of Art, exh. cat., Cleveland, Cleveland Museum of Art, 1980, no. 16, pp. 27-29. 18 A seventeenth-century Japanese sketch (42.61) in the MetropolitanMuseum collection has detailed notes on colors. 18 See Richard Barnhart,"LiKung-lin'sUse of Past Styles," in Artistsand Traditions,ed. by ChristianF. Murck,Princeton,1976, pp. 51-71. 18 "Ina similarspirit.. ."See Wen Fong, Sung and YuanPaintings, MetropolitanMuseum of Art, New York,1973, pp. 29 ff. 18 See Julia K. Murray,"Sung Kao-tsung, Ma Ho-chih, and the Mao Shih Illustrationsof the Classic of Poetry,"Ph.D. diss., PrincetonUniversity,1981. 22 See Xu Pangda, "The Relationship Between 'Figures in the Liu-liHall'and 'LiteraryGathering"'(in Chinese), Meishuyanjiu 2 (1979): 71-74. 23 See Wen Fong,"FiveHundred Lohans at the Daitokuji,"Ph.D. diss., PrincetonUniversity,1956, vol. 2, pi. XX. 26 Chih-yung.See ShujiroShimada, "Moryoga,"2 parts, Bijutsu kenkyu, nos. 84 (December 1938) and 86 (February1939). 32 Hsien-chiTseng, "AStudy of the Nine Dragons Scroll,"Archives of the Chinese Art Society of America 11 (1957): 16-39.

FurtherReading Barnhart,Richard. "Chinese Calligraphy:The InnerWorldof the Brush."MetropolitanMuseumof ArtBulletinn.s. 30 (1972): 30-41. Bush, Susan. The Chinese Literati on Painting: Su Shih (1037-1101) to Tung Ch'i-ch'ang(1555-1636). Harvard-Yenching InstituteStudies 27. Cambridge, Mass.: 1971. Cahill, James. Hills Beyond a River: Chinese Painting of the YuanDynasty, 1279-1368. New Yorkand Tokyo:1976. Partingat the Shore: Chinese Paintingof the Earlyand MiddleMingDynasty, 1368-1644. New Yorkand Tokyo:1978. Edwards, Richard.The Art of Wen Cheng-ming (1470-1559). Exh. cat., Ann Arbor:Universityof Michigan Museum of Art, 1976. Fong, Wen. "TheProblemof Forgeries in Chinese Paintings." ArtibusAsiae 25 (1962): 95-140. "Towarda StructuralAnalysis of Chinese Landscape Painting."Art Journal 28, no. 4 (1969): 388-97. Fontein, Jan, and Hickman,Money L. Zen Painting and Calligraphy. Exh. cat., Boston: Museum of Fine Arts, 1970. Frankel,Hans H. "Poetryand Painting:Chinese and Western Views of Their Convertibility." ComparativeLiterature9, no. 4 (1957): 289-307. Fu, Marilynand Shen. Studies in Connoisseurship: Chinese Paintingsfromthe ArthurM. Sackler Collectionin New Yorkand Princeton.Exh.cat., Princeton:The ArtMuseum,PrincetonUniversity, 1973. Fu, Shen, et al. Traces of the Brush: Studies in Chinese Calligraphy.Exh.cat., New Haven:YaleUniversityArtGallery,1977. Levenson, Joseph R. "The Amateur Ideal in Ming and Early Ch'ing Society: Evidence from Painting."In Chinese Thought and Institutions.Ed. by John F. Fairbank.Chicago: 1957, pp. 320-44. Lee, Sherman E., and Ho, Wai-kam.Chinese Art Under the Mongols:The YOanDynasty(1279-1368). Exh.cat., Cleveland: Cleveland Museum of Art, 1968.

54 Wu Pin's archaism. See Wen Fong, "Archaismas a 'Primitive' Style," in Artists and Traditions,pp. 89-109.

Mote, FrederickW. "ConfucianEremitismin the YuanPeriod." The ConfucianPersuasion. Ed. by ArthurF. Wright.Stanford: 1960, pp. 202-40.

55 See Wen Fong, "TungCh'i-ch'angand the OrthodoxTheoryof Painting,"TheNationalPalaceMuseumQuarterly2, no. 3:1-26.

Sullivan, Michael. Symbols of Eternity:The Art of Landscape Paintingin China. Stanford:1979.

60Wu Li, Mo-ching hua-pa,in Hua-hsueh hsin-yin, ch. 4, p. 45b.

Wu,William."KungHsien'sStyleand HisSketchbooks."Oriental Art 16 (1970): 72-80.

63See Wen Fong, "WangHui, Wang Yuan-ch'iand Wu Li," in RoderickWhitfield,In Pursuitof Antiquity,exh. cat., Princeton, The Art Museum, PrincetonUniversity,1969, pp. 185-86. 69"In the late 1660s.. ." See Wen Fong, ReturningHome, New York,1976, pp. 18 ff. 69 "Iconographically. . ." See Wen Fong, The Lohans and a Bridge

to Heaven, Washington,D.C., 1958, pp. 27 ff.

74 See Richard Edwards, "Tao-chi,the Painter,"in The Painting of Tao-chi 1641-ca. 1720, exh. cat., Ann Arbor,Universityof Michigan, 1967, p. 48. 80


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Silent poetry chinese paintings in the douglas dillon galleries the Met Bulletin v.39 #3 Winter 1982  
Silent poetry chinese paintings in the douglas dillon galleries the Met Bulletin v.39 #3 Winter 1982  
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