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ISLAMIC GLASS A BRIEFHISTORY

MarilynJenkins

THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM OF ART

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Islamicglass has been greatlyadmired in the Westforcenturies. Duringthe Crusades, splendid enamel-paintedobjects foundtheirway to Europe,where they were particularlyprizedand tooktheir place among preciousworksof art in the great churchtreasuries.The Venetian glassmakers and others in Europewere indebtedto the Islamictraditionformany of theirtechniques and designs. Later,in America,LouisComfortTiffany'sfamed Favrileglass, withits shimmeringiridescence and flowingcontours,also showed the influenceof glass fromthe Muslim world.Infact, 96 of the approximately collec580 objects in the Metropolitan's tionof Islamicglass came to the Museum in 1891as a giftof EdwardC. Moore,a designer and directorof Tiffany&Co., who shared LouisTiffany'sinterestin orientalartand who has been credited withintroducingthe "Saracenicstyle" at the firm.Today,as much as ever, Islamicglass continues to command ouradmiration. Partof ourfascinationwiththis glass lies inthe fragilityof the medium.We marvelthatobjects so delicate have

survivedthroughthe centuries. Insome cases, a subtle and richpatinahas been acquiredovertime:the special iridescence seen on some of the excavated objects is actuallypartof the disintegrative process caused by theirburial.Ironically,this radiantqualityhas been as inspiringto Westernglassmakers as the grace of form,richness of colorand decoration,and technical masteryof Islamicglass. Islamiccraftsmenmade majorcontributionsto the art of glassmaking-most notably,luster-paintedglass (noblyrepresented by the Museum'sspectacular bowl,no. 20), relief-cutglass (see especiallynos. 22-27), and the renowned enamel-paintedglass of the thirteenth and fourteenthcenturies(see cover,nos. 45-49). The originalfunctionof surviving examples of Islamicglass cannot always be identifiedtoday,butwhetherthe objects served as mosque lamps,jewelry, coin weights, or vessels forwine, cosmetics, or perfume,theiruniversalaesthetic appeal endures. This Bulletin,writtenby Marilyn Jenkins, Associate Curatorin the De-

partmentof IslamicArt,presents a brief historyof Islamicglass based on ninetytwo objects selected fromthe Museum's collection,one of onlya few in the world withthe resources to illustratesuch a survey.Notonlydo ourholdingsofferthe requisitegeographical,chronological, and stylisticrange, butthey are also particularlystrongin early materialand includeone of the best collectionsoutside Egyptof the enamel-paintedgroup. Amongour Islamicglass pieces are abouta hundredfinds fromtwo series of excavationssponsored by the Museum at Nishapur,Iran,and at Ctesiphon,Iraq. The currentissue is a welcome companionto the author'sSpring1983 Bulletinon Islamicpottery,a subject better knownand charted.The scholarlyliteratureon Islamicglass, and on ancient glass in general, is relativelyscant, and this volumeis the firstpublication devoted to the MetropolitanMuseum's distinguishedcollection. PHILIPPE DEMONTEBELLO Director

The MetropolitanMuseumof Art Bulletin Fall 1986 VolumeXLIV,Number2 (ISSN0026-1521) Publishedquarterly? 1986 by The Metropolitan Museumof Art,FifthAvenueand 82nd Street,NewYork,N.Y.10028. Second-class postage paidat NewYork,N.Y.and AdditionalMailingOffices. TheMetropolitan Museumof ArtBulletinis providedas a benefitto Museummembersand availableby subscription.Subscriptions$18.00 a year. Single copies $4.75. Fourweeks' notice requiredfor change of address. POSTMASTER:Send address Museumof Art,FifthAvenueand 82nd Street, NewYork,N.Y.10028. Back issues available changes to MembershipDepartment,The Metropolitan on microfilm,fromUniversityMicrofilms,313 N. FirstStreet,AnnArbor,Michigan.VolumesI-XXVIII (1905-1942)availableas a clothboundreprintset or as individualyearlyvolumesfromThe AyerCompany,Publishers,Inc.,99 MainStreet,Salem, N.H.03079, orfromthe Museum,Box 700, Middle Village,N.Y.11379.GeneralManagerof Publications:John P.O'Neill.Editorin Chiefof the Bulletin:Joan Holt.Editor:Joanna Ekman.Design:Alvin Grossman. Photographyof frontand back covers, nos. 10-16, 18, 20-25, 27, 34-45, 47-49, 52-80 by CarmelWilson, MetropolitanMuseum PhotographStudio;nos. 17, 19,26,28-29,46,50-51 by Sheldan Collins;pp. 4-9 by DonaldA. Frey,Instituteof NauticalArchaeology,TexasA &M University;inside covers courtesyof TopkapiPalace Museum,Istanbul. Front cover: Mosque lamp. Free-blownand tooled with applied handles, enameled and gilded. Eastern Mediterranean,1st half 14th century. Bequest of EdwardC. Moore,1891(91.1.1530) Title page; back cover: Windows.Coloredglass set in molded-and-carvedstucco. Egypt,Ottomanperiod.Giftof WilliamR. Ware,1893(93.26.3,15) Inside covers: Paradeof the Guildof Glass-blowers.Slirnume-iHumsyun.Turkey,ca. 1582. TopkapiPalace Museumlibrary(H. 1344, folios 32b-33a) 2

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Introduction

Congealed of air, Condensed of sunbeam motes, Molded of the light of the open plain, Orpeeled froma white pearl al-Har7ri(d. 1122), Maqamat Glass has become so commonplace that it no longer inspires the wonder expressed in al-HarirV'spoetic recipe for a glass vessel. When we stop to consider that this material is essentially the product of sand and ashes, however, how can we fail to stand in awe of the beautiful objects illustrated here, representing a thousand years of Islamic glassmaking? When and where the making of glass was discovered has yet to be determined. Itappears that coreformed vessels were produced in both Mesopotamia and Egypt from about 1500 B.C.and that glass beads and jewelry inlays imitating precious and semi-precious stones were made there even earlier. Glassmaking is a long-lived and

verytraditionalcraft;it has been said

that if a glassmaker of the second century A.D.from Rome, Alexandria, Tyre, or Cologne were to walk into a nonmechanized, wood-fired twentieth-century glass house anywhere in the world, he would be able to start working immediately, so little have the recipes, furnace types, and tools changed in two millennia. Basically there are only two ingredients in the recipe for glass. The first is silica, which is usually in the form of sand. The other is an alkali, which came from two principalsources in the Islamic period: plant ash and natural carbonate of soda, or natron. The latter resulted from the evaporation and drying up of lakes and landlocked seas. Inthe presence of intense heat, the alkalis acted as a flux, causing the silica to fuse. Lime was often added-as a stabilizing substance, increasing strength and durability-as were other ingredients, depending on the type of glass

being made. In its natural state glass has a greenish cast, an accidental coloring due to the presence of iron or aluminum in the raw materials. Ifcrystal clear, colorless glass was desired, a certain amount of manganese oxide was included in the batch (mixture of raw materials). In different proportions, manganese oxide colored the glass aubergine purple. Cobalt, copper, and iron oxides were other popular coloring agents, and tin oxide was used as an opacifier. The cooking of the batch, or melting, was done in a three-part furnace much like that depicted in the miniature on the inside front cover of this publication. The process was often accelerated by adding cullet (broken glass), a practice that was also economical because it recycled the waste from the glass house. Wood was burned in the furnace's lowest compartment. The crucibles were placed on the floor of the middle storey, the oven, so that they were 3

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Nauticalarchaeologists explorethe mappinggrid duringexcavationsof the shipwreckin the Aegean Sea at Serge Limani,off the southwest coast of Turkey.

accessible through the arched openings called boccas, two of which can be seen in the miniature. The upper, annealing, compartment was where the finished glass vessels were

placed to cool gradually. Once the meltingwas completed and the metal,or melted batch,was viscous and extremelyductile,the actualmanufactureof the vessels could begin. The tools of the trade were, and stillare, verysimple in formand few in number.Using a blowpipe(a tool inventedin Syria nearthe end of the firstmillennium

B.C.that revolutionized glassmaking by making mass production possible), the gaffer "gathered" a portion of the metal on the end of the hollow tube by repeatedly dipping the instru4

ment in the crucible and twisting it. This gather was rolled into a preliminary form on a marver,or flat slab, and then inflated into a parison, or glass bubble. The glassblower in the right foreground of the miniature can be seen using a marver,and the craftsman immediately above him is swinging a parison to elongate it. Once the desired shape was achieved, the parison was removed from the blowpipe and transferred to a pontil, or rod, for further shaping and decorating. The former refinement was accomplished with one basic metal spring tool, the pucellas, four of which can be seen in the miniature. Glass is one of the least-studied me-

dia in Islamic art. The main sources on Islamic glass are still two books by Carl Johan Lamm published in 1928 and 1930. Why have Islamicists over the last sixty years, a period during which the field has greatly matured, largely refrained from undertaking a scholarly investigation of glass? A number of factors may have contributed to this phenomenon. First, there is very little information inherent in the Islamic glass objects themselves. Only a few pieces bear inscriptions containing either personal names that can be historically placed or city names that can be geographically located. Moreover,terrestrial excavations during the past century have contributed very little to our knowledge of


An overheadview of tables coveredwithfragmentsto be sortedgives an idea of the complexityof the glass puzzle yieldedby the excavationsat the wreck.

is nodefiniteterminusantequem forthesite. Thestudyof Islamicglass is furthercomplicated bythefactthat thatwasverycarefullybracketedin in the Muslim world glassmakers timeby,atone end,a coinweight seem to havemovedfromone place to another.Forexample,documents bearingthedate750and,atthe a other,a fragmentary glass measuring fromtheCairoGeniza(literally vessel datableto between762 and of discardedwritings), an repository 774. Thus, its contents provide a invaluable sourceforMediterranean guidelineforthe placingof similarobhistoryfromtheelevenththroughthe mid-thirteenth jectsinthethirdquarteroftheeighth century,mentionthat intheeleventhandtwelfthcenturies century.Thedateofthefoundingof Samarra,northof Baghdad,as the glassmakersfromGreaterSyria, of the Abbasids state capital temporary fleeingthe almostpermanent ofwarthere,cameto Egyptinsuch providesus witha terminuspost massesthattheywerecompeting quemof 836forthe manyobjects foundthereduringGermanand withlocalartisans.Suchemigrations to wouldaccountforthe numerous Iraqiexcavations,butcontrary whatwas previously international thought,there stylesintheshapeand Islamic glass that is conclusive and unequivocal, with only two exceptions. In 1965 excavations in Fustat, Egypt, yielded an undisturbed pit

ornamentation of glass objects encounteredindifferentcountries andon differentcontinents;itis only naturalthatcraftsmenwouldhave createdfamiliar productsintheirnew venues. Notonlytheglassmakersbutalso theglass productsthemselves movedfromcountryto country. The Genizacontainsa documentdated 1011 in which it is noted that thirty-

seven balesof glass weresentfrom to Egypt;inthe Tyre,presumably EarlyMedievalperiod(eleventhto mid-thirteenth century),as today, suchimportsfosterednewvogues. Variousproductswerealso packaged inglass vessels forexport. Anotherfactorcontributing to the dearthof scholarshiponthesubject 5


Amongthe objects found intactat Serge Limaniare a beaker(left)and a carafe (opposite),both withwheelcut decoration,thatare very closely relatedto objects excavatedby the Metropolitan Museumat Nishapur,Iran(see nos. 28, 29).

may be the background in Roman glass needed to scientifically examine products of the same medium made in the Islamic world. Glassmaking under Muslim aegis was greatly indebted to the Roman Imperialglass industry, and glass manufactured during the Early period (seventh to tenth century), especially, shows a great deal of Roman influence in its shapes and decorative techniques. Also discouraging to scholars might have been the many glassmaking centers and their products mentioned in contemporary texts that have defied identification. A final and very major deterrent, however, must have been the complete lack of glass scientifically dat6

able to the Early Medieval period; except for a few pieces that scholars labeled "Iran,twelfth century,"very few glass objects were even attributed to this period. The Early Medieval period, having witnessed the rise and fall of such major dynasties as the Fatimids and Ayyubids in Egypt and Syria and the Saljuqs in Iranand Turkey,was of great political and artistic importance in the Near and Middle East. The decorative arts produced under these houses were legendary in the West as well as the East. Where, then, was their glass? Three metric tons of it were lying under 110 feet of water off the southwestern coast of Turkeyuntilthe spring of 1977. The story of the recovery of this

find began in 1973, when a retired

Turkish spongediverdirectedGeorge Bass,thenpresidentandnowarofthe Institute chaeologicaldirector of Nautical atTexas Archaeology

A&MUniversity,to a spot where he

hadseen spongediversbringingup piecesof glass. Itwas locatedina naturalharborknownas SerQe Limani situatedoff (Sparrow Harbor) thesouthwestcoastof Turkey, just oppositethe islandof Rhodes.Capableof suddenlyandunpredictably becominga cauldronof swirling siteoverthe winds,thisbeautiful centurieshadbeenthe burialground forseveralseagoingvessels. Onthe basisof a fewtrialdives, whichproducedreportsthatthirtythreemetersbelowthe surface


therewas "glasseverywhere" Bass decidedthatthe locationappeared to offerenoughpotentialto commit hisinstitute,itsequipment,anda largesumof moneyto an excavation.Inthespringof 1977he started a full-scaledigat Serce Limani. When it was discovered that the re-

mainsof a shipalso layunderwater, he knewthatthe expensivegamble was notinvain. Thefirststep inthe recoveryof the shipanditscontentswasto constructa metalgridcomposedoftwosections,each of which meter-square was numbered,overtheentirearea ofthewreck(see photograph, p. 4). Thegridwas used muchlikea map to pinpoint theexactlocationofthe strewn on the sea floor.Then objects

andoften beganthe painstaking hazardous(manydiverswerecutin the processof bringinguptheglass) processof salvagingtheshipand allitscontents. Theretrieval tookthreeseasons, butthe resultswereastounding. Amongthe remainsgatheredbythe teamof diverswerecoppercoinsof the ByzantineemperorBasilIIand Fatimidgoldcoinsandglass coin weights.Thelatestamongthese, threeoftheweights,permitthe datingoftheship'ssinkingto around

A.D.1025. As the site seemed almost

uncontaminated byearlierorlater artifactsfrompassingships,this wreckis a timecapsuleof a single voyagemadelateinthefirstorearly inthesecondquarteroftheelev-

enth century. As such, it serves as

an invaluable toolfordating,anditis ourviewof a major revolutionizing periodof Islamicarthistory. one shouldnotunderAlthough estimatethe importance ofthe pottery, andwooden jewelry,arms,metalwork, all of which addnew found, objects andimportant dimensionsto our knowledgeofthese media,thesingle mostimportant cargoonthismerchantshipwas itsglass. Morethan eightyintactpieceswerefoundin locationsthatindicatetheyhadbeen carriedinthe livingquartersatthe bowandthesternandthusprobably belongedto the merchantstraveling inthosecabins.Anyexcavation yieldingeightysuchpieceswouldbe judgeda success, butthatat Serce 7


A bowl (above)and a fragmentarylamp(below), both of whichwere recovered fromthe wreck,help to date similarobjects at the and those in Metropolitan othercollectionsas well (see nos. 39, 40).

three an additional Limaniprovided metrictonsof glass cullet,whichhad beenstowedinthe afterholdarea. Roughlytwotonswereintheformof heavychunksof rawglass upto thirtycentimeterslong.Theremainingtonwas intheformof smallfragmentsof glass, ina brokencondition whenloadedon board;some had beenfactorywasteandsome,showhadbeen ingsignsofwear,probably in muchthe households from bought same manneras inthe MiddleEast dealersgoing today,whereitinerant fromhouseto housepurchasebrokenglassto sellto glass factories. Theuse forwhichthe Serce Limani since culletwas intendedis unknown anddesthe ship'sportsof departure tinationhaveyetto be determined. 8

As mentionedearlier,culletwasoften addedto the batchto speed upthe meltingandto economize.Wealso knowfromtextsofthe Lateperiod (sixteenthto nineteenthcentury)that culletfromVeniceandEnglandwas to serve broughtto IndiaandTurkey as foreign-produced rawmaterialfor glass objectsthatweremadelocally. Aftertheexcavatingteamhad broughtup,separated,washed, dried,anc numberedeachofthe morethanhalfa millionfragments of glass andhadfailedto makeany joinsbasedon findlocations,a decisionwas madeto trysortingthe fragmentsbycolor.Firsttheywere dividedintomorethana dozenbasic groups,thenbyshadesofthesame color.Eachcolorgroup-consisting

of thousandsof fragments,eachthe size of a quarter-wassorteduntil justa fewpiecesremainedthathad the identicalshade,thicknessof metal,anddesign.Thesewerethen assembled.Todate,approximately twohundredobjectshavebeenput togetherbythisverytime-consuming andpainstaking process. of overtwohunRepresentative dredvessel shapesandcomprising fragmentsfrommorethantenthousandobjects,thiscomplexglass the withstand puzzlewillprobably test oftimeas the mostimportant findinthismediumevermade.More thaneighthundredbeakersandtwo hundredandfiftylampshavebeen andas thejoinscontinue identified, to be made,shapesareappearing


Thecup fromSerGeLimani shown here is a miracleof preservationafteralmost a thousandyears beneath the sea.

travelers'accounts contemporary andpictorial forthe representations, Lateperiod(sixteenthto nineteenth ofthisfindarefinallymakingitposthisinformation sibleto discussglass ofthe Early century).Applying to thecomprehensive Medievalperiodwithconfidence. collectionof Itis nowfeasibleforthefirsttimeto Islamicglass inthe Metropolitan a historyof Islamic Museum,Ihaveattemptedto provide begindelineating sucha historyinthese pages. glass fromtheseventhto the nineInmyeffortto laysomesolidfounteenthcentury,usingknowledge dationsonwhichotherscan build, pitat gleanedfromthe undisturbed ithas seemed prudentto stateonly Fustatandtheterminuspostquem whatis reasonablycertainandto forSamarra,forthe Earlyperiod the Serpe speakingeneraltermsaboutthe (seventhto tenthcentury); rest.Itwillbe noticed,forexample, andother,better Limani shipwreck thatIhaveattributed documented,media,forthe Early nothingto Iran beforethe nineteenthcenturyand Medieval period(eleventhto midthirteenth datedmetalwork that,incertaincases, onlya broad century); anddatableenameledglass objects, periodis giveninlieuof a date. Ileaveprecisioninsuch matters forthe LateMedievalperiod(midto futurescholarswhowillhave and thirteenth to fifteenthcentury); that previously were totally unknown. The precise dating and broad scope

further unequivocal evidence available to them. 622 632-61 661-750 749-1258 756-1031 909-1171 819-1005 977-1186 1038-1194 1077-1307 1256-1353 1226-1502 1230-1492 1169-1260 1250-1517 1281-1924 1370-1506 1501-1732 1526-1858 1779-1924

CHRONOLOGY Flight(Hegira)of the prophet MuhammadfromMecca,markingthe beginningof Islamichistory The FourOrthodoxor RightlyGuided Caliphs The UmayyadCaliphs The AbbasidCaliphs The Spanish Umayyads The Fatimids The Samanids The Ghaznavids The Saljuqs The RumSaljuqs The ll-Khanids (Mongols) The GoldenHorde(Mongols) The Nasrids The Ayyubids The Mamluks The Ottomans The Timurids The Safavids The Mughals The Qajars

9


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Early

Glass

SEVENTHTOTENTHCENTURY

Duringthe earlycenturiesof Islam,the principalsource of inspirationforthe artof glassmakingwas the late antique tradition-particularlyRomanImperial shapes and techniques.The most technicallyinnovativeglass houses of the RomanEmpirewere those on the eastern shores of the MediterraneanSea, in cities such as Tyreand Sidon. Notonlydid these houses continueproductionafter the Muslimconquests inthe earlyseventh century,butthey also functionedas repositoriesof glassmakingtechniques, whichsucceeding generationsof glassmakersinthe Muslimworldpreserved and added to duringthe next eight hundredyears. The techniquesthen, in turn, were passed on to the Venetians,who werethe immediateancestors of our modernWester glass industry. Afteran initialperiodof adoptionand adaptationinwhichthe considerable skillsof the craftsmenwere directed towardachievingdecorative principally effects by manipulatingthe hotglass surface,the Islamicglassmakersbegan to experimentwithnew methodsof decoration.Theyinaugurateda periodof innovationthatbroughtthem increasingly furtherfromRomanImperialglass and culminatedinthe superband quintessentiallyIslamicluster-paintedand relief-cutvessels.

1. Judgingfromthe numberthat have survived,it is safe to postulatethat single, double,or quadrupleglass cosmetictubes, usuallyelaboratelydeco1

ratedwithtrailedthreadsand multiple handles,were extremelypopularin the eastern Mediterraneanbeforethe Arab conquest. Islamicadaptationsof these late RomanImperialbalsamariahave been foundin Egypt,Syria,Iraq,and Iran,attestingnotonlyto theircontinued butto an international popularity, vogue forthem in the EarlyIslamicperiod. UnliketheirRomanImperialprototypes, the Islamicobjectsare almostinvariably inthe formof packanimalsthatcarry the tubes-or, moreoften, bottles-on their backs. Thisunusuallybeautifulbutcharacteristicexampleof these so-calleddromedaryflasks, as wellas the groupas a whole, can be dated by means of the vessel inthis particularpiece. Bottlesof the same shape are commonlyfounddecoratedwithappliedplaindiscs, which also appearon a bottlein the Bahrain Museum,Manama,the bodyof whichresembles a doughnutwitha sheet of glass overthe hole;such a vessel, withoutthe discs, was foundinthe undisturbedpitin Fustat.Numerousotherbottlesshaped likethe one inthe piece shown here bear a type of applieddecorationresembling an animalskin;thatpatternalso appears on a smallvessel in the CorningMuseum of Glass, Corning,N.Y.,whose unusual shape is identicalto thatof one excavated at Samarra. 2,3. A numberof glass objectswere foundat Earlyperiodsites in Egypt, GreaterSyria,and Iraqthatare surely

adaptationsof the zoomorphicflasks currentin the eastern Mediterranean provincesof the late RomanEmpire.Both examples illustratedhere are birdswith free-blown,dolphin-shapedbodies;appliedopaque redwings, claws, and head; and a ringforsuspension. As neitherhas an orificeand the bodyof each encloses a rodof glass thatcreates a noise when the piece is shaken,the objectsdid not havethe same functionas theirRoman ancestors,and theirexact use remains a mystery. The decorativetechnique,knownas marveredand combed, employedto create the patternon the bodyof one bird (no. 2) has a long pre-lslamichistory inthe NearEast;its ultimateoriginslie in Egyptiancore-formedvessels of the EighteenthDynasty.Itwouldbe used by glassmakersinthe Islamicworlduntilat least the thirteenthcentury(see no. 50). Thistype of decorationwas executed by windinga threadof contrastingcolor aroundthe piece and subsequently marvering,or pressingthe threadinto the surfaceby rollingthe vessel on a flat stone slab. A combliketoolwas then utilizedto createthe featherlikedesign. The iridescenceon the birdwiththe transparentemeraldgreen body(no. 3) -a sheen foundon manyotherobjectsillustratedinthis publication-was created overthe centuriesas moisturein the soil leached outthe alkalifromthe surfaceof the buriedobject.Oftenexquisitein their laminated,partlydisintegratedcondition, such pieces inspiredimitationsby Louis ComfortTiffany. 11


tainedsuch a glass dish as wellas one of slip-paintedpottery.Furthercorroborationfora date in the earlyAbbasidperiod (A.D.750-1258) is providedby a comparable glass dishthatwas foundat Raqqa, Syria,togetherwitha coin dated A.H.189/

4-7. The shape of the dish at the left (no.4) was a verypopularone, judging fromthe numberof completeorfragmentaryexamplesthathavesurvived.Not onlyis itfoundwithorwithoutthe folded rimas seen here,butitalso occursin moldedunglazedorglazed potteryas wellas inan unglazedtype bearinga red slip-painteddecorationon a whiteengobe, orthinwash of the bodymaterial.The undisturbedpitdiscoveredin Fustatcon-

A.D.804-5.

The vessel at the insideright(no.5) is an enlargedand moreelaborateversion of the plaindishjustdiscussed. Three feet have been added, as wellas a trailed

decorationconsistingof threeflatcoils runningverticallydownthe sides of the vessel, threeverticalcoil straight-walled handles,and a single staplelikeprotuberance. Likethe smallerdish,this object has parallelsin pottery.Whilethe functionof the piece is unknown,the factthat it is equippedwithhandlesforsuspension suggests thatit mayhave served as a lampthatcould be hungor,alternatively,placedon a flatsurface.The hori-

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zontalprojectionmayhave helda device forlightingorextinguishingthe lamp. Thefunctionof the free-blownvessel on the right(no.6) is moreeasily identified.Thismeasuringcup withan infolded rimand ribbedhandlehas as its sole decorationa disc bearing,in reverse,the Arabicinscriptionin Kuficscriptqist wafin,meaning"aqist,fullmeasure."The disc was decoratedby means of a techniqueknownas moldpressing,inwhich

a die is pressed intoa moltenmass. The same techniquewas used to decoratethe discs appliedintwostaggered rowson the largefree-blownvase at the insideleft(no. 7);each disc inthe upper rowbearsa long-tailedbirdand each in the lower,a mountedhorseman.The vessel has a lowfoot,an appliedand tooled horizontalcoil on the shoulder,and a chamferedrim.Whileunusuallylarge forthe type,it belongsto the groupoften

decoratedwithappliedplaindiscs or.designs resemblinganimalskins previously mentioned(see no. 1)and shouldbe simof an ilarlydated. Furtherconfirmation Earlyperioddate is providedby a bowlin East Berlin;thatvessel bears a series of discs decoratedwithan Arabicinscriptionin an earlyKuficscriptand a Pegasuslikequadrupedclosely relatedin styleto the horses on the Metropolitan's vase.


inreeK mna,:, in il-elyraveu inscurpuuro w.lwn reads "Drinkand live long";these words' clearly indicate that te vessel's function' and that of its progeny was to dispense liquid-a use that would explain the green bottle's funnel-shaped mouth. The lack of a pontil mark on the base of either vessel indicates that the glassthread decoration was very quickly, expertly applied and crimped at regular intervals while the object was still on the blowpipe. The finding of two similarly decorated vessels in the undisturbed pit at Fustat permits the placing of the Museum's bottles in the eighth century.

worladi tor reasons tnat may,never e -: Mknownsthis glass type'didnot inspire i'slamic'adaptations,but only adoptions ilike'these; the vogue for such decoration in the Muslimworlddid not continue much after the eighth century, nor does it appear to have extended beyond the easter shores of the Mediterranean. The "spectacle pattern"as well as the bands of thick and thin threading seen on the neck of the clear, colorless bottle (no. 8) were popular decorative motifs and conventions on pre-lslamic glass made in Greater Syria.

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sign diminishesin precisionfrombottom to top and the off-centerplacementof the seventeen-petaledrosetteon the bottom indicateadditionalinflationafterthe parison was removedfromthe mold(see also no. 10). The disintegrativeprocess thatcaused the cup's iridescencehas leftthe surface in a conditionthatis rarelymatchedexhibitingmyriadcolorsand imperceptible deterioration. The twosmall bottles(nos. 11,12), whose squareconfigurationpermitted greatease of packing,belongto a group of vessels probablymanufacturedas containersforscented oils and other preciouscosmetic liquids,whichwere shippedin largequantitiesthroughout the Islamicworld.Theyare characterized by unusuallythickwalls,one or morering 11-13. The techniqueof inflatingthe moldingsat theirrims,and mold-blown gatherof metalin a moldbearinga counter- designs. The bottleon the leftbears a desunk patternwas anotheradoptedfrom sign in high reliefof a palmettelikeplant whose upperpetalor leaf has been transthe RomanImperialrepertoire.Likethe formedintoa pomegranate.Itmust have molds used by Romanglassblowers, been executed by inflatingthe gatherin those employedinthe Muslimworldwere a Gaffers of or wood. made piece mold(composedof twoor more clay usually inthe EarlyIslamicperiodfrequently pieces);a dip mold(cylindrical,in one workedwiththickermetalthantheir piece, and open at the top) wouldhave caused a flatteningof the design when Romanpredecessors, however,allowing the parisonwas withdrawn.A bottlewas them to continueblowingor spinningthe foundin al-Minain northernSyriathatis in was fixed its after the parison design so close to this one, except in color,that it surface. Inthe cup shown here (no. 13), must have been made in the same mold. the waythe very popularhoneycombde-

10. The decorationon this bottleis reminiscentof the so-called "nip'tdiamond waies"design popularon late Roman Imperialglass vessels. Whilethe decorationon the Romanobjectswas executed withappliedthreadspinceredintoa chain design, thaton the Metropolitan's bottlewas achieved by firstblowingthe gatherintoa verticallyribbedpart-size (muchsmallerthanthe finishedobject) dip moldand then removingthe parison, pinceringthe ribstogetherat variousintervals,and reblowingthe parisonoutside the mold.A verysimilardesign, created inthe same way,appearson a vessel whose formmatchesthose of the undecoratedpumpkin-shapedbottles foundinthe undisturbedFustatpitand numerousothereighth-centurycontexts.

10

11-13

The same plantmotifcan be seen on several monumentsin GreaterSyriadating fromthe firsthalfof the eighthcentury, not onlythe date provided corroborating by the al-Minapiece butalso a Syrian provenanceformanyin the group. 14. Thisewer,whichwas made in a twopart,full-sizepiece mold,bears as its principaldesign an Arabicinscription containingthe name of its maker-the name maybe thatof the mold'screatoror thatof the gaffer,or perhapstheywere one and the same person-and the place of its manufacture,Baghdad.Untilthe initialpublicationin 1958of the groupof ewers to whichthe Metropolitan's object belongs, the existence of a glass industry in Baghdadwas knownonlyfromcontemporarywritings.This beautifullyproportionedpiece is the firstexample shown herethatexhibitsEastern(Sasanian)influencesas opposed to Western (RomanImperial)ones. The pear-shaped bodywitha narrowfoot,the trefoilshaped mouthwitha folded-overrim, and the pearlborderbelowthe inscription are very reminiscentof silverand pewter Sasanian ewers. The closest parallelsin glass are a ewer in the Shosoin Treasury in Nara,Japan, whichwas dedicated in 756, and a fragmentaryewer thatwas foundin Samarra. 14

17


15. The decorationon this bottlewas executed withthe aid of a rotatingmetal wheel and an abrasivein an engraving techniquethat, likemanyalreadydiscussed, grewout of the late antiquetradition.The resultinglines are broaderthan those scratchedintothe surfacewitha pointedmetalor diamondtool, as on no. 16. 16. Whenglassmakersin the Earlyperiod employedthe incising(as opposed to engraving)techniquerepresentedby this goblet, they preferredmetalcolored auberginepurpleand variousshades of blue to the colorless varietyutilizedby the Romans.Thetechniqueitselfcaused the designs (whichare usuallyarranged in bands)on these later,coloredvessels to readas white.A few completevessels and numerousfragmentaryexamples so decoratedwere foundin Egypt,Syria, Iraq,and Iran. A luster-paintedvessel, identicalin shape to the cup of this goblet and with remainson its base of whatmayhave been a stem, was excavatedat Fustat in the undisturbedpit;this findprovides a date inthe thirdquarterof the eighth centuryforthe Museum'svessel as well as foran identicallyshaped goblet with luster-painteddecorationthatwas excavated in Raqqa,Syria.Because of the rarityof this particularshape, perhaps this datingshouldbe considered forthe incised groupas a whole.

15

18


91


17. Thiscup, alongwithnos. 18 and 19, was decoratedby means of an implement resemblingtongs, a tool thatappearsto have been devised by glassmakersinthe Earlyperiod.Since bothjaws of the instrumentborethe same pattern,the impressed design can be seen on the inside as wellas the outsideof the vessel. The sole decorationon the objectis an Arabic inscriptionin Kuficscript,placed verticallyand repeatedeight times, thatproclaims "Blessingto its owner." The shape of this vessel is verysimilar to one withluster-painteddecorationin the NationalMuseum,Damascus, bearing an inscription,also arrangedinvertical bands, exhortingits ownerto "drink and be delighted."Thus,we can be sure thatsuch cups were used fordrinking-a functionthatwouldaccountforthe large numberof variouslydecoratedvessels of this shape extant.

17

18. Unlikethe designs created by blowing a gatherintoa mold,those created withtongs are subjectto the frailtiesof the artisanand sometimes are unevenly spaced or even overlap.Thus, in this vessel decoratedwitha seven-petaled rosette radiatingfromits smallfoot, the space betweenthe petals of the rosette variesfroman actualoverlapto as much as ten millimeters. Otherexamples of the shape are of handles known,butthe incorporation here is very unusualand indicatesthat the vessel may have functionedas a lamp.These handles closely resemble those on Romanfuneraryurnsand are of a formthatwas "stacked"to create chainlikecomposite handles on glass ewers withclose parallelsin rockcrystal. 19. This long-neckedbottlerequired greatertechnicalskillin its execution

thandid eitherno. 17 or no. 18 because itwas made in two parts,each a different color,thatwere tong-decoratedbefore being joinedhorizontallyat the shoulder. The upper,cobaltblue, section bears petals radiatingfromthe base of the neck, whilethe colorless bodycontains a series of five roundels,each of which is filledwitha prancingquadruped. Twoobjects decoratedin this technique-a fragmentin the Benaki Museum,Athens,and a completepiece in Berlin-bear inscriptionsstatingthey were 'amalmisr(made in Cairo).Unfortunatelyit is impossibleat this stage in our knowledgeto say whethervessels exhibitingthis techniquewere manufactured onlyin Egyptand exportedfromthere or whetherthey were producedin other places as well;norcan we determineyet the lengthof timethis decorativetechniquewas in vogue.

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20. A very small number of complete glass pieces and relativelyfew fragments have survived that are decorated by means of the difficulttechnique known as luster painting, which was rarely used to embellish glass. The technique was applied to glass before pottery, a medium in which it is better known, more common, and much longer lived. Its origins lie withinthe Early period, although exactly when and where it was firstdiscovered is still an open question. There are only two luster-painted objects extant that are dated (a fragment in the Museum of Islamic Art, Cairo, bearing the date A.H.163/A.D.779-80) or datable (in the same museum, the bowl of a goblet found in Fustat containing the name of an Egyptian governor who served for only one month in 773). Another luster-painted piece, in the National Museum, Damascus, bears an inscription stating that it was made in Damascus. However,we have no way of determining at this point in our research how soon after the discovery of this technique the dated or datable pieces were made or if Damascus was the only place this luxuryglassware was manufactured. The century and glass center mentioned above seem to be indicated for this exceptional polychrome lusterpainted bowl with a flaring rim.A glass

object with an identical profilewas excavated at the eighth-century site of Jebel Says, 105 kilometers southeast of Damascus, and the majorityof the many glass vessels found during the excavations were also light green. 21. In addition to the polychrome lusterpainted glass bowl (no. 20), the Metropolitan possesses a monochrome

luster-painted mukhula,or bottleforkohl (used as eye makeup). This free-blown container is not only the sole example of exceedingly rare opaque turquoisecolored glass in the Museum's Islamic collection but also the only complete vessel of this type of glass that bears luster-painted decoration.

Althoughthe mukhulavariedverylittle in shape and size during the first six centuries of Islam-whether it was made of ivory,bone, crystal, bronze, or glassthis example should be dated to the tenth century on the basis of its monochrome (as opposed to polychrome) lusterpainted decoration and its type of metal, which was not used for coin weights (which are precisely datable) untilthe reign of the Fatimidcaliph al-'Aziz (97596). Because this bottle was acquired in Egypt and exhibits the pristine surface associated with a moistureless soil, an Egyptian provenance is indicated.

23


22. The techniqueof wheel cuttingwas broughtto a consummatelevel in the relief-cutglass of the Earlyperiod.Perhaps the onlyotherartisansto applythis exactingand difficultlapidarytechnique to glass withsuch perfectskillwere the fashionersof the late antiqueso-called diatretacups. Indeed,the Earlyperiod creatorsof relief-cutglass, togetherwith the originatorsof lusterpaintingon glass, can be creditedwithtwo of the most importantIslamiccontributionsto technology in this medium. Beforeemployingthis particularwheelcuttingtechnique,the artisanwouldform eithersolid glass blocksor blankswith especiallythickwallsto withstandthe

22

24

great pressureof the wheel. The surface was then selectivelycut away,leavingthe design in relief,withthe highest pointof the decorationon each piece representing the originalsurface. Nos. 22-25 are illustrativeof the earlier-what the authorhas termedgeometric-phase of reliefcuttingduringthis period,and nos. 26 and 27 representthe later,vegetal and figural,phase. The six-lobedvessel shown here, with horizontalflutes cut intothe interiorsof alternatelobes, has parallelsin stone, glazed pottery,and metal,variously dated betweenthe eighth and the thirteenth century.Itsclosest parallelsin glass are a clear emeraldgreen bowlin

the CorningMuseumof Glass, Corning, N.Y.,and an opaque turquoiseexample in the Treasuryof San Marco,Venice,both relief-cutwithvegetal orfiguraldesigns. 23. Afterthis cosmetic bottlewas wheelcut froma rectangularglass block,a thin channelwas drilledthatwouldeventually containkohlor scented oil. Vessels of this shape are knownas molarbottles because of the resemblanceof theirfeet to the rootsof such teeth. This example has a prototypein the free-blownbottlesexcavated in Susa withappliedundecorated ovalbosses and feet that belongto the groupdecoratedwithappliedplaindiscs or designs resemblinganimalskins.


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24. The bandof slightlybeveled lozenges on this large, handledcup, which resembles a RomanImperialskyphos, is borderedat top and bottomby an angular molding.Contouredto exclude the handle withits thumbstopfromthe decorative band,this moldingis reminiscentin form and functionof thaton the opaque turquoiselobed bowlin San Marco.The base of this cup is also relief-cut,containdisc at ing a slightlyconcave protruding its center circumscribedby two angular moldingsarrangedconcentricallyaround

it.A similardecorationis to be seen on a flatfragmentfoundin Samarra.The cup has acquireda spectaculariridescence. 25. The wallsof this sphericalvessel are decoratedwithtwostaggered rowsof ten discs, each witha raiseddot, a motif foundin Samarra.The ten petalsthat radiatefroman identicaldisc on the bottom of this objectare similarin formto the lozenges on the handledcup (no. 24) except thateach petalhere supportsa smaller

24

25

26

27

versionof itself.A similarconvention occurs on a fragmentfoundin Samarra and on the feet and interstitialtriangles on the green cosmetic bottle(no. 23). Atthis stage of research,these objects cannot be ascribedwithany degree of certaintyto a particularproductioncenter. However,because of certainaffinitiesbetween them and the fact thatthey have ninth-ortenth-centuryparallelsin common, itappearsthattheywere executed sometimewithinthattwo-hundred-year period.


26. One of the most beautiful monochrome relief-cut objects extant, this beaker belongs to a group of exquisite relief-cut glass vessels with vegetal and figural decoration that are related to magnificent pieces in rock crystal. Whether the glass objects led up to or were made in imitationof the rock-crystal ones is yet to be determined. This beaker is very closely related in the style of its carving and decorative conventions to the cameo-glass ewer recently acquired by the Corning Museum of Glass, Corning,

N.Y.The latter shares so many features with a rock-crystal ewer in San Marco bearing the name of the Fatimid caliph al-'Aziz that it has been securely ascribed to the tenth century as well. The decoration of the Metropolitan'sbeaker is even closer to that on a rock-crystal ewer in the Louvre that is part of the Treasury of the Abbey of Saint-Denis. 27. This cup is a good illustrationof the progressive stylization that relief-cut decoration underwent during the tenth cen-

tury, an evolution that would lead to the succeeding century's wheel cutting in a beveled style without differentiation between background and foreground. The series of parallel diagonal lines on the heads and tails of the birds and the treatment of their bodies as a series of overlapping scales can both be found on a relief-cut bottle in the L. A. Mayer Memorial Institute for Islamic Art, Jerusalem; the scales convention also occurs on the lions on al-'Aziz's rock-crystal ewer in San Marco.

26

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Early

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ELEVENTHTO MID-THIRTEENTH CENTURY

Veryshortlyafterthe techniqueof wheel cuttingreached its Islamiczenithin the relief-cutglass created at the end of the Earlyperiod,its gradualsimplification began. Bythe middleof the eleventhcentury,the trendtowardstylizationbegun in the precedinghundredyears had led to a totallybevel-cutdecorationwithno foregroundor background.The simplification of this lapidarytechnique as applied to glass reached its logical conclusion in totallyplainbut beautifulvessels withbodies faceted like gemstones. Inadditionto experimentingwith wheel-cuttingtechniques,whichcould be employedafterthe glass had cooled, glassmakersinthe EarlyMedievalperiod continuedto adapttechniquesapplicable onlyto a hot gatheror parison:mold blowingand threador coil trailing. Atthe end of the period,artisanswere to makeanothergreatcontributionto glass technologyingeneral. Notonlydid enamelingattainthe distinctionof luster paintingand reliefcutting,but it playeda largerroleinthe Westthan eitherof the twoearliertechniques.

28. On the basis of findsfromthe Serge Limanishipwreck,this vessel-a version of a relativelycommonshape-can now be firmlyplaced inthe firsthalfof the eleventhcentury.Excavatedby the Museumat Nishapur,Iran, Metropolitan this beakerwitha flatbottomand slightly flaringsides is verysimilarin profileto examplesfoundin the shipwreckand has a numberof otherfeaturesin common withglass fromthatsite. The wheel-cutdecorationon this piece is beveled, as is thaton the beakersfrom the wreckbearingthe most sophisticated designs (see photograph,p. 6). Other characteristicsof this vessel are also closely paralleledinthe Serge Limani glass: the arrangementof the decoration intobands and rectangularcompartments;the relationshipof plainto decoratedareas; and individualmotifssuch as the lappetsat the bottomwitha wheelcut linemarkingtheircenters. Inadditionto numerousindividualexamples, three beakersof this shape were found at the site of the wreckstillstacked, one inside the other.

29. The carafe above, also excavated at Nishapur, belongs to a large group of similarly shaped vessels, now in both domestic and foreign, public and private, collections, which have been variously dated between the ninth and the twelfth century. Like no. 28, this vessel type can now be securely placed in time with the help'of the Serce Limanifinds. Many such carafes from the wreck are decorated with the type of facet cutting on the neck of this Nishapur example as well as the wheel-cut circles on its body. This particularbody profileand several slightly modified versions of it can also be seen in some of the seventeen complete or fragmentary carafes recovered from Serge Limani(see photograph, p. 7). Parallels for the convention exhibited here of circumscribing the pontil mark on the base of an object with an engraved square (common on glass found at Nishapur) can also be found on objects from the shipwreck.

29


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30. Thisbottlecan be solidlylinkedto the firmlydated corpusof materialfrom Serce Limani,althoughno complete examples of its particulartype were recovered there.A neckfromsuch a vessel with facet-cutmotifssimilarto those seen here was foundat the wreck,as were pieces exhibitingthe same style of bevelcut decorationincludingmanyvolutes. Such a datingcorroboratesthatgenerallysuggested forsimilarlyshaped bottles executed in silverand sometimes decoratedwithparcelgiltand nielloinlay. The factthatseveralof the manyglass examples extantare stillequippedwith a lidexecuted in silverwithnielloinlay indicatesthatthese, liketheirpreciousmetalcounterparts,functionedas perfume bottlesthatwere signs of the owner'sprestige.

30

beautifulway, 31. Aged in a particularly this bottlecombinesfeaturesof the carafeon the precedingpage and the bevel-cutperfumeflask no. 30. The neck, slightlytaperedtowardthe top and witha wide, flatrim,is of a shape invariably foundon carafes likeno. 29. Itsfacet-cut decorationis very reminiscentof thaton the tall,cylindricalnecks of scent bottles such as no. 30. The sphericalbodyis decoratedwiththree rowsof ten facet-cut circlesthatare arrangedso closely as to have createdhexagons. Such a conventionwas adaptedultimatelyfromRoman Imperialmodels.

niques(free-blown,mold-blown,cameo relief-cut,and bevel-cut),butalso in metaland glazed pottery.This particular faceted varietywithhorizontalmoldings markingthe transitionsbetween different partsof the vessel has especiallyclose parallelsin metal. Atthisjuncturein our researchwe cannotascertainwhetherthe glass versions imitatedor gave rise to those in metal and pottery.However,itdoes appearsafe to assume thatthey allflourishedat aboutthe same time and thatthe popularityof this shape as a rose-watersprinkler-like thatof any shape-did not last longerthan a generationortwo.

32. The shape of this bottleappearsto have been extremelypopularduringthe EarlyMedievalperiod,occurringnotonly in glass decoratedin a varietyof tech-

32

31


33. This unusuallytall,gracefulbottle and no. 35 are the latest examples of wheel-cutglass illustratedin this publication.Theirmakersused the lapidarytechniqueof wheel cutting-which had an illustrioushistoryin the Islamicworld-to create an effect closer to thatfoundon gemstones thanthaton glass. A series of longitudinalfacet cuts transformsthe bottle'scylindricalbodyintoa heptagon, and the slightlyflaringneck is also faceted. Similarlydecoratedvessel fragments were excavated at Samarra, includingthe necks of several carafes that helpto confirman EarlyMedieval date forthis object. 34, 35. The smaller,wheel-cut,version (no. 35) of these twotruncatedpyramidal vessels was blownas a thickblankinto whichthe nineplainfacets wereground. The largervessel (no. 34) was decoratedby blowingthe gatherintoa twopartfull-sizepiece moldthat borea countersunkdesign of a bandof reciprocal half-palmettes.A carafe excavated at Nishapurthat is similarin shape to no. 29 displaysthe same color as the larger vessel here and a variantof the same design, also withthe idiosyncrasythat onlythe outlinesof the patternare in relief.Since stylizedvegetal designs represented onlyin outlineare to be found on the most exquisiterelief-cutvessels that have survived,such as no. 26, the questionarises, Weremold-blownpieces decoratedlikethe one shown here made in imitationof relief-cutobjects orwere they simplerversionsof such vessels? 36-39. These fourvessels, as well as no. 34, bearwitness to the continued adoptionand adaptationof decorative techniquesfromthe previousperiod, whichhad in turndrawnuponthose in the RomanImperialrepertoire.The object at the inside right(no. 38), likethe cup decoration no. 13, bearsa pattern-molded a with created was that part-sizepiece mold. Afterthe parisonhad been impressed withthe pattern,it was removed fromthe mold,furtherexpandedby blowing,and, finally,tooled (refinedin shape). Patternssuch as this were all impressedby means of part-sizepiece moldsas opposed to part-sizedip molds, whichwere in onlyone piece and therefore,as has been said, wouldhave caused a flatteningof any design involv-

32

33

34,35

ing crossed lines duringwithdrawalof the parison.The otherthree pieces shown here and no. 34 were all made in full-size piece moldsthat'notonlyimpressedthe ornamentation,butalso providedthe final bodyshape. The Serce Limanishipwreckyielded a very largenumberof bowlsshaped like no. 38. Manywere also decoratedwith pattern-moldeddiaperdesigns, none of whichwere identicalto thatseen here, however.This particularpattern-which radiatesfroma hexagonon the base and consists of two rowsof contiguouspentagons, each containinga palmettethatis moreclassical than Islamicin spirit-gets largerand fainteras itapproachesthe rim,a sure indicationthatthe parisonwas reblownafterthe design was impressed on the surface. Itis possible thatsuch glass vessels were used as lamps.A medievalIslamic three-leggedbronzelampstand that holdsseven such bowlsexists in the L.A. MayerMemorialInstituteforIslamicArt, Jerusalem.A polycandelonin the Walters ArtGallery,Baltimore,is identicalto the stand in Jerusalemexcept forthe legs, and consequently,it must have originally been fittedwiththe same type of vessel. as Ifthese objectsfunctionedprimarily in which numbers the they lamps, large have survivedwouldbe easily explained, as wouldthe proclivityforhoneycombor otherdiaperpatterns,whichrefractthe lightlikefacets. Parallelsforthe principaldesign of concentricdiamondson the beautifully aged and preserved,jewel-likevase (right,no. 39) can be foundamongthe objectsfromSerQeLimani(see photograph,p. 8, above).Unlikethe otherEarly Medievalvessels executed in full-size piece moldsthat are illustratedhere, this vase is extremelythick-walledand heavy forits size. The mold-blownjug (left,no. 36) and bottle(insideleft, no. 37) were both made in two-partmolds.Theirshapes were popularwithcontemporaryIslamicpotters, butwhichmediuminfluencedthe otheris not known.A probleminherentin workingwithfull-sizepiece moldswas the maskingof the areas wherethe partsof the moldjoined.On the bottle,a rosewatersprinkler,the twoflutes wherethe joins are effected bear multiplevertical moldings,whichare easier to matchthan eitherof the alternatingpatternsof pearls and diagonal lines.


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40. Thissmall lamp,whichwas bought on the art market,is identicalin shape to one excavated by the Museumin Nishapur.The dates attributedto these and similarobjects in othercollectionshave variedconsiderablyoverthe years, ranging fromthe fifthto the eleventhcentury. Once again we can turnto the material fromSerge Limanito findhelp in settling a datingproblem.Inthis case the evidence is a fragmentarylamp(see photograph,p.8, below)that is identical,except two forits coloration,to the Metropolitan's lightingdevices. Once an EarlyMedievaldate was unequivocallydeterminedforsuch glass lamps, parallelswere easily foundto Analmost corroboratethis reattribution. identicalshape exists in glazed pottery datableto the late eleventhor early twelfthcentury(a turquoiselamp,also excavatedat Nishapur,and a white spouted vessel inthe Victoriaand Albert Museum,London),and a verysimilar metallampbearingthe date of A.H.483/ A.D.1090 is inthe Museumof Turkishand IslamicArt,Istanbul. The suggestion made in connection withno. 32 thata given shape probably stayed a la mode forone ortwogenerations is furthersubstantiatedby the evidence cited above.

40

niques. Thisewer appearsto be another exampleof such copying.The principal decoration,executed in trailedthreads, is suggestive of the undulating,stylized vegetal scrollsoften executed in the more difficult,relief-cut,technique,as seen on the beakerno. 26. The series of horizontal ringson the neck and bodyare paralleled on relief-cutglass ewers, as is the shape, except forthe pedestal-likemodificationto the foot and the very sharp returnat the bottomof the vessel. Imitationsof relief-cutbeakers,decoratedin the same trailed-thread techniqueas such adaptationsof relief-cut ewers, also survive.Whetherthese lessexpensive versionswere made in the same centers as the monochromeand the bichrome,cameo relief-cutglass objectsorwere provincialcopies of them is impossibleto say at this point. 42. The undulatingthreadsflankingthe lowerneck are the onlydecorationon this beautifullyproportionedand aged perfume sprinkler. These handlelikethreads, the flattenedglobularbody,and the slender neck withits smallopeningare allverycharacteristicof such vessels, which,when shaken, dispensed dropsof expensive perfumesuspended in a heavy oil base. Analmostidenticalsprinklerin the BritishMuseumand severalexecuted in the marvered-and-combed technique witha similaropeninginthe body(which must have been designed forease of holdingwhen dispensingthe precious cosmetic)also survive.

41. Ithas been suggested thatthe moldblownvessel no. 34 was one illustration of howglassmakers in the EarlyMedieval periodattemptedto imitaterelief-cut designs in less time-consumingtech-

41

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43, 44. Decoratingglass withtrailed threadsin a contrastingcolorwas popularinthe EarlyMedievalperiod(see photograph,p. 9), butthe variationillustrated by these twovessels seems to have been quiterare.Afteran initialblowingof each gather,threads-emerald green and clear,colorless forthe beaker(no. 43) and cobaltforthe bottle(no. 44)-were trailedon the bodies. Theneach object was reblown,causing the threadsto become furtherimbeddedinthe matrix butless so than ifthey had been marvered. Finally,a coil base was appliedto each and the rimand neckwere also decoratedwitha trailedthread. Unlikethe beakersexcavatedat the SerQeLimanishipwreckor at Nishapur (see no. 28), whichall had slightlyand graduallyflaringwallsand no foot ring, the one shown here has a protrudingrim

and a foot ringknownas a coil base, whichis composed of a single thread. Thistype of beakerappearsto have been quitecommonduringthe firsthalfof the periodbutwas laterreplacedby a variety witha moreflaringrimthat is commonly decoratedwithenamel painting.Perhaps the type illustratedhere should be seen as a linkbetweenthe earlyeleventhcenturybeakertype and thatwhichcame intovogue duringthe late twelfthcentury. The authorknowsof no otherIslamic bottleof the shape seen here, butthis piece is clearlyrelatedto a footed, lusterpaintedbottlewitha flaringneck in the MuseumfurIslamischeKunst,BerlinDahlem,and it must have been the precursorof a shape seen in a numberof enamel-paintedbottlesof the Mamluk period,such as the types illustratedby nos. 48 and 49.

45. This perfumesprinkleris an intact exampleof an extremelyraretype of enamel-paintedglass thatforthe most parthas survivedonlyin fragments. Usuallyexecuted in eithercobaltblue or manganese purpleglass, the design is customarilypaintedin eitherwhite,lapis lazuli,orturquoiseblue enamel or in a combinationof whiteand turquoiseblue, outlinedand highlightedwithgold. The example shown is a textbookcase of howthe glassmakers in the Islamic worldmade adaptationsfromthe glass of earlierperiods.Inthis instance,they adaptedthe effect created by marvering and combingto enameling,a new techniquethatwas totallytheirown creation and one thatwouldassume a distinguished positionwithinthe universal historyof glassmaking.

45

37 43,44

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46. Althoughpreviouslyconsideredto be a productof the Mamlukperiod,this superbgildedand enameledtazza appearsto stand muchmorein the earlier, Ayyubid,tradition.Usingdatableenamelpaintedobjectsto establisha chronological sequence withinthe historyof this techniquein the Muslimworld,we can postulatethatthe abundanceof gilding on thistazza and the tentativeapplication of enamelcolorsin a highlyvariedpalette (red,blue,yellow,green, white,and black)are clues suggesting an early date. These features,combinedwiththe style, scale, and richdecorativevocabularyof the designs displayedinthe horizontalbands of varyingwidthsseparated by narrowborders,seem to set this drinkingvessel, whichmayhave been lidded,

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quiteapartfromobjectsshowingprecisely the same techniquethatwere made underthe aegis of the Mamluk dynastyduringthe LateMedievalperiod; the laterpieces are generallylargerand exhibitfewercolors,less gilding,and a muchsimplericonography. Virtualbestiariesof bothrealand fantasticanimals,entertainers,geometric designs, arabesques(threehere end in humanheads), and secularinscriptions-all seen on thistazza-are typicallyfoundon variousmediafromthe firsthalfof the thirteenthcentury.However,it is in metalworkthatthe closest on parallelsare encountered,particularly those objectsmade forSultanal-Malik al-NasirIISalah al-Din(1237-60),the last Ayyubidrulerof Aleppoand Damascus.

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Medieval

Glass

MID-THIRTEENTH TOFIFTEENTH CENTURY

As we have seen, the EarlyMedievalperiodwitnessed the tentativebeginning and earlydevelopmentof enamel painting on glass. Therewas a furtherflorescence of the techniqueduringthe succeeding period,when artisansproduced some of the most luxuriousglass objects ever made in the Islamicworld. AI-Qazwini (d. 1283),a famousArabcosmographerand geographer,attested to the fact thatthis glass was a legend even in its owntime:he wrotethatin the thirteenth centuryone of the wondersof Aleppowas its glass bazaarfilledwithso many"tasteful"objects,whichwere exportedwidely,thata visitorto the suq (marketplace)did notwantto leave it. Virtuallythe onlytypes of glass to have survivedthatcan be attributedto the LateMedievalperiodwithany degree of certaintyare enameled objects, extremelywell representedin the Metropolitan'scollection,and marvered-andcombed examples, althoughother techniqueswere surelyemployedat this time. Contemporarytexts referto a numberof very importantproductioncenters and to variousproducts,manyof which remainunidentifiedto this day.The glass made in Hebronis mentioned,as is glassware"inlaid"withgold and silver (probablygildedand enameled)from Damascusthatwas exportedto Egypt, Iraq,and Asia Minor,as wellas glass fromIraq,includingvessels fromwhich fruitwas served withwoodenspoons. A Chinese source of the periodmentions engravedopaque glass fromBaghdad

and Asia Minorand fromGhazniand Kabulin present-dayAfghanistan. Descendingprecipitouslyfromthese gloriousheights,the artof glassmaking reached its nadirin the Islamicworldby the end of the LateMedievalperiod.By around1400, Timur(Tamerlane)had devastatedSyria,includingAleppoand Damascus.We are toldthat he tookthe famousglassmakersof these cities with himto Samarkand,althoughno glass productsof his CentralAsiancapitalare known.Timur'sinvasiondoes appearto have broughta definitiveend, however,to the great, unbroken,two-millennia-long traditionof glassmakingin GreaterSyria. The new venue wouldsoon be Europe: by the end of the fifteenthcentury,the Mamlukswere orderingenameled mosque lampsfromVenice. 47. Anynumberof Europeanchurch treasuriesbearwitness to the esteem in whichthe glass of the Muslimworldwas held inthe West.One of the most popular types was the enamel-paintedvariety, whichwas often notonlymountedin precious metal,butalso protectedin beautifulleathercases. The so-calledGobletof Charlemagneat ChartresCathedral,the Gobletof the EightPriestsat Douai Cathedral,and the beakerknownas the Luckof Edenhall,nowat the Victoriaand AlbertMuseum,London,are threewellknowntestamentsto the prestigeof this enameled glass, muchof whichfoundits wayto Europeat the timeof the Crusades.

Inadditionto such secularpieces, the manufactureof largelampsforspecific religiousfoundationswas, judgingfrom the greatnumberthathavesurvived,a very importantpartof the predominantly Syrianenamel-paintingindustry,particularlyinthe latethirteenthand fourteenth centuries.Commissionedby the sultan himselfor his amirs,these lampsare decoratedwiththe characteristically name of the patronand his blazonorcoat of arms,as wellas withthe "LightVerse" of the Koran(sura24, ('Ayatal-NOr) verse 35): Godis the Lightof the heavens and the earth; the likenessof HisLightis as a niche whereinis a lamp (thelampin a glass, the glass as it werea glittering star) kindledfroma Blessed Tree, an olivethatis neitherof the East norof the West whose oilwellnighwouldshine, even if no firetouchedit; LightuponLight; (Godguides to HisLightwhom He will.) Thisearlyexamplewas commissioned forthe mausoleumin Cairoof the amir Aydakin,who died in 1285. His blazon, repeatedninetimes on this lamp,consists of twoaddorsedbowson a circular redfield-indicating thathe had served as bunduqdar(bowman)to a sultan. 41


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48. Thisverylarge bottlein pristineconditionis oftendiscussed in the scholarly literature.Itis generallyconsidereda productof Damascusfrombefore1360 and illustrativeof the Chinese influence thatenteredthe Islamicrepertoireby way of the Mongolinvasions,morespecifically those of the Il-Khanids. The bottle's iconography,motifs,decorativeconventions, and design layoutare so close to those foundon lateAyyubidand early Mamlukmetalwork,however,thatthe piece should be dated to the end of the thirteenthcenturyinsteadof the firsthalf

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of the fourteenthas had been generally accepted previously.The uninterrupted wide bandof mountedwarriorswielding maces, swords,lances, bows and arrows, and shields on a verysparselydecorated backgroundand the threevigorousand extremelycomplexarabesques are reminiscentof the decorationon Ayyubid that made forthe metalwork,particularly last sultan,al-Malikal-NasirIISalah alDTn(1237-60);butthey are even closer to the ornamentationon the so-called Baptisterede Saint Louis,dated to between 1290and 1310,at the Louvre.The pecu-

liaritiesof headdress (bothhats and turbans) and robe,as wellas the treatment of birds(thatappearto floaton the horizon), horses, and leaves formingthe groundlineare allto be foundon that famous metalobject. The closest glass parallelin shape and decorativelayoutis one in the Museumof IslamicArt,Cairo,whichshares the featureof three large roundelson the shoulder,as wellas the phoenix(feng-huang) and flankingborderson the long neck.

43


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49. Thistype of vessel must have been used as a decanterforwine, as it is represented, alongwithgoblets, in many contemporaryrevelingor banqueting scenes, in severaldifferentmedia.The earliestdatableexampleof this decanter type is inthe Museumof IslamicArt, Cairo,and bears the name of Sultan al-Malikal-NasirIISalah al-Din.The latest knownto the authoris inthe FreerGalleryof Art,Washington,D.C.,bearingthe Saif al-Din name of al-Malikal-Mujahid 'Ali,a Rasulidsultanof the Yemen(1321example,which 63). The Metropolitan's shouldbe placed in the firsthalfof the fourteenthcentury,has a bandof very vigorousanimalscoursingaroundthe base of its tallneck and a successful maindesign of a Chinese cloud-collar framewithlobed panels, fourof which terminatein a pointand enclose a birdof

49 50 50

preyattackinga goose. However,by the second halfof the centurythe decline of enamel-paintedglass had begun, and except fora briefrevivalat the end of the century,itwouldcontinueunabatedwhile Venice'sstarwas risingin the West.

50. We have seen thatdecorationexecuted inthe marvered-and-combed technique,aftera longand distinguished pre-lslamichistory,became partof the repertoireof glassmakersin the Muslim worldinthe very beginningof the Early period(see no. 2). This beautifullidded bowlis ample proofthatthe technique remainedpopularat least untilthe Late Medievalperiod. Afterbothpartsof the bowlwere freeblownand tooled intoshape, an opaque

whitethreadwas woundaroundeach of them and subsequentlymarveredin flushwiththe surface.The featherlike design was then createdwitha combliketool. AlthoughmanyLateMedievalobjects decoratedin this techniqueare extant, this liddedbowlis unique,the onlycomplete container(a few lidswithouttheir bowlsexist)so ornamented.An enamelpaintedparallelin the FreerGalleryof Art,Washington,D.C.,seems to place the Metropolitan's exceptionalbowlin the second halfof the thirteenthcentury.We knowfromthe CairoGenizadocuments that red (manganese-colored)glass was a specialtyof Beirut,and the provenance of this objectis reportedto have been nearbySidon;in this particularcase, therefore,GreaterSyriacan be suggested as the place of manufacture.

45 45


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ExtantmaterialindicatesthatEuropean importswerethe stimulusforglass producedlocallyunderthe Mughals, Ottomans,and Safavids.The examples here are representativeof the final chapterin the historyof'lslamicglass.

centers was being importedintoIndia groupwerevery unventuresomeWith: fromthe sixteenththroughthe eighteenth regardto shapes and oftenconfined : themselves to paintedand gildeddesigns centuryand thatthese importsfulfilled a numberof differentfunctions. moresuited to paperthan glass. : Allfourof the bottles shown (nos. 51Survivingexamples of glass produced on the Indiansubcontinentitselfduring 54) were made in two-partmolds.The, the Lateperioddate mainlyfromthe secshape illustratedby the threesquareond halfof the eighteenthcenturyor later bottomedexamples (nos. 51.-53)has no and are illustrativeof an imitativeas MiddleEasternprototype,butis a minia47


tureversionof the commonDutchgin bottle;it is believedthatthese vessels, producedand decoratedin India,were made inAhmedabadorSurat,bothcities wherethe Dutchwerestronglyestablished.The threesquare-bottomed bottlesalso have similardecoration;

each face bears an archsupportedby columns,and allthe arches and allthe capitalshave identicaloutlines.The motif is verycommonin a varietyof media, includingcarpets,textiles,ivory,and stone architecturalelements, produced on the subcontinentat this time.While

the hexagonalbottle(no:54) does not share its shape withthe others,it displays paintingconventionsthatclosely relate to those used in the floraldecorationon the bottlebearingfiguraldesigns (no.51).

52-54


aboutthe fashionin 55. Forinformation glass underthe Ottomansbeforethe eighteenthcentury,we are againforced to relyon contemporaryaccountsand illustratedmanuscripts. Fromdocumentsof the timewe know Venetianprodthatimports,particularly ucts, were popular.The accountbooksof a Venetianmerchantat Constantinople duringthe second quarterof the fifteenth centuryrecordan orderfor2,500 glass objectsfromVeniceincluding1,600 footedgoblets;a letterwrittenby the Venetianambassadorto the Sublime Porte(Turkish government)to the Signoria (governingcouncil)inVeniceinthe third quarterof the sixteenthcenturypasses alonga request,completewithdrawings, for900 lampsneeded fora new mosque. ProductsfromBohemia,Spain, and Englandfoundtheirwayto the Ottomancapitalas well.Veryfew of these importedvarietieshave survived. Glass was also producedinTurkeyat thistime. Detailedbuildingrecordsimply thatwindowpanesand glass vessels were being manufacturedinConstantinopleinthe middleof the sixteenthcentury,and not muchlater,the Surname-i Humayunof 1582(see insidecovers) providespictorialevidenceof local glaziersand glassblowers.Inthe following century,the writerand travelerEwliya Celebi(d. 1679)wrotethatin Constantinopletherewere 105glass-dishmakers with45 shops, the same numberof bottle makerswith4 shops, and glass factories at 4 differentlocations. Noexamplesof sixteenth-orseventeenth-centuryglass made locallyhave been identified,butsuch objectsfromthe eighteenthcenturyare quiteplentiful.A verycommonvariety,whichis characterized by a thinand bubblymetalwith opaque red marbling,can be seen here. Thiselegant objectfunctionedas a rosewatersprinkler.

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56-61. The pictureof glassmakingin IslamicIranbeforearound1600is not clear,butaccountsof travelers,miniature andwallpaintings,and businessdocumentsfromthattimeon shed lightupon andindicatea brisk localproduction importbusiness. The FrenchtravelerJean-Baptiste whojourneyedto Persiainthe Tavernier, middleof the seventeenthcentury,specificallymentionsthatShirazhadthreeor fourglass houses thatmanufactured largeandsmallbottlesforrosewaterand otherlocallymadeperfumesas wellas manytypesof containersforpickled fruitsexportedabroad.AnothercontemporarytravelerwritesthatShirazwine was takento the Gulfportof Gombroonin long-neckedbottlesthatwereprotected bywickercoverings.Severalof the travelers'accounts seventeenth-century pointedlynotehowunsuccessfulthe Persianswereatglassmaking.Itappears thatverylittle,ifany,of thisSafavidglass has survived. Fromthe latesixteenthcenturyon, we haverecordsshowingthatVenetianglass vessels, beads, mirrors, windowpanes, andspectacleswerebeingsent to Persia. Amongthe mostpopularitemswere kalians,orhuqqabases, forsmoking tobacco. The six objectsshownherewereall Persia producedin nineteenth-century andaretypicalintheirminimalsurface theirrathergraceful ornamentation, shapes, and, insome cases, theirindebtedness to earlierEuropeanglass. The kalianwiththe flowersinsideits base (no.58) is a good exampleof thisWestern influence;numerouseighteenth-century documentsrecordthe Persianpenchant forVenetian-made huqqabases with lampwork (rodsof glass workedintovariousformsoveran openflame)fruitsand flowersenclosedwithinthem.Anearly travelerobserved nineteenth-century thatcopies of such objectsweremadein Shiraz,andthe Metropolitan's example is probablyone of these.

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62-65

Althoughthe vast majorityof the glass producedinthe Muslimworldwas made intovessels of varioustypes, the glassmaker'scraftwas also employedto make otherkindsof objects.The finalpages of this historyof Islamicglass are devoted to foursuch applications:gamingpieces; weightsof severaldifferenttypes;architecturaldecoration;and objectsof personal adornment. 62-65. Boththe game of chess and that of backgammonare MiddleEasternin origin.The former,accordingto the Persian poet Ferdowsiin his epic Shah-nameh, was inventedin India,whence itwas broughtby an envoyto the Persiancourt duringthe reignof KhosrowI(531-78). The envoycame withan ultimatumthat unless the Persianscouldnamethe

pieces and figureoutthe movesof the game, Indiawouldnotpaytribute. A counselorto the shah saved the day by recognizingthatitwas a game of war betweensymbolicarmiescommanded bythe kingand his vizier(queen, in the West).Eacharmyconsisted of four branches:chariotry(representedbythe rook,fromthe Persianrukh,or "castle"); elephantcorps(bishop);cavalry(knight); and infantry(pawn).The storyconcludes withthe same wise counselorjourneying to Indiato presenthis own invention,nard (backgammon),whichneitherthe rajah norhis advisorscouldfathom. The marvered-and-combed glass object (no. 63) is definitelya chess piece, eithera kingora vizier;its shape is variouslyinterpretedas a throne,a stylized seated humanfigure,ora ruleron a

throneatopan elephant'sback. Itis not certainwhetherthe otherpieces illustratedherewere used forchess, backgammon,or anotherboardgame, however. Gamingpieces are verydifficultto date. The formsof the variouspieces in the partialwoodenchess set, datableto the firsthalfof the eleventhcentury, foundin the Serce Limaniwreckare not unlikethose of the partialivoryset excavated by the Museumat Nishapurthat was dated to the earlyninthcentury.This correspondencesuggests thatthese shapes mayhave been traditional,continuingforcenturies,butuntilother groupsthatcan be assigned firmdates or provenancescome to light,we mustbe satisfiedwitha broadattribution formost gamingpieces.


66-74. Glass served a fiducialfunctionin inthe Egypthe Islamicworld,primarily tianmonetarysystem betweenthe eighth and the fifteenthcentury.The coins of gold (dinar),silver(dirham),and copper (fals)thatwere in circulationduringthe twelvehundredyears underdiscussion in this publicationwere handcraftedand, unlikeourmodernmachine-madecoinage, did not have a preciselycalibrated weight.Thus,a simplepaymentin coins foran itemof a stated pricewas not possible. Toremedythis problem,a system was devised utilizingglass weightsthatwere the preciseequivalents(orfractionsor multiples)of the standardunitweightsof the threedenominationsof coins. When a business transactionwas carriedout,

coins were weighed in bulkagainstglass weightsequalingthe priceof the purchase. InEarlyMedievalbusiness documentsthe Arabicverbwazana(toweigh) was used forany transactionin which moneychanged hands.The issuingof weightswas carefullyregulatedand was generallydelegated by the caliphto the governororviceroy,when one existed; to the financedirector;orto both. The eight coin weightsillustratedhere, whichrepresentonlya fractionof the collectionof these fiducial Metropolitan's tools, rangefroma very preciselyidentified one-dinarweight(green,at the centerforeground,no. 66) issued by al-Qasimibn 'UbaydAllah,who was finance directorin Egyptfrom734 to 742, to the Mamlukone-half-dirham weight

(aubergineand opaque white,at the bottom right,no. 73) withan unintelligible Arabicinscription. Anothertype of weight,knownas a ringweight(topleft,no. 74), was used for weighingmeat, grapes, and othercommodities.Whileapproximately ten thousand coin weights are extantin public and privatecollectionshere and abroad, completeexamples of the largerring weights-equaling a rati(a unitof weight),its double,or its fractionsnumberless than one hundred.Such objectsare usuallyfoundin fragmentary conditionbecause when a new governor, viceroy,orfinancedirectorwas appointed,weightswere issued in the new appointee'sname and old weightswere ordereddestroyed.

66-74

53


SM 75-80. Accordingto accountsfromthe Earlyperiodonward,glass was employed to decoratethe interiorsof buildingsin the Muslimworld,butfew architectural elementsexecutedinorincorporating glass havesurvivedfrombeforethe Late period.The excavationsat Samarra, whichyieldeda numberof differenttypes of such architectural decoration,arethe richestsourceof such elementsfromthe Earlyperiod.Theso-calledmillefiori (meaning"thousandflowers")tiles must havegivena mostdazzlingand kaleidoscopiceffect.Twofragmentsof such tiles-which we know,frommorecompleteexamples,measuredapproximately 22 centimeterssquare-are seen above (no.75).A methodused by Romanglassmakerswas employedto constructthe tiles. First,glass canes of variouscolors werearrangedin differingpatternsand fused togetherina series of cylindrical molds.The resultingcylinderswerethen stretchedintolongtubes, fromwhich individual pieces weresliced off and arrangedside byside in an open moldto forma pattern.Finalheatingand polishing producedthe finishedtile. The hollow,clear,colorlessobjectto the rightof the millefiori fragments (no.76) belongsto a ratherlargegroup composedof elementsof variousgeometricshapes foundinthe mostluxuriouslydecoratedareaof Samarra's JausaqPalace-the harem.Itis impossibleto say howthese pieces wereused. Eachhas a flangelikeborderthatsomehowmusthavesecuredthe element to anothersurface,perhapsone of stucco.

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Windowglass was in commonuse in Samarraas well,in severalvarieties.The panes wereset in stucco;lead or putty was neverused as inthe West.The traditionof settingcoloredorcolorlessglass intoa trelliswork of stucco wouldcontinue inthe Nearand MiddleEast untilthe presentday.TwobeautifulLateperiod examplesthatwere made underthe Ottomanscan be seen inthis publication(backcoverand titlepage). Objectsof personaladornmentwere also fashionedby Islamicglassmakers. Nodoubtcertainof these jewelryitems, such as particulartypes of beads, crossed social boundaries,as is the case today,and others,likesome seen herethe emeraldgreen glass ringand the beads coloredlikeemerald,ruby,turquoise, amethyst,and lapislazuli-were used onlybythe lowerclasses, in imitationof moreexpensiveobjectswornby theirsocial superiors. Atthis pointin ourknowledge,a precise chronologicalsequence of itemsof jewelryexecuted inglass cannotbe determined.Wecan assume, however,that such objectswere producedwherever glassmakingwas practicedand thattheir shapes and techniquesshouldhelpto place and date these colorfulbutinexpensiveitems.

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Credits 1. COSMETIC BOTTLE. Tooledand free-blown,with trailedthreaddecoration,pontilon base. Eastern 8th-9thcentury.H.43/ in.Giftof Mrs. Mediterranean, CharlesS. Payson,1969(69.153) EasternMediterranean, 2, 3. PENDANTS. Earlyperiod. No. 2: Free-blown withmarvered-and-combed and unmarvered threaddecoration,pontilon chest. L.215/16in. Bequestof MaryAnnaPalmerDraper,1914 withunmarvered thread (15.43.248)No.3: Free-blown decoration,pontilon chest. L.3 in.TheodoreM.Davis of M. Theodore 1915 Collection,Bequest Davis, (30.95.196). 4. DISH.Free-blownandtooled,pontilon base. 8th-9th century.Diam.37/8in.Giftof HelenMillerGould,1910 (10.130.2643) 5. THREE-FOOTED VESSEL.Free-blownwithapplied decoration.8th-9thcentury.Gr.Diam.73/4in. Purchase, Joseph PulitzerBequest,1965(65.173.2) 6. MEASURING CUP Free-blownandtooledwith appliedhandleand mold-presseddisc, pontilmarkon base. EasternMediterranean, Earlyperiod.H.with handle3 in.Capacity12/3fl.oz. Giftof HelenMiller Gould,1910(10.130.2648) 7. VASE.Free-blown and tooledwithappliedmoldthreaddecoration,pontil presseddiscs and unmarvered on base. EasternMediterranean, 8th-9thcentury. H.6 in. RogersFund,1937 (37.56) Free-blown withunmarveredandtooled 8. BOTTLE. threaddecoration.EasternMediterranean, 8thcentury.

and relief-cut. 25. VESSEL.Free-blown 9th-10th centuryor later.H. 23/4in.Purchase,Joseph Pulitzer Bequest,1965(65.172.1) 26. BEAKER. Free-blown and relief-cut. 10thcenturyor later.H.53/8in. Purchase,RogersFundand JackA. Josephson,Dr.and Mrs.LewisBalamuthand Mr.and Mrs.AlvinW.PearsonGifts,1974(1974.45) 27. CUP.Free-blown and relief-cut.10thcenturyor later. H. 23/8in. Purchase,RogersFundand Margaret MushekianGift,1975(1975.442) 28. BEAKER. Free-blown andwheel-cut,pontilon base. in.RogersFund,1940 1st half11thcenturyH.515/16 (40.170.55) 29. CARAFE. Free-blown, tooled,and wheel-cut,pontil on base. 1st half11thcenturyH.85/8in.RogersFund, 1948 (48.101.10) 30. BOTTLE. Free-blown, tooled,andwheel-cut.11th centuryH.91/8in.HarrisBrisbaneDickFund,1963 (63.157.2) 31. BOTTLE. Free-blown, tooled,and wheel-cut.11th century.H.67/16in.HarrisBrisbaneDickFund,1963 (63.159.5) 32. BOTTLE. Free-blown, tooled,and wheel-cut.11th centuryH. 55/8in.Purchase,Joseph PulitzerBequest, 1965(65.172.2) 33. BOTTLE. Free-blown, tooled,andwheel-cut,pontil on base. 11thcenturyH.67/16in.RogersFund,1924 (24.2.34) H. 75/16in. Museum Accession (X.21.210) 34, 35. VESSELS.11thcenturyNo.34: Mold-blown, withunmarveredand tooled 9. BOTTLE. Free-blown pontilon base. H. 31/2in. Bequestof WalterC. Baker, threaddecoration.EasternMediterranean, 8thcentury. 1971(1972.118.179). No.35: Free-blown, tooled,and H.69/16in.Giftof J. PierpontMorgan,1917(17.194.291) wheel-cut,pontilon base. H.23/4in.Giftof Dr.Marilyn 10. BOTTLE. tooled,andfree-blown,pontil Jenkins,inmemoryof herfather,Dr.ArthurM.Jenkins, Mold-blown, 1982(1982.478.7) on base. 8th-9thcentury.H. 47/16in.Giftof Mrs. CarletonS. Coon, 1963(63.184.2) 36. JUG.Mold-blown withappliedhandle,pontilon base. EarlyMedievalperiod.H.53/4in.RogersFund, 11. BOTTLE. Mold-blown, pontilon base. Eastern 1947 (47.85.2) 7th-9thcentury.H. 17/8 in.TheodoreM. Mediterranean, DavisCollection,Bequestof TheodoreM.Davis,1915 37. BOTTLE. withunmarvered Mold-blown thread (30.115.14) decoration,pontilon base. EasternMediterranean, H. Medieval in. 101/2 12. BOTTLE. Mold-blown. EasternMediterranean, 7thPurchase,Joseph Early period. PulitzerBequest,1964(64.255) 9th century.H. 21/4in.Giftof J. PierpontMorgan,1917 (17.194.243) 38. LAMP. Mold-blown andfree-blown,pontilon base. 13. CUP Mold-blown and free-blown,pontilon base. 11thcenturyH. 23/4in.Giftof Charlesand Irma inmemoryof RichardEttinghausen, 1979 Early period or later.H. 41/8in. Rogers Fund, 1964 Wilkinson, (64.241.2) (1979.315) 14. EWER.Mold-blown andtooledwithappliedhandle. 39. VASE.Mold-blown andtooled.11thcentury Iraq(Baghdad),8th-9thcentury.H.43/8in. Museum H. 23/8in.Giftof EverettB. Birch,1984(1984.502) Accession(X.21.191) 40. LAMPFree-blown andtooled,withappliedhandles 15. BOTTLE. Free-blown, tooled,and engraved,pontil and cylinderforwick,pontilon base. 11thcentury.H. on base. Earlyperiod.H.47/8in. RogersFund,1930 in. Harris 41/4 BrisbaneDickFund,1964(64.133.1) (30.40.4) 41. EWER.Free-blown andtooledwithunmarvered 16. GOBLET. Free-blownand incisedwithtooledstem threaddecorationand appliedhandleandfoot,pontil andfootappliedseparately,pontilon base. Eastern on base. 11thcenturyH.at spout55/8in.RogersFund, 8th-9thcentury.H.411/16in. Purchase, Mediterranean, 1962(62.172) Joseph PulitzerBequest,1965(65.173.1) 42. PERFUME SPRINKLER. Free-blown andtooled 17. CUP Free-blownwithimpresseddecoration,pontil withappliedfootand "handles',pontilon base. Early on base. EasternMediterranean, Earlyperiod.H33/8in. Medievalperiod.H. 101/4in.Purchase,RichardS. Purchase,Joseph V. McMullan Gift,1974 (1974.15) PerkinsGift,1977(1977.164) 18. HANDLED VESSEL.Free-blownandtooledwith 44. BEAKER ANDBOTTLE. Free-blown andtooled 43, decoration and on impressed appliedhandles,pontil withunmarvered threaddecorationand coilbase, pontil base. EasternMediterranean, 10thcenturyH.31116in. on base. EasternMediterranean, Giftof HelenMillerGould,1910(10.130.2644) EarlyMedievalperiod. H.43/8in.;43/4in.Bequestof Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 19. BOTTLE. Free-blownintwo partswithimpressed H.O. Collection 1929, Havemeyer (29.100.83,87) decoration,pontilon base. EasternMediterranean, 45. PERFUME SPRINKLER. enamelFree-blown, Earlyperiod.H. 71/2in.RogersFund,1908 (08.138.2) paintedand gilded,pontilon base. EarlyMedieval 20. BOWL.Free-blownand luster-painted, pontilon H. in. of 1971 Walter C. 21/2 Baker, Bequest base. EasternMediterranean, 8th-9thcentury.H.41/8in. period. Purchase,RogersFundand Giftsof RichardS. Perkins, (1972.118.42) 46. TAZZA. intwo parts,tooled,enamelMr.and Mrs.CharlesWrightsman, Mold-blown Mr.and Mrs.LouisE. paintedand gilded,pontilon base. Eastern Mushekian,Mrs. Seley,WalterD. Binger,Margaret 1st half13thcentury H. 73/16in. MildredT.Keally,Hess Foundation,MehdiMahboubian Mediterranean, EdwardC. MooreCollection,Bequestof EdwardC. and Mr.and Mrs.BruceJ. Westcott,1974(1974.74) 1891 Moore, (91.1.1538) 21. COSMETIC BOTTLE. Free-blownand luster10th 47. MOSQUELAMPFree-blown painted,pontilon base. EasternMediterranean, andtooledwith H. 4 in. Gift of HelenMillerGould,1910 century. appliedhandles,enameledand gilded,pontilon base. Eastern H. 101/2in.Giftof ca. 1285. (10.130.2649) Mediterranean, J. PierpontMorgan,1917(17.190.985) 22. BOWL.Mold-blown and wheel-cut.9thcentury. H. 27/16in.RogersFund,1970(1970.20) 48. LARGEBOTTLE. Free-blown andtooled,enameled and gilded,pontilon base. EasternMediterranean, late 23. COSMETIC BOTTLE. Relief-cut fromblock.9th 13th H. in. 171/8 1941(41.150) H. in. Gift of and Mrs. Mr. Arthur G. Fund, 41/2 century. Rogers Altschul, century. 1985(1985.316) 49. TALL BOTTLE. Free-blown andtooledwithapplied 24. HANDLED CUP Free-blownand relief-cutwith foot,enameledand gilded,pontilon base. Eastern 1st half14thcentury.H. 193/4in. applied,wheel-cuthandle.9th-10thcenturyH.31/8in. Mediterranean, Purchase,Joseph PulitzerBequest,1969(69.223) Purchase,Joseph PulitzerBequest,1936(36.33)

56

WITH 50. BOWL COVER. marvered-andFree-blown, combedthreaddecoration,pontilon base and on knob of lid.EasternMediterranean, 2nd half13thcentury H. 77/8in.Fundsfromvariousdonors,1926(26.77ab) 51-54. BOTTLES. India,2nd half18thcenturyNos.51 and 54: Mold-blown, enameledand gilded,pontilon base. No.52: Mold-blown and gilded,pontilon base. No.53: Mold-blown, paintedwithsilveror palladiumand gilded, pontilon base. H. 51/2in.; 21/2in.; 53/4in.; 51/2in.;

No.51:RogersFund,1921(21.26.11).Nos.52-54: FletcherFund,1975(1975.194.2;1975.64;1975.194.1) 55. BOTTLE. Free-blown andtooled,pontilon base. 18thcenturyH.9 in.Giftof HenryG. Marquand, Turkey, 1883(83.7.230) 56. BOTTLE. Mold-blown andfree-blownandtooled, pontilon base. Iran(Shiraz),early19thcentury.H. 12 in. EdwardC. MooreCollection,Bequestof EdwardC. Moore,1891(91.1.1557) 57. KALIAN andfree-blownand BASE(?).Mold-blown tooledwithappliedthreaddecorationandfoot,pontilon base. Iran,19thcentury.H. 127/8in.EdwardC. Moore Collection,Bequestof EdwardC. Moore,1891 (91.1.1600) 58. KALIAN BASE.Free-blown andtooledwith flowersand appliedthreaddecoration,pontil lampwork on base. Iran(Shiraz),19thcenturyH. 12 in.Giftof 1883(83.7.260) HenryG. Marquand, andfree-blownandtooled, 59. BOTTLE. Mold-blown pontilon base. Iran,2nd half19thcentury.H. 15 in.Gift of J. PierpontMorgan,1917(17.190.829) andfree-blownandtooledwith 60. EWER.Mold-blown appliedthreaddecoration,handleand spout,pontilon base. Iran,19thcenturyH.6 in. EdwardC. Moore Collection,Bequestof EdwardC. Moore,1891 (91.1.1554) 61. BOTTLE. Mold-blown andfree-blownandtooled, pontilon base. Iran(Shiraz),2nd half19thcentury H. 121/4in.Giftof HenryG. Marquand,1883(83.7.227) 62. NINEGAMING PIECESFROMSETOFSIXTEEN. Millefiori. Earlyperiod.Round:Gr.H.5/8 in.Conical:Gr. H.7/8in. PfeifferFund,1972(1972.9.4-6,8,9,13-15,19) 63. KINGORQUEENCHESSPIECE.Marvered-andcombedthreaddecoration.EasternMediterranean, Earlyor EarlyMedievalperiod.H. 115/16in. PfeifferFund, 1972(1972.9.3) 64. GAMING PIECE.Tooled.Earlyor EarlyMedieval period.H. 11/4in.RogersFund,1974(1974.98.6) 65. THREEGAMING PIECES. Tooled.Earlyor Early Medievalperiod.H. 13/8in. PfeifferFund,1967 (67.151.4);PfeifferFund,1972(1972.9.1,2) 66-74. WEIGHTS: one-d7nar (green),25/36 fals(bottle green),one-dinar(yellowgreen),one-dirham (brown), one-dirham(blue),one-half-dirham (opaqueturquoise), one-rat/ double-dirham (opaquewhite),one-half-dirham, ringweightinnameof Abbasidcaliphal-Mutawakkil. thread Nos.66-72: Mold-pressed. No.73: Marvered decorationand mold-pressed.No.74: Tooledand stamped.Egypt.A.D.734-42; 762-69; 778; 1021-36; 1036-94; 1101-30;1160-71;LateMedievalperiod; 847-61. Diam. ca. 11/8 in.; 13/16 in.; 11/8 in.; 5/8 in.; 1 in.; 5/8 in.;1 in.; 5/8 in. No. 74: 23/4 21/2x 2 in.Wt.4.221 gm.;

5.125gm.;4.242 gm.;2.966 gm.;3.017gm.; 1.055 gm.;5.934 gm.; 1.499gm.;381.5 gm. Nos.66-68: Gift of Mrs.LucyW.Drexel,1889(89.2.241-43). Nos.6974: RogersFund,1908(08.256.46,23,66,29,56,1) TILE.Millefiori. OFWALL 75. TWOFRAGMENTS Early period. 11/2 x 11/ in.; 11/8 x 1 in. Rogers Fund, 1923

(23.75.15ab) Mold-blown. 76. DECORATIVE ELEMENT. Earlyperiod. L.13/4in.,W.13/8in.RogersFund,1923(23.75.2d) thread 77. NECKLACE. Marvered-and-combed decorationandtooled.EasternMediterranean, Earlyor EarlyMedievalperiod.L.201/4in. PfeifferFund,1973 (1973.347) Fusedslicesof cane wrappedaround 78. BRACELET. core of darkglass. EasternMediterranean, Earlyperiod. OuterDiam.21/2in.Giftof HelenMillerGould,1910 (10.130.1097) Diam. EasternMediterranean. 79. RING.Mold-pressed. 1 in.Giftof HelenMiller Gould,1910(10.130.975) 80. BEADS.Cutand polished(.86a)and molded (.84b;90c,o,u;192c,e).Earlyor EarlyMedievalperiod. Rogers Fund, 1948 (48.101.84b;86a;90c,o,u;192c,e)


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Islamic glass a brief history the metropolitan museum of art bulletin v.44 #2 fall 1986  
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