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The Dart Procedures History & Background Rose Bronec & Rick Carbaugh


Raymond Dart •  1893 - 1988 •  Australian born, South African anatomist and anthropologist •  Famous for discovering the Taung Skull (Australopithecus africanus) in South Africa in 1924


Dart & the Alexander Technique   Lessons with Irene Tasker

1943-1944   Corresponded with F. M.

Alexander and had a lesson with him in 1949   Began a friendship and

correspondence with Joan & Alex Murray in 1967


Irene Tasker (1887-1977)  

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Studied under Dr. Maria Montessori in Rome in 1912 and trained teachers in the Montessori method Took her first lessons with F. M. Alexander in 1913 and became one of his first teachers of the Technique Started a school for children based on the principles of the Alexander Technique Taught the Alexander Technique in South Africa from 1935-1944


“Unfortunately, Miss Tasker had to return to England shortly after our first meeting; but I continued studying the wrongful and rightful performance of muscular acts so intensively that it became to some extent habitual. In the absence of my teacher I, too, had been forced to pursue a ‘do-it-yourself’ technique. Within the next four years I had written three papers about what I had learned already therefrom - one for my anatomy students, one for my dental colleagues, and one for our fellow members of the medical profession.”  -Raymond A. Dart An Anatomist’s Tribute to F. Matthias Alexander!


Dart’s papers and 1970 lecture which include his exploratory movements in the order in which they were written:" 1950 ! Voluntary Musculature in the Human ! Body: The Double-Spiral Arrangement! ! 1946 ! The Postural Aspect of Malocclusion! ! 1947 ! The Attainment of Poise! ! 1970 ! An Anatomist’s Tribute to F. Matthias ! ! Alexander!


Joan Murray & Alex Murray  

British Alexander Technique teacher since 1962

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British Alexander Technique teacher since 1966

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Trained and assisted with Walter Carrington at the Constructive Teaching Centre in London

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Trained with Walter Carrington in London

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Renowned symphony flutist and professor of flute

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Co-director of the Urbana Center for the Alexander Technique since 1977

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Director of the Urbana Center for the Alexander Technique since 1977


The Murray’s Meet Dart! "   In 1967, the Murray’s visited with Dart in Philadelphia at the Institutes for the Achievement of Human Potential where Dart served as Chair for the Institute of Anthropology.

"   The Murray’s shared with Dart the developmental sequence they extracted from his papers.

"   Dart showed the Murray’s what he considered to be the

most important stage of the developmental sequence, the fetal.

"   Over the next few years, Alex collected Dart’s papers, he was asked to publish a selection of them, and the Procedures were created.


“…when we first started doing these procedures, I would observe Alex go through the various stages - from lying down through to an upright stance. As I watched him, I came to some realizations which helped me to better understand primary control: the dynamic head, neck and torso relationship…” -Joan Murray from Beginning from the Beginning: The Growth of Understanding and Skill


“…these Procedures will not teach one the Alexander Technique, but patient and intelligent investigation by one with no Alexander experience may still lead to a certain enlightenment by revealing inefficient patterns of movement and helping to discard them. Undertaken with the guidance of a skilled Alexander teacher, they are a constant source of insight and a point of reference in one’s patterns of behaviour. One can continually return to these as to Alexander’s ‘positions of mechanical advantage’ in which category they certainly belong. Dart has often said Man can only look ahead as far as he can look back. These patterns take us back to the origins of human movement and open up corresponding vistas for our future as mobile human beings.” -Alexander Murray  from the Introduction to 1992 version of Skill and Poise


The Dart Procedures


The Dart Procedures  

A presentation on the Dart Procedures given at the 2008 AmSAT AGM.

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