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Table of Contents

Type Anatomy

4

Typeface

6

Layout

8

Paragraph

10


Typeface anatomy

Cap Height The height of capital letters.

Ascender The upward stroke that extends the x-height.

Learning the components that make each individual letter is essential for any graphic designer and important to be able to distiniguish typefaces.

X-height The height of the main body of a lowercase.

Descender The downward stroke letters that extends the baseline.

Alexey

Baseline The imaginary line where letters sit.

A

Apex A point at the top where two strokes meet.

n

Bracket A curved section connecting the stem and serif.

Stem The primary vertical stroke.

Tail A descending/ ending stroke.

a HB

Bowl A curved stroke that encloses a letter’s stroke.

Crossbar A horizontal stroke.

f

o

Counter Fully or partially enclosed space within a letter.

Terminal End of a stroke that lacks a serif.

Fun fact: The counter of the letter is actually called the eye.

4


Ligature Two or more letters joined together to form a glyph.

Ear A small stroke on the upper right bowl of some g’s.

fl fi

g

k

mh

Ww

G

Hairline The thin strokes of a serif typeface.

r r

Leg A short descending portion of a letter.

Stroke The straight diagonal line.

oo

o

o

Stress The thick-to-thin transition in the stroke.

Link The stroke that connects the upper and lower bowls of the g. Loop The lower counter of the double-story g.

Shoulder A curved stroke originating from the stem.

Spur A small projection from a curved stroke.

bracketed

hairline

r r slab

Serif Non-structural details at the end of a stroke.

wedge

5


Typeface

No, it’s not the same as font. Yes, the difference does matter. A typeface is a set of composed glyphs (letters) that share common design features. There. Now you’re 10% smarter.

There are two main types:

Aa

Aa Non-Serif

Serif

Composed of:

D

d

CAPITAL = UPPERCASE = MAJUSCULE

lowercase = minuscule

It includes:

123456789 Numerals

!@#$%^&*§™£ Symbols

6


Ii

A slanted version of a typeface.

A typeface that was designed to be narrower.

Italics

Ee Rr Cc Roman (original)

Extended

A typeface that was designed to be wider.

Bb

Condensed

A typeface that was designed to be thicker.

Bold

Weight The thickness of the stroke.

Kerning

The adjustable space between two specific characters.

The standard spacing among all the characters. The standard spacing among all the characters. The standard spacing among all the characters.

Tracking

The space between

Leading The space between the baselines. The space between the baselines. The space between the baselines.

the baselines. The space between the baselines. The space between the baselines. The space between the baselines.

The space between the baselines. The space between the baselines.

7


Layout

A grid is not a a rule you have to follow, but it’s rather a visual aid. Made out of intersecting lines, it helps you structure content by creating an armature or framework.

Column

Row

Margin

Gutter Folio

8

Module


Grid Structure made out of intersecting lines used to arrange content within a layout.

Column Vertical band

Row

Horizontal band of modules.

of

Space separating

Gutter

modules vertically or horizontally.

Module Individual unit of space separated by intervals.

Margin Negative space between the edge of the format and the outer edge of the content.

modules.

Folio Page numbers that are placed consistently in the margin.

9


Paragraph alignment

This is an example of a justified paragraph setting. Which is when all the lines in a paragraph are aligned in all sides, this is done by modifying the kerning and tracking of the words.

This is an example of a right aligned paragraph setting. Which is when all the lines in a paragraph are aligned towards the right margin of the text box or page.

Justified paragraph

Right aligned paragraph

This is an example of a left aligned paragraph setting. Which is when all the lines in a paragraph are aligned towards the left margin of the text box or page.

Left aligned paragraph

A short line or word left alone at the end of a paragraph or column is an

orphan.

10

It’s definitely important to know how your body text is gonna be aligned, for the composition to be concise.

This is an example of a centered paragraph setting. Which is when all the lines in a paragraph are centrally aligned within the text box or page.

Centered paragraph

A single word or small line left alone at the beginning of a column or paragraph is called

a

widow.


Alex Moncada GRDS 205 - Typography Prof. Ouellet

Typography glossary  

A typography glossary using the typefaces Didot and Avenir, to showcase the parts of a letterform as well as common typograpical terms.

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