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Grammar Book Theme Based on Mechanics

Grammar: Essential to Your Education, and Your Greatest Tool to Achieve Success! “Education is a weapon, whose effect depends on who holds it in his hands and at whom it is aimed.” ― Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin

By: Alexis Chavoya


Grammar Book: Essential to Your Education, and Your Greatest Tool to Achieve Success!

Alexis Chavoya November 30, 2016

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Table of Contents Title

Page Number

Cover Page..................................................................................................

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Table of Contents.........................................................................................

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Introduction………………………………………………………………….…...

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About The Author……………………………………………………………......

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Section 1:Parts Of Speech...........................................................................

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Section 2:Phrases........................................................................................

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Section 3:Clauses........................................................................................

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Section 4:Sentences...................................................................................

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Section 5:Paragraphs.................................................................................

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Section 6:Essays........................................................................................

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Section 7:Capitalization...............................................................................

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Section 8:Punctuation..................................................................................

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Section 9:Commonly Confused Words........................................................

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Section 1-9 Quizzes.....................................................................................

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Section 1-9 Quiz Keys..................................................................................

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Glossary.......................................................................................................

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Work Cited………………………………………………………………………..

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Dedication……………………………………………………………………..….

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Introduction What follows from this page is nothing more than a magnificent Grammar Book. The theme for my book is on Mechanics, and the reason I chose this is because i am very interested in mechanics, both the scientific side and the hands-on side. In this book, we will be going over everything from parts of speech, to essays! We first start by going over all parts of speech and their functions in the English language. Then we move onto phrases and clauses, which are just below sentences. Then we transition to sentences and the differences between the many types of sentences. After this we move onto paragraphs, which are made of up of a few sentences. After this, we also cover essays, which are made up of a few paragraphs. Next on our journey we will go over capitalization and proper usage of this idea, followed by punctuation and the proper usage and meaning of every punctuation mark. Towards the end of our journey, we cover commonly confused words, which are words that people commonly mix up in their writing. After going every section there is also a quiz and quiz key provided for every section of the book. The last section of the book is the glossary that goes over words you may not know and important vocabulary in this book.

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About the Author Hello reader, my name is Alexis Chavoya. I’m 16 years old and am currently at my 3rd year of high school. I am attending Francisco Medical Magnet High School, and I have very optimistic plans for my future that I hope to achieve with hard work and dedication. As you may have already notice my book is themed on mechanics, for a very good reason. I love physics, mechanics, and anything at all that has to do with hands on repair of mechanical objects. Apart from mechanics I am interested in all kinds of sciences and because of this I hope to one day be an engineer. My strengths academically would most likely be mathematics and science. This book was produced as a project for my English class with Mr. Rodriguez. This class has pushed me harder than any previous English class, as you can tell. Although my English skills aren’t the strongest, recently they’ve improved drastically. My English has been very poor for most of my life especially my spelling and comprehension. Over the years, they have gotten better and I can say that comprehension isn't as big of a problem, but not like it used to be. It hasn't been until 8th, 10th and 11th grade English classes that I’ve been really taught to write and go in depth on some of the writing and how it has changed over generations. At home I grew up in a Spanish speaking family, and Spanish was the dominant language for the earlier part of my life. I would use Spanish to communicate to uncles and aunts and my parents and siblings since they all knew Spanish, and English wasn't so used since i only used it for school which taught very basic English. It wasn't until 8th, 10th, and 11th grade that my dominant language began to shift from Spanish to English. As my English became stronger and stronger i found myself speaking less Spanish to siblings and instead only to family and parents. Although i was never taught to read and write Spanish i am able to accomplish these tasks very easily as the reading and writing portion of the language itself is very similar to that of English. At school I am involved in programs such as EHA to enhance my educational experience and background, also to prepare myself for high school. EHA is an Engineering program at my high school. I am also in the magnet program and Sistema, which is another technology/science program in my high school that also incorporated media. For my final in my Sistema English class, a group of friends and I had to create a news ‘show’ which was 13 minutes long and included 2 advertisements, also produced by us. I am also in Clubs. The Club I am most active in is “O-Life Gardening Club” where I am an officer and help with labs around the club and apply to project grants. The second club I am in is CSF (California Scholarship Federation) which is a state run organization. Outside of my academic life I also enjoy listening to music. Some of my favorite artists consist of: Iron Maiden, Guns N’ Roses, Red Hot Chili Peppers, Metallica, Megadeth and David Bowie. Of these artists, I have seen 3 live, Iron Maiden at The Forum, Guns N’ Roses at Dodger Stadium, and Megadeth at Hollywood. I also enjoy gaming whenever I can but I prefer going on long cruises while listening to my favorite music. I also play the Guitar. The reason I started playing guitar was because I wanted to learn the into to Paradise City by Guns N’ Roses, but after I reached my goal, I fell in love with the instrument and it is among my favorite pass time. No Matter how busy or tired I am, I will always end the night with a few minutes of playing every day. 5


Grammar Book Section 1: Parts of Speech The uses and functions of words and their different kinds of speech are to organize complete thoughts into a sentence and to organize words into groups that have similar behaviors such as verbs nouns adverbs and adjectives. A group of words form a sentence, a group of sentences form a paragraph, and a group of paragraphs can form an essay, journal, article, or story. At the base of everything you read, parts of speech play an important role.

I.

Nouns (Person, Place, Thing, or Idea) A. Types (5): 1. Proper: Name specific or one-of-a-kind item. a) Spur Gears b) Internal Ring Gears c) Helical Gears d) Helical rack Gear e) Rack and Pinion Gear 2. Common: Name general items. a) Gears b) Pistons c) Levers d) Engines e) Forces 3. Collective: Name of groups, usually composed by people. a) Design Team b) Mechanics c) Engineers d) Manufacturers e) Company 4. Concrete: A noun you can sense with one of your five senses a) Car b) Piston c) Gas d) Levers e) Gears 5. Abstract: A noun you can't experience with any of your five senses. a) Energy Loss b) Energy Gain c) Torque d) Radiation e) Time

B. Identifiers (5): 1. Noun endings: a) Carsickness -ness b) Aviation -tion c) Mechanism -ism

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d) Antimechanist -ist e) Future -ture f) Magnitude -tude g) Management -ment h) Maintenance -ance i) Interference -ence j) Reality -ity k) Administer -ster l) Auditory -ory m) Engineer -eer n) Hood (of a car) -hood 2. Following a noun marker: a, all, an, both, each, every, her, his, my, our, several, some, that, their, these, this, those, one, two, three a) [B]: The car is really black. N V Adv Adj b) [A]: The car is a black lamborghini that has a V8 engine, quickly N V Adj N Adj Adv causing it to be sold-out. V 3. Plural form: a) Cars b) Engines 4. Possessive form: a) Car’s engine b) Engine’s piston 5. Following a preposition: a) The pistons in cars, move very quickly, that is until we turn off the car.

C. Functions (13) 1. Subject (comes before the verb) a) [B]: Levers are used to hopefully help us move heavy objects. N V Adv Adj b) [A]: Levers are used to hopefully help us move heavy objects, and N V Adv Adj by putting the objects further away from us, we can effectively Adv reduce the effort needed to move the heavy object. V 2. Direct Object (comes after the verb and answer what or whom) a) [B]: You can control automatic cars very easily. V Adj N Adv b) [A]: You can control automatic cars very easily, since the gears are V Adj N Adv automatic, they change without you having to step on the clutch Adj V N pedal.

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3. Indirect Object (answers to who or to whom) a) [B]: My dad gave my extremely hard working brother a new car V Adv after finishing high school.

Adj

N

b) [A]: My dad gave my extremely hard working brother a new car V Adv Adj N after finishing high school, since he knows it is a major Prep. achievement and he knows it will be difficult to go to college Adj without a mechanical vehicle. Adj 4. Adverbial Object (comes after the verb and answers when) a) [B]: Engineers work afternoons in order to be fully functional for N V Adj Prep. Adv Adj their demanding job. Adj b) [A]: Engineers work afternoons in order to be fully functional for N V Adj Adv Adj their demanding job, hopefully by the time they get into office, Adj Adv they're wide awake and ready to solve the mechanical problems Adj facing them.

5. Object of the Preposition (follows a preposition) a) [B]: David quickly went to ask the mechanical design team a Adv Prep. N question about their new model. Adj b) [A]: David quickly and anxiously went to ask the mechanical design Adv Adv Prep. N team a question about their new model, since it has never been Adj experimented with before.

6. Subject Complement (following a linking verb) a) [B]: David is the lead engineer of the incredibly stressful project. N

V

Adv

Adj

b) [A]: David is the new lead engineer of the incredibly stressful N V Adj Adv Adj mechanical project after the old leader had an accident and will no Adj Adj longer be able to work for the rest of the year.

7. Object Complement (follows a direct object and renames it)

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a) [B]: The mechanical engineer design team impatiently picked Adj Adv V inexperienced David to be the leader of the project. Adj N b) [A]: The mechanical engineer design team impatiently picked Adj Adv V inexperienced David to be the leader of the project since they Adj N needed to start work quickly, otherwise their competitors will get Adv Prep. ahead.

8. Appositives (renames nouns, separated by commas) a) [B]: David, the new mechanical engineer in the office, has been N Appositive V insanely optimistic with his first ever project. Adv Adj b) [A]: David, the new mechanical engineer in the office, has been N Appositive V insanely optimistic with his first ever project, making risky Adv Adj Adv adjustments to the final product in order to hopefully optimize the Adv Adj efficiency.

9. Adjectival (describes noun following it) a) [B]: The boss walked angrily into david’s mechanically decorated N

V

Adv

Adj

office.

b) [A]: The new boss walked angrily into david’s mechanically Adj N V Adv Adj decorated office and was loud and concise about what he eagerly Adj V Adv expects from him in the next upcoming projects.

10. Noun in Direct Address a) [B]: David, can you quickly run through my new mechanical N design?

N

Adv

v

Adj

Adj

b) [A]: David, can you quickly run through and revise my new N N Adv v V Adj mechanical design since i'm not sure if i have fully maximized my Adj Adv V device's efficiency?

11. Object of the gerund (noun that follows a gerund) a) [B]: Winning an engineering award, quickly became the start of G

N

Adv 9


David’s successful career. Adj b) [A]: Winning an important engineering award, quickly became the G Adj N Adv start of David’s immensely successful career, leaving him to Adv Adj hopefully get a bonus in his next check. Adv 12. Object of the participle (noun that follows a participle) a) [B]: After winning the engineering contest, David felt extremely Prep. V N Adv proud of his hardworking coworkers. V (Adj)Part. N b) [A]: After winning the competitive engineering contest, David felt Prep. V Adj N extremely proud of his hardworking coworkers and decided to throw Adv V (Adj)Part. N a really nice thank you party for them. Adv Adj 13. Object of the infinitive (noun that follows an infinitive) a) [B]: David is impatiently awaiting for next year’s engineering N Inf Adv V competition.

b) [A]: David is impatiently awaiting for next year’s engineering N Inf dv V Adj competition, hoping to do as good as he did this year and impress Prep. Adj V the boss.

II.

Pronouns A. Personal: Used to show contrast to an individual such as I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us, and them. 1. [B]: I was extremely impressed by the team’s creative work! PN Adv V Adj 2. [A]: I was extremely impressed, and left in awe, by the team’s creative PN Adv V Prep. V Adj work and patience! Adj B. Relative: used to connect a phrase/clause to a noun/pronoun, common relative pronouns are who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. 1. [B]: Whoever plagiarized David’s incredibly amazing project should

RP be fired!

V

N

Adv

Adj

2. [A]: Whoever plagiarized David’s incredibly amazing project, should RP V N Adv Adj 10


be fired, for no reason whatsoever should anyone claim the work N V of another coworker! N C. Interrogative: A pronoun that is used to ask a question, the five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose. 1. [B]: Who's been patiently waiting for the next advanced IN V Adv V Adj mechanical project? 2. [A]: Who's been patiently waiting since yesterday because the IN V Adv V boss fell behind in work to hear what the next advanced mechanical Adj project will be? D. Reflective:Pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence, usually ending in -self (singular) -selves (plural). 1. [B]: David is too hard on himself lately, always trying to impress our new N RP Adv Adj boss.

2. [A]: David is too hard on himself lately, always trying to impress our new boss with new models that never work.

E. Demonstrative: This pronoun is always followed by a noun and are used for demonstrative adjectives, such as this, that, these and those. 1. [B]: This new design is extremely outdated for today’s mechanical D Adj Adv V Adj technology. 2. [A]: This new design is extremely outdated for today’s mechanical D Adj Adv V Adj technology, and cannot be applied to today's work since almost everything now is electronic or computerized. Adj Adj F. Indefinite: Pronoun that does not to refer to anything in particular, some common indefinite pronouns are, anything,something, anyone, and everyone. 1. [B]: Nobody knows what the new boss told David as he angrily walked out PN Adj N Adv V of the office.

2. [A]: Nobody knows what the boss told David as he angrily walked out of PN Adj N Adv V the office after his new mechanical design did not impress the boss.

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Prep.

III.

Adj

V

Verbs

A. Endings (3): 1. -s a) Copies b) Works c) Turns d) Shifts e) Runs 2. -ed a) Copied b) Worked c) Turned d) Shifted e) Clickeded 3. -Ing a) Copying b) Working c) Turning d) Shifting e) Clicking B. Tense verbs indicate time via tenses: (11) 1. Simple past a) Walked b) Turned c) Clicked 2. Past a) Played b) Watched c) kicked 3. Past perfect a) Had seen b) Had played c) Had moved 4. Past progressive a) Were reading b) Were walking c) Were watching 5. Simple present a) Plays b) Turns c) Walks 6. Present a) Play b) Turn

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c) Walk 7. Present perfect a) Have read b) Have seen c) Have met 8. Present progressive a) Are reading b) Are watching c) Are walking 9. Present perfect progressive a) Had been playing b) Had been walking c) Had been watching 10. Future a) Will walk b) Will move c) Will kick 11. Future perfect a) Will have played b) will have moved c) Will have walked C. Forms (3) 1. Forms of “to be”: am, are, is, was, were, be, been, being (These verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs. When used as main verb, they are always linking verbs – true linking verbs = all forms of be, become, and seem). a) Is driving b) Are engineers c) Were mechanically designed 2. Forms of “to do”: do, does, did, done, doing (These verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs). a) Did mechanical design b) Does function mechanically c) Doing mechanical work 3. Forms of “to have”: have, had, has, having (These verbs can be used as helping verbs or main verbs). a) Had mechanical arm b) Has cars c) Having an automatic piston D. Types (11) 1. Auxiliary verbs (helping verbs) a) Be b) Do c) Have 2. Linking verbs (verbs that do not describe action, but connect the subject of a sentence to other parts of the sentence – usually the predicate) a) Is

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b) Are c) Turned 3. Lexical verbs (main verbs) a) Sells b) Gives c) Trades 4. Dynamic verbs (indicate action) a) Turn b) Twist c) Hit 5. Stative verbs (describe a condition) a) Feels b) Recognize c) Appreciates 6. Finitive verbs (indicate tense) a) Live b) Painted c) Varnished 7. Nonfinitive verbs (infinitives or participles) a) Screaming b) Arriving c) Excited 8. Regular verbs (weak verbs) a) Bake b) Work c) Turn 9. Irregular verbs (strong verbs) a) Write b) Be c) Become 10. Transitive verbs (verbs followed by a direct object) a) Hit b) Want c) Drinks 11. Intransitive verbs (verbs that do not take direct objects) a) Went b) Lies c) Lays E. Voice : The English language has two voices (2) 1. Active: Subject of the verb is doing the action. a) [B]: David engineered an incredibly expensive mechanical arm. N

V

Adv

Adj

b) [A]: David engineered an incredibly expensive mechanical arm that N V Adv Adj will suit the needs of his friends son who had a very tragic accident.

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Adv Adj

2. Passive: Something else but the main subject performs the action. a) [B]: David’s work has proven to be an incredibly unimaginable N success.

V

Adv

Adj

b) [A]: David’s amazing work has proven to be an incredibly N Adj Adv unimaginable success, quickly earning him a promotion and an Adj Adv increase in salary. F. Verbals: Verb forms not used as verbs (3) 1. Participle: Word formed from a verb and used as an adjective. a) David has been periodically researching a way to improve his sketchy design. 2. Gerund: Word formed from a verb and used as a noun. a) After years of research, mechanical engineers finally perfected the diving board for the swimming pool. 3. Infinitive: The basic form of a verb without particular subject or tense. a) David is impressively going to perfect his new mechanical diving board allowing his company to make a fortune out of it.

IV.

Adjectives: Adjectives modify, describe, limit, and identify nouns and pronouns. A. Kinds (3) 1. Demonstrative a) These wheels b) This car c) Those levers 2. Common a) Small engine b) Large gears c) New innovations 3. Proper a) The Mechanical arm b) The German car c) The innovative crank wheel B. Endings: What suffixes are adjective endings? 1. Mechanical -al 2. Stronger -er 3. Heaviest -est C. Conversions: How are other parts of speech converted into adjectives? 1. Mechanic Mechanical 2. Innovation Innovative 3. Power Powerful D. Articles: What are these? How/when are they used? 1. Explanation: Articles are a type of adjectives, and there are only 3 of

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these in the english language, The (Definite) A and An (Indefinite) a) The automobile b) A machine c) An engine E. Comparatives/Superlatives: superlatives adjectives are adjectives that end in -est and comparative adjectives are adjectives that end in -er 1. Comparatives a) Faster b) Stronger c) Thicker 2. Superlatives a) Strongest b) Fastest c) Thickest

V.

Adverbs: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. A. Ending 1. Mechanically -ly 2. Forwards -wards 3. -wise B. Conversations: Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs? 1. Mechanically 2. Forcefully 3. Manually C. Types 1. Manner a) [B]: David quickly answered the urgent call from his boss. N Adv Adj b) [A]: David quickly and without hesitation, answered the urgent call N Adv Adj from his boss, discussing his newly designed model of a Adv mechanical typing machine. Adj 2. Frequency a) [B]: David has been frequently getting long messages from his . N Adv Adj boss.

b) [A]: David has been frequently getting long messages from his N Adv Adj boss, that has been desperately trying to contact him during his Adv V vacation to his work phone to discuss the deadline to his N mechanical design. Adj 3. Degree

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a) [B]: David is very stressed out about his upcoming design deadline. N Adv Adj Adj b) [A]: David is very stressed out about his upcoming design deadline N Adv Adj Adj for his mechanical typewriter, since he spent mostly all of his time Adj Adv on vacation to peru. N

4. Place a) [B]: David was walking quickly to the boring design meeting. N V Adv Adj b) [A]: David, after getting back from vacation and being very far N Prep. Adv Adj behind his work, was walking quickly to the boring design meeting, V Adv Adj as an attempt to catch up on his work. V N 5. Time a) [B]: Upon his arrival to his exciting engineering office, he instantly Prep. Adj Adj N Adv had a dull talk with his boss. Adj V b) [A]: Upon his arrival to his exciting engineering office, he instantly Prep. Adj Adj N Adv had a dull talk with his boss, who was at the time, not at very Adj V Prep. Adv pleased with him. Adj D. Conjunctive: 1. Used to join two or more ideas. a) Accordingly b) However c) Nonetheless E. Intensifiers: conveying a greater or lesser emphasis to something 1. Emphasizers: (obviously, really, certainly) a) [B]: David really wanted to impress our boss with his new mechanical idea.

b) [A]: David really wanted to impress our boss with his new mechanical idea, he definitely impressed everyone at the office.

2. Amplifiers: (Well, Absolutely, completely) a) [B]: The boss was absolutely impressed by david’s new innovative

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idea.

b) [A]: The boss was absolutely impressed, even left in shock by david’s new innovative idea, leaving him to wonder how david thinks of all these things..

3. Downtoners: (Sort of, all but, simply) a) [B]: All but the incredibly rigorous constraints of david’s plan were perfect.

b) [A]: All but the incredibly rigorous constraints of david’s plan were perfect, he now has to think of a way to get the manufacture price below $200. F. Comparatives/Superlatives: Used to show degree. 1. Comparative/superlative adverbs are used to describe the intensity of the action being described, ex.more quietly. a) [B]: David slowly turned the crank hoping his new invention will succeed.

b) [A]: David slowly turned the crank hoping his new invention, that he’s been working hard on, will succeed and not embarrass him in front of all his coworkers.

VI.

Conjunctions A. Coordinating (FANBOYS): for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so 1. [B]: A car is both a mechanical and electrical machine that is used to move across distance quickly on ground.

2. [A]: A car is both mechanically and electrically built so that it can be used to move across distance quickly on ground, whereas in the 19th and 20th century, it was purely mechanical.

B. Correlative: Either/or; neither/nor; not only/but also; both/and; whether/or; as/so 1. [B]: Both the boss and david headed to a really important meeting on mechanical design today.

2. [A]: Both the boss and david were incredibly excited as they headed to a

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really important meeting on ,mechanical design today and would also go to a convention on the same topic the very next morning

C. Subordinate: after, though as, as if, as long as, as thought, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so, so that, that, though, till, unless, when, where, whereas, while. 1. [B]: David has been working extremely hard on his new state of the art mechanical arm while other coworkers just watch.

2. [A]: David has been working extremely hard on his new state of the art mechanical arm while other coworkers just watch, some even taking really quick notes at his ingenious design..

D. Relative Pronoun: who (refers to people), which (refers to nonliving object or animals), that (may refer to animals or nonliving objects) 1. [B]: The mechanical engineer who won the competition really worked hard.

2. [A]: The mechanical engineer who shockingly won the competition by a landslide victory, really worked hard and was a well deserved win on his part.

VII.

Prepositions: Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of the sentence. Prepositions are NEVER followed by verbs. There are one-word prepositions and complex prepositions. These are some common prepositions: A. aboard, about, above, according to, across, across from, after, against, along, alongside, alongside of, along with, amid, among, apart from, around, as, as far as, aside from, at, away from, back of, because of, before, behind, below, beneath, beside, between, beyond, but (except), by, by means of, concerning, despite, down, down from, except, except excluding for, for, from, from among, from between, from under, in, in addition to, in behalf of, including, in front of, in place of, in regard to, inside, inside of, in spite of, instead of, into, like, near, near to, notwithstanding, of, off, on, on account of, on behalf of, onto, on top of, opposite, out, out of, outside, outside of, over, over to, owing to, past, prior to, to, toward, under, underneath, until, unto, up, upon, up to, versus, with, within, without 1. According to david, after you start this fully automatic mechanical typewriter, it writes what you say, he uses this instead of dragon because of it’s incredible speed, it's faster than other programs when you consider that you don't have to pause to let the typewriter catch up with you. 2. Alongside of the boss’s chair sits david, despite david being in a lower 19


VIII.

IX.

position, they act as coworker when discussing new mechanical inventions 3. Near the start button of this incredibly large mechanical contraption, and above the handles, next to both levers, and between these two hinges, is the most critical part of my invention. Interjections: A. List of interjections: 1. A- aha, ahem, ahh, ahoy, alas, arg, aw 2. B- bam, bingo, blah, boo, bravo, brrr 3. C- cheers, congratulations 4. D- dang, drat, darn, duh 5. E- eek, eh, encore, eureka 6. F- fiddlesticks 7. G- gadzooks, gee, gee whiz, golly, goodbye, goodness, good grief, gosh 8. H- ha-ha, halleluyah, hello, hey, hmm, holy buckets, holy cow 9. O- oh, oh dear, oh well, oh my, oops, ouch, ow 10. P- phew. Phooey, pooh, pow 11. R- rats 12. S- shh, shoo 13. T- thanks, there, tut-tut 14. U- uh-huh, uh-oh, ugh 15. W- wahoo, well, whoa, whoops, wow 16. Y- yeah, yes, yikes, yippee, yo, yuck B. Sentences: 1. Yikes, that poorly designed mechanical engine makes the loudest noise ever, such as “eek, eh, hmm, brrr, aw, ahh, arg, bam, shh, phew, pow.� 2. Dang, i forgetfully left all my documents on my home computer that are supposed to explain my mechanical design arg, and i didn't put them into my flash drive either, oh well. 3. Wahoo, i saved all my incredibly important documents on google drive, yeah! Associated Terms: A. Antecedents: A thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another. 1. [B]: He is quickly riding his mechanical bike across the park.

2. [A]: He is quickly and cautiously riding his mechanical bike across the park, assuring himself that nobody is around and that he is not going to disturb any plants or animals.

B. Complements: A subject complement is the adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb. 1. [B]: David has been working on inexpensively improving his mechanical bike. 20


2. [A]: David has been working on inexpensively improving his old mechanical bike that he would excessively ride on as a child..

C. Objects 1. Direct: A noun phrase denoting a person or thing that is the recipient of the action of a transitive verb. a) [B]: David and his boss were testing their newly designed mechanical contraption.

b) [A]: David and his boss were absolutely amazed while testing their newly designed mechanical contraption, when they discovered the designs were much better that thought at first.

2. Indirect: A noun phrase referring to someone or something that is affected by the action of a transitive verb, but is not the primary object. a) [B]: David built a mechanical piston on his pricy new workbench.

b) [A]: David built an unusually small mechanical piston on his pricy new workbench, to see if it could stand up to his future challenges.

D. Modifiers: Words, phrases, or clauses that provide description in sentences. 1. [B]: Poor david, instantly destroyed his newly made piston on the way to show his boss.

2. [A]: Poor david, instantly destroyed his newly made piston, that he was so passionately proud about for construction in under 10 minutes, on the way to show his boss.

E. Transitions (Transition Chart): Words and phrases that provide a connection between ideas, sentences and paragraphs. 1. [B]: David as well as our new boss were out on vacation together meanwhile the rest of the shockingly clueless workers were 21


struggling to get anywhere without them.

2. [A]: David as well as our new boss were out on vacation together meanwhile the rest of the shockingly clueless workers were struggling to get anywhere without them.David as well as our new boss were out on vacation together meanwhile the rest of the shockingly clueless workers were struggling to get anywhere without them, but were all very hesitant to call and ask for help, hence, not much got done while they were away.

F. Expletives: (of a word or phrase) serving to fill out a sentence or line of verse. 1. [B]: There are seven new uniquely designed dog feeders on the boss’s small desk today.

2. [A]: There are seven new, and also very large, uniquely designed dog feeders on the boss’s small desk today, leaving it without any room for the boss to leave a coffee mug on it.

G. Agreements: 1. Subject- verb: When a compound subject contains both a singular and a plural noun or pronoun joined by or or nor, the verb should agree with the part of the subject that is nearer the verb. a) [B]: Once the wheel is turned, mechanical energy can be turned into electrical energy, making a soft yet slightly soothing sound.

b) [A]: Once the wheel is quickly being turned, mechanical energy can be turned into electrical energy and other forms of energy such as heat light and sound , making a soft yet slightly soothing sound.

2. Noun- Pronoun: When two or more singular nouns or pronouns are connected by or or nor, use a singular verb. The book or the pen is in the drawer. a) [B]: David is always looking for new ways to better his product, he

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always consults many other mechanical engineers before working on his final design.

b) [A]: David is always looking for new ways to better his product, whether it be efficiently economically or just aesthetically, he always consults many other mechanical engineers before working on his final design.

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Grammar Book Section 2: Phrases I.

Phrases a small group of words standing together as a conceptual unit, typically forming a component of a clause. A. Prepositional: A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb. 1. [A] David, from the mechanical branch, is constantly in the boss’s N Prep. Adj Adv cramped office. Adj N 2. [B] David, from the mechanical branch, is constantly in the boss’s N Prep. Adj Adv Adj cramped office, despite knowing how extremely annoyed the boss gets. N Prep. Adv Adj B. Appositives: A group of words that include all the words or phrases that modify an appositive. 1. [A] David, the head mechanical engineer, consistently challenges the N Appositive Adv Adj innovative ideas of other engineers, which is why he isn't too liked. Prep. 2. [B] David, the head mechanical engineer, consistently challenges the N Appositive Adv V innovative ideas of other engineers, which is why engineers sometimes Adj Prep. are hesitant to show him any inventions, for that same reason, he isn't Prep. extremely liked. Adj C. Verbal: A group of words that begin with a verbal and ends with a noun (3) 1. Gerund: word ending in “ing” used as a noun. a) [A] The very complex swimming machine is entirely mechanical. Adv Adj N Adv Adj b) [B] The very complex, and extremely expensive, swimming Adv Adj Adv Adj machine is entirely mechanical, since any electrical energy can N Adv. Adj. become an issue in contact with water N 2. Participle: Word ending in “ing” or “ed” used as an adjective a) [A] This embedded device exclusively has traces of once Adj Adv mechanical features Adj. b) [B] This embedded device exclusively has traces of once

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Adj Adv mechanical features in its hard drive, rather than a completely still Adj. N Adv Adj solid state drive found in today's market. N 3. Infinitive: Verb preceded by the word “to� (to go, to jump) used as noun, adjectives, or adverbs a) [A] For this incredibly light machine, it is not a challenge to swim. Adv Adj N b) [B] For this incredibly light machine, it is not a challenge to swim, Adv Adj N mainly for the reason that it is mechanically powered and the Adv Adv Adj chances of any short circuit is zero. N

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Grammar Book Section 3: Clauses I.

Clauses A. Independant: CAN stand alone as a complete sentence, known as a simple sentence pattern. 1. The machines get very warm. N Adv Adj B. Subordinate (Dependent): CANNOT stand alone as a complete sentence and MUST begin with a SUBORDINATE CONJUNCTION. (7) 1. Noun Clause: Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, an object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive a) [B] I love simple mechanics, there are always useful things to Dep. Clause Adj N know and can often make your life much easier. N Adv b) [A] I love simple mechanics, there are always extremely useful Dep. Clause Adj N things to know and can often make your life much easier, N Adv especially when you start to think about simple levers. Adv Adj 2. Adjective Clause: Used to modify a noun in an independent clause a) [B] When the machines get warm, it is always best to have Dep. Clause them all shut down completely. Adj Adv b) [A] When the machines get warm, it is always best to have Dep. Clause them all shut down completely rather than to have costly damage Adj Adv Adv Adj to the equipment due to overheating. N 3. Adverb Clause: Used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to indicate time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or concession. a) [B] If machines are turned off due to overheating, we must slowly Dep. Clause Adv wait until temperatures fall below room temperature. N Adj b) [A] If machines are turned off due to overheating, we must slowly Dep. Clause Adv

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4.

5.

6.

7.

wait until temperatures fall below room temperature, this can take N Adj much time and needs to be done by someone who has very much Adj N Adv patience. Adj Essential Clause: Clauses necessary to the meaning of the sentence a) [B] The designs that most interests the boss are the completely Dep. Clause Adv simple designs. Adj b) [A] The designs that most interests the boss are the completely Dep. Clause Adv simple designs, this is because complex designs usually have minor Adj Adj N Adv flaws that cost a lot of money. N Adj Nonessential Clause: Clauses that are NOT necessary to the meaning of the sentence. a) [B] I really don't think i can finish my mechanical project before the Adv Adj N deadline, which is on october 16th. Dep. Clause [A] I really don't think i can finish my mechanical project before the Adv Adj N deadline, which is on october 16th, if i do it quickly and recklessly i Dep. Clause Adv Adv might make it on time. V Relative Clause: Dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun a) [B] The engineer who finishes their design first gets a extremely N Dep. Clause Adv small salary increase. Adj V b) [A] The engineer who finishes their design first gets a extremely N Dep. Clause Adv small salary increase, its surprising how much a small addition to Adj V Adj Adj your hourly wage makes a big difference at the end of the year. Adv N Adj Prep. N Elliptical Clause: Adverb clauses in which part of the clause is omitted a) [B] He understands very complex gears more than i understand. N Adv Adj N Dep. Clause b) [A] He understands very complex gears more than i understand,

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N Adv Adj N Dep. Clause always surprisingly managing to put them together in his head like Adv Adj Prep. Prep. invisible building blocks. Simile

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Grammar Book Section 4: Sentences I.

Sentences A. Sentence parts 1. Subject a) Complete (1) Everyone in the office is designing the new mechanical car. b) Simple (1) Everyone in the office is designing the new mechanical car. c) Compound (1) The gears and pistons must be redesigned as there are too weak for this system. 2. Predicate a) Complete (1) David redesigned the piston to fit the needs of the new mechanical car. b) Simple (1) David redesigned the piston to fit the needs of the new mechanical car. c) Compound (1) The piston circles around an axis at its base while moving up and down at to top of the piston. B. Sentence types 1. Declarative a) [B]: David was the very best mechanical engineer in the whole Adv Adj N company. b) [A]: David, the incredibly intelligent young man, was the very best N Adv Adj Adj N Adv Adj mechanical engineer in the entire company. Adj 2. Interrogative a) [B]: Would you like to know how this extremely complex Adv Adj mechanical machine works? Adj b) [A]: Would you like to know how this very small yet extremely Adv Adj Adv complex mechanical machine works and the really interesting Adj Adj N Adv v design?

3. Imperative a) [B]: David, show me how this very tiny machine works.

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N Adv Adj N b) [A]: David, show me how this very tiny machine works, with all its N Adv Adj N manufactured parts, and how extremely expensive they are to V N Adv Adj produce? V 4. Exclamatory a) [B]: I love the way this mechanically working contraption is V Adv V N designed! b) [A]: I love the way this mechanically working contraption is Adv V N designed, especially because it is very cheap to produce and is Adv Adv Adj Prep. something everybody needs! N C. Sentence errors (Incomplete/Incorrect types) -(1 sent, then correction) 1. Fragment a) The reason this machine works. b) The reason this machine works, is because it uses something called a piston. 2. Run-on/Rambling a) The reason this works is because there is a piston that compresses the air and the air that is compressed causes more energy to be released and this happens during combustion and the combustion causes the piston to be sent back down and this occurs in a circular motion and it also occurs endlessly until the engine is shut off or there is a failure in the system such as being out of gas b) The reason this works is because there is a piston that compresses the air. The air that is compressed causes more energy to be released during combustion. Combustion causes the piston to be sent back down resulting in a circular motion. This occurs endlessly until the engine is shut off or there is a failure in the system such as being out of gas. 3. Fused Sentence a) The engine is very durable and can withstand many years of this combustion how did david do on his design? b) The engine is very durable and can withstand many years of this combustion. How did david do on his design? 4. Misplaced Modifier a) The torn david’s prototype was just sitting on the floor next to his feet.

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b) The david’s torn prototype was just sitting on the floor next to his feet. 5. Comma Splice a) It is past 3pm, we can't finish the prototype. b) It is past 3pm. We can't finish the prototype. 6. Double Negative a) I don't never cheat by stealing mechanical designs from other engineers. b) I don't ever cheat by stealing mechanical designs from other engineers. D. Sentence patterns 1. Simple: A sentence that is just one Independent clause. a) [B]: The machines get very warm. N Adv Adj b) [A]: The machines get very warm, especially during the summer. N Adv Adj Adv 2. Complex: A sentence with one independent clause and at least one dependent clause. a) [B]: The machines get very warm, especially during the summer. N Adv Adj Adv b) [A]: The very sensitive machines get extremely warm, especially Adv N Adv Adj Adv during the warm summer days.

3. Compound: A sentence with multiple independent clauses, but no dependent clauses. a) [B]: The machines often overheat, this often leads to production N Adj N being extremely less efficient. Adv b) [A]: The machines often overheat, this often leads to production N Adj N being extremely less efficient and at times even damaging the Adv V extremely fragile machines. Adv Adj 4. Complex/ Compound: A sentence with multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause. a) [B]: The machines often overheat, this often leads to production N Adj N being less efficient, and of course a very angry boss. Adv b) [A]: The mechanically designed machines often overheat, this often Adv N N

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leads to production being less efficient, and of course a very angry N N Adv Adj boss. N 5. Loose Sentence: A sentence that contains an independent clause plus a subordinate construction (either a clause or phrase). a) [B]: The machines have to be really taken care of during the N Adv V hot summer season. Adj b) [A]: The extremely sensitive machines have to be really taken care Adv Adj N Adv of during the very hot and very humid summer season. Adv Adj Adv Adj 6. Periodic Sentence: A sentence in which the independent clause is given at the end of the sentence in order to create interest or generate suspense. a) [B]: Because of rising temperatures, old machines must be kept on V N Adj N close watch as time quickly passes. Adv V b) [A]: Because of rising temperatures, machines must be kept on V N Adj N close watch as the years pass and temperatures begin to quickly N N Adv skyrocket. V 7. Balanced Sentence: A sentence where phrases or clauses parallel each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length. a) [B]: Because you always need energy to keep something going, N Prep N V there will always be a need to have energy very efficient machines. N Adv Adj N b) [A]: Because you always need energy to keep something going N Prep N V quickly or slowly, there will always be a need to have extremely Adv Adv Adv energy efficient machines. Adj N

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8. Parallel Structure: A sentence using the same pattern of words to show that two or more words or ideas are of equal importance and to help the reader comprehend what is being written. a) [B]: Just as matter cannot be created from nothing mechanically, it N V N Adv cannot be destroyed in any way mechanically. V Adv b) [A]: Just as matter or even energy cannot be created from nothing N V N mechanically, it cannot be destroyed in any way mechanically, you Adv V Adv cannot get something from nothing. N N 9. Chiasmus: A sentence that includes a repetition of ideas (words, phrases, or clauses) in inverted (reversed) order. a) [B]: Because of the newton's second law, force is needed to be N Adj N Prep continuously exerted to keep an object moving. Adv V V b) [A]: Because of the newton's second law, force is needed to be N Adj N Prep continuously exerted to keep an object moving especially to Adv V V Adv accelerate it. N 10. Asyndeton: A sentence that leaves out conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose. a) [B]: It’s obvious very sensitive machines make noise, break, get N Adv Adj N V N warm, get cold. N N b) [A]: It’s obvious very sensitive and extremely complex machines N Adv Adj Adv Adj N make noise, break, get warm, get cold. V N N N 11. Polysyndeton: A sentence that uses multiple conjunctions in close proximity to each other between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose. a) [B]: It’s obvious very sensitive machines make noise and break and N Adv Adj N V N get warm and get cold. N N b) [A]: It’s obvious very sensitive and extremely complex machines N Adv Adj Adv Adj N 33


make noise and break and get warm and get cold. V N N N 12. Anaphora: A sentence that features the purposeful repetition of a word, words, or a phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses in order to place emphasis and draw attention. a) [B]: The mechanical pencil, this mechanical typewriter, this Adj N Adj N mechanical speaker, are all produced by my completely innovative Adj N Adv Adj company. N b) [A]: The mechanically produce mechanical pencil, this mechanically Adv V Adj N Adv produce mechanical typewriter, this mechanically produce V Adj N Adv V mechanical speaker, are all produced by my completely innovative Adj N V Adv company.

13. Epistrophe: A sentence featuring several phrases or clauses ending with the same word or words a) [B]: When things are produced mechanically, when things function V Adv V mechanically, when things function mechanically, it brings joy to my Adv V Adv V hardworking company. Adj N b) [A]: When things are produced mechanically, when things function V Adv V mechanically, when things function mechanically, it brings joy to my Adv V Adv V company and especially to my ears.

Grammar Book Section 5: Paragraphs I.

Paragraphs A. Introductory Paragraphs: First paragraph of your essay/writing. 1. Hook/Lead: Grabbing the reader’s attention. a) Anecdotal: A short story of a related topic (1) [B]: When david was only two he loved to build things with N Adj V

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his legos and used to call them spaceships, showing off his N N V passion for design and very early in his life. N Adv Adv (2) [A]: When david was only two he loved to build things with N Adj V his legos and used to call them spaceships, showing off his N N V passion for design and very early in his life, and proving to N Adv Adv V become very successful. Adv Adj b) Query Based: Selling your idea (1) [B]: Kids with the age of two are more likely to be engineers N Adj Adv N when they grow up. N (2) [A]: Kids with the age of two are more likely to be engineers N Adj Adv N when they grow up, especially when they realize they're N Adv V very amazing talents. Adv Adj N 2. Thesis Statement (7 types): What your text will be based on. a) Assertion: A confident declarative statement (1) [B]: Kids who play with legos at the age of two are more N V N Adj likely to grow up to be mechanical engineers. Adv N Adj N (2) [A]: Kids who play with legos at the age of two are more N V N Adj likely to grow up to be mechanical engineers, although what Adv N Adj N type of engineer is specifically too difficult to try and N Adv Adj determine.

b) Fact: Proven statement (1) [B]: Studies show that kids that play with legos at the age of

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N

N

V

N

Adj two are more likely to become engineers in the future. Adv N N (2) [A]: Studies show that kids that play with legos at the age of N N V N Adj two are more likely to become engineers in the future, Adv N N therefore, definitely becoming a successful person. Adv Adj N c) Opinion: Personal bias (1) [B]: I think that kids like my son who, played legos as kids, N N V Adj are better fit for engineering jobs. N (2) [A]: I think that kids, very young, like my son who, played N Adv Adj N V legos as kids and loved it ever since, are better fit for N Adj Adj V engineering jobs. N d) Belief: Personal belief (1) [B]: I believe that kids who play with legos at the age of two V N V N Adj are more likely to become engineers as they grow older. Adv N (2) [A]: I believe that kids who play with legos at the age of two V N V N Adj are more likely to become engineers as they grow older, Adv N and discover their extremely hidden passions. N Adv Adj e) Generalization: Based on general remarks (1) [B]: Kids who play with legos at an early age like to build N V N Adj things, therefore, quickly becoming engineers. Adv N

(2) [A]: Kids who play with legos at an extremely early age like N

V

N

Adv

Adj

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to build things, therefore, quickly becoming engineers, really V Adv N starting to drive the world forward. V N V f) Document Based: Based on a text or story (1) [B]: In “Engineering kids” by Damian Ladino, It is easy to N N Adj see that kids who play with legos at a young age of two are V N N Adj more likely to become engineers. Adv N (2) [A]: In “Engineering kids” as written by Damian Ladino, It is N N Adj very easy to see that kids who play with legos at a young Adv V N N age of two are more likely to become engineers, and Adj Adv N become better at drawing and designing like an engineer. N V V N g) Theory: Idea or question to be tested. (1) [B]: Do kids who play with lego’s at a very young age tend N V N Adv Adj to grow up to be very successful engineers? N Adv Adj N (2) [A]: Do kids who play with lego’s at a very young age, and N V N Adv Adj love to build and really express themselves, tend to grow up V N Adv N N to be very successful engineers? Adv Adj N B. Body Paragraphs: paragraphs that add context to your writing. 1. Topic Sentence: Sentence to describe the topic of the body paragraph. a) [B]: The first step in becoming an engineer is having a strong V N Adj passion for building from an early age. N V Adv b) [A]: The very first step in becoming an engineer is having a strong Adv V N Adj powerfully meaningful passion for building from an early age. Adv V N Adv 2. Sentence with Examples: Examples on how to build your idea. a) Quotes (5 ways to integrate quotes into a sentence)

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(1) MLA Citation (a) [B]: “Children who love building and are creative, N Adj N V N tend to become engineers.” N (b) [A]: “Children who love building and are creative, N Adj N V N tend to become engineers.” N b) Paraphrase: Describe in your own words. (1) [B]: It is said in the text, that kids who love building and are V N N Adj N V creative are more likely to become engineers. V Adv N (2) [A]: It is said in the lengthy text, that kids who love building V Adv N N Adj N and are profoundly creative are more likely to become Adv N Adv engineers in the very distant future. N Adv N c) Summary: Summarize (1) [B]: Throughout the entire text, a lot was said about kids V N Adj V N becoming engineers, the most notable are kids loving to N Adj N V build and being creative. N V N (2) [A]: Throughout the entirety of the text, a lot was said about V Adv N Adj V kids successfully becoming engineers, the most notable are N Adv N Adj kids loving to build and being creative. N V N V N d) Anecdotes: Short story. (1) [B]: When my brother was a kid, he loved to build things N V N Adj N and later on his life he became a mechanically studied V N Adv V engineer. N (2) [A]: When my brother was a kid, many long years ago, he N V N Adj N

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loved to build things passionately and later on his life he Adj N Adv V N became a mechanically studied engineer. Adv V N e) Concrete examples: Strong examples. (1) [B]: My son played with legos throughout all his childhood N V N V N and discovered quickly he wanted to become a mechanical N Adv V Adj engineer. N (2) [A]: My son played with legos throughout all his childhood N V N V N and discovered quickly he wanted to become a mechanical, N Adv V Adj engineer and statistics, luckily, are on his side. N N Adv V f) Abstract Examples: Known example. (1) [B]: Many of the my very close friends kids who are N N Adv Adj N N interested in becoming engineers love to build and are very V N N V Adv creative. Adj (2) [A]: Many of the my very close friends kids who are N N Adv Adj N N interested in becoming engineers love to build incredibly V N N V Adv amazing structures and are very creative. Adj N Adv Adj 3. Closing Sentence: Sentence to close your body. a) [B]: Is there more to deciding what makes you an engineer? V Adj N N b) [A]: Is there more to deciding what makes you an engineer, or is it V Adj N N safe to assume when you're nothing but a tiny child? N V V Adv N C. Conclusion Paragraphs: Gather and conclude your writing. 1. Statement Extending the Thesis a) [B]: Do kids who play with legos from an early age really show if N V N Adv Adj Adv N they're going to become an engineer or is that just something us

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V N N N adults like to imply for children? N Adv N b) [A]: Do kids who play with legos from an early age really show if N V N Adv Adj Adv N they're going to become an engineer or is that just something us V N N N adults like to imply for children to make extremely successful N Adv N V Adv Adj parents feel better about the unknown future of their lovely child? N V N Adv N

2. Consequences of Disregarding the Thesis a) [B]: People who are extremely amazing builders and who really N V Adv Adj N Adv enjoy building state they would consider becoming engineers. N V V N b) [A]: People who are extremely amazing builders and who really N V Adv Adj N Adv enjoy building, state they would consider possibly becoming N V V Adv engineers, if they at all had a chance to. N 3. Establishing the significance of thesis a) [B]: It is very unlikely that having a liking and very happy emotions Adv V V Adv Adj N someone get from building signify they will become engineers. N V Adv N b) [A]: It is very unlikely that having a liking, and very happy emotions, Adv V V Adv Adj N someone get from building signify they will become engineers, but N V Adv N this is quickly become fact and not fiction. Adv N N 4. Final sentence (“Smoky the Bear”/”Drop the mic”/dot dot dot moment…) a) [B]: To conclude, think about your passions and if given the V V N Adj opportunity would you want the job or not? Adv V N b) [A]: To conclude, really think about your passions, and if given the V V N Adj opportunity, would you want the job or not, considering you're really

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Adv

V

N

V

Adv happy you'll be able to do a job you love? Adj N N N

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Grammar Book Section 6: Essays I.

Essays – a short piece of writing on a particular subject A. Types (6): 6 types of essay’s 1. Persuasive: Argumentative, an essay meant to convince the reader of something. 2. Expository: Informative a) Definition or Description: Investigate an idea b) Process (How-to): Evaluate evidence c) Compare and Contrast: Expound on the idea d) Cause and Effect: Set forth an argument concerning that idea

in a clear and concise manner. 3. Analytical/Critical: An essay analyzing a text or film. a) Evaluative: Evaluate your information b) Interpretive: Find the author/director’s claim 4. Narrative: Tells a story a) Personal Anecdote: small story of a part of your life and/or an experience. 5. Research: Research based essay a) MLA Citation Format (1) Text (a) Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition),Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location (2) Online (a) Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable). b) APA Citation Format (1) Text (a) Author, F.M. (Year of Publication) Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher (2) Online (a) Author, F.M. (Year of Publication) Article title. Website Title, Retrieved month date, year, from URL 6. Timed: Essay in which a finite amount of time is given.

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a) Document Based Question (DBQ): Essay based on a document in which you must analyse the document and write a response.

b) Synthesis: The support of an idea with information and evidence on what you are supporting.

c) Prompt Based: A question is presented to you in which you must thoroughly analyze and respond to the question. B. Strategies/Planning Tips/Steps: Outlines 1. Pre-writing/Prompt Analysis/Outlining: Your are given a prompt problem or task meant to be completed and explained. 2. Research/Evaluation of Sources: Independent research based, evaluation of a source to be written of. C. Work Cited Page: The two most common forms of citation are MLA and APA format. A work cited page is meant to show the texts you've referenced for this essay or writing. Every line after the first line should be indented. 1. MLA Format: a) Text (1) Author. Title. Title of container (self contained if book), Other contributors (translators or editors), Version (edition),Number (vol. and/or no.), Publisher, Publication Date, Location b) Online (1) Editor, author, or compiler name (if available). Name of Site. Version number, Name of institution/organization affiliated with the site (sponsor or publisher), date of resource creation (if available), URL, DOI or permalink. Date of access (if applicable). 2. APA Format: a) Text (1) Author, F.M. (Year of Publication) Title of work. Publisher City, State: Publisher b) Online (1) Author, F.M. (Year of Publication) Article title. Website Title, Retrieved month date, year, from URL

II.

Essay Example A. Prompt: Write an Expository about the use of mechanics in everyday life. Be sure to include a work Cited B. Essay: 1. What is the first thing that pops into your mind when you hear “mechanics�? The truth is, mechanics are everywhere! If you're like the average person you'll probably think of a car or some sort, or maybe a mechanic! In reality, there's many more mechanical things than just a car! Mechanics is the branch of applied mathematics dealing with motion and 43


forces producing motion. With this understanding of mechanics we can now look at things we normally use in our everyday lives, covering everything from hard drives, to machines, to even our own bodies and simple tools! Let's start by discussing some obvious mechanical machines, like cars! You may or may not know that a cars come in two different kinds, standard and manual. Manual cars used many many different kinds of gears and levers to make your car easy to move and use. Firstly, let's talk about the steering wheel. The steering wheel normally is connected to a tube that twists when you turn the wheel. Which sounds simple but is very complex. The second major moving part of a car is the transmission which can come in two forms, automatic and standard. In this case we’ll talk about manual transmission cars as they aren't as complex as the automatic transmission cars. This system of manual transmission has 4 major components, the clutch pedal, 4 gears, the gear stick, and synchronizing gears. When the clutch pedal is pressed, it increases friction along moving parts of the transmission to get parts spinning in sync. This is important because it makes it easier to change gear when the gears are moving in unison versus when they are both spinning at different speeds. Next you would move the gear stick to the desired gear which pushes the gears over to pass force from the engineer to that gear, once power is pushed into this gear you can release the clutch pedal because the gears are now working in synchrony. People don't realize how many moving parts there are on a moving car and if there were you might hesitate to get in one ever again! Aside from cars there are a lot more mechanical things at work then you might think in electronic devices. When we think of a computer we think of a purely electrical device, but no computer is fully electric. When i say this i am not only referring to a mouse and traditional keyboard i am also referring to hard drives and fans. A hard drive is not an electrical system, instead it is a disk that uses magnetized pattern along its surface to be read and converted into memory that we use and need, these magnets are detected by mechanical arms that stretch in over, between drives and over them. For this reason hard drives often fail after many years of usage as their magnetic properties diminish with the heat produced by the computer itself. Aside from this, any impact to the drive can cause damage to the disks or arms. These examples i have given you are fairly modern devices. What about old devices? Well we can go far back into the past into the first mechanical devices we humans produces like door hinges or wheels, but there is a far older mechanical systems far more efficient than any system we have created. This mechanical system is the human body, or any animal body in this case. Our bodies are composed of multiple joints such as ball in socket, gliding, immovable, and hinge joints. These joints allow

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us to make almost any movement and cover all areas around our bodies (But some of us still can't manage to lick our elbows). Engineers have not been about to produce a machine that moves like we can, sure we have cars that can go to over 200 mph and airplanes capable of creating sonic booms and breaking the sound barrier but a machine just like our bodies, to this day, is unobtainable by scientists. Aside from not being able to move like us, the cheetah is the fastest land animal in the world, reaching speeds of up to 60 mph in less than 3 seconds (for a temporary amount of time as their core temperature rises rapidly at this speed), which outruns most modern day supercars and race cars in term of acceleration. We like to think that we have surpassed nature but that is not always true. Another great example of this is the mantis shrimp that has 12 photoreceptors (eye cells that allow for the distinction between colors) allowing this shrimp to see almost all wavelengths of light, scientists are now trying to replicate this in technology. Now that you know how complicated mechanics can be and how it is literally everywhere you might stop and recognize the marvelous technologies that allow you to go to work and even get into your car to begin with! It is true that mechanics are everywhere and would make life a lot more difficult if we had not discovered this technology!

C. Work Cited: 1. Aggressive Mantis Shrimp Sees Color Like No Other." Livescience. N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Nov. 2016. 2. LearnEngineeringTeam. "Manual Transmission, How It Works ?" YouTube. YouTube, 04 Mar. 2015. Web. 02 Nov. 2016.

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Grammar Book Section 7: Capitalization I.

Twenty five (25) rules. A. Capitalize the first word, the last word, and all important words in a title. 1. [A]: The Fundamental Rules of Mechanics was the title of David’s paper. Adj N N V N B. Capitalize Mother, Dad, and other titles when they serve as a replacement for the person’s name. 1. [A]: David’s Mom also took physics and knows the fundamental rules N V N V Adj N of mechanics N C. Capitalize the name of organizations 1. [A]: David hopes to one day go to the mechanical organization of the N V N V N Society of Automotive Engineers. N D. Capitalize names of day, month, holidays, and special days 1. [A]: Divid loves mechanics and engineering so much he goes to work N V N N Adj V N even on Christmas! N E. Capitalize a proper adjective but not the noun it modifies unless the nouns is part of a title. 1. [A]: The Tuesday meeting will be about mechanics and their daily use. N V N N V F. Capitalize business names. 1. [A]: American Airlines would not be possible without the help of N V N Adj V mechanical engineers. Adj N G. Capitalize institution names. 1. [A]: The University of Pennsylvania is an amazing engineering school that N N Adj V N focuses on mechanical engineers and things to do with mechanics. V Adj N N V N H. Capitalize names of particular geographic places. 1. [A]: Japan is a major producer of mechanical machines such as N Adj V Adj N automobiles. N

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I.

J.

K.

L.

M.

N.

O.

P.

Capitalize historical events, periods of time, and historical documents. 1. [A]: The Industrial Revolution set the stage for advancements in Adj N V N V mechanics and mechanical technology. N Adj N Capitalize religions, religious denominations, religious documents, names of churches, and names of a supreme being. 1. [A]: Your religious background, for example being catholic or jewish, Adj N V N N doesn't affect your abilities as a mechanical engineer or working with V N N Adj N V mechanics. N Capitalize languages 1. [A]: Most engineers have other languages, which is used during Adj N V N V N engineering conferences and ideas, apart from English. Adj N N V N Capitalize specific names of structures. 1. [A]: The Empire State Building was a direct result of the discovery of N V N N steel during the industrial revolution which also led to the result of many N Adj N V N mechanical machines. Adj N Capitalize names, initials, and titles appearing with names. 1. [A]: MIT is a popular institution for young mechanical engineers to learn N Adj N Adj Adj N N about their field! N Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence. 1. [A]: The first thing you must do when designing a new mechanical part is Adj N V N Adj N see what went wrong or needs improvement and brainstorming. V V N V N N Capitalize the pronoun I. 1. [A]: The first time I heard about engineering was in 2007. Adj N V N N Capitalize the first letter of the first word in most lines of poetry. 1. [A]: David loves mechanics, Mechanics has been good to david, David N V N N V Adj N N loves Physics, Physics has been good to David, ‌ 47


Q.

R.

S.

T.

U.

V.

W.

X.

V N N V Adj N Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a direct quotation. 1. [A]: David once said, “Without mechanics, the world wouldn't be where it V V N N V is today.� N Capitalize government bodies and departments. 1. [A]: Congress refuses to raise the budget for NASA as they believe space N V Adj N N V N travel and spending money on mechanical rovers are pointless. N V N Adj N V Capitalize races and ethnic groups. 1. [A]: There is a lot of diversity in the mechanical engineering field, there V Adj N Adj N N isn't just mostly Asians Whites or Latinos, it's a balanced mix. Adv N N N V N Capitalize North, South, East, West, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest when they refer to a region of the country or world. 1. [A]: North America became industrialized during the mid 1800’s and had a N V Adj V N direct result on the future of the continent. V N V N Capitalize political parties and their members. 1. [A]: Most Republicans have never thought about the idea that most Adj N N V N N Adj mechanical engineers at NASA are doing more than just shooting rovers Adj N N V V N into space. V N Capitalize the first letter only in most hyphenated words that being a sentence. 1. [A]: Did you know that the mechanical engineer Vice-President is soon to V N Adj N N be David? V N Capitalize the first word of the greeting and closing of a letter. 1. [A]: Mechanics is the greatest invention and discovery of human history. N Adj N N Adj N . -Sincerely, David Capitalize a specific, well-known area or event. 1. [A]: Not many mechanical engineers have the luxury to talk to presidents V Adj N V V N about the mechanical advancements and consequences for military Adj N N Adj action. 48


V Y. Do not capitalize north, south, east, west, northeast, northwest, southeast, and southwest when they are used as directions. 1. [A]: David’s mechanical engineering workplace is just north of this road. N Adj N N V Adj N

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Grammar Book Section 8: Punctuation I.

Punctuation- Uses in writing A. [ ] Used in unison with “…“ to show skipping when citing something lengthy. 1. [A]: David once said “The laws of mechanics are the greatest laws [...] N V N Adj N without these laws there would be no modern day technology.” V N V Adj N B. ( ) Used to give more information about a topic or a side note. 1. [A]: The CEO (Chief Executive Office) of the greatest mechanical industry V V Adj N in the world is David. N N C. . Marks the end of a sentence 1. [A]: David loves to work with mechanics and power producing machines. N V N N Adj N D. , pause and allows you to switch what's in front of the comma with that's behind the comma. 1. [A]: David is the CEO of our company, because the old CEO of this N Adj Adj N mechanical corporation had to retire. Adj N V E. - Used to link words or names together. 1. [A]: David had a mechanical teacher, Ms.Monie-Peralta, who was the N Adj N N V most meaningful teacher in his school experience. Adj V N N F. – Add emphasis to a particular phrase or word. 1. [A]: David loves mechanics– mechanics is everything to David. N V N N V Adj N G. : Used to list something or in titles. 1. [A]: David requires all mechanical engineers to follow the engineering N V Adj N V N design process: Brainstorm, Constraints, Trade-off,Optimization. N V N N N N H. ; Used to connect two independent clauses. 1. [A]: David really likes mechanics; David really like Physics. N Adv V N N Adv N I. ? Indicates a question. 1. [A]: Will David intelligently ever create a perpetual turing machine? V N Adv N Adj V N

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J. ! Indicates strong feeling or excitement. 1. [A]: David has a seemingly successful plan to build a perpetual turning N V Adv Adj N V Adj V machine by the end of the year! N N N K. ‘ Used to show possession. 1. [A]: David’s idea for this extremely complex machine is top secret as the N V Adv Adj N Adj N mechanics behind it can be copied easily. N V Adv L. “ Used in dialog or when citing something. 1. [A]: Once creating this mechanical device and testing it, david scram out V Adj N V N V “God bless the laws of mechanics!” N V N N M. … Used to skip words when citing something. 1. [A]: In david's report for the mechanical device he wrote “My company N Adj N Adj N has produced a perpetual turing machine … this means that we can V Adj V N N V generate power with simply the laws of mechanics and gravity.” V N Adv N N N

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Grammar Book Section 9: Commonly Confused Words I.

Commonly Confused/Misused Word Choices – Write and wrong ways of using these words! (supposebly) A. Connotation/Denotation: Connotation relating to meaning of a word, denotation meaning literal meaning of a word. 1. [A]: The connotation to a perpetual motion machine is not just eternal energy but a unification of the world under no need for burning of fuels for energy. B. Who/Whom: Who is who is doing the action, whom is which person receives action. 1. [A] Whom did david give credit to for the perpetual motion machine? C. Their/There/They’re: They’re is they are, there is place, their shows possession. 1. [A]: They’re making a lot of money from this perpetual motion machine. D. Lie/Lay: lie is to not tell the truth, lay is to lay down. 1. [A]: David lied to his peers about him doing all the work for the perpetual motion machine. E. Laid/Lain: Laid put down, lain past tense of lay. 1. [A]: David has lain at his desk for many hours trying to figure out how to produce a perpetual motion machine. F. Affect/Effect: Affect, have an effect on; change the result. 1. [A]: David had an effect on the outcome of total energy produced with the mechanical engineering masterwork of his perpetual motion machine. G. Accept/Except: Accept, agree to/with; except, condition/without 1. [A]: David was glad to accept the medal of honor for his work in producing the perpetual motion machine. H. C/W/Should have vs. C/W/Should of: W/W/Should have, possibility; C/W/Should of, definite change. 1. [A]: David could have made his perpetual turning machine more expensive for the public. I. Loath/Loathe: Loath, unwilling; Loathe, dislike. 1. [A]: David loathed the idea of having his mechanical machine used for negative purposes. J. Infer/Imply: Infer, conclude; Imply, suggest. 1. [A]: From this machine we can infer that the laws of conservation of energy must be perfect for this to work mechanically. K. Weary/Wary: Weary, feeling or showing tiredness; Wary, caution. 1. [A]: David would be weary after a longs day of work with this mechanical perpetual motion machine. L. Proceed/Precede: Proceed, continue; Precede, come before. 1. [A]: He who preceded David did not have as much success with this mechanical machine than he did.

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M. Discrete/Discreet: Discrete, distinct; Discreet, careful 1. [A]: David was very discrete with the types of materials that will be used for the machine.

N. Conscience/Conscious: Conscience, what humans perceive as freedom of thought; Conscious, not passed out- aware of surroundings. 1. [A]: After creating this complex mechanical machine with the laws of mechanics David began to phase in and out of consciousness. O. Can/May: Can, asking to have the ability of something; May, asking for permission for a task. 1. [A]: David can mass produce these mechanical machines with the help of other electrical and mechanical machines to start production quickly. P. At least five (5) others 1. Supposebly/supposedly: Supposebly isnt a word! Its supposedly but for some reason people really like to say “supposebly”. a) [A]: David supposedly has the idea to make a second more efficient mechanical perpetual machine. 2. aisle/isle: aisle, passage between rows; isle, small island or peninsula. a) [A]: David had to walk down the aisle with his mechanical perpetual machine in his had, and had to walk quickly as he was late. 3. all together/altogether: All together, as a group; Altogether, completely. a) [A]: David stated the company all together produced this machine when really it was just him and he wants to share his credit. 4. dual/duel: dual, two; duel, battle. a) [A]: David has the ability to make a dual perpetual motion machine making his invention the most successful in the history of mechanical inventions.

5. alright/all right: Alright isn't a word! Its short for all right, but not recognized as a word. a) [A]: When David was told to put away his amazingly good invention, he simply responded, “All right.”

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Parts of speech Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.

___ Antecedents ___ -ness, -tion, -ity ___ Personal ___ Modifies adjective verbs and adverbs ___ Direct/Indirect Objects ___ Under, over, with ___ FANBOYS ___ Link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to

A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I.

Noun Pronoun Verb Adverbs Conjunctions Prepositions Interjections Associated terms None of the above

other parts of the sentence. 9. ___ -ly, -wards, -wise 10. ___ Modifies nouns and pronouns 11. ___ Groups of words that function as a part of speech. 12. ___ Groups of words with a subject and a verb 13. ___ Agreements (Subject-verb) 14. ___ -al, -er, -est 15. ___ Common Noun 16. ___ Indefinite (Anybody, Anyone, Anything) 17. ___ Expletives 18. ___ Transitions 19. ___ -s, -ed, -ing 20. ___ Following a preposition

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Phrases Quiz Underline all phrases in a sentence, label whether it's an Appositive, Verbal, or Prepositional phrase. Note: Some sentences may have more than one phrase.

1.

David, the head mechanical engineer, consistently challenges the innovative ideas of other engineers, which is why engineers sometimes are hesitant to show him any inventions, for that same reason, he isn't extremely liked.

2.

According to david, after you start this fully automatic mechanical typewriter, it writes what you say, he uses this instead of dragon because of it’s incredible speed, it's faster than other programs when you consider that you don't have to pause to let the typewriter

catch

3.

up with you. The very complex, and extremely expensive, swimming machine is entirely mechanical, since any electrical energy can become an issue in contact with water

4.

David, from the mechanical branch, is constantly in the boss’s cramped office, despite knowing how extremely annoyed the boss gets.

5.

Near the start button of this incredibly large mechanical contraption, and above the handles, next to both levers, and between these two hinges, is the most critical part of

my invention.

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Clauses Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. ___ Which subordinate clause is defined as: Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, an object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive 2. ___ Which subordinate clause is defined as: Adverb clauses in which part of the clause is omitted 3. ___ Which subordinate clause is NOT necessary to the meaning of the sentence. 4. ___ Is considered a fragment if stands alone 5. ___ Has 7 branches 6. ___ Is not considered a fragment 7. ___ Which subordinate clause is used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to indicate time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or concession. 8. ___ Which subordinate clause is a dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun 9. ___ CAN stand alone as a complete sentence, known as a simple sentence pattern. 10. ___ Which subordinate clause is used to modify a noun in an independent clause 11. ___ Which subordinate clause is necessary to the meaning of the sentence 12. ___ Which kind of subordinate clause is underlined in this sentence: The designs that most interests the boss are the completely simple designs. 13. ___ Which kind of subordinate clause is underlined in this sentence: When the machines get warm, it is always best to have them all shut down completely. 14. ___ Typically introduced by a conjunction, that forms part of and is dependent on a main clause 15. ___ Which kind of subordinate clause is underlined in this sentence: Jessica had five dollars; Monica, three.

A. Independent Clause B. Subordinate Clause C. Noun Clause D. Adjective Clause E. Adverb Clause F. Essential Clause G. Nonessential Clause H. Relative Clause I. Elliptical Clause

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Sentence Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20.

Predicate____ Exclamatory____ Misplaced Modifier____ Asyndeton____ Simple____ Compound____ Epistrophe____ Fragment____ Loose____ Comma Splice____ Double Negative____ Declarative____ Interrogative____ Complex/ Compound____ Parallel Structure____ Chiasmus____ Imperative____ Complex____ Run-on/Rambling____ Simple____

A. Sentence Errors B. Sentence Patterns C. Sentence Type D. Sentence Parts

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Paragraph Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Contains hook/lead____ Contains your Topic Sentence____ Contains sentences to back up your claim____ This paragraph is made up of three parts____ Consequences of disregarding the thesis____ You will usually have multiple of this paragraph per writing____ 7. Restate the thesis in this paragraph____ 8. Describes the Rest of your essay/writing____ 9. This paragraph is made up of only two parts____ 10. Final sentence____ 11. First paragraph of the writing____ 12. Allows for 6 types of sentences to be used for support____ 13. Contains Thesis____ 14. Statement expanding the thesis____ 15. Allows you to conclude your writing____ 16. Can be Anecdotal____ 17. Can be Query Based____ 18. Contains a closing sentence____ 19. Establishing the Significance of your thesis____ 20. Contains a Topic Sentence____

A. Introductory Paragraph B. Body Paragraph C. Concluding paragraph

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Essay Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. Expository___ 2. Analytical___ 3. Strategies___ 4. APA Format___ 5. Tips___ 6. Planning___ 7. Critical___ 8. Persuasive___ 9. Research___ 10. Narrative___ 11. MLA Format___ 12. Outline___ 13. Prewriting___ 14. Analysis___ 15. Citations___ 16. Story___ 17. Evaluation___ 18. Research___ 19. Steps___ 20. Solutions for Prompt___

A. Types B. Strategies/Planning Tips/Steps C. Work Cited Page

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Capitalization Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. There are 25 rules for capitalization.____ 2. Important words of a title are capitalized.____ 3. Capitalize Mother, Dad, and other titles when they serve as a replacement for the person’s name.____ 4. Capitalize the name of organizations.____ 5. Capitalize names of day, month, holidays, and special days.____ 6. Capitalize a proper adjective but not the noun it modifies unless the nouns is part of a title.____ 7. Capitalize business names.____ 8. Capitalize all single letter words.____ 9. Capitalize institution names.____ 10. Capitalize names of particular geographic places.____ 11. Capitalize historical events, periods of time, and historical documents.____ 12. Capitalize religions, religious denominations, religious documents, names of churches, and names of a supreme being.____ 13. Capitalize north east south and west in directions.____ 14. Languages should not be capitalized____ 15. Capitalize jobs.____ 16. Don't capitalize names of buildings.____ 17. Capitalize the first letter of the first word in a sentence.____ 18. Capitalize all words in poetry.____ 19. Capitalize ethnic groups.____ 20. Don't capitalize North, South, East, West, Northeast, Northwest, Southeast, and Southwest when they refer to a region of the country or world.____

A. True B. False

Punctuation Quiz

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Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. [ ] are the same as ( ) ____ 2. ( ) Used to give more information about a topic or a side note.____ 3. . Marks the end of a sentence____ 4. , can be used as semicolons. ____ 5. - Used to link words or names together.____ 6. – Add emphasis to a particular phrase or word.____ 7. : cannot be used in a sentence..____ 8. ; Used to connect two independent clauses.____ 9. ? Indicates a question.____ 10. ! Indicates strong feeling or excitement.____ 11. ‘ This is a quotation mark.____ 12. “ This is an apostrophe.____ 13. … can be used as a period.____

A. True B. False

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Commonly Mistaken Words Quiz Read and connect the given choices to the best problem it pertains to. Some answers may be used more than once, some may not be used at all.

1. Connotation 2. Denotation 3. Loath 4. Loathe 5. Infer 6. Imply 7. Proceed 8. Precede 9. Conscience 10. Conscious 11. Duel 12. Dual

A. An idea or feeling that a word invokes in addition to its literal or primary meaning B. Deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements C. Strongly suggest the truth or existence of (something not expressly stated).: "the salesmen who uses jargon to imply his superior knowledge D. An inner feeling or voice viewed as acting as a guide to the rightness or wrongness of one's behavior E. A contest with deadly weapons arranged between two people in order to settle a point of honor F. Feel intense dislike or disgust for G. Come before (something) in time H. The literal or primary meaning of a word, in contrast to the feelings or ideas that the word suggests I. Aware of and responding to one's surroundings; awake J. Begin or continue a course of action K. Reluctant; unwilling L. Consisting of two parts, elements, or aspects

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Parts of Speech Quiz Key

1. H 2. A 3. B 4. E 5. B 6. G 7. F 8. G 9. E 10. D 11. I 12. I 13. H 14. D 15. A 16. B 17. H 18. H 19. C 20. A

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Phrases Quiz Key

1. David, the head mechanical engineer, consistently challenges the innovative ideas of other App. engineers, which is why engineers sometimes are hesitant to show him any inventions, for that same reason, he isn't extremely liked. Prep. 2. According to david, after you start this fully automatic mechanical typewriter, it writes what Prep. Prep. you say; he uses this instead of dragon because of it’s incredible speed, it's faster than Prep. other programs when you consider that you don't have to pause to let the typewriter catch up with you. 3. The very complex and extremely expensive swimming machine is entirely mechanical, Verbal since any electrical energy can become an issue in contact with water 4. David, from the mechanical branch, is constantly in the boss’s cramped office, despite App. knowing how extremely annoyed the boss gets. Prep. 5. Near the start button of this incredibly large mechanical contraption, and above the Prep. Prep. handles, next to both levers, and between these two hinges, is the most critical part of my Prep.

Prep.

invention.

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Clauses Quiz Key

1. I 2. G 3. B 4. B 5. A 6. E 7. H 8. A 9. D 10. F 11. F 12. D 13. B 14. I

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Sentence Quiz Key

1. D 2. B 3. C 4. D 5. D 6. D 7. B 8. C 9. D 10. C 11. C 12. B 13. B 14. D 15. D 16. D 17. B 18. D 19. C 20. A

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Paragraph Quiz Key

1. A 2. B 3. B 4. B 5. C 6. B 7. C 8. A 9. A 10. C 11. A 12. B 13. A 14. C 15. C 16. A 17. A 18. B 19. C 20. B

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Essay Quiz Key

1. A 2. A 3. B 4. C 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. A 9. A 10. A 11. C 12. B 13. B 14. B 15. C 16. A 17. A 18. A 19. B 20. B

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Capitalization Quiz Key

1. T 2. T 3. T 4. T 5. T 6. T 7. T 8. F 9. T 10. T 11. T 12. T 13. F 14. F 15. F 16. F 17. T 18. F 19. T 20. F

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Punctuation Quiz Key

1. F 2. T 3. T 4. F 5. T 6. T 7. F 8. T 9. T 10. T 11. F 12. F 13. F

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Commonly Mistaken Words Quiz Key

1. A 2. H 3. K 4. F 5. B 6. C 7. J 8. G 9. D 10. I 11. E 12. L

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Glossary A Abstract Noun: (Noun) A noun you can't experience with any of your five senses. Accept: (Verb) consent to receive. Adjectives: (Noun) Adjectives modify, describe, limit, and identify nouns and pronouns. Adjective Clause: (Noun) Used to modify a noun in an independent clause Adverbs: (Noun) Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives, and other adverbs. Adverb Clause: (Noun) Used to modify verbs, adjectives, and adverbs in an independent clause, introduced by a subordinating conjunction and used to indicate time, place, cause, purpose, result, condition, and/or concession. Aisle: (Noun) a passage between rows of seats in a building such as a church or theater, an airplane, or a train. Affect: (Noun) have an effect on; make a difference to. All Right: (Adjective) satisfactory but not especially good; acceptable. All Together: (Adverb) Completely; totally Alright: Not a word, used as alright. Altogether: (Adverb) completely; totally. Analytical/Critical Essay: (Noun) An essay analyzing a text or film. Anaphora: (Noun) A sentence that features the purposeful repetition of a word, words, or a phrase at the beginning of several successive clauses in order to place emphasis and draw attention. Anecdotal Hook: (Noun) A short story of a related topic. Anecdotes: (Noun) A short story. Antecedents: (Noun) A thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another.

Antecedents: (Noun) A thing or event that existed before or logically precedes another. Appositive: (Noun): An appositive is a noun or noun phrase that renames another noun right beside it. Assertion: (Noun) Thesis; A confident declarative statement Asyndeton: (Noun) A sentence that leaves out conjunctions between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose.

B Balanced Sentence: (Noun) A sentence where phrases or clauses parallel each other by virtue of their likeness of structure, meaning, or length. Body Paragraphs:(Noun) Paragraphs that add context to your writing.

C Can: (Verb) Be able to. Capitalization: (Noun) Proper use of a capital letter at the head of a word. Chiasmus: (Noun) A sentence that includes a repetition of ideas (words, phrases, or clauses) in inverted (reversed) order. Clause: (Noun) a unit of grammatical organization next below the sentence in rank and in traditional grammar said to consist of a subject and predicate. Closing Sentence: (Noun) Sentence to close your body. Collective Noun: (Noun) Name of groups, usually composed by people. Common Nouns: (Noun) Name general items. Complements: (Noun) A subject complement is the adjective, noun, or pronoun that follows a linking verb. Complex-Compound Sentence: (Noun) A sentence with multiple independent clauses and at least one dependent clause.

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I Indefinite Pronoun: (Noun) Pronoun that does not to refer to anything in particular, some common Indefinite pronouns are, anything,something, anyone, and everyone. Independant Clause: (Noun) CAN stand alone as a complete sentence, known as a simple sentence pattern. Infer: (Verb) Deduce or conclude (information) from evidence and reasoning rather than from explicit statements. Infinitive: (Noun) The basic form of a verb. Interjection: (Noun) An exclamation, especially as a part of speech Interrogative Pronoun: (Noun) A pronoun that is used to ask a question, the five interrogative pronouns are what, which, who, whom, and whose. Introductory Paragraphs: (Noun) First paragraph of your essay/writing. Imply: (Verb) Strongly suggest the truth or existence of (something not expressly stated). Isle: (Noun) An island or peninsula, especially a small one.

L Laid: (Verb) Put down, especially gently or carefully. Lain: (Verb) Be in or assume a horizontal or resting position on a supporting surface Lay: (Verb) Put down, especially gently or carefully. Lie: (Noun) An intentionally false statement. Loath: (Adjective) Reluctant; unwilling Loathe: (Verb) Feel intense dislike or disgust for.

Loose Sentence: (Noun) A sentence that contains an independent clause plus a subordinate construction (either a clause or phrase).

M May: (Verb) Expressing permission. Modifiers: (Noun) Words, phrases, or clauses that provide description in sentences.

N Narrative Essay: (Noun) Tells a story Nonessential Clause: (Noun) Clauses that are NOT necessary to the meaning of the sentence. Noun: (Noun) A person place thing or idea. Noun Clause: (Noun) Used as the noun in a sentence and may function as a subject, a predicate noun, a direct object, an object of a preposition, an indirect object, or an appositive.

P Parallel Structure: (Noun) A sentence using the same pattern of words to show that two or more words or ideas are of equal importance and to help the reader comprehend what is being written. Participle: (Noun): A word formed from a verb and used as an adjective. Parts of Speech: (Noun) A category to which a word is assigned in accordance with its syntactic functions. In English the main parts of speech are noun, pronoun, adjective, determiner, verb, adverb, preposition, conjunction, and interjection. Paraphrase: (Noun) Describe/Rewrite in your own words. Periodic Sentence: (Noun) A sentence in which the independent clause is given at the end of the sentence in order to create interest or generate suspense.

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Personal Pronoun: (Noun) I, you, he, she, it, we, they, me, him, her, us,them. Persuasive Essay: (Noun) Argumentative, an essay meant to convince the reader of something. Phrases: (Noun) A small group of words standing together as a conceptual unit, typically forming a component of a clause. Plural: (Adjective) More than one. Polysyndeton: (Noun) A sentence that uses multiple conjunctions in close proximity to each other between words, phrases, or clauses for a rhetorical purpose. Preceed: (Verb) Come before (something) in time. Prepositional Phrase: (Noun) A group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun, and is used as an adjective or an adverb. Prepositions: (Noun) Prepositions link nouns, pronouns, and phrases to other parts of the sentence. Prepositions are NEVER followed by verbs. Proceed: (Verb) Begin or continue a course of action. Pronouns: (Noun) Takes the place of nouns that have already been established. Proper Noun: (Noun) Name specific or oneof-a-kind item. Punctuation: (Noun) The marks, such as period, comma, and parentheses, used in writing to separate sentences and their elements and to clarify meaning. Query Based Introductory Paragraph: (Noun) Selling your idea.Reflexive Pronouns: (Noun) Pronouns that refer back to the subject of the sentence, usually ending in -self (singular) -selves (plural).

R Relative Clause: (Noun) Dependent clause that begins with a relative pronoun

Relative Pronoun: (Noun) Used to connect a phrase/clause to a noun/pronoun, common relative pronouns are who, whom, which, whoever, whomever, whichever, and that. Research Essay: (Noun) Research based essay

S Sentence: (Noun) a set of words that is complete in itself, typically containing a subject and predicate, conveying a statement, question, exclamation, or command, and consisting of a main clause and sometimes one or more subordinate clauses. Simple Sentence: (Noun) A sentence that is just one Independent clause. Subordinate Conjunction: (Noun) After, though as, as if, as long as, as thought, because, before, if, in order that, provided that, since, so, so that, that, though, till, unless, when, where, whereas, while. Supposebly: Not a word; Used in place as supposedly. Supposedly: (Adverb) According to what is generally assumed or believed.

T Their: (Determiner) Belonging to or associated with the people or things previously mentioned or easily identified. There: (Adverb) In, at, or to that place or position.Thesis Statement: (Noun) What your writing will be based on. They’re: (Contraction) They are Timed Essay: (Noun) Essay in which a finite amount of time is given. Topic Sentence: (Noun) Sentence to describe the topic of the body paragraph. Transitions: (Noun) Words and phrases that provide a connection between ideas, sentences and paragraphs.

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V Verbs: (Nouns) Actions. Verbals: (Noun) Verb forms not used as verbs.

W Wary: (Adjective) Feeling or showing caution about possible dangers or problems. Weary: (Adjective) Feeling or showing tiredness, especially as a result of excessive exertion or lack of sleep. Who: (Pronoun) What or which person or people. Whom: (Pronoun) Used instead of “who� as the object of a verb or preposition. Work Cited Page: (Noun) References; The two most common forms of citation are MLA and APA format. A work cited page is meant to show the texts you've referenced for this essay or writing. Every line after the first line should be indented.

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Works Cited "Adverbs." Adverbs. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. "English-Grammar-Revolution.com Sitemap. Find It Here!" English-Grammar-Revolution.com Sitemap. Find It Here! N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. EasyBib. Chegg, n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. "Grammar Book Project." Padlet Is the Easiest Way to Create and Collaborate in the World. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. "List of Interjections." List of Interjections. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. Nweinham. "Convert a Word Document to Epub." WikiHow. N.p., 09 Jan. 2016. Web. 30 Nov. 2016 "Prepositions List." Prepositions List | English Club. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. Simmons, Robin L. "Terms." Terms at Grammar Bytes! N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016 "The Parts of the Sentence | The Writing Centre | University of Ottawa." The Parts of the Sentence | The Writing Centre | University of Ottawa. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016. "Welcome to the Purdue OWL." Purdue OWL: Verb Tenses. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Nov. 2016.

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Dedication

For my brother Robert For keeping you up so late with my computer monitor and keyboard/mouse clicking ‌ and because you printed this.

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Grammar Book  

Mechanics Themed