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LONG JUMP TRAINING: CONNECTING ALL KEY COMPONENTS FOR SUCCESS

PETROS KYPRIANOU THE UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA 2009

Wednesday, February 12, 14


THE LONG JUMP

• EFFECTIVE SEQUENCE OF MOVEMENTS • STYLES OF TECHNIQUE IN THE AIR (STRIDE-HANG-HITCH KICK)

APPROACH

20°

TAKE-OFF

Wednesday, February 12, 14

FLIGHT LANDING


TECHNICAL COMPONENTS IN LJ

• LJ SPEED (RUNWAY SPEED) • TECHNIQUE - COORDINATION • QUICK AND POWERFUL LAST STRIDE • MOBILITY - FLEXIBILITY • RELATIVE STRENGTH WITH GREAT ELASTIC ENERGY PRODUCTION

Wednesday, February 12, 14


CENTER OF GRAVITY (CG) DURING LJ • DISTANCE JUMPED (D2):

TRAJECTORY OF ATHLETE’S CG ➜ TAKE OFF VELOCITY + TAKE OFF ANGLE + HEIGHT OF PROJECTION

• PREDETERMINED FLIGHT CURVE (ONCE AIRBORNE) • CONTROL LOSS OF MOMENTUM BEFORE LANDING

Wednesday, February 12, 14


CHAIN OF MOVEMENTS

• SINGLE MOVEMENTS ARE PARTS OF THE COMPLETE MOVEMENT • THE APPROACH RUN IS THE MOST IMPORTANT PART OF THE CHAIN • A BAD LANDING CAN TELL YOU A LOT ABOUT YOUR RUN UP AND TAKE OFF POSITIONING!

• FAST SPRINTERS ARE NOT NECESSARILY GREAT LONG JUMPERS

Wednesday, February 12, 14


SPEED CAPABILITIES OF WORLD CLASS JUMPERS

WOMEN

country

LJ PB

100m

10”45

Cusmir

ROM

7.43m

11.70

8.87m

9”86

Drechsler

GER

7.48m

10”91

USA

8.74m

10”06

Bardauskiene

RUS

7.09m

11”50

GRE

8.61m

10”58

Devetzi

GRE

6.92m

11”55

MEN

country

LJ PB

Mike Powell

USA

8.95m

Carl Lewis

USA

Dwight Phillips Louis Tsatoumas

Wednesday, February 12, 14

100m


IDEAL SPEED FOR LONG JUMPERS BY SMITH & LEES (UK)

• LJ DISTANCE = (SPEED M/S

X 0.95) - 2.23 (MEN) LJ DISTANCE = (SPEED M/S X 0.99) - 2.81 (WOMEN)

• SPEED M/S CALCULATION:

<-1M -> START

<------- 10M ------>

START

• MALE ELITE LONG JUMPERS AVERAGE SPEED: 10.5M/S • OPTIMAL TAKE OFF ANGLE: 18-25 DEGREES (LINTHORNE, 2001) Wednesday, February 12, 14


DIFFERENT VELOCITIES OF C.G. AND TAKE OFF ANGLES TOP-2 JUMPERS AT THE 1991 WC (FUKASHIRO ET AL 1994) Powell 8.95

Men Horizontal velocity at TD(m/s) Horizontal velocity at TO(m/s) Horizontal velocity at TD-TO (m/s) Vertical velocity at TO Take off angle

11.00

9.09

-1.91

Lewis 8.91 11.06

9.72

-1.34

Others 8.15±0.17

Women

JJ Kersee 7.32

Drechsler 7.29

Other 6.95±0.43

10.39±0.14

Horizontal velocity at TD

9.85

9.86

9.53±0.11

8.80±0.12

Horizontal velocity at TO

8.09

8.49

7.92±0.31

-1.59±0.10

Horizontal velocity at TD-TO

-1.76

-1.37

-1.61±0.29

3.46

2.80

-3.05±0.24

23.2

18.3

21.1±1.7

3.70

3.22

-3.44±0.19

Vertical velocity at TO

22.1

18.3

21.4±1.5

Take off angle

MEN (FUKASHIRO ET AL. 1994)

Wednesday, February 12, 14

WOMEN (FUKASHIRO ET AL. 1994)


THE LONG JUMP RUN-UP • DIFFERENT RUN-UP FOR DIFFERENT ATHLETES •‘THE NEED FOR SPEED’ •PRECISION & EFFICIENCY • CADENCE AND RHYTHM IN THE LAST 4 STRIDES • TOP SPEED TRANSFERRED TO OPTIMAL POSITIONING • START •MAX SPEED AT 40M

Wednesday, February 12, 14


THE LONG JUMP RUN UP

Wednesday, February 12, 14

100m time

# of strides

10.2

22-24

10.3-10.5

22

10.6-10.8

20

10.9-11.0

19-20

11.1-11.5

17-18

11.8

16

12.0-12.5

15

12.6-13

14

13.1-13.5

13

13.6+

12


THE LONG JUMP RUN-UP

• PRECISION: CHECK-MARKS FOR COACH AND ATHLETE (VIDEO ANALYSIS)

•RHYTHM-CHANGES: POSTURAL CONTROL AND CADENCE • POWER VS SPEED LONG JUMPER • DRIVE - POSITIONING - PREPARATION

Wednesday, February 12, 14


shortcomings in the run-up speed or the lack of take-off power. The difference in the distances jumped by top performers from an 8 stride run-up, for example, is around 100 to 120cm (women 80cm) shorter than their competition jumps at the same stage. The difference from a 12 stride approach is 50 to 70cm (women 40 ACCORDING TO POPOV to 50cm), from a 16 stride approach 30 to 35cm (women 20 to 30cm). Table 1 shows how to evaluate shortcomings at various performance levels.

Other control tests commonly used to evaluate training progress include 30, 60 and 100m sprints, the high jump in a step-over technique, multiple jumps (5 or 10 Wednesday, February 12, 14


THE TAKE OFF & LANDING

•0.12-0.13SEC •PROPER POSITIONING •COORDINATION •STOP SWING EFFECT •TAKE OFF VELOCITY - ACTIVE TAKE OFF •‘FOOT PLANT EFFECT: PUSH THE BOARD BEHIND’ VS ‘PULL YOURSELF INTO THE PIT’

• LEG EXTENSION: ‘WAIT FOR THE SAND TO COME TO YOUR FEET’

Wednesday, February 12, 14


THE MYTH ABOUT THE PENULTIMATE STEP

•LOWERING C.G. TOO MUCH AT THE PENULTIMATE STEP WILL RESULT IN SPEED LOSS

• PENULTIMATE STEP INITIATES STRETCH REFLEX AIDED FROM THE ANKLE JOINT NOT THE KNEE JOINT

21.3°

Wednesday, February 12, 14


THE MYTH ABOUT THE PENULTIMATE STEP

• AVOID MOMENTUM LOSS AT TAKE OFF

• STAYING TALL DURING TOUCHDOWN

LINING UP THE SHOULDERS AND HIPS OVER THE TAKE OFF FOOT WILL HELP THE JUMPER PRODUCE AN EFFICIENT TAKE OFF

20°

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FLIGHT AND FLIGHT TECHNIQUES

• THE CG FLIGHT CURVE IS ALREADY SET • KEEPING THE BALANCE? • HEAD SHOULD BE AT A NEUTRAL POSITIONING • FLIGHT INITIATION (0.01SEC FOLLOWING THE TAKE OFF) IS IDENTICAL IN ALL 3 STYLES

• STRIDE - HANG - HITCH-KICK (2.5 & 3.5 STRIDES)

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FLIGHT AND FLIGHT TECHNIQUES • STRIDE TECHNIQUE

•HANG TECHNIQUE

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FLIGHT AND FLIGHT TECHNIQUES •HITCH KICK TECHNIQUE

Wednesday, February 12, 14


2007 LJ WORLD CHAMPIONSHIPS FINAL BREAKDOWN BY KOYAMA ET AL 2008 MEN

Saladino

Howe

Phillips

WOMEN

Lebedeva

Kolchanova

Kotova

official dist.

8.57

8.47

8.30

official dist.

7.03

6.92

6.90

take off dist. (D1) m

0.39

0.41

0.42

take off dist. (D1) m

0.31

0.34

0.34

Flight dist. (D2) m

7.80

7.70

7.62

6.20

6.12

6.07

Landing dist. (D3) m

0.39

0.36

0.26

Flight dist. (D2) m Landing dist. (D3) m

0.52

0.46

0.49

toe-to board dist. (D4) m

0.01

0.03

0.01

toe-to board dist. (D4) m

0.05

0.00

0.06

8.69

8.48

8.52

7.03

6.95

6.99

Loss dist by landing (m)

0.12

0.01

0.22

Loss dist by landing (m)

0.00

0.03

0.09

Actual jump dist (D4+D5)

8.70

8.51

8.53

Actual jump dist (D4+D5)

7.08

6.95

7.05

heel disp. at landing (D5)

Wednesday, February 12, 14

heel disp. at landing (D5)


‘THE NEEDS ANALYSIS’

Athlete’s Name & event (s) Events: DOB Class PERSONAL BESTS Indoor Outdoor

PAST YEAR IN REVIEW

Indoor Outdoors

THIS YEAR’S GOALS Indoor Outdoor EXPECTATIONS/PERSONAL DEVELOPMENT STRENGTH - POWER GOALS

SPEED GOALS

Snatch Clean& Jerk Squat Front Squat Bench Step Ups

30m SS 30m FS+15m 60m SPECIFIC POWER GOALS St. LJ St. TJ 5 hop FS Vertical J

TESTING TESTING 1 DATE:

TESTING 2 DATE: VERTICAL

Height Weight Flexibility 30m SS 30m FS Snatch Squat Bench Clean & Jerk

Wednesday, February 12, 14

PLYOS 50cm

St. LJ St. TJ 5 hop FS (dom) 'weak'' 4kg Ovehd

1

2

3

1

2

3

1

2

3

Height Weight Flexibility 30m SS 30m FS Snatch Squat Bench Clean & Jerk

VERTICAL

1

2

PLYOS 50cm

1

2

1

2

St. LJ St. TJ 5 hop FS (dom) 'weak'' 4kg Overhd


PERIODIZATION

•DOUBLE OR SINGLE (INDOOR-OUTDOOR) •TRAIN THEM BASED ON THEIR TALENT, LEVEL, TOLERANCE •‘TRAIN DOGS EDUCATE PEOPLE!‘R.H. •4 WEEKS PER CYCLE •2 @ 90%, 1 @ 70%, 1 SUPERCOMPENSATION •PEAK WHEN IT COUNTS •VOLUME VS INTENSITY

Wednesday, February 12, 14


PERIODIZATION •RECORD:

FOOT CONTACTS/METERS/WEIGHTS PER WEEK

•OVERTRAINING SYNDROME •GET TO THE POINT (THEORY OF SPECIFICITY) •ADAPTATION PHASE ONLY 8-10 WEEKS! THEN LONG JUMP!!! •LIMIT RUNNING TO WHAT IS REALLY IMPORTANT •FUNCTIONAL TRAINING TO GET IN SHAPE

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

TAKE OFF DRILL PROPER POSITIONING PUSH THE GROUND BEHIND GLUTEUS MUSCLE HIGH ANGLE PENULTIMATE PUSH TAKE OFF TIMING QUICK FOOT PLANT TRANSFER ENERGY INTO THE JUMP

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

3-STRIDE TAKE OFF DRILL PROPER POSITIONING LAST 3 STRIDES WORK HIGH ANGLE PENULTIMATE PUSH TAKE OFF TIMING QUICK FOOT PLANT AIRTIME

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

P-DRILL STRETCH REFLEX MOBILITY + MOMENTUM HIGH ANGLE PENULTIMATE PUSH TAKE OFF TIMING QUICK FOOT PLANT TRANSFER ENERGY INTO THE JUMP

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

FREQUENCY TAKE -OFF DRILL ACTIVE FOOT STRIKING THRU HURDLES TAKE OFF TIMING QUICK FOOT PLANT TRANSFER ENERGY INTO THE JUMP AIRTIME - ARM WORK PROPER PENULTIMATE STEP PLACEMENT

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

FREQUENCY TAKE -OFF DRILL-LANDING ACTIVE FOOT STRIKING THRU HURDLES TAKE OFF TIMING QUICK FOOT PLANT TRANSFER ENERGY INTO THE JUMP LANDING DRILL PROPER PENULTIMATE STEP PLACEMENT

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

ADVANCED 3-STRIDE DRILL WITH LANDING PROPER POSITIONING FEEL THE AIRTIME HIGH ANGLE PENULTIMATE PUSH WITH MORE SPEED FREQUENCY DRILL QUICK FOOT PLANT TRANSFER ENERGY INTO THE JUMP

Wednesday, February 12, 14


FUNCTIONAL LONG JUMP DRILLS

1-LEG LANDING DRILL 1-LEG TAKE OFF TO LANDING ABLE TO SWING THE FREE ARMS AND LEAD KNEE AIRTIME CONTROLLED MOVEMENT - WORK ON EXTENSION AND PROPER TIMING

Wednesday, February 12, 14


TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS SAMPLE OFF-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday

Tuesday

•Core Strength (am)

• Weights (am)

•Drills (sprint)

•Drills (LJ)

• General throws

• General low

•mobility work •Conditioning (cyclic)

intensity bounding

•Conditioning (cyclic)

Wednesday

•Core Strength (am)

• Weights (am) •Drills (LJ)

Friday

•Core Strength (am)

•Acceleration work • General low

•Speed endurance

• General throws

• General throws

•mobility work •Conditioning (acyclic)

Wednesday, February 12, 14

Thursday

intensity bounding

•Conditioning (cyclic)

•mobility work •Conditioning (acyclic)


TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS SAMPLE PRE-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday

Tuesday

• Speed - resistance/

• Weights /

acceleration

potentiation

• Approach work

•Drills (LJ)

mid mark precision

•LJ take off drills •short approach jumps

•Basic cardio (cyclic)

Wednesday, February 12, 14

• Horizontal bounding

Wednesday

•Speed - Flying starts

Thursday

• Weights /

potentiation

•LJ take off drills •Drills (LJ) •short approach jumps

• Vertical bounding

• Core Conditioning •Speed Endurance • Core

Conditioning

Friday

• Full approach Jumps

•Restoration techniques


TRAINING RECOMMENDATIONS SAMPLE IN-SEASON TRAINING MICROCYCLE Monday

Tuesday

• Speed - acceleration • Weights / • Approach work

potentiation (maintenance)

•short approach

•Speed bounding

jumps

• X’s (maintenance)

Wednesday, February 12, 14

Wednesday

•OFF DAY

Restoration techniques

Thursday

Friday

• pre activation •approach

precision (light)

COMPETITION


EXPERIMENTAL NORMS FOR IDENTIFYING THE TALENT IN LONG JUMP (MEN)

• EVERYONE CAN JUMP 23FT AT SOME POINT BUT WHO WILL BE THE 30 FOOTER?

• HIGH CENTER OF MASS (LONG LEGS-SHORT TORSO) • ECTOMORPHIC BODY TYPE (LONG LEAN MUSCLES) • LONG AND POWERFUL TIBIA-SOLEUS-GASTROKNEMIUS (DISTANCE FROM THE ANKLE JOINT TO PATELLA TENDON) CONNECTED TO A RELATIVELY LONG ACHILLES TENDON

Wednesday, February 12, 14


EXPERIMENTAL NORMS FOR IDENTIFYING THE TALENT IN LONG JUMP (MEN)

• POWERFUL AND EXPLOSIVE LOWER EXTREMITIES •POWERFUL AND FLEXIBLE HIPS-HIP FLEXORS • SPEED: 3OM STANDING START UNDER 3’’5 • 1-LEG BROAD JUMP: OVER 3M •1-LEG VERTICAL LEAP: OVER 32INCHES •OVERHEAD 4K SHOT: OVER 24M

Wednesday, February 12, 14


8.95M WR

SHORT TORSO, LEAN AND LONG MUSCLES: LESS WEIGHT TO MOVE

LONG LOWER EXTREMITIES. BIOMECHANICALLY EFFICIENT STRUCTURE FOR THE LJ

LONG ACHILLES TENDON: GREAT ELASTIC ENERGY STORAGE.

Wednesday, February 12, 14

LONG TIBIA (SHIN): GREAT ANTAGONIST MUSCLE IN LJ


THANK YOU! Wednesday, February 12, 14


Long Jump Training: Connecting all key components for success