Page 1

Week 3

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Loads to be carried, the material used and the form and shape chosen for the structural elements are the important part of design of a structural elements.

These elements are set specific names which are used for convenience in engineering and building terms.

Strut and tie both are slender element which design to carry load parallel to its long axis, but strut‘s load produces compression, tie‘s load produces tension.

Beam uses its bending resistance to carry vertical load and support both compression and tension.

Slab and plate is a horizontal element designed to carry vertical load in bending usually supported by beams.

Panel can carry vertical or horizontal load by different directions.

The foundation is the lowest division of a building--its substructure— constructed partly or wholly below the surface of the ground.

The principal loads on a foundation are the combination of dead and live loads acting vertically on the superstructure. In addition, a foundation system must anchor the superstructure against wind-induced sliding, overturning, and uplift, withstand and sudden ground movements of an earthquake, and resist the pressure imposed by the surrounding soil mass and groundwater on basement walls. These will the factors to examine a foundation.

Factors which be consdiering in selecting and designing the typle of foundation system for a building include: • Pattern and magnitude of building loads • Subsurface and groundwater conditions • Topography of the site • Impact on adjacent properties • Building code requirements • Construction method and rick Shallow foundation: are employed to transfer building loads to the supporting soil by vertical pressure. Deep foundation: are employed to transfer building loads to a more appropriate bearing of rock or dense sands and gravels well below the superstructure.

• Large columns are used to support and hold the above ground including soil, plants and humans. And top surface which is wider than bottom allow it to hold more weight and become more stable. • All the columns are hollow to all the trees above to spread their root into the columns, and each of them has a corresponding tree above them in South Lawn. • They are made onsite because the slabs are approximately 9X9 meters. Underground Car Park, The University of Melbourne

• This truss structure uses the shape of triangle which is a fixed shape to prevent moving and deforming. • And this truss also is designed to be light to be lifted and put into place easily, therefore, it also reduce the cost on the materials. • Using the triangle truss structure also help to transform the compressions and tensions from the beams to make it more stable. Art West, The University of Melbourne

• Using steel structure to make sure this stair is stable and fixed and will not crashed. • Steel I beams which hold by steal wires to support the stairs, wires are locked with beams to make sure it can carry the compression and tension from the stairs when people walk through. Stairs at west end of Union House, The University of Melbourne

•Stone : slabs, ashlars blocks, rubble stone •Earth : mud bricks •Clay : bricks, honeycomb blocks •Concrete : blocks, commons


Figure: Blocks http://buildingmaterialslll 3/concrete-blocks.html

Blocks: •Is a standard masonry unit which is made out of concrete •Very low ductility and flexibility • Poor conductors of heat and electivity

Figure: Bricks http://nourishingourchildren. build-your-house-of-bricks/

Concrete blocks VS Clay bricks Concrete blocks will shrink over time while clay bricks will expand.

Bricks : •Is a standard masonry unit which is made out of clay •Is permeable (non-water proof) •Advantage: Bricks can be joined with water based mortar. If adequately ventilated so that any wetness can escape, they will not deteriorate. •Disadvantage: Bricks absorb moisture and expand overtime—expansion joints required Salts and lime from the soil can be drawn up through the bricks when in contact with ground. This may cause serious pathologies and aesthetic problems such as efflorescence.

Strip Footing

Isolated Footing

Shallow Foundation

Concrete Masonry Foundation Wall


Deep Foundation

Combined Footing

Continuous Footing

Concrete Foundation Wall Cantilever/ Strap Footing

Stepped Footing

Moment: the tendency to make an object or a point rotate

Strip footing: the continuous spread footings of foundation walls

Retaining wall: the wall design to restrain soil from the slopes

Slab on ground: a concrete slab which placed at or near ground level

Pad footing: the base of a column that transfers the load to the foundation

Substructure: a basic structure which is below another structure and support it

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Week 4

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Floor and framing system is including concrete, steel and timber systems. •Concrete system: slabs of various types are used to span between structural supports. These can be one-way or two-way spans. •Steel system: take various forms, with some utilising heavy gauge structural steel members and others using light gauge steel framing. Steel framing system sonetimes combine with concrete slab systems to where the particular benefits of steel framing and shallow depth floor slab systems are desired. •Timber system: use a combination of bearers and joists.

Concrete is like a artificial stone, when cement is mixed with water it binds the sand and gravel aggregates together to make the hard, solid material we call concrete. A common concrete mix is 1 part cement ; 2 parts fine aggregate ; 4 parts coarse aggregate ; 0.40.5 part water • if too much water is added to the concrete mix, the final concrete will not be strong enough(weak). •If too little water is added, the concrete mixture will be too stiff and it will be very difficult to work with(unworkable). •Formwork can be built at the building site –in situ- or in a factory-pre cast- out of a range of different materials- timber, metal, plastic, formply etc. •Concrete is very strong in compression but is weak in tension. Therefore, we need steel (very strong in tension) to improve its structural performance.

Concrete- Finishes • Sand-blasted • Exposed aggregate • Raked finish • Bush hammered •Board-marked • Board & batten

Figure: precast concrete aesent-commodo-cursus

Concrete is permeable but not completely water proof. And it is vibrated to get rid of the air bubbles that get caught during the pouring process. These bubbles can compromise the structural performance of the element and , in a worst case scenario, result in the element failing.

Figure: in situ concrete

1 Title Block List the types of information found in the title block on the floor plan page. 

1 Project name

2 Architect details

3 Scale

4 Drawing name and number

5 Orientation

Why might this information be important? This information is important because this information can help readers to understand the project quickly and know exactly where to look and what they are looking at. 2 Drawing Content- Plans

What type of information is shown in this floor plan? Legend, materials, room names and numbers, door numbers, area of room Is there a gird? What system is used for identify the gird lines? There is a gird. The grid lines are represented by alternating long and short dashed lines. Dashed lines are used to avoid confusion between walls and other lines. What is the purpose of the legend? The purpose of the legend is to easily and quickly get the information from looking at the symbols on the diagram. This is helpful that we don‘t need to include all of the information and text on the diagram which would make it look messy.

Why are some parts of the drawing annotated? Illustrate how the annotations are associated with the relevant part of the drawing. Some of the more important parts of the drawing are annotated as they are too difficult to explain by a drawing. For example: ‘All PLANT ROOM WALLS FIRE RATED‘. This would be hard to demonstrate without text as there isn‘t a commonly used symbol for it. Illustrate how references to other drawings are shown on the plan. What do these symbols mean? This helps to navigate between different parts of the construction. The 1in the diagram means section 1and the A40-1 is the drawing number. How are windows and doors identified? Provide and example of each . Is there a rationale to their numbering? What do these numbers mean? Can you find the answer somewhere in the drawings? The doors are numbered as D01, D02, D03… and they arent labelled as 1, 2, 3…because if the client decides to put extra door, the only number of a door will make it difficult to find. The windows are labelled in the same manner. Are some areas of the drawing clouded? Why? Some areas of the drawing are clouded. This is because the structure has been recently added to or a change has been made to it. It needs to stand out to the builders as they don‘t want to be building the old plans by mistake.

Figure: Illustration from CHING ‗ Building Construction Illustrated‖, 4.11 (2008)

BEAM: A beam is a horizontal structural element. The function of a beam is to carry loads along the length of the beam, transfer these loads to the vertical supports, and it can hold compressions and tensions. A beam can be: - supported at both ends of the beam - supported at numerous points along the length of beam - supported at points away from the ends of the beam - supported at only one end of the beam which called cantilevers.

CANTILEVER: A cantilever is created when a structural element is supported at only one end (or the overhanging portions of a member are significant). The function of a cantilever is to carry loads along the length of the member and transfer these loads to the support. A cantilever can be: - horizontal - vertical - angled Figure: Illustration from CHING ‗ Building Construction Illustrated‖, 5.36 (2008)

Precast Concrete

In situ Concrete

Concrete Steel

Timber Floor and framing system







Joist: a long thick piece of wood or metal that is used to support a floor or ceiling in a building.

Girder: a long strong iron or steel bar used for building bridges and the framework of large buildings.

Steel decking: steel used to support joists and beams to build a floor, and also serves as a working platform.

Concrete plank : a long narrow flat piece of concrete that is used for making floors.

Span : is the distance measured between two structural supports.

Spacing: is the repeating distance between a series of like or similar elements.

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc

E-learning: 2004/SPAN%20AND%20SPACING.pdf 2004/BEAMS%20AND%20CANTILEVERS.pdf


ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Masonry walls: • modular building blocks bonded together with mortar • durable, fire-resistant and structurally efficient in compression • may be constructed as solid walls, cavity walls, or veneered walls

Types of masonry units: • clay bricks • concrete blocks • structural clay tile • structural glass block • natural / cast stone

Wall system: •Structural frames: -Concrete frames -Steel frames -Timber frames( post and beam) •Load bearing walls: -Concrete: can be achieved using either in situ or precast elements -Masonry : 1 reinforced masonry load bearing walls can be constructed from core filled hollow concrete blocks or grout filled cavity masonry 2 solid masonry load bearing walls can be created with single or multiple skins of concrete masonry units or clay bricks •Stud walls -Light gauge steel framing -Timber framing

Figure: masonry wall /definition/solid-masonry-wall.html

Unreinforced masonry walls: • Solid masonry walls: be constructed of either solid or hollow masonry units laid contiguously with all joints solidly filled with mortar. •Composite walls: are solid masonry walls having a facing wythe and a backup wythe of different solid or hollow masonry units. • Grouted masonry walls: have all interior joints filled entirely with grout as the work progresses. •Cavity walls: are constructed of a facing and a backing wythe of either solid or hollow masonry units, completely separated by a continuous air space and bonded with metal wall ties or horizontal joint reinforcement.

Timber properties ( will be different depending on type of timber). Generally: Figure: knot haracteristics-variations-wood-flooringknots.html

Wood to timber- considerations Knots- weak points// cause slope of grain Timber- considerations Protecting against water: •Avoid exposure •Seal against moisture movement Isolate timber from insect attack: •Chemical barriers/physical barriers between ground and timber Figure: timbers http://www.hayters.c

Protect timber from sunlight and heat •Direct sunlight can cause excessive drying, shrinkage •Direct sunlight breaks down wood/cellulose •Light colour paints are best

Hardness: Medium-low, most timbers can be reasonably easily marked

Fragility: Medium-low, generally will not shatter or break

Ductility: Low, some timbers in their green state can be manipulated in to a range of shapes

Flexibility/plasticity: High flexibility and medium plasticity

Porosity/permeability: High, varies depending on seasoning finishing and fixing

Density: extremely varied depending on timber type

Conductivity: poor conductor of heat and electricity

Durability/ life span: can very durable, varies depending on type, seasoning, finishing and fixing.

Reusability/ recyclability: very high, second hand timber is very desirable

Sustainability & carbon footprint: very low embodied energy.

Engineered timber-solid products •LVL-laminated veneer lumber high strength Uses-mainly structural (beams, posts, portal frames) •Glulam-glue laminated timber Most laminates with grain aligned to longitudinal direction Uses-mainly structural(beams, posts, portal frames) •CLT-cross laminated timber Laminate grain laid in alternate directions, provides strength in two directions Uses-structural panels( horizontal and vertical)

Engineered timber: •I beams •Box beams •Timber flanged steel web joists Uses-floor joists/ rafters

Engineered timber-sheet products •Plywood-made by gluing and pressing thin laminates together to form a sheet Uses-structural bracing/structural flooring/ formworks/joinery/ marine applications •MDF-medium density fibreboard MDF is generally more dense than plywood Uses-non-structural applications(joinery) •Chipboard& strandboard Uses-as part of structural systems(e.g. flooring)/cladding finish

Fixed frame is a rigid frame connected to its supports with fixed joints.

Hinged frame is a rigid frame connected to its support with pin joints.

Three-hinged frame is a structural assembly of two rigid sections connected to each other and to its supports with pin joints.

Concrete frames: Typically use a grid of columns with concrete beams connecting the columns together Steel frames: Typically use a grid of steel columns connected to steel girders and beams Timber frame: Typically uses a grid of timber posts or poles connected to timber beams

Model of Oval Pavilion ( Canopy structure) Structural: Two beams flanged steel web joists , and we are using the material of timber strips.

Truss which supports the rafters and roof.

Concrete frame

Fixed frame Hinged frame

Steel frame

Threehinged frame

Timber frame


Solid masonry wall Composite wall

Masonry wall Grouted masonry wall


Unreinforced masonry wall

Cavity wall

Wall system

Engineered timber



Stud: a vertical framing elements which are fundamental in building framing

Axial load: a force which exerted along the lines of an axis of a straight structural member.

Nogging: can be brickwork or wooden pieces which used to fill between the studs or other framing members.

Lintel: a piece of wood or stone over a door or window, that forms part of the frame

Seasoned timber: timber dried to a moisture content which is stable and fixed

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Week 6

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Figure: Illustration from CHING ‗ Building Construction Illustrated‖, 6.03(2008)

Flat roofs: •Flat roofs require a continuous membrane roofing material. •Minimum recommended slope: 1/4‘‘ per foot •The roof slope may be achieved by inclining the structural members or roof deck, or by tapering the layer of thermal insulation. •Flat roofs can efficiently cover a building of any horizontal dimension, and may be structured and designed to serve as an outdoor space. Sloping roofs: •The roof slope affects the choice of roofing material, the requirements for underlayment and eave flashing, and design wind loads. •The space under a sloping roof may be usable. •Sloping roof planes may be combined to form a variety of roof forms.

Metals-types •Ferrous: iron is the 4th most common element in the Earth •Non-Ferrous: all other metalsgenerally more expensive and less common, less likely to react with Oxygen and superior working qualities •Alloys: combinations of two or more metals Metals will react with other metals by giving up/taking on another metal‘s ions.

History: Metals have been sourced for thousands of years. They are linked to technological revolutions. Sourcing: Pure metals can be found in nature although it is much more common to find them as part of minerals.

Figure: metal tachment_id=1562

Metal-properties: •Hardness-varied, depending on type •Fragility-low, generally will not shatter or break •Ductility-high •Flexibility/plasticity-medium-high flexibility and high plasticity (while heated)

Precast Concrete roof

Reinforced Concrete roof

Gable roof

Concrete roof Structural steel framed roof

Light framed roof

Roof system Sloping roof

Flat roof

Trussed roof

Hip roof

Pine LVL Materials used

MDF Bricks

concrete Holes a dug for the concrete stumps

Holes and stumps

Princess Hill(demolition)

Easy to build for sloping ground

Old stumps are removed and replaced with new ones

Stumps are created off-site

Stumps and bearers

Using in situ concrete

LVL are placed at the top of the stumps


Strong and stable as concrete and steel

Rafter: one of the sloping pieces of wood that support a roof

Eave: the lower edges of a roof that stick out over the walls

Alloy: a metal that is formed by mixing two types of metal together

Cantilever: a long piece of metal or wood that sticks out from a wall to support the end of structure

Portal: a large and impressive entrance to a building

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Week 7

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

―Arches are cured structures for spanning an opening, designed to support a vertical load primarily by axial compression. They transform the vertical forces of a supported load into inclined components and transmit them to abutments on either side of the archway.‖ (Ching,2008)

Figure: Gateway Arch way_Arch

―Shells are thin, curved plate structures typically constructed of reinforced concrete. They are shaped to transmit applied forces by membrane stresses—the compressive, tensile, and shear stresses acting in the plane of their surfaces.‖ (Ching, 2008)

Figure: Sydney opera /04/physical-structure/

―A dome is a spherical surface structure having a circular plan and constructed of stacked blocks, a continuous rigid material like reinforced concrete, or of short, linear elements, as in the case of a geodesic dome.‖ (Ching, 2008) Figure: U.S. Capitol dome

From the pictures, we can see that a lot of countries use arches, domes and shells into design constructions because they are designed to carry compression and spread vertical forces into lower points.

Figure: productreports/2009/thermal_moisture_protec tion/5.asp

For water to penetrate into building all of the following three conditions must occur: •An opening •Water present at the opening •A force to move water through the opening Therefore, if we remove any one of the conditions, water will not enter. •Remove openings •Keep water away from openings •Neutralise the forces that move water through openings One is sufficient but if two or more strategies are pursued then there is added security in case one fails.

Heat gain and heat loss occur when: •Heat is conducted through the building envelope •The building envelope and building elements are subjected to radiant heat sources. •Thermal mass is used to regulate the flow of heat through the building envelope. We can save energy, money and increase comfort levels for building occupants if we can control heat gain and heat loss effectively Conduction can be controlled by using: •Thermal insulation •Thermal breaks •Double glazing



• Natural rubber • Synthetic rubber



• Thermoplastics • Thermosetting plastics • Elastomers

• Oil based paints • Water based paints

Drip: an lip out of the side of a wall to make water fall to the ground without running down the wall

Vapour barrier : an impermeable layer that blocks the flow of moisture in air through to the interior of the building

Flashing: a strip of metal put on a roof where it joins a wall to prevent water getting through

Gutter: a long curved channel made of metal or plastic that is fixed under the edge of a roof to carry away the water when it rains

Insulation: the materials used for preventing heat, sound and electricity

Parapet: a low wall along the edge of a roof

Sealant: a substance that is put onto a opening to stop water and air

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Work shop

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

For the construction workshop, our group was given 2pieces of timber and 2 small sheet of plywood to build a bridge structure that would span 1 meter and carry as large a load as possible. The materials could be used in any way we can think about and could only be attached to each other using nails and screws.

This wiould be the final product for our group, we have 5 timber strips to support two side, however, we lose to reinforce the middle apart which decide how much load this structure can carry. We thought put two plywood together can increase the surface therefore it can transfer more force, but the thickness might be the more important part to reinforce.

And we decided to nail two sheets of plywood on one timber, and cut other timber to small strip.

This is the structure model from other group which carry a large load because they have a strong thickness and use two plywood to make it more stable.

Week 8

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Door operation: •Swinging •Bypass sliding •Surface sliding •Packet sliding •Folding

Door locksets Door frame

Door hinges Door hardware

Doors and windows Glazed system

Window operation: •Fixed •Casement •Awning &hopper •Sliding •Double-hung •Jalousie •pivoting

insulation glass

Window type: •Aluminium window •Steel window •Wood window

Door type: •Hollow metal door—Flush, glass, vision, narrow light, full-louvered, vision/louvered •Wood flush door •Wood rail& stile door •Sliding glass door •Folding & pocket sliding door •Overhead & coiling door •Glass entrance door •Revolving door

Glass: components Formers are the basic ingredient used to produce glass. Any chemical compound that can be melted and cooled into a glass is a former. Fluxes help formers to melt at lower and more practical temperatures. Stabilizers combine with formers& fluxes to keep the finished glass from dissolving or crumbling.

Figure: float glass php?ws=pages&pages_id=2167

Glass-properties Hardness-high Fragility-high Ductility-very low Flexibility/plasticity-very high when molten/low when cooled Glass-other types/ products: •Tinted glass •Wired glass •Patterned glass •Curved glass •Photovoltaic glass •Glass channels •Slumped and formed glass •Glass fibres

Float glass is now the most common glass production process in the world. Float glass-types: • Clear float glass-the simplest and cheapest glass product available in the market •Laminated glass-a tough plastic interlayer is bonded together between two glass panes •Tempered glass-produced by heating annealed glass to approximately 650c , at which point it begins to soften

Window sash: either of a pair of windows, one above the other, that are opened and closed by sliding them up and down inside the frame

Deflection: action causes changing in direction

Stress: pressure which can damage the structural elements and make them lose their shape

Shear force: to break under pressure

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Week 9

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Movement joints

Construction detailing also relate to ―health and safety‖, ―ageing gracefully‖, ―maintenance access‖, ―constructability‖.

Cleanable surfaces

Repairable surfaces and resistance to damage

Materials: monolithic and composite Monolithic materials are : -a single material -materials combined so that components are indistinguishable Composite materials are created when: -two or more materials are combined in such a way that the individual material remain easily distinguishable

A composite is formed from a: 1. Combination of materials which differ in composition 2. Remain bonded together 3. Retain their identities and properties 4. Act together to provide improved specific or synergistic characteristics not obtainable by any of the original components acting alone

Four main types of composite materials 1. Fibrous 2. Laminar 3. Particulate 4. Hybrid Figure: composite bricks

This hole in the soldier piles is from tiebacks. Tiebacks are used because the excavation process would affect by cross bracing. The tiebacks are gengerlly steel cables that are taken back into solid rock and stretched into tension to help hold the wall up (Ching,2008)

This is a steel reinforcement bar which will be straightened horizontally when the ramp to the car park is poured. These steel reinforcement bars connect the ramp to the wall can also be considered as construction joints.

This image shows a shower pit and water pipes. The shower will have a wall placed half way along it to divide the apartments. The dip is created for waterproof membrane. In this building, concrete columns are used in the car park level. However , the steel columns are used on the ground level and above level. That‘s because columns transfer load from top to down, higher level fewer loads, therefore, we need stable columns to transfer more loads at the bottom. The steel columns were welded onto a steel plate because steel columns have to be placed on steel plates to prevent shear punch and carry shear force.

Sandwich panel: a type of flat panel, combinate aluminium sheets with a non-aluminium core

Composite beam: a structural member composed of two or more dissimilar materials bond together.

Skirting cornice: a narrow piece of wood that is fixed along the bottom of the walls in a house

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


Week 10

ENVS10003 Kaiyue Chen Student number: 691871

Process of produce building materials

Concrete: Cement+ water+ aggregate

Acquisition of raw materials Processing, manufacturing and packaging Transportation and distribution

Masonry: Bricks-brick types, brick grades

Construction, use, and maintenance


Disposal, recycling and reuse Nonferrous metals Plastics





Building materials

Statue of Liberty: galvanic corrosion History: The statue of Liberty was designed by Auguste Bartholdi The copper skin is supported on an iron skeleton designed by Gustave Eiffel

The first problem Copper oxidisation: When copper is exposed to the atmosphere, it reacts with oxygen. The copper starts to dull, first becoming a darker brown colour and then forming a green copper oxide patina. Initial connection detail consideration: Galvanic corrosion between the copper skin and iron frame was considered at the time of construction and a solution that allowed for the separation of the two metals was devised. The second problem: Over time, the shellac-impregnated cloth became porous and actually held moisture at the joint between the two different metals. This provided good conditions for galvanic corrosion and the iron began to corrode. The connection system started to fail as the build up of corrosion products expanded and pulled the rivets away from the copper skin. The first solution: The two materials were separated at their junctions by a layer of shellac-impregnated cloth.

Figure: Statue of Liberty

The second solution: The original iron armature frame as replaced with a Tefloncoated stainless steel structure. The selection of stainless steel was made after extensive corrosion resistance testing and consideration of the physical properties of the stainless steel and how well it would work with the existing copper skin.

Shear wall: a wall designed to resist shear, a lateral force

Defect: a fault in something or in the way it has been made which means that it is not perfect

Fascia: a board on the roof of a house, at the end of the rafters

Braced frame: a structural system which is designed to resist wind and earthquake

Corrosion: destroy slowly by chemical action

Lifecycle: the period of time during which a product is developed and used

Francis D.K.Ching, 2008, building construction illustrated, 4 th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc


ENVS10003 Log book  

Alex Chen

ENVS10003 Log book  

Alex Chen