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Volume 1


STUDIO SUMMARY The studio consists of 13 students coming from the local states of Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas to as far off as Australia and Argentina. It is a group of talented, passionate, and hardworking people, each bringing unique skillsets and perspectives to the studio project. For most of us, this is the 5th year of working together in studio, many of us having traveled together in places like Dallas, New York City, Prague, Vienna, and as a studio for the project, Los Angeles. The project location is in the Arts District near downtown Los Angeles. The task for the year is to choose a program and design a building that could help benefit the Arts District. The first semester, and this book, comprises of preliminary group

2

research done as a class on the Los Angeles region, downtown LA, and the Arts District, followed by individual research into development of a master plan for the district and a program of the building of our choice. Individual research includes master planning, site selection, precedent studies, and program development. This book shows the research that takes place before the gritty details of designing a building begins. It is about a broad to specific overview of the context in which the project resides and then forming the guidelines of the building before concrete forms and ideas take hold. With this book, there should be a better picture of the design process an architect undertakes.


The studio class outside the California Department of Transportation in Los Angeles, CA.

3

ANDREW GOAD

JOSEPH LEWIS

CHRISTIAN KAUFMAN

EMILIO SANCHEZ

AARON BOLLI

THOMAS CRANE

HECTOR MARTINEZ

MICHAEL TAYLOR

LALI CALEAU

GABRIEL TRAKNYAK

ALEXANDER BOOTH

JACOB COX

ELLIOTT JOERN


TABLE OF CONTENTS LOS ANGELES RESEARCH THE PROBLEM

117

ARTS DISTRICT PLANNING

125

DEVELOPING PROGRAM BIBLIOGRAPHY

4

1

166 197


5


LOS ANGELES

RESEARCH GEOGRAPHY GROWTH & TRANSPORTATION CLIMATE DOWNTOWN LA DEMOGRAPHICS ZONING ARTS DISTRICT

1

7 25 35 39 61 83 103


2


LOS ANGELES TIMELINE

ARCHITECTURE EVENTS

The Hollyhock House was designed by Frank Lloyd Wright and is in East Hollywood. The style is Mayan Revival and features the Hollyhock flower as a motif. It was a start in a direction of embracing the outdoors in Franks homes.

1921

The Los Angeles City Hall was designed by three men; John Parkinson, John C. Austin, and Albert Martin. It was built with sand from every county in California and water from its 21 missions.

1928 1923 Los Angeles produces 1/4 of the worlds oil, leading to a boom in industry and wealth. The Hollywood sign is built to symbolize the city’s importance to movie making.

3

The Eastern Columbia Building was designed by Claud Beelman and is in downtown LA. It is in an Art Deco style featuring distinctive turquoise terra cotta tiles.

1930 1932 Los Angeles hosts the summer Olympics. It is the only city that bid to be host and over half of regular participating countries did not make it due to the Great Depression.


The Bradbury Building was designed by George Wyman and Sumner Hunt and is in downtown LA. It is a mixture of Italian Renaissance Revival and Chicago School styles. The interior of the building is featured in many movies.

1893 1781

1850

Los Angeles is founded by 11 families compromised of 44 Mexicans.

1869

California is accepted into the United States of America and the entire population is made citizens immediately.

The Griffith Observatory was designed by John C. Austin Frederick M. Ashley and sits atop the south facing slope on Mount Hollywood. It has been used to train pilots and astronauts and currently hosts a tesla coil and numerous science exhibits.

1935 1934 Another significant flood damages LA and the farmland, costing tens of millions of dollars. Parts of the river are starting to be molded with concrete.

The first railroad station is built, helping export and import goods, and bring in new immigrants.

The Los Angeles Union Station was designed by John Parkinson and Donald Parkinson. The style is a unique blend of Art Deco and Spanish Revival and now serves over 1.5 million passengers a year.

1939

The Eames House was designed by Charles and Ray Eames. It is a part of the Case Study House experiments into cheap, modular housing constructed of industrial, prefabricated materials.

1949

1938 The most damaging flood occured this year, just before cementing the entire LA River to prevent further flooding. The river is primarily used for water runoff after rains. This river is famously shown thoughout pop culture.

4


Randys Donuts was first built in 1953, followed by nine more in the ‘50’s. The design is symbolic for LA’s creative and goofy attitude.

1953

The Stahl House was designed by Pierre Koenig. It is a part of the Case Study House experiments into cheap, modular housing constructed of industrial, prefabricated materials.

The Capitol Records Building was designed by Welton Beckett. The building is the first circular office building and only resembles a stack of records by coincidence. It was the first record headquarters on the West Coast.

1956

1960 1958 LA completes several major freeways by this time, in part due to federal funding from the Interstate Highways Act of 1956. This greatly accelerated the growth of the suburbs now that automobiles could still reach downtown at greater distances.

The Walt Disney Concert Hall was designed by Frank Gehry with a construction cost of over $160 million. Its acoustics are well received by both audiences and performers. It can seat 2,265 people.

2003 1992 Race riots broke out and were directed towards police and Korean Americans. They lasted several days and spread anarchy throughout LA, in neighborhoods such as Long Beach, Hollywood, Inglewood, Compton, and downtown LA.

5

1994 The city’s second major earthquake proved that building codes were either not sufficient, or in most cases, not fully regulated or followed. This incident forced the city to better enforce building codes.

2015 A massive drought effecting all of California accumulated in 2015 as a crisis. Scientists attribute the drought partially to global warming, partially to the fact that CA has had a particularly wet season for the last century and the state is returning to normal.


The Pacific Design Center was designed by Cesar Pelli. The first building, the blue one, opened in 1975. The green addition was in 1988, and the red in 2012. The center hosts exhibitions, design shows, and showcases work in interior design, architecture, and product design.

The Theme Building was designed by William Pereria and Charles Luckman. It is a scaled down version of a much grander design for LAX in the ‘50’s. It is symbolic of LAX and LA and is a reminder of the optimism of space travel.

1961

1975 1971 The city’s first major earthquake hits the San Fernando region, a city just north of LA. New building codes were put in place to prevent large scale damage from occuring again in the future.

1984 LA hosted it’s second Olympics 52 years later and is considered one of the most successful Olympic games, in part because the city already had the facilities neccessary for the games rather than building all new.

2016 Current Year

6


GEOGRAPHY

7


8


GEOGRAPHY Los Angeles is a city which was built between two major mountain ranges nestled in the Los Angeles Basin. Being in the diverse topography of southern California, Los Angeles has many physical features such as lakes, rivers, islands, mountains, deserts, and rivers. With an ideal moderate climate year round, the city exploded in growth from plentiful fertile land, oil, tar, and water. Soon the population of the city outpaced these resources creating massive

infrastructure problems. Los Angeles is now a major economic power and continues to compete with global cities like New York City. Soon to be the most dense city in the United States, Los Angeles continues to look toward innovation and massive infrastructure projects to help supply its residents food, water, and electricity.

Los Angeles City Limits Water

Light Manufacturing

SANTA SUSANA MOUNTAINS

SIMI HILLS

SA NG ABR VE I EL MO RD SAN FERNANDO UG UNTAINS OH VALLEY ILL S

INS A T N OU M A C I SANTA MON

SAN GABRIEL VALLEY

PU ENT POMONA E-C VALLEY HIN O HIL LS

BALDWIN HILLS

PALOS VERDES PENINSULA

SAN PEDRO BAY

INS TA UN MO NA AA NT SA

9

GE LE SB AS IN

AN

PACIFIC OCEAN

S LO

SANTA MONICA BAY

SANTA ANA VALLEY

SAN JO AQ UI N


NATURAL FEATURES

San Gabriel Mountains The mountains are part of the Transverse Ranges. These mountains divide the Los Angeles Basin from the Mojave Desert to the north. The San Andreas Fault also runs through these mountains. The range provides some of the most visited parks and trails in the area.

Santa Monica Mountains This Coastal mountain range parallels the Pacific Ocean and ends in the Hollywood Hills near downtown Los Angeles. These mountains and hills situate some of the best modern architecture of the post-modern age including the case study homes and homes designed by Frank Lloyd Wright.

San Pedro Bay This bay is home to the Port of Los Angeles. This port serves as the single most important trade by water in western United States. Los Angeles would exist to the degree as it is today without it’s natural inland bays such as San Pedro Bay. 10


MOST POPULATED CITIES

COUNTIES AND THEIR CITIES

LOS AN GELES SAN BE RNARD INO

S ELE ANG A LOS TUR VEN

1

LOS ANGELES ORANGE

E ID RS VE NGE RI A OR

3 2 4

5 N 11


Los Angeles

4,011,000

LA is the Second most populated city in the United States. It provides to be a huge industry in trade, entertainment, marketing, finance, and goods. Los Angeles considered to be the City of Angeles. Situated in Southern California with a Mediterranean climate. The city faces sprawl, ethnic diversity, and gentrification.

486,044 Long Beach The services the Port of Long Beach which is the second busiest container port in the United States. The city is located on the southern side of Los Angeles.

353,741 Anaheim This city is located in Orange County. Anaheim consists of Dinseyland, the Angeles Stadium, and Honda Center.

335,400 Santa Ana This city is located in Orange County. It is the second most populated city in the county.

258,385 Irvine Originally developed as a planned community, Irvine became incorporated and is now considered one of the biggest Asian American communities in the region. 12


7%

in lenght and services the eastern edge of Los Angeles.

LOCAL WATERSHEDS

5 Santa Ana River The Santa Ana River is the largest river in Southern California. The watershed is also the largest watershed in the region.

TODAY’S CO

$1.3 billio $18.2 bill

Aqueduct Resevoirs

66

Proposed Desalination Plants Major Local Watersheds Los Angeles City Limits

PRODUCTIO

2 Los An Top Produ

Water

VAN NORMAN RESERVOIR

2

1

4

5

WEST BASIN (20-60 MGD)

3

LAKE MATTHEWS

HUNTINGTON BEACH (50 MGD)

13

N


LOS ANGELES | WATER 1. Ballona Creek

Local Watersheds

The Ballona Creek watershid totals to a combines 130 sqmi area west of downtown Los Angeles. An 15 inCreek of rain falls Ballona 1 annual across the basin a year. The Ballona Creek watershid

totals to a combines 130 sqmi area west of 2. Los Angeles River downtown Los Angeles. An annual 15 in The Los Angeles was the primary source of water for the Los of rain falls across the basin a year. Angeles Basin until the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 1913. After the catastrophic 1938 flood, the city paved the entire river in 2 Los Angeles River concrete. Today there are efforts to clean up the river and revitalThe Los Angeles was the primary ize the watershed.

source of water for the Los Angeles Basin until the Los Angeles Aqueduct opened in 3. Domineguez Channel theincatastrophic The Donineguez Channel runs for1913. almostAfter 16 miles length. The 1938 flood, theascity paved the entire in concrete. shed is 96% developed and serves a drain for flood control river in Today there are efforts to clean up the southern Los Angeles. river and revitalize the watershed. 4. San Gabriel River The San Gabriel River is the second important river to drain Domineguez Channel 3 most the Los Angeles Basin. The river The is comprised in 43 miles in runs for almost Donineguez Channel length and services the eastern edge of Los in Angeles. 16 miles length. The shed is 96%

5. Santa Ana River

developed and serves as a drain for flood control in southern Los Angeles.

The Santa Ana River is the largest river in Southern California. The watershed is the largest watershed in the region.

<1%

VAN L.A. WATER SOURCE Desalination 3 Major Aqueducts Groundwater/Other

<1% ALL DESALINATION 2 Los Angeles Plants 18,426 Worldwide

4 San Gabriel River

The San Gabriel River is the second most important river to drain the Los Angeles Basin. The river is comprised in 43 miles in lenght and services the eastern edge of Los Angeles.

5 Santa Ana River The Santa Ana River is the largest river in Southern California. The watershed is also the largest watershed in the region.

DESALINATION

Aqueduct Resevoirs

The Carlsbad project is largest desalination plant in the western Proposed Desalination Plants hemisphere which provides less than 2 percent of Southern Californiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s water need. Desalination is sought to beLocal the least effective Major Watersheds and most expensive means to obtain water world-wide. Desalination means massive energy needs, pumping,Los sea-life displacement, and Angeles City Limits waster. For now it is an expensive technology which hopes to be competitive in future markets. Water

7% TODAYâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;S COST $1.3 billion-Desalination $18.2 billion-Aqueducts

66% PRODUCTION 2 Los Angeles Plants Top Producing Plant

14


REGIONAL RAIL Los Angeles is a major metropolitan city in Southern California. In recent years, the state of California proceeded to become one of the first states with high-speed rail travel. The fully electric train is proposed to run over 800 miles in length from San Diego through Los Angeles to San Francisco. This train is a controversial project due to land rights of residents in the state. Many of these residents have concern for loss of land, noise increase, and funding. As the state continues to grow, ground transportation is at risk for longer commutes and vehicular pollution. California is seeking new technologies such as the hyper-loop as alternatives to the high-speed rail.

1. California High-Speed Rail will be completed in phases and upon completion it will compete against air travel within the state. Phase 1 is panned to be completed in 2029 connecting the downtowns of San Francisco and Los Angeles in total of a 520-mile track. Phase 2 will complete the entire system to San Diego and the state capitol, Sacramento. The date upon completion is unknown. 2. XpressWest is a proposed high-speed rail project that is a privately funded venture to connect Los Angeles to Las Vegas. Eventually the train will connect further to Denver passing through cities in Arizona and Utah. The system is planning to connect to the California HighSpeed Rail through the Palmdale station.

OREGON

Population Clusters Water National Parks Proposed High Speed Rail Existing Passenger Rail Los Angeles-San Diego Watershed

IDAHO WYOMING

SALT LAKE CITY SACRAMENTO

NEVADA

DENVER

UTAH

SAN FRANCISCO SAN JOSE

COLORADO

CALIFORNIA

1

LAS VEGAS 2

LOS ANGELES PACIFIC OCEAN

ALBUQUERQUE ARIZONA

PHEONIX SAN DIEGO TUSCON

15

NEW MEXICO


SAN FRANCISCO S.F. AIRPORT REDWOOD CITY

SAN JOSE GILROY

FRESNO KINGS BAKERSFIELD

SACRAMENTO STOCKTON MODESTO MERCED

LAS VEGAS NEVADA CALIFORNIA

VICTORVILLE

PALMDALE BURBANK AIRPORT

LOS ANGELES NORWALK ANAHEIM IRVINE

INDUSTRY ONTARIO AIRPORT RIVERSIDE MURRIETA ESCONDIDO UNIVERSITY CITY

SAN DIEGO

16


AQUEDUCTS + BASINS 1. Los Angeles Aqueduct (1903) The system is comprised of two Los Angeles Aqueducts. A second aqueduct was added because water demands grew after WWII. Currently the system is shut down for half the year to revitalize the growing ecological deterioration within the Owen River Watershed. This system provides less the 2% of the total water consumption of the L.A. metro.

48% of Los Angeles 2030 predicted water intake will come from the 3 major river basins.

%

22%

48%

2. Colorado River Aqueduct (1939) Otherwise known as the CRA, the Colorado River Aqueduct was one of the largest public works to supply Los Angelesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s growing water need. The project begins near the Parker Dam and runs through Californiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Mojave Desert. 3. California Aqueduct (1963) The California Aqueduct is a hydrological system comprised of rivers, lakes, and canals inside the Central Valley of California. The system is vital for 3 major components of California: Los Angeles, San Francisco, Central Valley farmland.

<2%

3 SAN FRANCISCO 1 2

LOS ANGELES

SAN DIEGO PACIFIC OCEAN 17


77% 77% OWENS RIVER BASIN Since 1913, the valley’s economy, ecology, and health has L

EVE KE L L.A. USAGE 2016 L LA deteriorated. Large masses of water have been diverted toEVEthe city INA L ORG KE L L.A. Partial-closure USAGE 2016 A L L INA

<3% <3%

ORG region. This of Los Angeles which destroyed the agriculture in the lead to several failed attempts from locals of trying to stop the aqFUT URE ueduct. In 1941, the growing demand of water from Los Angeles WAT ER L FUT EVE URE L started to deplete the water level of Owens Lake. This threatenedWATER LEVEL migrating birds and the Mono Lake Ecosystem. Eventually Mono Lake’s ecosystem was destroyed. In 1994 a committee engaged

Partial-closure

litigation against the city of Los Angeles which forced the city to OWENS all LAKE stop diverting the water around Owens Lake. LAKE In 2014OWENS an agreement between the city of Los Angeles and the Owens River residents to divert part of the water back to the lake bed to suppress airborne toxic dust from lifting. The effort is in support to restore the ecology of the area.

LOS ANGELES | OWENS RIVER WATERSHED 1900 1900 1956 1956 1970valley’s economy, Since 1913, the 1970 ecology, and 1990 health had deteriorated. Large amounts of water had been 1990 2016 diverted to the city of Los Angeles which 2016 MONO LAKE

L.A. USAGE 1970 Maxiumum Capacity

California Water Wars

24%

22%

48%

MONO LAKE

77%

<2%

destroyed the agriculture in the region. MONO LAKE This lead to several attempts of locals trying to destroy the aqueduct. 1900

OWENS LAKE OWENS LAKE

Partial-closure

In 1994 a committee engaged a litigation against the city of Los Angeles which Levels all the forced the city to stop Lake diverting Levels Lake Revealed water around Owens Lake.Bed

N N

Lake Bed Revealed

1900 1956 1970

TINEMAHA RESERVOIR

1990 2016 OWENS

In 2014 an agreement between the city of Los Angeles and the Owens River Residents to divert part of the water back to the lake bed to suppress airborne toxic dust from lifiting. The effort is in support to restore ecology of the area.

<3%

DA A I VA NE ORN LIF CA

2016

L.A. USAGE 2016

VER ENS RI OW

1900 In 1941, the growing demand of water 1913 from Los Angeles started to deplete 1913 water level of1930 Owens Lake. This 1930 threatened migrating birds and the Mono 1970 Lake Ecosystem. Eventually Mono Lake’s 1970 2016detroyed. Ecosystem was

MONO LAKE

RIVER

Watersheds

1900

Population Clusters

1913

Water California Farmland

OWENS LAKE

1930 1970 2016

OWENS LAKE

Major Aqueducts Minor Aqueducts

Lake Levels Lake Bed Revealed

Los Angeles-San Diego Watershed 18


COLORADO RIVER BASIN Around the 1920s, the western states of the United States started collecting water from the Colorado River. Major Dams, water diversions, canals, and aqueducts line the Colorado River to supply 7 states. Southern California began tapping into the Colorado River as a water resource for the growing demand in Los Angeles and the surrounding cities. During the time of the construction of the Aqueducts, Americans did not realize that the West was going through and above average rainfall for the decade. The Colorado

River Basin is now drying up due to climate change and lower rainfall returns in recent years. The Colorado River Compact is a legal obligation between states that allows adequate withdrawal of water to areas from the Colorado River without damaging the ecological state of basin. The recent drought has taken a huge toll on the lakes and local watershed environments.

LOS ANGELES | COLORADO RIVER WATERSHED

%

22%

Colorado Crisis

<2%

48%

Around the 1920s, the western states of the United States started collecting water from the Colorado River. Major Dams, water diversions, cannels, and aqeuducts line the Colorado River to supply 7 states.

OREGON UTAH

7%

Southern California began tapping into the Colorado River as a water resource for the growing demand in Los Angeles and the surrounding cities. During the time of the construction of the Aqueducts, Americans did not realize that the West was going through and above average rainfall for the decade.

RGE RESEVOIR

NR

IVE

R

25%

19%

NEVADA

6% The Colorado River Basin is now drying

GREE

29%

FLAMING GEORGE RESEVOIR

R PA

UTAH

2% 12%

WYH YH HOMING HOM MING

IVER

M YA

RIVER COMPACT up due to climate change and COLORADO the lower rainfall returns in recent years.

Colorado River Compact is a LAKE POWELL compact that distributes water and ensures areas, states, and nations recieve a fare amount of water withdrawel from the Colorado River without damaging the ecological state of basin. The recent drought have taken a huge toll on the lakes and local watershed enviroments.

LAKE

The LAKE MEAD

37%

COLORADO NEW MEXIVO

54% LAKE POWELL SA

NJ

LAKE MEAD

ADO

LOR

CO

RIVER

L LITT

OL

E

LAKE MOHAVE

C

OR A

R DO

LAKE HAVASU

ARIZONA NEW MEXIVO

ARIZO

CALIFO

RNIA NA

N

IV ER

19

UAN

COLORADO NEW MEXIVO RIVER


CENTRAL VALLEY When the 2015 drought hit California, the Central Valley Watershed was considered to be one of the hardest hit watershed in the state. Some researchers and ecologist believe the drought is a sign of stabilization California’s wetter seasons back to an arid climate. The state and the watershed relies heavily on snow pack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. With recent climate change and the efforts of El Nino, the state has been forced to consider other means of methods to collect water. When surface water supplies become

22%

30%

40%

PERCIPITATION

30%

THER RIVER FEA

LAKE OROVILLE

CLIFTON COURT FORBAY

40%

S

LAU STANIS

R DA A VA NI NE IFOR L CA

When surface water supplies become low, the local residents drill up ground water to keep crops and cities from drying up. The Central Valley Aquifer has been greatly effected by these wells. The amount being drawn a year from the aquifer is the amountPERCENTAGE of water in the OF CALIFONIA entire Lake Mead.

PIT RIVE R

SHASTA LAKE

E

The state and the watershed relies heavily on snow pack in the Sierra Nevada Mountains. With recent climate change and the efforts ofWATER El Nino, the FROM state has been forced to WATERSHED consider other THAT GOESwater. TO L.A means of methods to collect

<2%

48%

RI V

24%

GOOSE LAKE

QUI ON

R IVE NR

PERCENTAGE OF CALIFORNIANS THAT RECIEVE

When the 2015 drought hit California, the Central Valley Watershed was considered to be one of the hardest hit watershed in the state. Some researchers and ecologist believe the drought is a sign of stabilization California’s wetter seasons back to an arid climate.

NJ

PERCENTAGE OF WATER USED FOR CITIES

OREGO N CALIFO RNIA

Stressed Valley

SA

PERCENTAGE OF CALIFONIA PERCIPITATION

LOS ANGELES | CENTRAL VALLEY WATERSHED

ER SACRAMENTO RIV

WATER FROM WATERSHED THAT GOES TO L.A

low, the local residents drill up ground water to keep crops and cities from drying up. The Central Valley Aquifer has been greatly effected by these wells. The amount being drawn a year from the aquifer is the amount of water in the entire Lake Mead.

14%

PERCENTAGE OF WATER USED FOR CITIES

14%

66%

PERCENTAGE OF CALIFORNIANS THAT RECIEVE

66%

N

N

MILLTERTON LAKE

20


NATIONAL RISK The Pacific Coast of the United States is a part of the Ring of Fire that circles the Pacific Ocean, passing by Chile, Peru, California, Alaska, Russia, Japan, the Philippines, Malaysia, and New Zealand. It is a highly active area of plate tectonics, generating volcanoes, earthquakes, and tsunamies regularly. These areas involve over 90% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s earthquakes, despite being only approximately 12.5% of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s surface. Due to the regular occurance of disasters in the Ring of Fire, building codes and preparation in these areas is neccessary in order

21

to provide safety and the best continuation of regular life after a disaster strikes.

Frequency

California has the greatest risk of earthquakes affecting some of the largest population centers in the US, so preparation is of utmost importance to emergency personal, city planners, and architects.

Medium

Low

High Very High


SA NA ND RE AS FA UL TL INE

1 9

10

4

5 8 3 12 11 2

6

7

FAULT LINES & MAJOR QUAKES Approximately 60 miles from downtown Los Angeles is the San Andreas Fault Line, the major fault between the North American Plate and the Pacific Plate that runs 800 miles North to South along the California coast. Its seismic activity generates earthquakes daily, although most are not felt by humans. Hundreds of other minor faults are generated by San Andreas, many of them lying in and around LA. They are responsible for many of the earthquakes that have hit LA. The two largest earthquakes in LA were the magnitude 6.6 San Fernando quake in 1971 and the magnitude 6.7 Northridge quake in

1994. Both of these earthquakes changed building codes in the city in order to better prepare for future earthquakes. Older buildings were also necessary to retrofit to ensure stability in future and stronger quakes. This list is earthquakes above a 4.0 since 1971.

Earthquake Fault Line

1

February 9, 1971 - 6.6M

2

January 1, 1979 - 5.2M

3

October 1, 1987 - 5.9M

4

June 26, 1988 - 4.7M

5

December 3, 1988 - 5.0M

6

January 18, 1989 - 5.0M

7

April 7, 1989 - 4.7M

8

June 12, 1989 - 4.6M

9

June 28, 1991 - 5.8M

10

January 17, 1994 - 6.7M

11

July 29, 2008 - 5.4M

12

March 28, 2014 - 5.1M 22


1

2

3

4

5

AMPLIFICATION Within areas that are prone to earthquakes, it is important to take note about the ground that the building is built on. Certain sediments and rock formations on the surface and well below ground may amplify the intensity of an earthquake, which is aptly called amplification. It works in a similar way to how loud a sound is depending on distance, objects in the path, echoes, air temperature, and moisture. Typically, areas of soft, flat soil are more in danger of amplification than areas on rocky hills. The Port of Long Beach (3), Naples (4), and Newport Beach (5) are at great risk of high amplitudes while Malibu 23

(1) and Rolling Hills (2) are at a lower risk. Architecture built in higher risk areas need to accommodate not only building codes pertaining to earthquake magnitude, but the amplification of that magnitude, as well.

Amplification

x1 x2 x3 x4 x5


1

2

3

4

FLOOD HAZARD PRE-1938 The Los Angeles River starts in Reseda with the joining of Bell Creek and Arroyo Calabasas (1). The only water that flows consistently through the LA River comes from the Donald C Tillman Water Reclamation Plant (2), putting millions of gallons of water into the river a day. The river and it’s tributaries, such as Rio Hondo (3) and Compton Creek (4), serve primarily as collecting and safely diverting rain water runoff in the city. Otherwise, the river sits almost completely empty all year.

channel was completed that year to prevent floods from the area at risk shown on the right. The river does not carry a significant amount of water compared to other rivers in the US and prior to the late 1800’s, did not drain into any ocean. The water would spread out around the valley into swamps and lakes. A major flood in the late 1800’s finally pushed the flow of water towards the ocean, before the flow stopped again from the water being used for irrigation and drinking.

Flood Risk

The river was natural prior to 1938, but construction to turn it into a concrete 24


CITY GROWTH & TRANSPORTATION

25


LOS ANGELES

1848: CALIFORNIA ADMITTED INTO THE UNION The Los Angeles Basin has been inhabited by humans for a long period of time, beginning with several Native American tribes. The Los Angeles city origins began with Spanish colonization coinciding with Spanish rule. Following the completion of the Mexican-American War, California was incepted into the Union as a state. This led to an influx of American settlers to the West Coast, igniting the growth of LA. The dark blue represents the city’s extent back in 1848. The original city center of Los Angeles can be seen today at what is currently called the Los Angeles Plaza

Historic District. This park and square commemorates the old city plaza, as well as the city’s oldest building, “the pueblo” and the historic church, Our Lady of Queen of Angels.

26


BURBANK PASADENA SANTA MONICA

ONTARIO

SOUTH LA

LONG BEACH

1900: OIL BOOM & COASTAL EXPANSION The discovery of oil fields in the Los Angeles Basin led to an economic boom for the area. At one time, California produced one quarter of the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s oil output. Oil derricks popped up to the south of the city which was still undeveloped and provided plenty of room for oil businesses to sprout. The coastal city of Long Beach was rapidly growing in size and importance, as it was Los Angelesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; main port city for goods and immigration. Another coastal city, Santa Monica, was quickly growing as well. The city of Los Angeles began to spread southward into the basin, as well as connecting to the northern city of Pasadena.

27


HESPERIA NORTH HOLLYWOOD MALIBU

HOLLYWOOD INGLEWOOD BUENA PARK MANHATTAN BEACH REDONDO BEACH

COMPTON

ANAHEIM

HUNTINGTON BEACH

NEWPORT BEACH

1920: BIRTH OF HOLLYWOOD Hollywood was incorporated as a municipality in 1903, but it was not until 1915 that the movie industry helped to explode the city’s growth. Los Angeles was the ideal spot for filming because it did not have the strict regulations of New York City and the weather was always favorable for shooting. Film studios worked their way around the foothills that would one day become the Hollywood Hills and Griffith Park and merged with the other northern city of Burbank. Very small towns like Westwood and Beverly Hills soon turned into residential neighborhoods that serviced the film industry’s stars.

28


RESEDA

GLENDALE WESTWOOD & BEVERLY HILLS

EL MONTE CHINO

TORRANCE

GREATER ANAHEIM

1950: POST WAR SUBURBAN SPRAWL World War II placed LA at the forefront for aircraft, war supplies, and ammunition production. Many people of all races and backgrounds migrated to LA to take advantage of the numerous jobs becoming available due to this demand for war supplies. Following the war, developers exploited cheap land and subdivided it and sold it to baby boomer families to accompany the rapid growth of population. The city was only second to New York and Detroit in the production of clothing and automobiles respectively. LA quickly became a city built around the automobile, as highways

29

were developed to link all the cities in the San Fernando Valley to the downtown and Hollywood. This was a time when music, TV, and film reached a peak in America. In itself, this industry promoted life in Los Angeles as a sunny paradise, enticing more Americans to move out West.


LOS ANGELES

1980: INFRASTRUCTURE & SOCIAL UNREST The city of Los Angeles had become divided by ethnicity and race because of racial tensions, geography, and the growing issue of sprawl. Since 1980, the gap between the rich and the poor increased mightily. This made Los Angeles the most socioeconomically divided city in the United States. Outlying suburbs became more and more popular as people looked to escape the city life. This gave way to increased sprawl as well as division among economic classes.

Metro Population Throughout the Years 1848 1900 1920 1950 1980 2010

1,610 189,994 997,830 4,367,911 9,410,159 12,828,837

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ARTERIAL ROADWAYS The Interstate Highway system serving Los Angeles County is one of the most congested roadways in the nation. The expansive system on average benefits close to 1.5 million commuters daily. The core of the immediate system creates a loop around downtown L.A. Allowing for access to and from the surrounding metropolitan area and beyond. This system is also essential for the manufacturing industrial zones of the city. I-5 is the backbone of California roadways. Running from Tijuana, Mexico to the border of Oregon. Stopping in the major Californian urban areas of L.A. San Diego, and Sacramento. 31

I-10 travels from the northern San Fernando Valley of L.A. To southern Orange County.

101 308,000 Commuters Daily

US 101 is a freeway serving the greater metro area, starting in downtown L.A. and runs through Ventura, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Monterey, San Jose, San Francesco, Marin, and Redwood County.

I-10 363,000 Commuters Daily

I-110/CA 110 was the first freeway in California, servicing a span of L.A. from the port of L.A. to downtown, continuing further to Pasadena.

I-5 299,00 Commuters Daily

110 286,000 Commuters Daily


METROLINK RAILWAY The Metrolink offers Los Angeles a connection to surrounding metropolitan areas. This is essential to handle the abundance of daily commuters. 8 Lines are offered by Metrolink and all terminate in Downtown L.A. At either San Bernardino or Union Station. On average a weekday ridership is upwards of 44,000 people. Of these people 83% had a car available. The Metrolink is important for easing the massive congestion frequenting the Interstate Highway system.

Antelope Valley Line Union Station - Lancaster Inland Empire OC San Bernardino - Oceanside Orange County Union Station - Oceanside Riverside Union Station - Riverside Downtown San Bernardino Union Station - San Bernardino Ventura County Union Station - East Ventura 91/Perris Valley Union Station - South Perris LAX Fly Way Union Station - LAX

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METRO TRANSIT The L.A. County Metropolitan Transportation Authority, or Metro was formed in 1993, offering various forms of transportation to the metropolitan area. The metro encompasses the use of 190 bus routes with 2,228 buses and 15,967 bus stops serving over 1,433 square miles. The metro rail uses 4 light rail and 2 subway systems with 93 stations covering 98.5 miles of service. Altogether all metro lines have over 1 million daily users.

Red Line North Hollywood - Union Station Purple Line Wilshire - Union Station Blue Line Downtown LA - Long Beach Expo Line Downtown LA - Santa Monica Green Line Redono Beach - Norwalk Gold Line East LA - Azusa Orange Line

Chatsworth - North Hollywood

Silver Line San Pedro - El Monte RAPIDLINK Metro Bus RAPIDLINK Municipal Bus 33


BICYCLE SYSTEM Bicycle infrastructure is a growing part of Los Angelesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; culture. At the turn of the century L.A. Was considered the bicycle capital of the nation. With the severe density population and overcrowded transit-ways occurring within the metropolitan area, many citizens choose to make their commute by cycling. About 18,000 or 1% of daily commuters choose to make their commute this way, essentially doubling over the last decade Los Angeles has 1,200 miles of bike infrastructure broken down into three classes: Path, Lane, and Route. Bike route. This extensive network actually equates to about 0.6% of all L.A.

Road infrastructure, but is growing. Starting the summer of 2016 the City of Los Angeles will open a bike share program offering over 1,000 bikes and 80 Stations.

Bike Path Class I Bike Lane Class II Bike Route Class III Bike Share Points

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CLIMATE

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TEMPERATURE This graph represents the average monthly temperature of the past 10 years.

160 F

140 F

120 F

100 F 87 F 77 F

80 F 66 F

66 F

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66 F

72 F

66 F

66 F

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60 F 47 F

87 F 80 F

73 F

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89 F

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20 F JAN

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WIND ROSE

MAY

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N NNW

As depicted below, the strongest prevailing winds are projected from the North Eastern and South Western Directions. This graph represents the average annual wind directions of the past 10 years.

NNE

NW

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WNW

ENE

W

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WSW

ESE

SW

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SSE

There is no lack of sunlight within the Los Angeles area. This can be express through the desert-like quality of the surrounding area. However, this condition becomes an Ideal location for exterior activities along the Santa Monica coast. Partly cloudy days is a term used by meteorologists describe partial or subtle overcast. Los Angeles has been known for its ideal weather. Due to the lack of overcast days, plenty of sunlight penetrates the area.

30 Days

25 Days

20 Days

15 Days

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0 Days

SUNNY

OVERCAST, PARTLY CLOUDY, & SUNNY DAYS

PARTLY CLOUDY OVERCAST

S

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HUMIDITY Understanding the climate of an area is imperative towards the design process. Depending on the region, materiality and formal gestures will be manipulated in respect towards the temperature, humidity, and sun angles.

100 % 90 % (Jul)

90 %

80 %

90 % (Jul)

70 % 63 % (Jul) 60 %

50 %

40 % 38 % (Jul) 30 %

20 %

JAN

PRECIPITATION It is important to consider the lack of precipitation during the warmer months in comparison to the cooler. This is directly influenced by the average temperature. Los Angeles has suffered from several serious droughts threatening water supplies. And with the L.A. River polluted and dry, potable water becomes more of a luxury. This graph represents the average annual precipitation of the past 10 years.

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35 mm

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DRY DAYS Dry days is term used by meteorologists to describe the absence of moisture. Located south in California, Los Angeles Resides 2,342 miles north of the equator. Lack of precipitation and an abundance of sunlight becomes a norm.

JAN

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MICRO CLIMATES One of the most powerful aspects that effects design is the climate of a place. The general climate of an city often consists of averages thus interpreted homogeneously. However, when observing in greater detail, the general parameters of a cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s temperature can be broken down into smaller quadrants. These quadrants are known as micro climates. Micro climates can vary due to geographical changes as well as human development. In this map, it is clear to see temperature differentiations due to geographical changes such as ocean or mountain peak proximity as being cooler. When

lacking high elevations or major bodies of water, the dry, geographically flat areas tend to be warmer. Due to of convenience, humans tend to develop on geographically flat and easily reachable areas. With the amount of high heat gain materials, reflective glass and lack of vegetation, temperatures of the lower elevated areas with less water become warmer than usual.

Degrees Fahrenheit 115 105 95 85 75 65 55

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DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES

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40


10

3 4 1 5

2

6

7 9

8

DOWNTOWN CONTEXT Since its founding in 1781, Downtown Los Angeles has been composed of multiple, diverse areas ranging from the civic center, fashion district, and skid row. The area was in decline for many years until its renaissance beginning in the early 2000s. There have been many renovations and new constructions including government buildings, parks, residences, and theatres. Currently many empty office buildings are

41

being adapted into loft spaces and luxury apartments. Since 2009, over 15,000 residential units have been added leading to an population increase of 36.9%.


1

6

2

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3

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10

LA City Hall

Bradbury Building

Walt Disney Opera House

The Broad

US Bank Building

Wilshire Grand

Santa Fe Building

LA River

Eastern Columbia Building

Union Station

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DOWNTOWN LA DEVELOPMENTS Adjacent to the extensive river development of the eastern part of downtown, another highly develop-able area persists. Encapsulating districts such as New Downtown, South Park, and the financial district, the western edge of the central city core becomes a haven for historical, modern and future developments.

Union Station Redevelopment The Union Station redevelopment proposal plans to improve all modes of transportation to and from the station. Additionally, future high speed rails line connections will be introduced.

High Speed Rail The High speed rail line proposal offers to transport people and good across farther distances in a significantly shorter timespan. Along the 300 mile rail line through California, developers boast commutes from San Fransisco to Los Angeles in under three hours.

JW Marriot Expansion The JW Marriot Expansion will offer a sleek new facade to the skyline. It will offer hotel accommodations.

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Metropolis The luxurious metropolis development will be a high end retail center. It will accommodate sky pools, parks, dining, a hotel, and high income apartments.

Regional Connector The proposal will be yet another layer of transportation, strengthening the public transit for the downtown area and beyond. Linked to the gold line, the regional connector project will consist of a light rail which is currently under development within the metro system.

U.S. Federal Courthouse S.O.M. commissioned to design LEED Platinum design for U.S. Courthouse, Downtown. Structural implications create a floating effect over a stone veneered plinth. The facade boasts a 50% decrease in thermal heat gains as well as decreased glare for clear views.

Streetcar Bringing back the L.A. Street car will connect visitors and locals to the central downtown area. With this transportation loop in effect, travelers are succumb to a safe public transit system offering dynamic views throughout the city.

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Broadway Revitalization Nostalgic proposal for the revitalization of a historical street.

Wilshire Grand Center The Wilshire Grand Center will be the tallest edition to the Los Angeles skyline. Like many skyscrapers in the area, the design will provide a multi-use program. This will include restaurants, businesses, a hotel, and nightlife attractions.

Figueroa Redevelopment The Figueroa proposal offers a brand new public environment for pedestrians. The project will encourage heavy bicycle usage, bus platforms, repaired existing sidewalk amenities, multiple new ADA accommodations and much more. As a result, the streets will allow an ease of walk-ability, safer that before.

Oceanwide Plaza Oceanwide Plaza will be a projected $1 billion project adjacent to the downtown staples center. The mixed used program incorporates a two story open air retail, art exhibition spaces, community spaces, residential accommodations and a five star hotel.

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TRAFFIC FLOW Los Angles fraffic is known for being complicated, it’s highways are ussually slow, and only a couple of streets have free flow traffic in the downtown area. When it comes to the Arts District, the streets are mostly free from heavy traffic, except for the main roads that connect East and West in peak hours.

Los Angles fraffic is known for being complicated, it’s highways are ussually slow, and only a couple of streets have free flow traffic in the downtown area. When it comes to the Arts District, the streets are mostly free from heavy traffic, except for the main roads that connect East and West in peak hours.

This maps shows the fraffic flow for the city’s downotown on a friday at 5:00 pm.

This maps shows the fraffic flow for the city’s downotown on a friday at 5:00 pm.

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Stop & Go Slow Moderate Free Flow


BIKE ROUTES There are an average of 20,000 people that bike to work daily within the city boundaries of Los Angeles. The Los Angeles Department of Transportation has installed 593 miles of bikeways and 6,682 bike racks in an effort to increase bike commuters. A new master plan was approved in 2012 that will add approximately 831 miles of new bikeways throughout the county by 2032.

3.6%

Transit Buildings

1.2%

Bike Lanes

77% 7.8% 2.6%

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BUS ROUTES Los Angles Transit began in 1873 as a rail line along main street that was proppelled by a team of horses. By 1887 it had spread and operated from Boyle Heights in East Los Angeles to Westlake Park and Grand Avenue. The rail lines continued to expand until the 1930s when the advent of the automobile crippled ridership and led to the implementation of bus routes. The Los Angeles County Metropolitan Transportation Agency or “Metro” was established in

49

1993 and operates Los Angeles’ bus fleet as well as metro rail lines. Los Angeles’ Bus System averages 916,510 passengers daily and covers 1,433 square miles of service area.

Transit Buildings Community Shuttle Downtown Express Local / CBD Local / Non-CBD


METRO AND REGIONAL RAIL Southern Californiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Regional Rail is owned and Operated by Metrolink. It consists of seven lines and 55 stations. It connects to Los Angels Metro Rail System, bringing commuters into downtown LA. Average weekday ridership averaged 41,951 in 2014.

Metro Rail Blue Line

LAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Metro Line averages 153,000 riders and is the 9th busiest heavy rail system in the United States. Specifically, the Blue Line is the second largest light rail line by ridership in the United States with 83,612 riders per day.

Daily Riders

Regional Rail

Daily Riders

83,612

Ventura

3,950

Purple Line

149,096

Antelope Valley

6,036

Red Line

149,096

San Bernadino

12,633

Gold Line

50,087

Riverside

5,161

Expo Line

43,199

Orange County

8,255

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SOFT INFRASTRUCTURE Social Infrastructure

Economic Infrastructure

Health care systems including hospitals, doctors and other medical professionals. Education systems including elementary and secondary schools, universities, and research institutions.

Financial sytems including banks, financial institutions, and accounting. Business logistic facilities, warehouses, and manufacturing plants.

Governmental Infrastructure Government and law inforcement systems including political, justice, and penal institutions. Civil registration, databases, emergency services such as police and fire protection. Military infrastructure.

Cultural Infrastructure Sports and recreational infrastructure such as parks and stadiums. Cultural systems such as concert halls, museums, libraries, theatres, and studios.

Governmental Cultural Economic Social

Union Station

LA Detention Center

Japanese American National Museum

Centenary UMC

Sci-Arc 51


10’

20’

30’

METRO LIGHTRAIL Union Station is within a short wlaking distance to differrent spots in the Arts District, allowing a direct connection to other disperse areas in the district through the rail system. Orange line crosses the neighbourhood, making it possible to walk to the main art galleries and attractions in town in a short time.

Lightrail Station Lightrail 10min Walking Radius 20min Walking Radius 30min Walking Radius Art Galleries Museums

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30’

20’

10’

BUS The city’s bus system goes through four of the Arts District’s transversal streets, connecting the area with most of the sorrounding neighborhoods. Bus stops are situated pretty frequently, making it easy to get to different basic spots in the area walking in less than 30 minutues.

Bus Stop Bus Route 10min Walking Radius 20min Walking Radius 30min Walking Radius Grocery Stores Educational Institutions

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METRO BIKE SHARE How It Works

The Metro Bike Share system features hundreds of bikes available all-year-round in Downtown Los Angeles.

Bike Station Bike Lanes

Buy Pass

Station locations were selected based on proximity to community resources, employment centers, bike infrastructure and transit in consultation with partner agencies, institutions, community groups and stakeholders.

Get a Bike

Go for a ride

Give it Back

System wide, there are about twice as many â&#x20AC;&#x153;dock pointsâ&#x20AC;?, or bike parking spots, as there are Metro Bikes. This helps make finding an available dock point easier when arriving to destination.

101

1st St 2nd St

Santa Fe 4th St

Mateo St

t 3rd S

Alameda

1st St

6th St

7th St

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SKIDROW Skid Row’s infamous current state has a lot to do with its role in the past. In the late 1800’s and early 1900’s the area housed a large population of the city’s blue collar laborers. Soon the area became a breeding ground for homeless who took advantage of the saloons and hotels that emerged to support the labor community. The area went downhill fast and about every decade the city of LA went through crackdowns to rid the degenerate of the area.

55

However, most attempts were ousted by supporters who promote the right of the homeless to live here. In recent years the use of camping tents and tarps have become popular, seriously affecting the street life of the neighborhood. Even though 2007 and 2015 had similar numbers of homeless population, their presence was not as evident in 2007.


LITTLE TOKYO Little Tokyo is home to the largest Japanese-American population in North America. LA has always had a large influx of migration from Asia, particularly Japan. It was not until the Exclusion Act of 1924 that immigration had finally halted. A few decades later, Little Tokyo was practically emptied because of the Japanese incarcerations during World War II. This was when the area was renamed “Bronzeville” because of the new migration of African Americans and Native Americans. This led to a population boom in the neighborhood,

as many of the new migrants here were finding work in the city. Although, the area quickly became overcrowded and unsanitary. Many people soon left the area for more jobs and healthier places to live. After the conclusion of WWII, the Japanese Americans returned to LA, but with little to no housing options in Little Tokyo, many relocated to the surrounding suburbs. Since the 1970’s, redevelopment has threatened the authenticity of the neighborhood. With a new movement of people

into the arts district area, developers are destroying old buildings or renovating them into lofts. What is left of the historical Little Tokyo has for the most part become a tourist attraction. However, there has been preservation of the neighborhood in recent decades, including a Japanese-American museum that highlights the experience of the Japanese immigrant.

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FASHION DISTRICTS In the 1920’s and 1930’s this area of Downtown was home to LA’s garment industry. In the 1950’s the neighborhood began to feature more clothing industries that specialized in men’s and women’s sportswear. It was not until around this time that retail stores were introduced to the area. This began in what is known as Santee Alley, where vendors sold clothing outside on the back alleys of the large wholesale stores. Most of the selling going on was actually considered illegal. Today, Santee Alley still has the feeling of

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a modern day bazaar, with street vendors bargaining with potential buyers. In terms of the garment industry, clothing giants still manufacture here, like American Apparel and others.


NORTH OF THE ARTS DISTRICT The area north of the Arts District features a mix of neighborhoods, including Chinatown and the junction of the railroad train lines at LA’s Union Station. The origins of Los Angeles itself can be traced to Olivera Street and the historic plaza that the city was built around back in 1781. Surrounding the plaza is the Pico House, the first hotel of the city, the “pueblo,” the oldest residence of the city, and Our Lady of Angels Church, which was the staple of the original settlement. This area features some of the best examples of Spanish style

architecture. Today, all of these buildings are registered as historic places and serve as museums. The Spanish Architecture style carried over to the nearby Union Station, which was the primary station for the city. Before this was here, however, it was at one time a vineyard that once boasted to be California’s largest wine producer. This was all thanks to Frenchman Jean-Louis Vignes. He chose this location because of its proximity to the river and the city.

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NEW DOWNTOWN In the northwest corner of the loop is what is considered “New Downtown.” It does not border the Arts District but the architectural landmarks here, both existing and proposed, may greatly affect all that happens in the loop. New Downtown is called such because it does not quite fit into the surrounding neighborhoods. The Financial District, located just south, gained momentum in the early 20th century when it was dubbed “Wall Street of the West” due to the number of banking corporations

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that were taking root there. The historical core of the city is located to the west. Following WWII both the Financial District and New Downtown underwent a dead period where businesses and inner city population dwindled. This was due in large part to suburbanization and available land outside of the loop. However, the area has undergone a rebirth in recent years with new architectural projects such as the Walt Disney Concert Hall and the Broad Museum.


ALISO VILLAGE Much of the area that borders the LA river on the east side is called Aliso Village, named after a public housing project that was built in 1942 and destroyed in 1999. A new public housing community was established called Pueblo del Sol. Historically this area was industrial, just like the current day Arts District. It has several abandoned warehouses and depots that once serviced LAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s railroads and manufacturing. Now there is a strong confluence of residential neighborhoods on the northeast side of the

district. The concrete ravine that is the LA river separates the Arts District from Aliso Village and east side LA. The bridges that connect the two are important in terms of both design and construction as well as their connections to the Downtown area.

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DOWNTOWN DEMOGRAPHICS

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CITY NEIGHBORHOODS Although being completely surrounded by a loop of large highways, there is approximately 52,400 people who reside in the downtown area as of 2014. Within the downtown loop of Los Angeles are a collection of unique districts and smaller neighborhoods that help shape the character of Los Angeles. Some of the smaller areas such as Gallery Row and the Flower District are often engulfed or included in the larger districts but still showcase a separate feel and atmosphere.

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BUILDING HEIGHTS 200m

The civic center neighborhood running adjacent to the 101 highway in the north features an eclectic group of buildings ranging in height. The Ramon C. Cortines School by Coop Himmelblau directly contrasts the symmetrical tower of the Los Angeles City Hall. The Walt Disney Concert Hall and the new Broad museum also form part of the varied forms in the area.

100m

90m

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60m

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Within the Financial Core and around Grand Street lie some of the only skyscrapers in the local area. These taller buildings that break the 100m mark are limited in number and stand in a far from dense arrangement. The skyline quickly dissipates towards the north east because of highway 110 whereas a more gradual slope of height continues towards the warehouse and arts district in the southeast. The outskirts of the loop is clearly dominated by low running warehouses varying between large double height spaces and maxing out at three stories tall.

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BUILDING AGE The Downtown Los Angeles loop contains an interwoven network of historical aged buildings, mid 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s boom warehouses and a scattering of modern era design around the perimeter. A collection of younger buildings can be found in the warehouse district to the south where a majority of the construction occurred between 1960 and 1980. Although the financial core and Bunker Hill areas are predominantly built in the early 90â&#x20AC;&#x2122;s, the far younger and taller office buildings and skyscrapers are sprinkled amongst the empty lots and city parks. There seems to be a trend between the developments of younger buildings around the exterior, making a slow encroachment towards the historical center. 65

Built after: < 1909

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MEDIAN INCOME According to the L.A. Times, there was an estimated population of 34, 811 in Downtown Los Angeles where the median income was $54,510, a family earning that amount could afford a home costing $275,530. But the median-priced home here was 58 percent higher at $436,010. According to the affordability index, only 30 percent of households in the April through June quarter could afford a $445,190 median-priced home and they would need a minimum qualifying income of $88,080

0-10k 10-20k 20-30k 30-40k 50-60k 60-70k 100k+

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HISPANIC POPULATION The largest ethnic group in the county is Hispanics, or Latinos, who make up 48 percent of the total. About 80 percent of Latinos are of Mexican origin, followed by Salvadorans and Guatemalans. Throughout the twentieth century, as the Mexican population has grown by immigration and natural increase, many Mexicans have moved farther east into suburbs of the San Gabriel Valley that had previously been almost all White.

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0-9%

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BLACK POPULATION Bicycle infrastructure is a growing part of Los Angelesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; culture. At the turn of the century L.A. Was considered the bicycle capital of the nation. With the severe density population and overcrowded transit-ways occurring within the metropolitan area, many citizens choose to make their commute by cycling. About 18,000 or 1% of daily commuters choose to make their commute this way, essentially doubling over the last decade Los Angeles has 1,200 miles of bike infrastructure broken down into three classes: Path, Lane, and Route. Bike route. This extensive network actually equates to about 0.6% of all L.A.

Road infrastructure, but is growing. Starting the summer of 2016 the City of Los Angeles will open a bike share program offering over 1,000 bikes and 80 Stations.

0-9%

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10-19%

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20-29%

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ASIAN POPULATION The next largest groups are Asians (13 percent), Asian immigration has led to rapid growth over several decades so that now there are over 300,000 each of Filipinos and Chinese, with Koreans and Japanese each numbering over 100,000. Modern Little Tokyo has long been known more as a Japanese American cultural and commercial center than a place of residence.

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0-9%

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90-100%


WHITE POPULATION Los Angeles County is home to 10 million people—more than any other county in the U.S. It includes the City of Los Angeles and 87 other cities. Although interconnected with four adjacent counties in a massive metropolitan area of over 17 million residents, Los Angeles County has always had the region’s greatest ethnic diversity.

0-9%

50-59%

10-19%

60-69%

20-29%

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30-39%

80-89%

40-49%

90-100%

In 1960, Non-Hispanic Whites made up 80 percent of L.A.’s population, now only 28 percent of the residents are Whites. The Westside contains the most prestigious residential areas of the city and, together with Downtown, represents the city’s center of economic power.

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PROGRAM MIX Downtown LA is a place in which there are different uses. To the northwest is the civic and administrative area, the heart of the city where all activities related to business, public buildings and parks, surrounded by high-rise buildings, are developed. To the east is the industrial area, a place full of warehouses, where light and heavy manufacturing is developed. It occupies much of downtown and is crossed by the river. Here is also the Arts District, which is growing in residences and commercial sites.

Much of the shops are located in mixeduse buildings, as does art galleries and museums. Residential areas are scattered around the downtown, new real estate projects in the area proposed mixed-use buildings, as in much of the city.

Light Residential Medium Residential High Residential Light Manufacturing Heavy Manufacturing Commercial Public Facilities Mixed Use

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GREEN SPACE The downtown area actually has very few green spaces, among them are some parks, squares, gardens and large parks located in the civic area of the city. Some city streets have public woodland, which benefits the screetscape in many ways. The streetscaping decreases the immediate temperature in the area and provides much needed oxygen. Although there are not many of these exact situations, some are interconnected in a way that generates air corridors. New projects and urban

developments are beginning to look at this problem, and starting to address the lack of green and wooded spaces. New urban strategies are proposing new parks, squares and recreational sites around the loop are

Park/Green Space Building Landscape Streetscaping

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SKIDROW Skid Row lies within the Central City East area and borders the Historical downtown. The actual name derives from a slang term for the people living â&#x20AC;&#x153;on the skidsâ&#x20AC;? which refers to old loggers who would wait on their load for the next transportation. The area has a high concentration of homeless population with a stable number residing around 3,000 to 6,000 people. The streets take on an iconic look with rows of camping texts lining the building exteriors. This trend initially began before 1960 when seasonal laborers would reside within the 54 block area to take shelter in between jobs. Plenty of homeless shelters have

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been set up in the district with volunteers manning food stations and donation pop ups around the year. Throughout the years many have governmental powers have attempted to crackdown on the issue but so far failed due to the overwhelming opposition from organizations fighting for and on behalf of the homeless.


DEMOGRAPHICS Median Household Income

Population Density

$11,207 Los Angeles

39% African American 29% White 25% Hispanic or Latino 5% Asian 2% Other

20,660 people psm $48,466

8,096

Los Angeles

8,281 people per square mile

Population below the poverty line (<$22,283)

74%

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LITTLE TOKYO Little Tokyo or Japan town is nestled right next to the arts district running parallel to Alameda St. J-town as some of the locals say, attracts both tourists but a steady population of Japanese Americans who frequently visit for groceries, restaurants and shopping. At its height, the area was home to nearly 30,000 Japanese Americans but the residing population has slowly decreased over the past couple of years. There is a high concentration of activity and pedestrians in the Little Tokyo with a very walkable environment. Small plazas and rows of restaurants and shops creates a lively neighborhood throughout the day.

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The Nisei Week is the largest event held in Little Tokyo and involves large gatherings of local Japanese Americans and others from the southern Californian area. Festivities to celebrate the Japanese culture and heritage are conducted during the month of August and concludes with a grand parade.


DEMOGRAPHICS Median Household Income

Population Density

$17,533 Los Angeles

43.1% Asian 34.5% White 10.7% African American 8.7% Hispanic or Latino 2.9% Other

17,186 people per square mile $48,466

1,834

Los Angeles

8,281 people per square mile

Population below the poverty line (<$22,283)

53%

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FASHION DISTRICT The fashion district lies just east of the arts district and covers almost 30% of the downtown loop land area. Both wholesale and individual street vendors operate from the district and actually rake in over $10 billion a year in annual business volume. The area is under slow increasing development with the increasing rate in pedestrian traffic rising 23% from 2000. This is heavily detailed in the famous Santee Alley which is a highly concentrated shopping path that offers customers with a varied selection of products including counterfeits and even the odd sighting of illegal animal trade.

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DEMOGRAPHICS Median Household Income

Population Density

$15,711 Los Angeles

39.8% White 38.2% Hispanic or Latino 11.2% African American 7.4% Asian 3.4% Other

5,561 people per square mile $48,466

3,897

Los Angeles

8,281 people per square mile

Of the LA downtown loop, the fashion district has 23% of the office and retail space.

23%

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ARTS DISTRICT The industrial warehouse filled arts district resides west of downtown within the loop and runs adjacent to the Los Angeles River. The neighborhood is under a slow revitalization with creatives moving back into the warehouses to create combined loft and work spaces. There is still a problem with keeping the work/live lofts affordable for the residents and protecting the character of the neighborhood by preserving the historical buildings. Sprinkled amongst the low riding warehouses are a growing amount of eclectic restaurants and galleries attracting some of the upper middle class into the neighborhood.

79

Prices within the neighborhood have risen from around $1.10 / sq ft in 2000 to around $2.00 sq ft making it harder for young entrepreneurs and artists to sustain a living in the district. Boosters and governmental personals are also pushing for increased funding to improve the public transportation access through the neighborhood.


DEMOGRAPHICS Median Household Income

Population Density

$33,609 Los Angeles

46.35% Asian 32.84% White 8.92% Hispanic or Latino 6.56% African American 5.3% Other

2,680 people per square mile $48,466

2,287

Los Angeles

8,281 people per square mile

Population below the poverty line (<$22,283)

34%

80


BOYLE HEIGHTS With a population of just over 91,000 the Boyle Heights neighborhoods serves as a largely residential district just west of the Los Angeles, across from the Arts District. The area is predominantly made up of people with Hispanic descent and this has heavily influenced the surrounding environment and architecture. While the population is relatively young, boasting a median age of 25 it does hold a relatively high amount of single parented families compared to the rest of the city.

81


DEMOGRAPHICS Median Household Income

Population Density $36,830

Los Angeles

94.07% Hispanic or Latino 2.81% Asian 1.75% White 1.32% African American 0.2% Other

15,504 people per square mile $48,466

91,913

Los Angeles

8,281 people per square mile

Population below the poverty line (<$22,283)

33%

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DOWNTOWN ZONING

83


84


1849 SURVEY MAP California joined the United States in 1848. Los Angeles was a small pueblo at the time and remained greatly unchanged for three decades. Edward Ord, an Army Engineer Lieutenant, completed the first official map of Los Angeles as part of the United States. The original map shows streets, drainage, numbered block and lot lines, vineyards, cornfields, fences, gardens, and churches. This version of the original map highlights the lines of Main Street and Alameda Street to define the origins of the city. Ord also began to highlight city blocks, which re-

main consistent with the grid of downtown Los Angeles today. The agricultural land to the east sits in a flood plane and occupy the same space as the Artâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s District today. The Parcel divisions are each documented with a pattern that showed what crop the ladowners were growing. These divisions will depict the future layout of the city as well. Located in the Circle is the City Plaza. This is home to the Plaza Church, which was the center of the city. Pictured below

City Plaza

Los s ele Ang

Alameda Street

Ma

in

Str

ee

t

er

Riv

Fu tu

re

85

Do

wn

tow

nL os

An

ge

les


t ee Str in

Alameda Street

Ma

LAND ORDINANCE OF 1904 The City of Los Angeles set a historic precedent in 1904 when it passed an ordinance which established the first land use designations in the nation. The ordinance reads: â&#x20AC;&#x153;AN ORDINANCE setting aside certain portions of the City of Los Angeles as residence districts, and prohibiting the carrying on of certain occupations within such districts.â&#x20AC;?

This map highlights the addition of the residential zone added in 1904, as well as the future layout of the downtown area. The land parcel divisions of the beginning of the city will soon form much of the cities transportation and infrastructure in the years to come.

1849 Parcel Lines 1904 Ordinance Los Angles Today

These residential districts began to crawl away from the original pueblo as the city itself rapidly grew in the late 1800s and the beginning of the 1900s.

86


GLOSSARY OF ZONING ITEMS ZONING Zoning code sets regulations by which new construction must comply. The purpose of zoning code is to encourage well-planned neighborhoods.

BLOCK An area bounded on all sides by streets, railways, or bodies of water.

SETBACK The distance an occupancy type is required to separate from the boundaries of a site or lot. This varies with zones.

PASEO A wide street planned with large avenues for pedestrian circulation and open space in the center. Space for traffic and parking depends on street width.

DWELLING UNIT A dwelling unit consists of the basic necessities for living, which includes bathrooms and kitchens. A minimum allowable space ensures adequate living area.

87


STREET PARKING Space allocated for inactive vehicles, which separates the sidewalk from mobile traffic.

=

FLOOR AREA RATIO (FAR) A certain ratio of build-able space is determined by zoning and lot size. A building can build twice as much floor space if it occupies half of a site.

LOT The basic unit of zoning regulations. Lots are the basis for taxes and they can be subdivided or merged depending on occupancy.

LOT MERGER A lot or multiple lots owned by a single owner. Zoning regulations apply to sites, not individual lots if a site is multiple lots.

SIDEWALK Space for pedestrian circulation that is separated visually from the road.

88


DOWNTOWN LOS ANGELES ZONING The zoning maps of the city of Los Angeles show a diverse amount of zoning in the downtown loop. The middle left section marks an area and core of commercial activity that is the heart of downtown, home to the collection of skyscrapers that make the LA skyline. The central middle section that stretches right marks the area of historical and current day manufacturing and storage uses, which now makes up the Toy District, Fashion District, Skidrow, and the Arts District.

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The zones surrounding the loop primarily consist of low density commercial and residential zoning.


PUBLIC ZONING Zoning

Land Use

Height Max

P1

Surface Parking

P1-O

Oil Drilling

P-OS

Open Space: Parks & Rec, Nature Reserves, Public Water

P-OS-2D

Open Space

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

P-OS-1XL

Open Space

2 Stories

No Limit

P-OS-4D

Open Space

No Limit

3:1 FAR

P-PF

Public Facilities: Fire, Police, Library, Mail, School

No Limit

6:1 FAR

P-PF-1XL-RIO

Public Facilities: River Improvement Overlay

2 Stories

No Limit

P-PF-4D

Public Facilities

No Limit

3:1 FAR

P-PF-2D-O

Public Facilities: Oil Drilling

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

90


COMMERCIAL ZONING Zoning

Land Use

LASED

LA Sports & Entertainment District

C1

Limited Commercial: Retail <100k sq ft, Offices, Hotels, Hospitals, Parking Areas, Schools, Museums, R3 Uses

C1.5

Limited Commercial: C1, Theaters, Hotels, Broadcasting Studios, Parking Buildings, Parks and Playgrounds, R4 Uses

C2

Commercial: C1.5, Retail with Limited Manufacturing, Service Stations, Garages, Churches, Schools, Auto Sales, R4 Uses

C2-1

Commercial

No Limit

1.5:1 FAR

C2-1-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

1.5:1 FAR

C2-1-CDO-RIO

Commercial: CDO & River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

1.5:1 FAR

C2-2D

Commercial

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C2-2D-O

Commercial: Oil Drilling

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

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Height Max


Zoning

Land Use

Height Max

C2-2D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C2-2D-CDO-RIO

Commercial: CDO & River Improvement Overlay

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C2-2D-RIO

Commercial: River Improvement Overlay

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C2-3D

Commercial

No Limit

10:1 FAR

C2-3D-O

Commercial: Oiling Drilling

No Limit

10:1 FAR

C2-3D-O-CDO

Commercial: Oiling Drilling & Community Development Overlay

No Limit

10:1 FAR

C2-4D

Commercial

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-O

Commercial: Oil Drilling

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-O-CDO

Commercial: Oil Drilling & Community Development Overlay

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-O-SN

Commercial: Oiling Drilling & Sign

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-CDO-SN

Commercial: Community Development Overlay & Sign

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C2-4D-SN

Commercial: Sign

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C4

Commercial: C2 with Limitations, R4

C4-2D

Commercial

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C4-2D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C4-2D-CDO-SN

Commercial: Community Development Overlay & Sign

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C5

Commercial: C2, R4, Limited Manufacturing of CM Type

C5-2D

Commercial

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

C5-4D

Commercial

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C5-4D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

13:1 FAR

C5-4D-CDO-SN

Commercial: Community Development Overlay & Sign

No Limit

13:1 FAR

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RESIDENTIAL ZONING Zoning

Land Use

R4

Homeless Shelter

R4-2D

Multiple Dwelling

R5

Multiple Dwelling: R4, Clubs, Lodges, Hospitals, Hotels

R5-2D

Multiple Dwelling

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

R5-2D-O

Multiple Dwelling: Oil Drilling

6 Stories

6:1 FAR

R5-4D

Multiple Dwelling

13 Stories

13:1 FAR

R5-4D-O

Multiple Dwelling: Oil Drilling

13 Stories

13:1 FAR

R5-4D-O-CDO

Multiple Dwelling: Oil Drilling & Community Development Overlay 13 Stories

13:1 FAR

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Height Max


INDUSTRIAL ZONING Zoning

Land Use

Height Max

M1

Limited Industrial, No Residential, Enclosed C2

M2

Light Industrial, M1, Storage Yards, Animal Keeping, Composting

M2-2D

Light Industrial

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D-CDO

Light Industrial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D-O

Light Industrial: Oil Drilling

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D-O-SN

Light Industrial: Oil Drilling & Signs

M3

Heavy Industrial: M2, Nuisance 500 ft from other zones

M3-2D-RIO

Heavy Industrial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

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ARTS DISTRICT ZONING Zoning

Land Use

Height Max

PF-1XL-RIO

Public Facilities: River Improvement Overlay

2 Stories

No Limit

CM-1-RIO

Commercial Manufacturing: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

1.5:1 FAR

C2-2D-CDO-RIO

Commercial: Community Development & River Improvement

No Limit

6:1 FAR

C2-2D-RIO

Commercial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

C2-3D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

10:1 FAR

C4-2D-CDO

Commercial: Community Development Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D

Light Industrial

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D-O

Light Industrial: Oil Drilling

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M2-2D-O-CDO

Light Industrial: Oil Drilling & River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

M3-1-RIO

Heavy Industrial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

1.5:1 FAR

M3-2D-RIO

Heavy Industrial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit

6:1 FAR

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RIVER IMPROVEMENT OVERLAY

The plan suggests reconfiguring active rail networks and connecting to the future 6th Street bridge as a way to continue the River Green-way along the western shore as well as the eastern shore in the Downtown Industrial area.

LOW/NONE

Improve Water Quality

MEDIUM

Opportunity

Create Habitat

RIO Opportunity Areas

Recharge Groundwater

RIO Boundary

Enhance Flood Protection

Existing Rail Lines

Create/Expand Parks Improve River Asthetics/Visibility Community Benefits

HIGH

Opportunity Area #13 In the river master plan the Arts District is described as an emerging mixed-use neighborhood. The area provides a large population base of potential river visitors when its proximity to Downtown and Little Tokyo is taken into consideration.

Reinvestment

Opportunities: Emerging residential population with limited open space. Ability to link Downtown with the River. Improve access to the river for residents. Challenges: Western edge of the river is inaccessible due to Metro Maintenance Yards. Safety and security are questionable. Relies on rail to move storage lines.

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F.A.R. IN THE ARTS DISTRICT The Arts District is primarily zoned as a manufacturing district, with small parts zoned to accomodate commercial and public facilities. The floor-area ratio (FAR) for each of the zoned areas vary due to the projected use of the area and how it will effect the neighborhood. Possible developments under each zone is shown below.

Subcategory within the zoning classification that specifies allowable program for the area.

M

2

Zoning classification such as manufacturing, commercial, residential, and public facilities.

Zoning

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+

City overlay which is listed to define the specific improvement projects that apply to a specific area.

2D

+

RIO

Height category which identifies the allowable height for the program of the area.

Land Use

Height Max

PF-1XL-RIO Public Facilities: River Improvement

2 Stories No Limit

C2-2D-RIO

Commercial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit 1.5:1 FAR

C2-2D-RIO

Commercial: River Improvement Overlay

No Limit 6:1 FAR


C2-3D-O-CDO

Commercial: Oil & River Improvement

No Limit 10:1 FAR

M3-1-RIO

Manufacturing Facilities

No Limit 6:1 FAR

M2-2D-RIO

Manufacturing Facilities

No Limit 6:1 FAR

M3-1-RIO

Heavy Manufacturing: River Improvement

No Limit 1.5:1 FAR

98


F.A.R. IN THE ARTS DISTRICT

99


LIVE-WORK ORDINANCE The Live-Work Ordinance is currently in draft and being pushed through by a devoted community interested in the Arts District. The ordinance is part of the slightly larger Central City North Community Plan. The goal of the Live-Work allowances is to maintain the employment and productive capability of the Arts District, while allowing further creation of new opportunities. Below are the encouraged and discouraged usages.

The Live-Work ordinance also plans to change the FAR planning of the Artâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s District based on amenities provided to the public. First, any use of an existing structure will not count towards a new projects FAR. Second, FAR may exceed 1.5 if all of the public amenities selected below a certain FAR are met. Lastly, these incentives will only expand FAR if the floor area of Live-Work units or hotel rooms is greater than the floor area of any other use.

Use Live/Work (A) Live/Work (B) Residential (Single/Multi-Family) Art Gallery Exhibition Artisinal/Micro Manufacturing Artist + Resident Artist Studio Community Co-working Creative Office Drive Thru Hotel Light Manufacturing M2 M3 Media Nightclub Research Restaurant Retail Urban Agriculture

Encouraged

Project Addition Affordable Housing Arts and Productive Use Pedestrian Accessibility Public Art/Facade Treatment Resident Production Space Underground Parking Type I or II Construction

Limited X

Prohibited

Limitation

X X X X X X X X X X X

150 Room Limit

X X X X X X X X

8,000 Sq Ft Limit 10,000 Sq Ft Limit

X 1.5:1

Allowable FAR 3:1 4.5:1 X X X X X X X X X X X

4.5:1< X X X X X X X

Section B.2.b.1 B.2.b.2 B.2.b.3-4 B.2.b.5 B.2.b.6 B.2.c B.2.d 100


SG ran

E 1st St

St

110

dA ve

101

S

Ma in

101

E 4th St

10

110

GENTRIFICATION 1990-2000 The Arts District, over the last 20 years, has been one of the most heavily gentrified areas in Los Angeles. The area which is heavily zoned for manufacturing use has been rediscovered and restored to bring in residential areas allowing an influx of people and businesses to move into the historic district. Arts District Status: Gentrified* Population: 1 501 (+2 740) Median Home Value: $268 460 (+61%) Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Degrees: 20.6% of adults in 2000 compared to 9% of adults in 1990 Household Income: $26,658

101

Gentrification eligibility is defined when the median household income, median home value, and education were located in the bottom 40th percentile in comparison to the tracts surrounding it.

Gentrification applied to area No Gentrification Applied to area Not Eligible for Gentrification

10


E 1st St

St

110

SG ra nd

101

10

SM

ain

101

E 4th St

10

110

GENTRIFICATION 2000-PRESENT Although still growing, the Arts District became uneligible for gentrification because of their growth. the revitilization of the neighborhood continues as more people and businesses move into the historic district changing the characteristics of the area everyday.

Gentrification eligibility is defined when the median household income, median home value, and education were located in the bottom 40th percentile in comparison to the tracts surrounding it.

Gentrification applied to area No Gentrification Applied to area Not Eligible for Gentrification

Arts District Status: Tract not gentrification eligible* Population: 3 040 (+1 539) Median Home Value $400 000 (+7%) Bachelorâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Degrees: 56% of adults Household Income: $67,542

102


ARTS DISTRICT

103


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HISTORY OF THE ARTS DISTRICT

1876 In 1876 the Southern Pacific Railroad arried to L.A. and connected Los Angeles to the transcontinental railroad. Soon after, the Santa Fe railroad came in 1885. These railroads chose this spot because of its proximity to where the city was located at the time. Each railroad company built warehouses and depots, quickily transforming this area into a rail yard district. With a population influx in effect, this area became a full fledged industrial zone due to the number of factories that set up shop here. These included textiles, machine goods, automobile parts, and even furniture. However after WWII, the factories needed larger parcels of land and the railroad industry was slowing giving way to the trucking industry. This is when the area slowly began to die.

1940 1970 Beginning in the 1970’s, artists began to move into this area, which had long been empty and derelict, in order to avoid the high cost of living in Venice or Hollywood. This migration was illegal and because of its rapid spurt in popularity, it was eventually noticed by the city. Activists like Joel Bloom fought for the district’s rich underground art scene and managed to get the city to designate the area as “The Arts District.” Joel Bloom Square, in dark pink, represents the beating heart of this vibrant neighborhood.

1999 2001

Thanks to the Artist in Residence Ordinance, young and upcoming artists could move into the affordable warehouses that were quickly being turned over into Live/Work units. In 2001, a former freight train house was converted into one of the district’s most important staple: SCI-Arc. This architecture school embraced the grittiness of the area and left the concrete structure exposed and even the graffitti on the walls. Today, they remain innovators in design education .

105


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MAPPING THE ARTS DISTRICT 1 One Santa Fe

Mixed-use complex extending a quarter mile

2 Barker Block

Two-phase development with 300 lofts, townhouse, and live/work units

3 AMP Lofts

Mixed-used building with 320 live/work apartments, communal artisan workshop, and dog run.

4 Garey Building

Replacing warehouses with ped-friendly rentals, plus retail and restaurants

5 Industrial

Brick-and-metal-covered mixed-use buliding with 240 units

6 Open-air Mall

Replace five warehouses with 125,000 sq. ft. shopping center with grocery store

7 Hauser Wirth and

Big â&#x20AC;&#x153;multi-disciplinaryâ&#x20AC;? arts complex, with restaurant, bookstore, and space for museum exhibits

8 La Kretz Innovation Campus

Clean technology center containing offices, labs, classrooms, conference rooms, and event spaces

9 Arts District Park

Half-acre park

Schimmel Arts Space

10 Sixth Street Viaduct

Mixed-use complex extending a quarter mile

11 Metro Stops

Two train stops on either Red or Purple Line

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SIXTH STREET VIADUCT One of Americaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s most famous and iconic bridges, the Sixth Street Viaduct, acts as a vital connection between the growing Arts District on the west side of the Los Angeles River and the historic neighborhood of Boyle Heights on the east side. Yet, due to a rare chemical reaction in the cement supports and seismic vulnerability, the Sixth Street Viaduct will soon be demolished and replaced. The Sixth Street Viaduct Replacement Project, is the largest bridge project in the history of Los Angeles. The design of the bridge was created by Los Angeles architect Michael Maltzan.

109

The spectacular design of the new bridge and the many parks, open spaces and community features on, next to and below the bridge, is bringing together a working collaboration of residents, elected officials, business leaders, schools, labor unions, cyclists, neighborhood activists and artists and many more, never before seen in a public infrastructure project in Los Angeles


1.

2. 3.

4.

5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

LOS ANGELES

LA RIVER REVITALIZATION PLAN The Los Angeles river was once thriving with an abundance of lush vegetation and wildlife. 77 kilometers of constant flooding and pooling of water created a haven suitable to support such diverse ecosystems. Yet after several flood devastations, the Los Angeles River has thus been casted in concrete. What was once an environment teaming with habitats and potable water is now a vacant wasteland of runoff water. The city of Los Angeles has commissioned a proposal to rehabilitate the dilapidated river as well as its surrounding context. The development is issued towards the first half of the L.A. River. The master plan attempts to create greener

riverfront, establish parks, optimize pubic safety, purify and raise water levels, keep flood control, and reintroduce wildlife habitats. Revitalization of the L.A. River has been divided into two phases short term and Long term. Additionally it has been sectioned off as stated: 1. Confluence to Sepulveda Basin; 2. Sepulveda Basin; 3. Sepulveda Basin to Tujunga Wash; 4. Tujunga Wash to Barham Blvd.; 5. Barham Blvd. to Burbank Western Channel; 6. Burbank Western Channel to Taylor Yard; 7. Taylor Yard; 8. Taylor Yard to 1st Street; 9. 1st Street to Washington Blvd. 110


LA RIVER REVITALIZATION The Los Angeles River has been used primarily as drainage for the city and region during large storms, despite itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s close proximity to dense populations and noticeable location. The city has a plan to add to the uses of the river to limit the eyesore and give back to the communities alongside the river. Trails, bike paths, gardens, and places to sit are all part of the large plan stretching across dozens of miles through LA.

Chinatown Cornfields Just north of the Santa Ana Freeway, proposals for walkable platforms extending over the river develop. This formal gesture encourages pedestrians to view the extents of adjacent river developments.

Downtown Industrial South of the Santa Ana Freeway is a dilapidated, empty concrete plot. Initial plans to revitalize this area have come into play by offering green terraces with accommodating steps for pedestrian use.

Promenade Walkable promenades throughout the river revitalization plan allows pedestrians the opportunity to become more active. A consistently changing green environment offers views and a dynamic experience.

111


Green Streets The Los Angeles Revitalization proposal plans to reach farther than the extents of the river. Creating stronger and safer street connections to the river will allow an ease of passage to the surrounding context. The proposal includes specified pedestrian walkways, bus lanes, bike lanes and a centralized mass transit system.

Rubber Dams Rubber dams are part of the short term solution to create ponding areas. By placing these rubber dams strategically, walking along the river will become safer for humans and wildlife. During high flood seasons, the rubber dams are deflated allowing permeability. Long term ponding areas will be created with high resistance vegetative densities.

Neighborhood Gateways Neighborhood gateways will be incorporated to introduce residential areas. This is to distinctions between neighborhoods. In some areas, they serve as a sound barrier for highway traffic.

Downtown Industrial Furthermore, the Downtown Industrial area will then apply green space to create a natural-appearing curve. This effect along with the aquatic vegetation will slow the river speeds. As a result, his will heighten water levels and make a safer waterfront.

112


#20A #8

#9

#25

CASE STUDY HOUSES Arts & Architecture, an American magazine, sponsored an experiment into residential housing called the Case Study Houses. This was in response to increased demand of housing after WWII and a need for quality, modular architecture at affordable prices. The experiment lasted from 1945 until 1966 and, while not all 36 studies were built, most were built in Los Angeles. The most famous are numbers 8 and 22, the Eames House and the Stahl House, respectively. The Case Study Houses had large impacts on residential archi113

tecture throughout the United States and the world. In the US, impacts included the development of open floor plans, sliding glass doors, moving the living room towards the back of the house, and the exposure of structure in residential housing. The houses also introduced the idea of cheaply built, but pleasant and beautiful homes. While houses were built as places for shelter throughout history, the use of modern materials and a tame outdoors led the houses in the experiment to embrace nature, looking outward rather than inward.


#22 #16

#28

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#22 STAHL HOUSE The Stahl House, designed by Pierre Koenig, was built in 1960 in West Hollywood. It is an L-Shape facing a pool in the center and sweeping views of the city. Bedrooms are in one leg with the kitchen and living room on the other leg. The public spaces are an open floor plan, interrupted only by kitchen counters, cabinets, and a fireplace. No windows face towards the entry or street, facing only the pool and city views. The house is dominated by steel as the structure and roof, with standard concrete as the base and large 20 square feet panels 115

of glass and sliding glass doors. The roof appears to be floating due to the thin steel columns, large windows, and lack of a close horizon line. Modular in design, the house consists of 6 and a half bays, one dedicated to parking, one for the childrenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s bedroom, one for master bedroom, one for utilities and bathrooms, and two shared with the kitchen and living room. The last half extrudes outside past the living room towards the city.


#8 EAMES HOUSE The Eames House, designed by Charles and Ray Eames, was built in 1949 on the Pacific Palisades near LA. Built as a home and a work space, The Eames House consists of two, separate structures. One building is the house, while the other is a studio. It is built in a linear fashion and consists of bays, the main house having 8, the studio having 5, and the courtyard in-between having 4. The house is excavated in the side of a hill with a row of tall eucalyptus trees behind it, leaving the front of the house to have views towards the ocean.

The house was built completely with industrial, pre-fabricated materials including steel, glass, asbestos, and Cemesto board. The living room of the house is double height and takes up 3 bays, creating a cube. The kitchen, bedrooms, and bathrooms are single height. The studio building has a main studio space that mimics the living room with the same dimensions, with storage, a dark room, and a bathroom taking up the single height portions.

116


WHAT IS THE

PROBLEM?

117


118


AVERAGE STATE RENTAL COST Cost of living across the United States varies greatly state by state, with housing costs playing a large factor. The most affordable housing is in Arkansas with an average monthly rental cost at $782 while the most expensive monthly cost is at $2,760 in New York. California, the state the project is located, sits at $2,235, not far behind the most expensive state.

119

Housing affordability is a major factor in attracting and retaining residents and with California sitting at an average rental cost twice that of over half of US states, California must offer a considerable amount of services and benefits in order to be competitive.

Monthly Rent < $1,100 $1,100 - 1,500 $1,500 - 1,900 $1,900 - 2,400 $2,400+


LA REGION AVERAGE RENTAL COST Taking a look at major cities around the Los Angeles region, the average rental cost varies just as dramatically as it does across the United States. Compton sits at the cheapest average rent at $1,120 a month, while Malibu is almost six times as expensive at $6,304 a month.

affordability for incoming residents from other states. While jobs in the region may pay higher wages, there is a growing concern of the number of residents who may be rent burdened.

Monthly Rent < $1,500 $1,500 - 2,000 $2,000 - 3,000 $3,000 - 5,000

Los Angeles, the project location, sits at $2,614 a month, higher than the California average. Most cities shown are much more expensive than the average rental cost in most US states, leading to a question of

$5,000+

Pasadena $2,484

Beverly Hills $3,547

Malibu $6,304

El Monte $1,359

Los Angeles

West Covina $1,635

$2,614

Santa Monica $3,374

Downey $1,614

Compton $1,120

Torrance

Anaheim

$1,893

$1,876

Long Beach $2,338

120


$1,150 $4,200

$1,800

$2,115

$2,000

$2,375 $2,000 $2,000

$1,450 $3,150

$2,200

$2,700

$3,400

$1,600 $2,650

$2,500

$2,100

$2,800

SPOT RENTS Taking a look at current one bedroom apartment rents (7.11.2016) around the Arts District, the cheapest price is $2,000 a month while the most expensive is $3,400 a month. These prices are higher than most of the average rent costs in the LA region, furthering the concern of residents being severly rent burdened. Without an affordable housing option, artists will be forced to locate to other parts of Los Angeles, taking jobs, art, and the life of the district with them.

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$2,100

$2,800

Zillow Listing Craigslist Listing Arts District


RENT BURDENED IDEAL RATIO

UNITED STATES RATIO

CALIFORNIA RATIO

LOS ANGELES RATIO

ARTS DISTRICT RATIO

30%

Monthly Rent / Monthly Income = Percentage of income dedicated to housing costs The US Department of Housing and Urban Development states that housing is affordable when < 30% of income is dedicated to housing.

22%

US Averages

44%

CA Averages

56%

LA Averages

49%

AD Averages

$934 / $4,709 = 22%

$2,335 / $5,219 = 44%

$2,614 / $4,659 = 56%

$2,283 / $4,659 = 49%

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CONTINUING GENTRIFICATION Gentrification is expected to continue and pick up pace as a minimum of 19 projects, many large and new to the Arts District, have been announced or will soon start construction. These 19 projects will contribute a grand total of 4,569 new apartment units with a mixture of one and two bedroom apartments, studios, lofts, and live/work units. The large influx of new, higher income residents will create a demand for higher paying jobs, retail, and food options, quickening gentrification of the district.

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1 - 6AM 2 - Soho Warehouse 3 - Ford Motor Factory 4 - Row DTLA 5 - Bay St. Mixed Use 6 - Sixth St. Viaduct 7 - Cloyton Live-Work 8 - Challenge Building 9 - Coca-Cola Building 10 - At Mateo

11 - Santa Fe Business Center 12 - 330 South Alameda 13 - AMP Lofts 14 - Industrial 15 - Violet St. Project 16 - Legendary Development 17 - 668 South Alameda 18 - 520 Mateo St. 19 - Alameda Hotel


WHAT IS THE

SOLUTION?

AFFORDABLE ARTIST LIVING With 60% of Los Angeles residents paying over 30% of their income towards housing costs, it is easy to see that affordable housing is in great demand in the region. As rents skyrocket in the Arts District and with evidence of this trend continuing into the future, the districts existence as it currently stands is threatened unless moves can be made to keep residents in the immediate area. The project proposal is to create an affordable housing project geared specifically towards local artists. The project is tasked with building a community of artists through design and landscape. The project must respect the existing context, including any existing site conditions. As Californiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s drought continues, LAâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s demand for water grows, rising energy costs, and waste disposal become increasing concerns, the complex will

need to confront those problems. With a multitude of high profit projects in the neighborhood, there is a concern for reaching a profitability in the project in order to attract developers. To ensure a continuation of the Arts District, residents who wish to live in the complex will need to apply with a portfolio or equivalent to prove the prospective tenant has a creative talent that can contribute to the Arts District. The affordable artist living project will help the Arts District continue to provide the creative output that has made the district well-known by keeping fresh talent in the area.

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ARTS DISTRICT

PLANNING SITE SELECTION PHOTO JOURNAL ZONING & URBAN RULES MASTER PLANNING

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127 141 147 140


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SITE SELECTION

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1st Stree t

INTERSTATE 10

4T H

ST RE ET

ALAMEDA ST

ER LA RIV

7TH STREET

TE STA ER INT

10

THE ARTS DISTRICT The Arts District sits to the southeast of Downtown Los Angeles. It is bordered by 1st Street to the north, the LA River to the east, 7th Street to the south, and Alameda Street to the west. The Metro Gold Line runs along 1st Street to the north, giving the north part of the district access to the metro system. Major freeways encircle the northern, eastern, and southern portions of the Arts District, which was a benefit historically in the districts major manufacturing days. The district is primarily used today for art while shipping and storage is still common.

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Metro Gold Line Train Station


FOOD, RESTAURANTS, BARS, COFFEE Taking into account the program of the Affordable Artist Living, a major requirement of a resident moving into a new neighborhood is access to food and drinks. This map shows the location of every restaurant, bar, cafe, coffee shop, and grocery store. There are two primary clusters within the Arts District, the one at the intersection of 4th Street and Alameda Street and one along the southern edge on 7th Street.

Restaurants, Bars, Coffee Grocery Stores

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CREATIVE BUSINESSES & GALLERIES Besides food, an important part of choosing a location to live is access to employment. The Arts Districts primarily gets itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s name from two types of businesses, art galleries and misc. creative businesses, such as film, advertising, media, design, print, textiles, and any other that deals with a creative employee base. Art schools where a creative skill can be taught are also listed. While these are spread throughout the district, there is one primary cluster centered around the intersection of 4th Street and Alameda Street.

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Creative Business Gallery Creative School


EXPANDED ARTS DISTRICT When it comes to site selection, it is important to verify what consitutes as the Arts District. Due to the sheet number of creative businesses and art galleries outside of the originally specified zone, the definition of the Arts District has been expanded south with 8th Street as the southern border and east with Interstate 10 and Clarence Street being the primary borders. These areas are similar in context to the orginial district, containing large warehouses and old manufacturing plants.

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IDEAL LOCATIONS Employment opportunities and access to food and drink are the most important parts of whether a resident chooses to live in a neighborhood and if their lives there will be succesful. Placing a 5 minute diameter walking circle on each gallery, creative business, food, and drink location, we can begin to see clusters of access to these amenities. There are two main clusters within the Arts District, one around the intersection of 4th Street and Alameda Street, which is the well known center of the district. The second cluster is along 7th Street to the south, which has been growing in popular133

ity as ample amounts of affordable space has become available.

5 min walking diameter


SUPER BLOCKS Having mapped desirable areas for residents, it is important to avoid parts of the Arts District that have a large problem that simple business and street improvements cannot fix. Super blocks are areas that have poor access to vehicles and especially pedestrians. In order to get from one side of the â&#x20AC;&#x153;blockâ&#x20AC;? to the other, one must walk around the blue sections, rather than through them. While some blocks may have access through the center, the ability to do so is hampered through issues such as lack of sidewalks, private property, and large buildings. Solving these issues would take large

scale planning, investment, and years.

Super Block

The Affordable Artist Living must not be located within a super block so that residents can have easy access to the services and jobs that they need. This creates a narrow strip of blocks down the center of the Arts District that is suitable for the Affordable Artist Living.

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SITE PROPOSAL Considering clusters of amenities and the avoidance of super blocks, it becomes clear that there are two areas suitable for the Affordable Artist Living, one in the north and one in the south. The northern portion, however, already contains five housing projects not originally part of the Arts District. The southern portion does not contain any housing projects, which is a more suitable location as to give artists housing options throughout the district. The site proposed sits along 7th Street, a major roadway that connects downtown in the west to neighborhoods in the east. Mateo Street borders the western edge of the 135

site, giving easy access along the northern and southern portions of the Arts District.

Super Block 5 min walking diameter Housing Project Site Proposal


SITE LOCATION The site is bordered by three streets and a building. Mateo Street is the western border, Imperial Street is the eastern border, 7th Street is the southern border, and the existing building is along the northern border.

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Blue Bottle Coffee Miles Produce Inc

Lotte Trading Ny Corp. The Daily Dose, Inc

Fruit Pop

Pour Haus Wine 3 min

Little Bear Church & State

Urban Radish

50,000 sq ft

Everson Royce Bar La Reyna

Pizzanista!

Lichaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Bar & Grill

Vegetarian Connection

Stumptown Coffee

Bestia

MAST Los Angeles

FOOD, RESTAURANTS, BARS, COFFEE Zooming into the 50,000 square foot site location, we can see there is a significant cluster of food availible to the areas residents and workers. There are restaurants, cafes, coffee shops, grocery stores, and specialty shops, such as health food and chocolate. These services, all within a 5 minute walk, are vital to the success of the affordable artist living.

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Restaurant, Bar, Coffee Grocery Store


Ashkahn Studio Studio6 Concrete Studios

DC Stages

Lot 613 Taste of Pace

Jason Vass

3 min

Payman Fabric Inc

C Print Inc

How Many Virgins?

Endeavor Print FABFAD CES Gallery

50,000 sq ft

Imperial Art Studios Redraw

More Media

HD Buttercup

CREATIVE BUSINESSES & GALLERIES There is also a cluster of creative businesses and galleries surrounding the site. Video production, media, printing, and culinary crafts are the majority of businesses. As more artist move into the area and look for jobs, the number of galleries and creative businesses is likely to rise. The more creative businesses there are, the more they can support each other and grow.

Creative Business Gallery

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PHOTO JOURNAL

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140


STREETART

141


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NEIGHBORHOOD

143


144


SITE PHOTOS

145


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ZONING & URBAN RULES

147


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CURRENT ZONING The zoning in the Arts District hasnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t changed much in the last half century, still being primarily focused on manufacturing and its related industries. Warehouses, distribution centers, and some manufacturing still persist throughout the district, despite artists and galleries moving in the last few decades. This isnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t likely to last much longer, as land values and rents have been steadily climbing. As the value of the land reaches certain points, it will be more profitable to develop old industrial buildings into housing, retail, and offices. The current character of the Arts District is in jeopardy.

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Public Facilities Commercial Light Manufacturing


PROPOSED ZONING The zoning proposed for the Arts District wonâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t change current zoning dedicated for commercial or public facilities, but it will change every other type of manufacturing zoning into one single Arts District zoning type. The Arts District zoning type will focus on keeping the character of the district, encouraging new residents, retail, businesses, and especially those of the creative kind, such as galleries, design firms, video production, and fabric. Specific rules for this zoning takes place in the urban rules in the following section. This zoning type discourages or forbids development that

does not match the character of the Arts District, encourages gentrification, and disproportionate sized buildings in relation to the surrounding context.

Public Facilities Commercial Arts District

The High Traffic Overlay recognizes corridors of high traffic and utilizes the high customer potential. All buildings within the overlay must have mixed use facing the street, such as stores, galleries, cafes, restaurants, and so on. The high visibility of this mixed use will help encourage pedestrian activities.

High Traffic Overlay

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URBAN RULES

FIRST 4 ARE THE MOST IMPACTFUL RULES

1 HEIGHT MAX Maximum height is within 30% of the tallest building in a 500 ft radius, unless tallest is three stories or below, then five is maximum.

2 ANTI-BORING WALLS A wall of the same building must undulate 5â&#x20AC;&#x2122;< after 100 ft of the same face either by width, length, or height. The new face must be a minimum of 30 ft, unless the building ends.

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3 PRESERVATION Existing structures are banned from being razed unless a convincing argument is in place to prove existing structures violate urban rules and cannot be retrofitted to fit.

4 REPLANTING EARTH 25% of the footprint taken by a new building must be replanted elsewhere on the property, such as the rooftops, terraces, or on the ground instead of paved surfaces.

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5 WALKABILITY Development with street frontage needs to enact at least two walkability features, while busier streets need to maintain at least three.

6 REINTEGRATION A new development must reconnect streets specified in the master plan. Space used will be compensated by the city.

7 DEFINED BLOCK All blocks will be defined by public space, either through a street, sidewalk, park, etc.

8 CREATIVE DEVELOPMENT Any development in the Arts District needs to enhance the creativity or livelihoods of the district without threatening current ones.

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9 CONTEXT Be sure to take into account context, such as use, materiality, scale, history, color, and texture, to name a few.

10 NATURAL FLORA Only natural flora to the region can be planted, includes potted plants. This ensures decreased water dependency and sets an example for other communities.

11 AFFORDABLE HOUSING A minimum of 1/3 of new housing units must be affordable housing to ensure that the district continues to have a diverse population.

12 RECYCLING PROGRAM All new development requires proof of a recycling program and appropriate space for it.

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13 STREETART A minimum of 1/3 of the opaque spaces on a facade facing the street must be a form of streetart.

14 SHOP FRONT DIVERSITY A store or business frontage cannot be longer than x1.5 the average length of neighboring stores.

15 REDUCING WATER USAGE Development should implement strategies to reduce water usage by 1/3 of the average LA resident or business.

16 REDUCING ENERGY USAGE Development should implement strategies to reduce energy usage by 1/3 of the average LA resident or business.

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17 BEDROOMS TO CARS For every three bedrooms that are built, one off street parking spot underground or shielded from public view is required.

18 ONE WITH NATURE It is important to incorporate interaction between building spaces and nature to increase of the quality of life of Arts District tenants.

19 MIXED USE High traffic areas must utilize mixed use at street level to encourage pedestrian activity and to take advantage of high visibility and access.

20 LA RIVER ENHANCEMENT Any property alongn the LA River should have direct access to the river and shield 50% of its facade with foilage.

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MASTER PLANNING

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ARTS DISTRICT TODAY This is the Arts District as it stands in fall 2016. Much of the district is still home to some manufacturing, distribution centers, and storage warehouses. As popularity of the district has been skyrocketing in recent years and months, those uses are likely to be pushed out for more profitable uses, such as offices, retail, and residences.

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MASSING The massing of the Arts District shows a large variation of building sizes from long and wide to short and small. The district is primarily one and two story buildings, but speckled with six and seven story warehouses and factories, which are being converted into lofts and apartments.

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MISSING CONNECTIONS Super blocks persist throughout the Arts District, cutting pedestrians off from ease of flow to residences and businesses. Without clear, easy, and safe routes to use throughout a neighborhood, the usability and attractiveness of the area suffers, leading businesses to choose locations more easily navigable. Shown above are the locations that have a lack of mobility for pedestrians and cars where a new street could easily be placed and help reconnect parts of the district.

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BUILDINGS IN VIOLATION In order to get new streets placed in the Arts District, certain buildings have been found to violate urban rules. They break the urban fabric with their massiveness, cutting off blocks from one another. While some buildings may be able to be retrofitted or partially torn down to allow street access, we assume that they violate enough rules to justify being torn down in place for new streets and buildings that conform to the new set of urban rules.

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MASTER PLAN The master plan for the Arts District takes into account the new zoning and urban rules set forth to help maintain the character and creativity of the district. The LA River has been altered to encompass the future redevelopment the city is planning while new buildings have been built in areas where old ones found to violate urban rules were torn down or are urban infill. The new Sixth Street bridge, soon to start construction, has also been added.

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NEW STREETCAR A new streetcar has been placed that runs from Union Station, south along Alameda Street, and then west up Olympic Blvd towards downtown. It connects to Metro Central, then finds a way back to Union Station to form a loop. Most of the Arts District is within a 10 minute walk of the streetcar, allowing residents to get to vital locations such as Union Station, Metro Central, the Fashion District, and downtown LA.

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DEVELOPING

PROGRAM PRECEDENT STUDIES PROGRAM STATEMENT AVATARS PROGRAM RELATIONSHIPS MASSING

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167 177 181 185 191


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PRECEDENT STUDIES

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BROADWAY HOUSING PROJECT The Broadway Housing is a building built by Kevin Daly Architects in Santa Monica, California. Low income housing is a big problem in Santa Monica, so the project was commissioned by the Community Corporation of Santa Monica, a local non-profit organization.

There are multiple ways the project promotes sustainability, such as the green roof, custom windows that block sun, canted wall panels, a vegetative screen wall, and a 15,000 gallon cistern that collects rainwater for irrigation. Due to these design strategies, the units are not equipped with AC, yet remain comfortable year round. Flow restrictors are built into the kitchens and bathrooms to

The purpose of this project was to give low income families housing that is environmentally and economically sustainable. This design uses repeatable housing blocks around a courtyard with an existing tree. The complex consists of four buildings containing a total of 33 units and green roofs.

avoid overconsumption of water.

The courtyard is host to a play area with community rooms towards the back of the site. The courtyard allows children to play, residents to garden, and classes to be held, helping build a strong community. Bridges are used to connect the four buildings together on upper levels. 169


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SPECTRUM APARTMENTS The Spectrum Apartments were built in a suburb of Melbourne, Australia and were designed by Kavellaris Urban Design. It is a mixed use of commercial on the ground floor and multi-residential units on the upper floors. The building mass is shown as strips to showcase the diversity of the Box Hill neighborhood. The alternating angles of the units with the bright colors create a playful, undulating facade. The apartment units are all similar, but the exterior creates a unique identity for each unit. To increase community development between the residents, an internal multi-story courtyard was created for the building circulation. It brings in light from above, allows foilage to grow, and allows natural ventilation between the plants and open atrium.

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SOCIAL COMPLEX IN ALCABIDECHE The Social Complex was designed by Guedes Cruz Arquitectos in Alcabideche, Portugal. The complex was designed to create a balance between privacy and life in society for the elderly, something that the cultures in the area exhibit. The project is approximately 107,000 square feet and follows a modulation grid of 7.5 meters. There are 52 houses and a support building, all on top of structured parking. The roofs of the houses are raised to permit air ventilation, protection from the sun, and as a nightlight, lighting up the walking paths along side each house in a soft, even amount of light. In case of emergencies among the older residents, there is an alarm that when activated, turns the lights in the roof to red to signify the building.

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The project is excellent at balancing private and public life with the publicly accessible areas between each house that comprises of gardens, yards, trees, benches, and pools. The complex takes place on a slight slope, allowing a diversity of levels among the houses and public spaces.


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TAHITI HOUSING The Tahiti Housing Project is a building built by Kevin Daly Architects in Santa Monica, California. Low income housing is a big problem in Santa Monica, so the project was commissioned by the Community Corporation of Santa Monica, a local non-profit organization. The design is based off of one and two bedroom units, repeated and stacked on top of another and then flipped, so that the courtyard through the middle acts as a symmetry line. Each unit has access to light and ventilation, with a balance of privacy and encouraging community interaction. It was designed to exceed LEED standards, with storm water directed to a water retention and recharge basin. The reservoir sits under a bamboo forest, helping water the plants and creating a central landscape feature. The groves help create a microclimate, enhancing ventilation and cooling the units down. 175


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PROGRAM

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AFFORDABLE ARTIST LIVING

PROJECT STATEMENT The Arts District in Los Angeles is a unique area several blocks east from downtown centered around the first railroads into the city. It hasn’t always been the Arts District, however. Its history ranges from vineyards in LA’s first days to manufacturing in the first half of the 20th century to almost complete abandonment by the 1970’s. As manufacturing left for larger spaces and lower wages, the area become blighted and rents fell to rock bottom. Artists in the city, infamously poor, moved into the abandoned buildings illegally to lower their housing costs as they continued their work. This move was illegal due to the fact that this district was not zoned for residents and the buildings did not meet building codes for residential use. Over time, the cheap rents and gritty art scene attracted enough artists that it drew the attention of the city, which made attempts

This trend has picked up sharply in the 2010’s, gentrifying neighborhoods and districts all over the country, replacing populations with ones of completely different socioeconomic statuses. One of these neighborhoods is the Arts District near downtown Los Angeles. Rents across the Arts District have been skyrocketing for the past several years, displacing up and coming artists with highly successful ones or even individuals with no connection to the Arts District. Rents have gotten to a point where large scale developments are profitable enough to tear down existing context. Artists are notoriously low on money, as the arts are underappreciated and undervalued with large amounts of competition. The area is already not affordable for most artists and if the problem continues to worsen, and there’s plenty of evidence that it will, then there is a real threat to the art district that currently exists. It is possible that the Arts District will continue to be a hub of creativity, but with high costs, the kind of creativity that will exist will be on the high end of the spectrum, not affordable or approachable for most people. To preserve the vibrancy and livelihood of the district, certain developments need to be emphasized to keep residents and tenants in place, such as affordable housing. Affordable housing is typically for people of low income who would otherwise not be able to afford living in an area of the city

to kick artists out. Enough creativity came from the area, which had little other hope for uses at the time, that the city was convinced to pass legislation, the AIR Ordinance, in 1981 to legalize and regulate the artist’s living situations. The area was also officially named the Arts District to help formalize the arts scene taking place. With the area legalized for artists, it helped spur growth of businesses such as cafes and galleries. In the subsequent decades of the AIR Ordinance, the Arts District was successful in giving artists a place to live and work successfully without conflicting interests. As cities across the United States worked on lessening racial divides, slashing crime rates, and universally improving economic opportunities, inner cities started to become habitable again to the average individual in the late ‘90’s and early 2000’s.Density of food, opportunities, transit, resources, culture, and history started to become attractive as crime became less of a burden, bringing in increasingly wealthier individuals into the downtowns of major American cities.

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where the median housing cost or rent is too high. Affordable housing rents are much less than market rate housing rents and often times cities subsidize this cost to help make up for reduced profit for developers. For housing to be considered affordable, we look at the median home price or rent. When 50% of the population can afford a median home price, the market is considered balanced. As that value begins to drop, affordable housing begins to grow in demand and necessity.


For housing to generally be considered affordable for any income, 30% or less of someoneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income can be used for rent and utilities. Affordable housing, in this case, can be taken as the average income of the artists living in the Arts District and surrounding area and rent can be placed at no more than 30% of that number. According to Renthop.com, current monthly median rental costs of studios in the Arts District run at $1,988, one bedrooms at $2,175, and two bedrooms sitting at $2,660. If an individual were to make $15 an hour at 40 hours a week, they take home a monthly income of $2,179 after taxes, making a studio apartment 91% of oneâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s income. If two artists were to split the two bedroom rental, theyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;d be paying 61% of their income each. These estimates are also generous in assuming a high hourly wage at a full time job, which many not be true of all artists in the district. The case has been made for an affordable housing project in the Arts District. For comparison, Santa Monica is a city bordering Los Angeles that is home to wealthy residents and businesses. In Santa Monica, Zillow.com currently lists the average cost of a rental unit at $5,000 a month. If the same individual from above were to live in Santa Monica, the average rent in Santa Monica would be 229% of monthly income or 114% of monthly income of two earners; not close to a 30% affordability at all. The Community Corporation of Santa Monica realizes this and has built multiple projects around the community to help people of lower incomes. Two of these projects were designed by Kevin Daly Architects to help bring lower income residents into the wealthy community. The Broadway Housing and the Tahiti Housing Project by Kevin Daly Architects are both attractive projects that encourage community growth by design. They implement passive design strategies such as natural ventilation, solar gain, materiality, natural flora, and microclimates. Both designs incorporate shared spaces, such as courtyards and playgrounds, underground parking, bridges, and unit entrances that face one another. Affordable and easy to get materials are used, such as concrete, wood, and metal. They are both great examples of how affordable housing can blend into a community as attractive, yet efficient in environmental systems and creating community.

The project will need a concentration of people to build a community, but also to supply profit to a developer. The project is a balance between affordable costs to artists and having an attractive enough income for a developer to take on the project. The chosen site is in the southern portion of the arts district that sits between Mateo Street, Imperial Street, and the northern side of 7th Street. Despite the established popularity of the northern portion of the arts district, it is best to improve a part of the district that is beginning to gain in popularity. The area surrounding the site is home to several bars, cafes, and food, all attractive amenities to residents. 7th Street is a major thoroughfare, providing easy access via car or by bus, as the bus stop is right in front of the site. The area is home to several galleries and creative businesses, providing close access to job opportunities and a creative outlet. In total, the site is large enough to build a community of residents and the area provides jobs and amenities that residents need in order to be happy. The project will, ideally, become a showcase for how affordable housing, with or without artists, can be created in an economical sense while keeping residents and community members in mind by building a sense of community and trust.

While affordable housing is important and in high demand in many American cities, this project in the Arts District is focusing on artists. Affordable artist living will be a project focusing not just on the ability for artist to afford living costs, but to spur creativity between residents of the project. The design of the facility will help facilitate community growth, increasing the comfort of residents and allowing them to build relationships that will ideally foster creativity among the residents after interacting with one another. 180


PROJECT AVATARS Avatars are those who are expected to live in the Affordable Artist Living complex. By estimating their needs and wants, it can help design and plan for a better building.

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Gallery Owner

Chef Gardener in a Studio Apartment

Sculpture in a Live/Work Apartment

Elizabeth Collins owns an art gallery in a rented space under the Affordable Artist Living complex. It is a good location for her business, drawing on the connections and expertise of the artists living above her and in the Arts District while operating a space on busy 7th Street. She has the corner gallery, doubling her window space compared to the neighboring gallery, which is owned by a friend of hers. She has no employees and instead relies on her friends as volunteers during showings. The space is large enough for about 15-30 pieces on the walls, has a unisex bathroom, and a small office for her work and planning.

Shaun Cain is a chef of a restaurant in downtown LA, serving up a variety of unique takes on familiar dishes. The creativity involved with combining ingredients and how it is served allows him to live in the Affordable Artist Living complex, despite him not having a skill in the basic arts. His cooking skills don’t stop at work and he prepares meals regularly for her friends in his one bedroom apartment on the 4th floor. The complex allows residents to maintain some garden space, but while the zoning allows only low-water flora, there is not a restriction on plants that provide food or spices, so he is able to grow most of her vegetables and herbs himself. Most of the complex is publically accessible, so the gardens that grow resident’s foods require a number password to access, which he understands.

Terry Lyons lives in one of the Live/Work apartments in the Affordable Artist Living complex. He has 5 other flat mates and everyone has their own bedroom, but they share two bathrooms, the living room, the kitchen, and the workspace. Terry was nervous about sharing space with people he didn’t know, but the rent was affordable and he needed work space to sculpt. There is room in the workspace for everyone to have 2-3 desks, enough space to work on a couple of projects at once. While his flat mates are not sculptures, he is still impressed with their work in other mediums. Terry maintains some part-time work around LA do afford rent and parks his car in the garage in the basement level, taking the elevator to his floor on days he’s tired.

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Store Employee at Pizzanista!

Nearby Resident

Painter in a Studio Apartment

Jeff Simmons works in Pizzanista! at 2019 E 7th St in the LA Arts District. He cooks pizzas on an almost daily basis, working about 35 hours a week there. Business continued as usual as the Affordable Artist Living complex went up and around his work place, despite the months of construction. Many more artists visit the pizza shop now, providing Jeff with interesting conversations about their work and life in the Arts District, as he commutes in from nearby East Los Angeles. Jeff now visits artists behind his work regularly, becoming interested and inspired by their work. He thinks he may take up some pottery classes soon.

Josephine Gonzales works as an accountant at a small firm in downtown LA, but she lives in the Arts District in one of the converted lofts. She enjoys the arts as a way of escaping from her job of numbers, a main reason for moving to the district despite her lack of creative skill. Her involvement in events and activities has led her to make a couple of friends in the Affordable Artist Living complex on 7th Street. She occasionally walks over to the complex to meet up with her friends, sometimes hanging out in their courtyard or in their studio apartments. She’s even read her book on their rooftop once or twice. Her job doesn’t allow her to apply to live in the complex, but that doesn’t stop her from enjoying the public spaces.

Terry Lyons lives in one of the Live/Work apartments in the Affordable Artist Living complex. He has 5 other flat mates and everyone has their own bedroom, but they share two bathrooms, the living room, the kitchen, and the workspace. Terry was nervous about sharing space with people he didn’t know, but the rent was affordable and he needed work space to sculpt. There is room in the workspace for everyone to have 2-3 desks, enough space to work on a couple of projects at once. While his flat mates are not sculptures, he is still impressed with their work in other mediums. Terry maintains some part-time work around LA do afford rent and parks his car in the garage in the basement level, taking the elevator to his floor on days he’s tired.

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Business Owner in a 2 Bedroom Apartment

Janitor & Maintenance

Russell Cox was one of the first to buy into the two bedroom units on the top floor of the Affordable Artist Living complex. While he or his wife are not involved in any creative arts or business, he owns one of the bars in the Arts District. It was important for him to be closer to where he works and to help him understand how the district is doing to better serve his customers. His ten year old daughter, Abigail, has enjoyed the move, playing in the courtyard of the building and making friends with local artists. Abigail has started painting due to the influence of the neighbors, which Russell and his wife encourage, seeing creativity as an important path of growth in their child.

Nadine Lloyd works as the janitor and basic maintenance for the apartment complex. Her workspace is in one of the towers that connect the residents to the ground with elevators and stairs. Her daily tasks involve keeping clean the courtyard, walkways, stairs, elevator, and rooms for the tenants, like the laundry room and rentable room. She can carry out basic maintenance in categories such as plumbing, electrical, and walls or paint, while being the go-to for calling in more advanced repair. Her â&#x20AC;&#x153;officeâ&#x20AC;? is not hard to find with her name outside the door. Tenants are comfortable asking for help and when she is too busy, they can schedule a time for her to help them.

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PROGRAMMING Examining the precedent studies, Arts District, and site requirements, the following spaces have been deemed necessary for the Affordable Artist Living.

RESIDENTIAL 60 Studio Units 500 ft2 each (30k) 12 One & Two Bedroom Units 900 & 1200 ft2 each (16.2k) 4 Shared Live/Work Units 2,100 ft2 each (8.4k)

PUBLIC 4 Stores 3,000 ft2 each (12k) Central Courtyard 10,000 ft2 Circulation 12,450 ft2

SUPPORT Laundry 600 ft2 ~30 Parking Spaces 11,000 ft2 Bike Parking 600 ft2 Resident Gardens 2,100 ft2 Superintendent Living 900 ft2 Trash Room 300 ft2 Maintenance Room 600 ft2 Meeting Room 300 ft2 Public Room 800 ft2 Delivery Zone 800 ft2

TOTAL: 106,450 ft2

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PROGRAM SIZE RELATIONSHIPS RESIDENTIAL

SUPPORT

PUBLIC

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PROGRAM RELATIONSHIPS The relationships between all of the building spaces depend primarily on their connection the central courtyard, with the courtyard being the primary means of access for residents.

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RESIDENCE LAYOUTS There are three distinct residence types in the complex. Studios and Live/Work are for artists, while the bedrooms are for any type of resident.

Studio x60

1 Bedroom x9

2 Bedroom x6

Live/Work x4

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PROGRAM DESCRIPTION These are the room type descriptions to get a better idea of the purpose of each one and their characteristics and qualities to keep in mind during the design process.

RESIDENTIAL Studio Apartment

One resident, or two with a shared bed, are able to live in the studio apartment after qualifying as someone with a creative talent or job. Only 2 spaces are necessary, one being the bathroom and the other being an open plan with the bedroom, living room, kitchen, and dining sharing the same space with access to a closet. The height of the unit should offset the small space so it does not feel too cramped. The Art District should be introduced into the units, either by color, texture, or style. The unit should be designed in a way that embraces the courtyard and/or walkways.

One Bedroom

One resident, or two with a shared bed, are able to live in the one bedroom apartment. Qualification of an artistic job is not required. Necessary spaces include a bedroom, a bathroom connected to the living and bedroom, a closet, living room, and kitchen. The Art District should be introduced into the units, either by color, texture, or style. The unit should be designed in a way that embraces the courtyard and/or walkways.

Two Bedroom

Up to four residents, two to a room with a shared bed, are able to live in the two bedroom apartment. Qualification of an artistic job is not required. Necessary spaces include two bedrooms, two bathrooms, with one connected to the living and a bedroom, two closets, a living room, and a kitchen. The Art District should be introduced into the units, either by color, texture, or style. The unit should be designed in a way that embraces the courtyard and/or walkways.

Live/Work

Six residents are assigned to each Live/Work Residence, one to each bedroom. They must individually qualify with a creative skill or job to be accepted. Necessary spaces include the 6 bedrooms, each with a closet, two bathrooms, a living room, a kitchen, and a work space large enough for every resident. The Art District should be introduced into the units, either by color, texture, or style. The unit should be designed in a way that embraces the courtyard and/or walkways.

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PUBLIC Courtyard

The courtyard is the most important feature of the Affordable Artist Living complex. The goal of the courtyard is to unite the residents together and create a sense of community. It is a publically accessible space that should be viewable from most units and should require most residents to walk through or above the courtyard in order to access their apartment. Residents should be able to easily view the space while being shielded from prying eyes in the courtyard. A diversity of space should be made, including softscape and hardscape, open and closed, intelligently lit at night, and include plenty of seating. It is directly accessible via all three streets, resident stairs, and the underground garage. Natural flora is important and the Arts District should be introduced by color, texture, or style.

Circulation

Circulation will be almost entirely publicly accessible to enhance the creation of community. Certain calming measures should be designed in order to enhance the feeling of safety and to encourage a peaceful environment. The circulation should be diverse but straightforward, creating a couple of key paths that each occupant is able to use to get to their home, but not overwhelm the inhabitants or waste space.

Stores

Other than the Pizzanista! shop and a bar next door, the remaining two existing buildings will be converted into retail or restaurant space, with an additional two stores built, one or both to serve as small gallery spaces that can be rented out to locals to showcase their work. The diverse options on site will help encourage the sense of community as a place of living, play, shopping, and work.

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MASSING The Affordable Artist Living complex follows the courtyard approach from precedent studies. The goal is to build community by encouraging residents to interact with one another. This interaction will likely lead to increased creativity output, as artists can work with one another and offer advice and inspiration. A majority of the complex will be floating above the ground for two reasons; one is to keep the existing context free from interference and the second is to allow a better sense of openness and freedom for the courtyard.

191

The vertical circulation sits on the corners and will primarily be the means of structure between the residents and the ground. Two additional businesses will be placed to fill in gaps between existing context.

Circulation Studios Units Live/Work Units Bedroom Units New Businesses


GROUND FLOOR MASSING The ground floor is the primariy public space where building residents can mingle with residents, customers, and professionals from the surrounding neighborhood. There is an access point to each street in order to enhance connection to the surrounding context. The western entry point allows vehicles to park under the complex and deliver goods for the stores. Residents moving in can use the underground entry to move in furniture or artwork. The center courtyard will bring in light and greenery for the residents.

Circulation New Businesses Courtyard

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PUBLIC VS PRIVATE The residential units will be private, only allowing access to the tenant renting the space and the on-site superintendent and maintenance worker, with permission. Circulation, both vertical and horizontal will be public or semi-public to help encourage the feeling of community. There is a delicate design balance to create that feeling while also ensuring a level of safety to the residents.

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Public Private


LONGITUDINAL URBAN SECTION This section runs east to west and shows the relationship between the east and west wings and the courtyard in-between them. The garage is built under the courtyard and will give underground delivery access to the stores on the groundlevel.

Circulation Studios Units Bedroom Units New Businesses Courtyard

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Circulation Studios Units Live/Work Units Bedroom Units New Businesses Courtyard

TRANSVERSE URBAN SECTION The section runs north to south and shows the relationship between the north wing and the south wing and how they both hover above the ground and existing context.

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U.S. Geological Survey California Water Science Center. "California's Central Valley." California's Central Valley. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://ca.water.usgs.gov/projects/central-valley/about-central-valley.html. Pg 13-14, 17-20

Goldenberg, Suzanne. "The Central Valley Is Sinking: Drought Forces Farmers to Ponder the Abyss." The Guardian. November 28, 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2015/nov/28/ california-central-valley-sinking-farmers-deepwater-wells. Pg 13-14, 17-20

"Colorado River Timeline - Water Education Foundation." Colorado River Timeline. 2016. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.watereducation.org/aquapedia/colorado-river-timeline.

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Pg 13-14, 17-20

Fleck, John. "What Seven States Can Agree to Do: Deal-Making on the Colorado River." Rural West Initiative. August 03, 2012. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://web.stanford.edu/group/ruralwest/cgi-bin/drupal/content/ what-seven-states-can-agree-do-deal-making-colorado-river. Pg 13-14, 17-20

History.com Staff, Staff. "Hoover Dam." History.com. 2010. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.history. com/topics/hoover-dam. Pg 13-14, 17-20

United States. National Park Service. "San Gabriel SRS." National Parks Service. July 03, 2009. Accessed December 02, 2016. https://www.nps.gov/pwro/sangabriel/studyarea.htm. Pg 13-14, 17-20

"About Watersheds ÂŤ City of Los Angeles Stormwater Program." City of Los Angeles Stormwater Program. March 19, 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.lastormwater.org/about-us/about-watersheds/. Pg 13-14, 17-20

"The Los Angeles River Watershed." The River Project. 2011. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.theriverproject.org/learn/know-your-watershed/the-los-angeles-river-watershed. Pg 13-14, 17-20

Kirchner, Lauren, Amanda Zamora, and Abrahm Lustgarten. "California's Drought Is Part of a Much Bigger Water Crisis. Here's What You Need to Know." ProPublica. June 27, 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016. https:// www.propublica.org/article/california-drought-colorado-river-water-crisis-explained. Location Facts Pg 13-14, 17-20

History.com Staff, Staff. "Los Angeles Aqueduct." History.com. 2010. Accessed December 02, 2016. http:// www.history.com/topics/los-angeles-aqueduct. Pg 13-14, 17-20

"Water and Power Associates Informing the Public about Critical Water and Energy Issues Facing Los Angeles and California." Water and Power Associates. 2016. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://waterandpower.org/ museum/Construction_of_the_LA_Aqueduct.html. Pg 13-14, 17-20

Austin, Chris. "Colorado River Aqueduct." Maven's Notebook. July 05, 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016. https://mavensnotebook.com/the-notebook-file-cabinet/californias-water-systems/colorado-river-aqueduct/. Pg 13-14, 17-20

Janczyn, George. "A Tour of Hoover Dam and the Colorado River Aqueduct System." GrokSurf's San Diego. May 20, 2013. Accessed December 02, 2016. https://groksurf.com/2013/05/20/a-tour-of-hoover-dam-and-the-colorado-river-aqueduct-system/.

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"The Central Valley Project." Maven's Notebook. July 05, 2015. Accessed December 02, 2016. https://mavensnotebook.com/the-notebook-file-cabinet/californias-water-systems/the-central-valley-project/. Pg 13-14, 17-20

Quinton, Amy. "California's Water Supply, A 700 Mile Journey." Capital Public Radio. October 07, 2013. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.capradio.org/articles/2013/10/07/californias-water-supply,-a-700-mile-journey/.

Regional Transit Pg 15-16

"Expansion & Connectivity." Expansion • XpressWest Website. 2016. Accessed December 02, 2016. http:// www.xpresswest.com/expansion.html. Pg 15-16

"High-Speed Rail Program Maps." Multimedia Maps - California High-Speed Rail Authority. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.hsr.ca.gov/Newsroom/Multimedia/maps.html. Pg 15-16

Sheehan, Tim. "In California's High-speed Train Efforts, Worldwide Manufacturers Jockey for Position." Fresnobee. December 27, 2014. Accessed December 02, 2016. http://www.fresnobee.com/news/local/high-speedrail/article19528899.html.

Zoning History Pg 85

"The E.O.C. Ord's First Map of the City of Los Angeles, Drawn in August 29, 1849 :: California Historical Society Collection, 1860-1960." Accessed December 05, 2016. http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/ref/collection/ p15799coll65/id/12770. Pg 86

Council of the City of Los Angeles, “Ordinance No. 9774.” July 25, 1904. Accessed December 05, 2016. http:// recode.la/sites/default/files/file_attachments/basic_page/OrdNo9774-ResidentialDistricts%28July%2025%20 1904%29.pdf

Gentrification Maps Pg 101-102

"Los Angeles Gentrification Maps and Data." Governing Magazine: State and Local Government News for America's Leaders. Accessed December 05, 2016. http://www.governing.com/gov-data/los-angeles-gentrification-maps-demographic-data.html.

Zoning Information Pg 89-95

"Generalized Summary of Zoning Regulations." Accessed December 5, 2016. http://www.planning.lacity.org/ HousingInitiatives/HousingElement/Final/HEAppendixE.pdf.

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Pg 89-95

“Los Angeles City Zoning Map.” ZIMAS. Accessed December 05, 2016. http://zimas.lacity.org/. Pg 100

Los Angeles Department of City Planning. "Arts District Draft Live/Work Interim Zone." October 30, 2014. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://planning.lacity.org/Ordinances/DraftArtsDistrictLive-WorkOrd.pdf. Pg 96

City of Los Angeles Department of City Planning. "Zoning Information (Z.I.) NO. 2358 River Improvement OVerlay District Ordinance Nos. 183144 and 183145." ZIMAS. August 20, 2014. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://zimas.lacity.org/documents/zoneinfo/ZI2358.pdf. Pg 96

City of Los Angeles. "Capture Community Opportunities." In Los Angeles River Revitalization Master Plan. April 2007. Accessed December 5, 2016. http://boe.lacity.org/lariverrmp/eireis/pdf/07_Chapter_6_Capture_Communities_Opportunities_050107.pdf.

Personal Research Precedents Pg 169-170

“Broadway Housing / Kevin Daly Architects.” ArchDaily. 2014. Accessed November 2016. http://www.archdaily. com/503233/broadway-housing-kevin-daly-architects Pg 170

Hedges, Kris. “2602 BROADWAY.” Kris Hedges. Accessed November 2016. http://www.krishedges.com/professional/2602-broadway Pg 169-170

@dezeen. “Kevin Daly Builds Low-cost Housing Community in Santa Monica.” Dezeen. 2015. Accessed November 2016. https://www.dezeen.com/2015/05/16/kevin-daly-architects-broadway-housing-development-low-cost-santa-monica-california-angled-green-hoods/ Pg 173-174

“Social Complex in Alcabideche / Guedes Cruz Arquitectos.” ArchDaily. 2015. Accessed November 2016. http:// www.archdaily.com/591843/social-complex-in-alcabideche-guedes-cruz-arquitectos. Pg 171-172

“Spectrum Apartments / Kavellaris Urban Design.” ArchDaily. 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www. archdaily.com/787622/spectrum-apartments-kavellaris-urban-design Pg 75-176

“Tahiti Housing.” Kevin Daly Architects. Accessed November 2016. http://kevindalyarchitects.com/projects/ tahiti-housing/

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Problem Pg 122

“Affordable Housing.” US Department of Housing and Urban Development. Accessed November 2016. http:// portal.hud.gov/hudportal/HUD?src=/program_offices/comm_planning/affordablehousing Pg 120

“Apartment Rental Data.” MyApartmentMap. Accessed November 2016. http://www.myapartmentmap.com/ rental_data/ Pg 123

@renthop. “Apartments for Rent.” Renthop. Accessed November 2016. https://www.renthop.com/ Chiland, Elijah. “Mapping the Arts District’s Never-ending Parade of Development.” Curbed LA. 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://la.curbed.com/maps/arts-district-los-angeles-development-map Pg 121

“Los Angeles Rentals.” Craigslist. Accessed November 2016. https://www.craigslist.org/about/sites Pg 122

“Median Household Income by State: A New Look at the Data.” Advisor Perspectives. Accessed November 2016. https://www.advisorperspectives.com/dshort/updates/2016/10/14/median-household-income-by-statea-new-look-at-the-data Pg 121

“Real Estate, Apartments, Mortgages & Home Values.” Zillow. Accessed November 2016. http://www.zillow. com/

Transition Pages Pg 125/126

Kris. “Cool Los Angeles Wallpaper.” Pinterest. 2015. Accessed November 2016. https://www.pinterest.com/ pin/572379433870640503/ Pg 1/2

@craveonline. “Most Deserving Cities For A New NFL Football Team Right Now.” CraveOnline. 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.craveonline.com/culture/784445-deserving-cities-nfl-football-team Pg 117/118

“Santa Ana Living Archives.” CALIFORNIA PALMS APARTMENTS. Accessed November 2016. http://californiapalmsapts.apartmentblogging.com/tag/santa-ana-living/ Pg 124

Schoener, Allon. “The Generational Gentrification of the Los Angeles Arts District.” Cultural Weekly. 2016. Accessed November 2016. http://www.culturalweekly.com/generational-gentrification-los-angeles-arts-district/

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“#vintage, #photography, #camera, #macro, #depth of Field | Wallpaper No. 98080 - Wallhaven.cc.” Wallhaven. Accessed December 2016. https://alpha.wallhaven.cc/wallpaper/98080. Pg 35

Https://www.facebook.com/scoopify.owl/. “10 Best Beaches In California In ‘Best California Beach’ Contest For USA Today.” - Scoopify - Most Viral Stories. 2016. Accessed December 2016. http://www.scoopify.org/10best-beaches-in-california-in-best-california-beach-contest-for-usa-today/. Pg 62

“A Register for Disapproval (Opposition).” Tocubit Is Invisible’s Cubit. 2016. Accessed December 2016. https:// invisiblescubit.wordpress.com/2016/09/26/a-register-for-disapproval-opposition/. Pg 198

“Free Twitter Headers, Author at Free Twitter Headers - Page 37 of 41.” Free Twitter Headers. Accessed December 2016. http://freetwitterheaders.net/author/admin/page/37/. Pg 7/8

“Granite Mountains (California).” Wikimedia Commons. Accessed December 2016. http://commons.wikimedia. org/wiki/Category:Granite_Mountains_(California). Pg 157/158

Judson, Melissa. “Los Angeles Skyline Day Time.” Pinterest. 2015. Accessed December 2016. https://www. pinterest.com/pin/409546159839875222/. Pg 128

@cgd_danismanlik. “Maliyet Yaklaşımı Yöntemi Nedir?” CGD - Cantekinler Gayrimenkul Değerleme Ve Danışmanlık. Accessed December 2016. http://cantekinler.com/sss/maliyet-yontemi-nedir/. Pg 181

“Rechten Bij Huurovereenkomst Bepaalde Tijd.” LegalDutch Blog. 2014. Accessed December 2016. https:// blog.legaldutch.nl/rechten-bij-huurovereenkomst-bepaalde-tijd/. Pg 25

“The Daily Omnivore.” Tumblr. Accessed December 2016. http://pbmo.tumblr.com/page/149. Pg 42

“U.S. Bank Tower (Los Angeles).” Mapio.net. Accessed December 2016. http://mapio.net/o/2019909/. Pg 83/84 & 147/148

“Urban Planning 101 – Block Size.” Postgreen Homes Urban Planning 101 Block Size Comments. Accessed December 2016. http://postgreenhomes.com/urban-planning-101-block-size/. Pg 167

Meeko. “Wood Burning with a Magnifying Glass.” Instructables.com. 2012. Accessed December 2016. http:// www.instructables.com/id/Wood-burning-with-a-magnifying-glass/.

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Profile for Alex Booth

Affordable Artist Housing | Semester 1 Book  

This book is a collection of class research on Los Angeles and the downtown Arts District, along with personal work and research on affordab...

Affordable Artist Housing | Semester 1 Book  

This book is a collection of class research on Los Angeles and the downtown Arts District, along with personal work and research on affordab...

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