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ARCHITECTURE

Studio Air Alexandra Faure 552306 1


Contents.

Pages

Content.

3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12 14-15

Introduction Part A. EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION A.1. Architecture as a Discourse A.2. Computational Architecture A.3. Parametric Modelling A.5. Conclusion Part A A.6. References and Image Credits

16 17 18-23 24-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 36-37 38-39

Part B. EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH B.1. Design Focus B.2. Case Study 1.0 B.3. Case Study 2.0 B.4. Concept Development B.5. Technique: Development B.6. Technique Proposal B.7. Technique: Prototypes B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes B.9. References and Image Credits

41 42-45 46-53 54-57 58-61 62-63 64-65 66-67 68-69

Part C. PROJECT PROPOSAL C.1. Gateway Project: Design Concept C.2. Gateway Project: Tectonic Elements C.3. Gateway Project: Final Model C.4. Algorithmic Sketches C.5. Conclusion C.6. References and Image Credits Learning Objectives and Outcomes References


PART A: Introduction

I spent my first six years in Caracas enjoying the great weather, beaches and piña coladas (without alcohol at the time, little did I know!) Before trading it for Paris. I have to say, growing up in Europe, I had the regular chance to travel around and see marvels. I developed quite early a tendency to visit cities looking up and this allowed me not only to bump into a lot of people on the way but also incredible architecture and details. People don’t look up enough! I’ve grown an interest in sustainable architecture a few years back and I have to say I’m fascinated. I moved to Melbourne two years ago, and am currently a 3rd year Architecture student. I’ve always been more confident with hand drawing and although I’ve came across rhino and parametric design before (through Virtual Environments), my knowledge in software is limited. I see Studio Air as a great opportunity for me to extend my skills in the matter allowing me to experience and explore architecture and design in a completely different and exciting way.

Alexandra Faure

Born in Venezuela in 1992

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EOI I: CASE FOR INNOVATION 5


A.1. Architecture as Discourse

“I propose an understanding of critical architecture in which there are a number of sites: the drawing, text and building; and authors and agents: the architect, building, user and weather.” (1) Architectural theory or discourse is the act of thinking, discussing, and writing about architecture and has been used since Antiquity. The world’s leading architects, architecture schools and many other interested agents follow this practice which takes the form of a dialogue on and about architecture – design, concept, intent, effect - and its relationship with people and environments. During the 20th century, architectural discourse has attained great richness through the increase in publications of books, magazines, and journals on world Architecture, works by architects (including plans and drawings), articles by critics, etc. This has raised, in the broader public, greater awareness, knowledge and understanding about architecture as an important element of their everyday lives. We believe that modern days came hand in hand with a whole range of exciting technologies that are altering the notion of proximity and increasing the creative possibilities that one can achieve in a much shorter time. What this means for architecture is that the number of agents is monumentally increased, which allow us to share

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our knowledge more widely, challenge, critique, and explore always further and in a larger scale. Buildings have meaning and affect us all. The architects’ intentions - in designing them for the particular location, for a specific use, at a particular time, in a distinctive style - all contribute in helping us understand architectural constructions’ impact (esthetic, social, emotional, cultural, functional) (2). To illustrate this we have chosen two architectural works: the proposed design for the Dubai Opera House (yet to be built) and the Brisbane “Turbulent Line”. We will enter the architectural discourse by commenting on some of the characteristics of their design and purposes. The proposal by architect Jean Nouvel for Dubai Opera in the United Arab Emirates is a great example of a design that hasn’t been built but still is of great importance in the world of architecture. Once more, the French architect challenged and explored a number of concepts regarding the manipulation of space, surface, light, shadows, context and atmospheres. Dubai has grown spectacularly in the last few years and made a mark with luxurious and emblematic buildings, yet for the architect many other considerations are critical in this project. “(…) An Opera is an Opera: an allusion to music, to rhythm... A reference to the rhythms of the past... An invitation to discovery... A


Left - Dubai Opera. Architect: Jean Nouvel Location: Dubai Year: 2005 Status: Unbuilt

Right - Turbulent Line. Architect: Ned Kahn, UAP and Hassel Architecture Location: Brisbane Domestic Airport Car Park Year: Completed in 2011 Ned Kahn

mystery programmed.” says Jean Nouvel (3). He considers the emotion that the building needs to convey and how it will meet its function of inspiring and inviting us to the musical voyage. Movement, change and time are also constant elements in Nouvel’s designs, where he endeavours to create effects of contrast or connection in the sequence of spaces through which one passes (Integrative Architecture). The kinetic facade of the Brisbane domestic airport car park is a great example of responsive architecture. This large-scale design captivates passers-by and users alike with its esthetic and integrative considerations. Outwardly, the façade creates a direct connection between the built and natural environments, as its 250 000 aluminium vertical hanging panels respond to the wind and its fluctuating patterns, producing an organic visual effect. The reflecting light from the gentle waves of the Brisbane River adds to the effect enhancing this iconic site. On the inside of the car-park sunlight filters through the moving elements of the kinetic façade, projecting interesting patterns onto the walls and floors with a captivating effect. Natural ventilation is one other practical environmental benefits of the design (4). The use of kinetics in this design integrates the human and the environmental dimensions, blending the movement of materials and natural elements in interactive play. It is our wish to explore and create a structure responding to the evolving needs of the individuals and social groups of Wyndham while including environmental demands that spurs motivation to make effective use of new emerging technologies such as Responsive and Interactive Architecture.

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A.2. Computational Architecture

The building of algorithmic thought

The use of computation is changing traditional understandings of the practice of architecture. Architects are currently developing new digital tools and technologies that multiply possibilities for the processes of designing, manufacturing and building. What is computation? Is it the same as computerization? These terms need to be clearly defined as they have distinct meanings. Computerization is the act of digitizing designs and procedures that were conceived in the mind of the designer or architect (example: Frank Gehry). Computation, on the other hand is utilizing digital technologies in order to conceive designs, solve architectural puzzles or dilemmas and create new building technologies (5). Here computers are seen as extensions of the architect and his competencies in dealing with complex calculations. Advocates of computation argue that it allows them more time for creative reflection on given projects, and that through computational methods, architects may focus more on the intent of the design and thus use, create and adapt the digital tools to achieve their wanted outcome and intent - in other words using computation as a design method (6). Reported positive outcomes of architectural computation methods and software are: a gain in efficiency and control in the design process, a marked reduction in the cost of design changes, shown by research studies (Paulson’s curve and MacLeany’s

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curve) (7) (8), and the facilitation of the sharing of codes, workflows, tools, algorithms and ideas by practitioners through important online forums such as the Grasshopper community for example (9). Some perceived limitations of the computation design method in Architecture are: 1. we want to conceive and create the design we desire to produce and this requires creative thinking not only analytical processing; 2. for digital software to assist it is necessary to “feed” the multiple elements for the design as well as their interrelation to each other into a digital tool; and 3. any major changes are still difficult to implement once the process of the design is advanced because of the interrelationship of the multiple parameters to be considered. Computation has affected the design and construction industries by separating the two processes in the sense that one can test the viability of a design and chosen materials virtually, before going into the process of construction (10). We believe that the development of computational simulation tools may support us in creating a responsive design for the city of Wyndham by allowing us to explore new design possibilities and analyze more accurately architectural decisions during the design process. Ultimately, as Mark Burry said: “Design is the mapping of an idea through an intended outcome.” (11)


Luke Novotny with Peter Ung were awarded the AIA 2009 Partridge Partners Awards acknowledging their UTS Masters project undertaken in the Computational Media course.

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A.3. Parametric Modeling

The current ongoing discourse in Architecture on parametric modelling and scripting cultures focuses on the use of parametric computation software in the design process and the different kinds of scripts – or languages – used to have the software programs execute tasks. The dialogue centres on the advantages and disadvantages of using parametric modelling in the design process and the benefits of scripts. Parametric considerations have always been used in the conception and construction of buildings as the essential mathematical tool for calculation of forces and vectors. The ‘new’ element in the equation is computer science, or computation, and by parametric modelling, we refer to the use of digital software used to design architectural works. Although architectural software initially essentially copied what designers used to do manually, new software and scripting programs today are adding to the creative process, by allowing the user to mould software to his or her specifications and enable them to shape the possibilities generated (12) while being inspired by them too. Computation brings many advantages to the design process, including a gain in efficiency and control in the design process, and the enablement of the sharing of codes, tools, and ideas among architects and designers, as new technologies continue to develop at great speed. In parametric modelling the starting point may not be the final form a design might end up taking, but rather the essential parameters and the

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scripts used to explore potentials and patterns of a project. This design process allows for a range of surprising possibilities and innovative outcomes (13). There are some drawbacks in the use of parametric modelling and scripts in architectural designing. One example is the difficulty in making any modifications once the process is advanced, as parametric modelling can be seen as an electronic circuit, and changing one single parameter causes a chain of consequences. Also it may be hard to pick up a project where a colleague has left off - should it be necessary – because we would not have the same insight into “his” parametric model. We can underline this limit by looking at the the FLUX installation made in California College of the Arts in San Francisco. Although this installation was a success, the small-scale project presents a relatively complex Grasshopper parametric model. This brings us to reflect on the complexity a parametric model would have on a much larger scale say that of a skyscraper. Another limitation is the difficulty encountered in evaluating and choosing from the very numerous alternatives automatically generated. In conclusion, it seems critical to the survival of architecture as a creative discipline to engage in new technologies and innovative discourses (14) and this requires that programming be taught in architectural training courses. Parametric modelling still requires a high level of creativity and precision to reach optimal


Left - Eco-valley Architect:Surbana Urban Planning Group Location: Tianjin, China Year: 2011 Status: Expected to be completed in 2020

Right - FLUX: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape Architect: CCA Architecture/MEDIAlab Location: California College of the Arts, San Francisco Year: 2009 Grasshopper definition by Andy Payne

results, with the architect deciding both the relationship of parameters and the final design for his or her creation. In my opinion Tianjin’s eco-city master plan is a great example of positive use of parametric modelling. The Singapore-based firm Surbana Urban Planning Group used this method to develop a responsive and sustainable scheme for the city. The design presents different ranges of urban development (from high density areas to smaller ones), a great level of ecological concern and incorporates public transport infrastructure and passive energy devices. Parametric modelling made such a big project possible in a much more shorter period of time allowing for virtual creative speculation and technical testing. We believe that by using Grasshopper and a number of plugins such as Arduino, Firefly and Kangaroo our team will design and create an incredible and carefully planned contemporary installation reflective of the inhabitants of Wyndham City.

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Conclusion Part A

Left - Dermoid

Architect: Daniel Davis Date: 2011

Right - Smithsonian Institution

Architect: Foster + Partners Location: Washington DC Date: 2007

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Computation and parametric modelling as we know it today, is a new way of approaching architecture. By giving architects more control and efficiency over the design process, it allows them to spend more time on creative speculation, evaluate more accurately the possible outcomes and thus create more responsive designs. Although computer software have their limits, they can be overcome by learning how to build the right tools, synthesize problems in parameters and algorithms and adapt them along the way when needed, to achieve the desired intent. Using such a method, my group and I intend to explore and develop and exciting solution for the Gateway design challenge that will incorporate responsiveness to the historical and physical context of Wyndham City. So far in this course, I have learnt about new debates on architecture and have gained interest on the exciting and infinite possibilities that go along with such technologies. I have developed an understanding of these new theories, tools and methods and would have happily used them in previous projects if my knowledge at the time would have been clearer. I’m looking forward to learn more on the matter and incorporate it in the search for design of the Wyndham City’s Gateway project.


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REFERENCES (1) Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, pp. 51.

(2) Fox, Michael and Kemp Miles (2008). ‘Interactive Architecture’ (Princeton Architectural Press) <http:// www.ruairiglynn.co.uk/teaching/images/e/eb/Introduction_to_Interactive_Architecture.pdf> [Accessed 16 August 2013]

(3) Nouvel, Jean (2005) ‘Dubai Opera’ accompanying statement. <http://www.jeannouvel.com/english/ preloader.html> [Accessed 16 August 2013]

(4) Urban Art Projects, ‘Turbulent Line’ accompanying statement. <http://www.uap.com.au/assets/Up-

loads/Art-Projects/Brisbane-Domestic-Terminal-Car-Park/B1060ABDTX-Car-parkA3.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013]

5) Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 - 15.

(6) Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture’s New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25.

(7)Dr Aziz, Zeeshan (2007). Integrated Design and Delivery Systems (Orbee Learning Package), p18. < http://www.orbee.org/images/5cc-resource-files/1316961145_ORBEE%20Lecture%20Notes.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013]

(8) Seibert, LJ, Seppanen, PJ, Kunz, JC and Paulson, BC (1996) ‘Value-Added Assessment of Construction Plans’, CIFE Technical Report #110, Stanford University.

<cife.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/TR110.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013]

(9) Brady, Peter (2013) Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56 - 61

(10) Kolarevic, Branko, Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press, 2003), pp. 28 - 62.

(11) Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71.

(12) Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71.

(13)Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp7-22.

(14) Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71.

(15) “Tianjin Eco-City / Surbana Urban Planning Group”, article retrieved from ArchDaily <http://www.

archdaily.com/102887/tianjin-eco-city-surbana-urban-planning-group/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_

medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ArchDaily+%28Arch+Daily%29> [Accessed 17 August 2013] (16) “FLUX: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape”, article retrieved from MATSYS <http://matsysde-

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sign.com/2009/06/25/flux-architecture-in-a-parametric-landscape/> [Accessed 18 August 2013]


IMAGE CREDITS Fig 1 Dubai Opera by Jean Nouvel, retrieved from <http://www.jeannouvel.com/english/preloader.html> Fig 2 Turbulent Line by Ned Kahn, UAP and HAssel Architecture, retrieved from <http://www.uap.com.au/ assets/Uploads/Art-Projects/Brisbane-Domestic-Terminal-Car-Park/B1060ABDTX-Car-parkA3.pdf> Fig 3 Research around computational media by Luke Novotny with Peter Ung, retrieved from <http://technicart.org/?page_id=195> Fig 4 Tianjin Eco-City by Surbana Urban Planning Group, retrieved from < http://www.archdaily.com/102887/tianjin-eco-city-surbana-urban-planning-group/?utm_source=feedburner&utm_ medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ArchDaily+%28Arch+Daily%29> Fig 5 FLUX Installation: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape by CCA Architecture/MEDIAlab, retrieved from <http://matsysdesign.com/2009/06/25/flux-architecture-in-a-parametric-landscape/> Fig 6 FLUX Installation: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape - Grasshopper definition by Andy Payne, retrieved from <http://matsysdesign.com/2009/06/25/flux-architecture-in-a-parametric-landscape/> Fig 7 Dermoid by Daniel Davis, retrieved from <http://www.danieldavis.com/dermoid/> Fig 8 Smithsonian Institution, by Foster + Partners, retrieved from <http://www.egodesign.ca/en/article. php?article_id=506>

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EOI II: DESIGN APPROACH 16


B.1. Design Focus

As priorities change and people are becoming more and more aware of the negative effects they have on the planet, the â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;greenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; era is setting in. People want sustainability, in their architecture as much as in their lifestyle. We are in need of creating flexible and adaptive design solutions. Buildings and installations can be conceptualized as adaptable living organisms (1) The Wyndham city project requires a dynamic and responsive architecture, an architecture that will symbolically reflect the cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s social growth. Using environmentally responsive parametric architecture to design the gateway seems like the ideal approach. After doing some research on responsive designs, we came across really interesting tessalated responsive projects. To understand how they work better we decided to focus our search on this particular theme as a start point.

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B.2. Case Study 1.0 Algorithmic Exploration - Tesselation

Tessellation is based upon the organization of elements through a repetitive pattern, as the elements are arranged in such a way that there are no gaps, nor overlaps. These forms can be seen in architecture, where architects use standardized tessellated patterns to provide a simpler construction technique. Tessellation can be used to improve aesthetics in architecture that uses digital design technologies. The process of repetitive linking of elements has been reintroduced with design technologies which allow for instant formulation and modification of patterns. This creates a base for large-scale exploration of tessellated forms (2). The problem with tessellation is that its repetitive nature can lend it to uninspired and overly-simplified designs: the brick wall is a classic example. Therefore, the architect must bend the rules of tessellation to fit his/her own design rather than just blindly use the repetitive pattern as a tool for fast construction. If we decided to research tessalation as a start point it was in the hope of being able to control it very well and apply other responsive and kinetic parameters and goals onto it later on in this project.

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Fig 1 Voussoir Cloud, by Iwamoto Scott.

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B.2. Case Study 1.0 Algorithmic Exploration - Tesselation Original shape

Eleven points

Original shape. Five points. -5.5 long, 0.638 wide

Sixteen points

Eight points

Five points. 0.255 wide

New curve, -10.00 length

Points arranged all on one side

Ten points arranged inside curve, one point out. -20.25 long, 0.275 wide New curve. Different arrangement for points. -18.74 long 20

Back to second curve used, same point arrangement as it seems it would suit more said shape

Back to previous curve, three points arranged far apart

-22 long, 0.551 wide

Four points. 0.171 wide.

New shape, same arrangement


Seven points

Addition of point in centre -23.50 long, o.180 wide

-9.5 long

New shape (site A contour line), three points Five points

0.321 wide Twelve points

0.638 wide New shape, points on extremities Twenty-four points Seven points 0.124 wide Eleven points 21


Algorithmic Exploration

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â&#x20AC;&#x153;Not all those who wander are lost.â&#x20AC;?

J.R.R. Tolkien

Exploring tessalation was interesting in the sense that our team was able to familiarize itself with new tools and methods for improving our design outcomes. It also made us realize after applying the definition to the outline of site A (bottom of the left page) thatsuch structures, even just as a base for kinetic elements is not what we were looking for. We had to refine our design focus. It was decided to look for something that presented a less static and more fluid overall shape, a structure capable of continually shifting and evolving, thus creating a unique and personal experience for the audience each time there is interaction. For such an outcome to take place, we need to create shapes capable to achieve these at a fast pace. Researching wind and its use in architecture and design seemed to be the next step.

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B.3. Case Study 2.0 Reverse Engineering of The Technorama Facade

In Ned Kahn’s Technomara Façade, built in Switzerland in 2002, we can see how responsive structures are able to react and adapt, to a certain extent, to their natural environment. The structure’s hinged panels are actually following the movement of the wind thus making it visible(3). This structure is still a “simplified” version of responsive architecture given that the responsiveness is limited to aesthetics and serves no other function. A better and more complex example is Kahn’s Firefly, a more recent work. The hinged panels in this piece trigger small red lights as they swing, thus creating a self-illuminating façade and a higher level of sustainability. This makes the structure highly relevant in current architectural discourse. The key element in both these designs is wind. Wind is of course highly unpredictable and uncontrollable, and the works’ need to react to this element makes their development nearly impossible without scripting.

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B.3. Case Study 2.0

Reverse Engineering of The Technorama Facade

Kahnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s work sets precedents which have led to the development of naturally responsive materials that go beyond aesthetic purposes; into functionality. In order to fully understand his designs and their inherent complexities we reverse engineered the Technorama facade. His work inspired our own future endeavors as designers, even much so as we wanted to take this principles further. In doing such, it assessed us in our quest for a responsive installation in the context of Wyndam Gateway project.

IMPUT

SYSTEM

SQUARE GRIDS

END POINTS

WEBCAM

AVERAGE MOVEMENT VECTOR

OUTPUT

BOX RECTANGLE ROTATE

GEOMETRY

DISTANCE

Algorithmic Definition

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Initial Grid Panel

Panels Rotation

Refined Grid Panel

Panels Connection

Point of Rotation 27


B.4. Concept Development

Throughout this research, our group developed a real interest in air, as a force but also as an unlimited resource one can use in architectural design mechanisms. We came across projects such as A Hundred and Eight, an interactive wall-mounted structure made out of garbage bags. Through the use of a micro-controller and two cooling fans, each bag inflates and deflates in sequences. As it reacts dynamically to the viewers’ motion, it creates the impression of lively and moving creatures and a unique experience for each person interacting with the structure; a feeling we want to recreate in our design. As the Wyndham Gateway is along a highway, the main audience will be motorists driving past. This means our structure not only needs to react at a fast speed but also in a visible manner; the latter is lacking in Khan’s Technorama. We then looked at more simple concepts such as Air Dancers. These inflatable devises present a tube attached to a fan that causes the tube to move in a “dancing” motion. Despite being quite simple, this mechanism, creating a very fast and fluid movement, seemed to be a concept we should explore on.

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B.5. Technique: Development BASE GEOMETRY

LOFTED CURVES

MESH FROM FIRST IMAGE

MESH FROM SECOND IMAGE

POLYLINES

TRIANGULATED SURFACE

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RIGHT MOVEMENT

LEFT MOVEMENT

UPWARD MOVE


EMENT

UPWARD+RIGHT MOVEMENT

UPWARD+LEFT MOVEMENT

The responsiveness of this design means that the long-term goal is to spark a deformation of our installation. We used a webcam to explore this more thoroughly and discovered that an incredibly important factor is the timing of the change in form. In order to ensure that the deformation is timed correctly we have polished the technique, something that is shown in the following diagrams. Rhino3d and Grasshopper algorithms that recognized movement in webcams were used to present the meshes and geometries that make up each diagram. The key was to end up with a geometry that represented the movement in the webcam, and thus was reacting to external forces, and at the same time to develop an efficient algorithm. This is shown step by step in the diagrams. The main goal here is to be able to simulate a car passing through our desin and starting the deformation of our structure in a more natural way than was used in previous experiments where we used a point charge, something that did not give us the natural reaction we were hoping for. At this point, itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s a matter of learning how to control this with more accuracy, which will be possible thanks to computation devices. Using this knowledge we will continue to develop our design concept until it has reached its final, perfect form.

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B.6. Technique Proposal

Our gateway concept is an innovative installation that promotes environmental awareness through responding to different levels of pollution being emitted. The forms will wilt as very polluting vehicles drive past and rise up as less (or non) polluting ones do. Unless other freeway art projects, our design will put the City Council of Wyndham in the forefront of design technology. The form will respond to the environment around it. Rather than being a regular static shape, it will be a forever changing forrest alive and responding to the audience in a personal way. This will create a unique experience, a sense of intrigue and memorability.

Explanatory Diagram HEAD The head of the flower rises and wilts to distinguish between polluting and non polluting cars.

STEM

BEND

The weight of the head causes the Stem to bend when air pressure is reduced.

The plastic tube stem of the flower expand and contracts with air pressure. An increase in air pressure will cause the flower to rise.

BASE

The timber base of the installation maintains the shape of the form.

PUMP 32

An air pump hidden in the base pumps different levels of air into the system.


Sections

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B.7. Technique Prototypes

Being a responsive design, the structure must respond to some sort of external stimulus. Therefore the materials used must be capable of reaction and adaptation to this external stimulus. The idea is to create a flower form that will wilt and rise, depending on whether it is a polluting or non-polluting car driving past. So it is necessary to use an elastic material that will be capable of expansion and contraction when affected by the stimulus, and which can exist in the form of a flower. The following explores the potential materials.

The first material makeup we explored was a plastic bag, formed and held in shape by a spring. Being a very elastic material it responded easily to air that we pumped into and out of it. The material makeup could easily be replicated in full size, as their exist companies such as EVCO plastics and ESSAR steel which produce plastics and steel reinforcing members on a large scale. The plastic bag, however, is not ideal. While it does respond to air being pumped into and out of it, it does not fill evenly with air and thus has bubbles of raised, air-filled plastic and pockets of compressed plastic at the same time.

We then tried to use rubber hoses as a material. We discovered that while the rubber does respond to the water being pumped in and released out, the rubber is too dense and does not rise enough for use in our design. This material is also accessible on a larger scale, at companies like Rosler Tyre Innovations which makes tires for trucks.

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Given the easy accessibility of plastics on a larger scale (at EVCO Plastics, as mentioned earlier) and plasticâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s low density and propensity to respond to the stimulus, we decided to explore plastic tape. The design worked well with the plastic tape, rising and wilting as the air was pumped into and out of it. Now that it has performed on this small scale it must be explored on a larger scale to discover any limitations it may have. These limitations can then be used as parameters in Grasshopper to aid the construction of the final design.

It is not enough to just be confronted once by the design, in order for the design to make an impact the motorists need to be completely immersed in the flower jungle. We used the site model to explore our options regarding this issue. There are two aspects we needed to analyze: the placement of the flowers and their size. It was decided to place flowers on both sides of the highway. Then we considered the size and decided that if the flowers were to make an impact they would have to be taller than any car or trunk driving down the highway. This way the flowers are visible to everyone as they wilt and rise.

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B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes

This project’s goal is to send an environmental message through the use of responsive architecture. It targets specifically car pollution, one of Australia’s main causes of air pollution. 51% of nitrogen oxide emissions and 44% of hydrocarbon emissions are a direct result of car pollution. As polluting cars pass, the form will wilt and as non-polluting cars pass it will rise. The hope is for Wyndham gateway to become more than just a welcoming into a Victorian city: a catalyst for environmental change. Given the current interest in ‘going green’ and the success of other such experiments in the past, this is a realistic hope. One of these past success stories is that of Antanas Mockas, the mayor of Bogota in 1995. His experiment targeted not pollution but traffic offenders, and operated under the impression that Columbians would be more afraid of being mocked publicly than of receiving a fine. The project was a success, with traffic fatalities dropping over 50% in his first term(4).

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REFERENCES (1) Zulas, Alejandro (2004). ‘Adaptable architecture : a computational exploration into responsive design

systems’ (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) <http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/27033> [Accessed on 18 September 2013]

(2) Dale Seymour and Jill Britton (). Introduction to tessellations (Palo Alto, Calif. : Dale Seymour Publications, 1989), pp. 5-25. [Accessed on 18 September 2013]

(3) The Technorama Facade by Ned Khann. <http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/technorama-facade/> [Accessed on 20 August 2013]

(4) A Hunded And Eight, Interactive Instalation by Nils Völker, 2010. < http://www.nilsvoelker.com/content/ onehundredandeight/> [Accessed on 2 October 2013]

(4) Antanas Mockus, Social Experiment in Bogota. < http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2013/ oct/28/antanas-mockus-bogota-mayor> [Accessed on 20 September]

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IMAGE CREDITS Fig 1 Voussoir Cloud, by Iwamoto Scott. Retrieved from http://www.pleatfarm.com/2009/10/14/voussoir-cloudby-iwamotoscott-architecture/> Fig 2 Algorithmic Exploration by Alexandra Faure Fig 3-11 Reverse Engineering of the Technorama Facade by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig 12 A Hundred and Eight Fig 13 Air Dancers by Alexandra Faure Fig 14 Technique development by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig 15 Explanatory Diagram by Grady Peterson Fig 16-18 Sections by Christopher Krambias Fig 19-20 Bag prototype by Christopher Krambias and Grady Peterson Fig 21-22 Rubber Hose Prototype by Christopher Krambias and Grady Peterson Fig 23-24 Plastic Tape Prototype by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig 25-26 Site Model by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig 27 Perspective View, by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure

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PART C: PROJECT PROPOSAL 41


C.1. Design Concept

Refinement of the Concept

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The feedback received during the mid semester presentation was very valuable and motivating. The jury members all agreed in saying that our concept was very strong and that we communicated it vocally very well. Nonetheless, our visual communication skills were weak and the aesthetics of our project were lacking refinement and structural interest. A positive point was that no one criticised us for using parametric modelling in a different way than the norm, that is with functional purposes rather than aesthetic ones. We decided therefore to continue on that journey. In the refinement of our product, Mari Funaki, a japanese artist, was of great inspiration. Her work always presents rigidity, elegance and various thicknesses that overall create a striking effect. As we wanted every aspect of our project to be of relevance to Wyndham, we selected five endangered species of the region as a starting point(1). The structures represent what the Wyndham population would want to protect des-pite its population growth. Using a more traditional method of abstraction, we then began to deconstruct the initial shapes until reaching the aesthetics we were striving for.

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C.1. Design Concept Refinement of the Concept

Black eared minor

Macropus robustus

Eucalyptus aggregata

juncus bassianus

Chelodina longicollis 44


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C.2. Tectonic Development The Individual Products

In Part B we already developed a core construction element that worked in creating the bending movement desired in our model. We decided to go further in this exploration at a 1:10 scale instead of focusing on one portion of it, as it seemed more relevant to our concept. Nonetheless, as discussed previously, we hadnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t reach our aesthetic vision for this project. We wanted something more elegant and rigid than our previous attempts. It was decided to keep the same concept of pumping air through a tube that would inflate and deflate according to the level of pollution emitted by the vehicle passing by, but this time we designed structures based on our deformation of the five species that would surround it so as to control its movement with more accuracy and elegance. The solid forms were divided into several sections that directed the bending movement; the top element being heavier than the rest, thus making sure it would always go in the desired direction. So as to make sure the entire shape wouldnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t collapse, sections were separated from one another slightly. We encountered some issues in this process that could have been overcome with more time. The sections came out thicker than expected from the 3D printing. An overweighted model meant that the bending movement desired was harder to achieve. In order to overcome this difficulty we made sure the model was entirely air tight. Although this only created small improvements, we are confident that with more time a perfectly functional model could have been fabricated and that this system would work at full scale. To do so, it would have to be made of a lightweight composite material and, for aesthetic reasons, a copper surface layer.

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C.2. Tectonic Development

Relationship with audience

As shown in the diagram, the system is triggered by the vehicle passing by. This means that each motorist is specifically targeted in either a positive or negative way depending on the level of pollution their car emits. This elicits a reaction on a personal level as the motorist beomes more aware of his/her actions and their consequences in terms of the environment. There is another layer to this, that of the influence of multiple cars in close proximity. Motorists of non-polluting cars that are in close proximity to polluting cars will be aware of not only their own positive impact on the environment but also of the negative impact of those polluting cars. This means that they will be forced to pay attention to problems that maybe they themselves do not have a hand in, but can still do something to ameliorate.

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C.2. Tectonic Development Relationship with the site

It was decided previously to spread out our five-meter-high structures throughout site A and B so as to create a sensation for the motorists of driving through a forever changing forest. It was a way to communicate our message more strongly. As we developed, refined and tested our ideas and shapes further, we realised that we couldn't place as many as we first planned on the site as a precaution measure. Nonetheless, by placing them carefully the desired effect is still reached. Also, excavating a portion of the site allows the drivers to be able to appreciate the forms in a different perspective.

N SITE A

SITE B zone to excavate

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C.3. Final Models

As we wanted to develop a method easy to replicate on a larger scale, producing our final models was a meticulous and long exercise. We decided to work on a 1 to 20 scale so as to test our design detailing and the overall stability of the structures. We first used parametric modelling tools to produce the models on computer, turned them into surfaces and flattened them. We then did various tests using sheets of paper using a simple folding method; again, so as to make sure it would also be possible at a larger scale. It was a good way of realising any error in the folding patterns. We systematically went back to the computer, fixed them, and re-tested them until we reached satisfying results. We then reproduced them in thin cardboard, which at a larger scale would be replaced by thin sheets of copper using the appropriate welding and bending tools. Flattened surfaces

Paper prototypes

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Final Models

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Final Models

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C.4. Algorithmic Sketches

As discussed previously, instead of using parametric modelling in the usual way, that is to reach form, we had a more functional approach, thus giving more depth and purpose to our project. To assist us in our task we developed two systems: one that would detect movement and trigger the deformation of our forms at the right time and a second that would simulate the entire experience, thus helping us to assure the accuracy of our design. MOVEMENT RECOGNITION Our previous attempts, despite generating interesting results, werenâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t accurate enough for us to base our entire project on. It was decided to go further in the exploration of movement recognition. Using a RM90 camera filter (2) all visible light was blocked out and an infrared light was shunned onto the webcam. This meant that there was only one moving element in the webcam. This approach created substantial improvement. We looked for similar researches and came across Johnny Lee, who found a way to turn any normal screen or projector into a tablet by simply using a small infrared light, his Wiimote Whiteboard Software and a Wii remote(3). The Wiimote tracks movement of an infrared light across a specified plane. His Wiimote Whiteboard Software uses an algorithm to take the results and portray them on the screen. The regularity of his results is evidence that our movement could be used in practice. SIMULATION As it secured the accuracy of our design, it was a great opportunity to understand every aspect of it, test, refine details and always improve our proposal. Various simulations were undertaken regarding the speed of deformation, the bending factor, size of shapes and placement on site. Overall it was also a great way to make sure the sensations we wanted the audience to feel would be provided. It also allowed us to produce a video and share our concept more interactively.gure XV: Infrared Algorithm

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Infrared Algorithm

Recorded Infrated Algorithm

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60 Example of simulation


61 Species Reaction


C.5. Conclusion

Our gateway concept is an innovative installation that promotes environmental awareness through responding to various levels of pollution being emitted by the vehicles passing by. We designed it so as to represent a forever changing forrest, alive and responding to the audience in a personal way. This creates a unique experience for each individual, a sense of intrigue and memorability. It encourages further reflection beyond first glance, thus provoking debates and entering the architectural discourse. The structures are symbolic of what the population of Wyndham would want to protect despite its population growth. Such an installation would put Wyndhamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s council at the forefront of design technology; Wyndhamâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s gateway thus becoming more than just a welcoming to a Victorian city; it would be a catalyst for environmental change.

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REFERENCES (1) Department of Envionment and Primary industries Threatened Species Advisory Lists, 2013. <http://www. dse.vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-species-advisory-lists> [Accessed 12 October 2013]

(2) Vistek <http://vistek.ca/store/CameraFilters/263212/hoya-67mm-rm90-infrared-filter.aspx> [Accessed 19 October 2013]

(3) Johnny Lee, Wiimote. <http://johnnylee.net/projects/wii/> [Accessed 23 October 2013]

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IMAGE CREDITS Fig1 Picasso’s Deconstructed Bull, retrieved from < http://www.teacollection.com/blog/2011/01/20/picassosdeconstructed-bull/> Fig2 Funaki, Mari: Objects at NGV Australia. Retrieved from < http://metalabgallery.blogspot.com.au/2010/08/ mari-funaki-objects-at-ngv-australia.html> Fig3 Black eared minor. Retrieved from < http://www.birdforum.net/opus/Black-eared_Miner> Fig4 Macropus Robustus. Retrieved from <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_wallaroo> Fig5 Eucalyptus aggreqgata. Retreived from < http://www.florama.fr/florama/377/boutique/13156/eucalyptus_aggregata.htm> Fig6

Juncus

Bassanius.

Retrieved

from

<

http://bie.ala.org.au/species/urn:lsid:biodiversity.org.au:apni.

taxon:440070> Frig7 Chelodina Longicollis. Retrieved from < http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/WfHC/Chelidae/Chelodina-longicollisphoto.html> Fig8 Shape Abstraction by Alexandra Faure Fig9-14 Interactive Model by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig15 Explanatory Diagram by Grady Peterson Fig16 Site plan by Alexandra Faure Fig17-18 Site model by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig19 Render by Christopher Krambias Fig 20 Flattened Surface by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig21-22 Paper Model by Grady Peterson Fig23-32 Final Models by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig33-34 Infrared Algorithm by Christopher Krambias Fig35 Species Reaction by Christopher Krambias Fig36 Species Reaction by Alexandra Faure Fig37 Render by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure Fig38 Render by Christopher Krambias, Grady Peterson and Alexandra Faure

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Learning Objectives and Outcomes

Using parametric tools to design was something very new to me. Understanding how to use Grasshopper was therefore pretty hard at first, but I quickly learnt to just keep trying. Although sometimes quite frustrating, exploring the program became quite enjoyable. The readings provided, lectures and development of the EOI made me realise the immensity of what can be achieved through the use of parametric modelling. Having to submit a journal explaining every important step in our journey and various presentations helped me improve both visual and textual communication skills. By providing us with constructive feedback, it also forced our group to always take our concepts further. Working in a group was great, especially when facing new challenges. Together we learnt how to prioritise and divide the workload, increased our knowledge in Rhino, Indesign, Illustrator, Photoshop, how to make use of the FabLab... Overall, this subject was very demanding but we survived AND enjoyed it a lot. Although as discussed earlier this semester mastering such programs takes years of training, my skills using Grasshopper have improved substantially. Knowing how to produce responsive architecture is an incredible skill that I am looking forward to developing in the near future (how about now?).

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REFERENCES Antanas Mockus, Social Experiment in Bogota. < http://www.theguardian.com/public-leaders-network/2013/ oct/28/antanas-mockus-bogota-mayor> [Accessed on 20 September] Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 15. Brady, Peter (2013) Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56 – 61 Burry, Mark (2011). Scripting Cultures: Architectural Design and Programming (Chichester: Wiley), pp. 8 - 71.  CCA Architecture/MEDIAlab (2008-2009) “FLUX: Architecture in a Parametric Landscape”, article retrieved from MATSYS <http://matsysdesign.com/2009/06/25/flux-architecture-in-a-parametric-landscape/> [Accessed 18 August 2013] Dale Seymour and Jill Britton (1989). Introduction to tessellations. (California: Palo Alto: Dale Seymour Publications, 1989), pp. 5-25. [Accessed on 18 September 2013] Department of Envionment and Primary industries Threatened Species Advisory Lists, 2013. <http://www.dse. vic.gov.au/plants-and-animals/threatened-species-and-communities/threatened-species-advisory-lists> [Accessed 12 October 2013] Dr Aziz, Zeeshan (2007). Integrated Design and Delivery Systems (Orbee Learning Package), p18. < http:// www.orbee.org/images/5cc-resource-files/1316961145_ORBEE%20Lecture%20Notes.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013] Fox, Michael and Kemp, Miles (2008). Interactive Architecture. (Princeton Architectural Press), pp. 1-6. <http:// www.ruairiglynn.co.uk/teaching/images/e/eb/Introduction_to_Interactive_Architecture.pdf> [Accessed 16 August 2013] Hill, Jonathan (2006). ‘Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture’, Architectural Research Quarterly. (London: Cambridge Journals),10, 1, pp. 51. Johnny Lee, Wiimote. <http://johnnylee.net/projects/wii/> [Accessed 23 October 2013] Khan, Ned (2002). The Technorama Facade. <http://nedkahn.com/portfolio/technorama-facade/> [Accessed on 20 August 2013] Kirento, Karen (2011). Tianjin Eco-City / Surbana Urban Planning Group”, article retrieved from ArchDaily <http://www.archdaily.com/102887/tianjin-eco-city-surbana-urban-planning-group/?utm_ source=feedburner&utm_medium=feed&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+ArchDaily+%28Arch+Daily%29> [Accessed 17 August 2013] Kolarevic, Branko (2003). Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing (New York; London: Spon Press), pp. 28 - 62. Nouvel, Jean (2005) Dubai Opera, Accompanying Statement. <http://www.jeannouvel.com/english/preloader. html> [Accessed 16 August 2013]

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Seibert, LJ, Seppanen, PJ, Kunz, JC and Paulson, BC (1996) ‘Value-Added Assessment of Construction Plans’, CIFE Technical Report #110, Stanford University. <cife.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/TR110.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013] Urban Art Projects, Turbulent Line, Accompanying Statement. <http://www.uap.com.au/assets/Uploads/Art-Projects/Brisbane-Domestic-Terminal-Car-Park/B1060ABDTX-Car-parkA3.pdf> [Accessed 17 August 2013] Vistek <http://vistek.ca/store/CameraFilters/263212/hoya-67mm-rm90-infrared-filter.aspx> [Accessed 19 October 2013] Völker, Nils (2010) A Hundred And Eight, Interactive Installation. < http://www.nilsvoelker.com/content/onehundredandeight/> [Accessed on 2 October 2013] Woodbury, Robert (2010). Elements of Parametric Design (London: Routledge) pp7-22. Yehuda E. Kalay (2004) Architecture’s New Media: Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press), pp. 5 - 25. Zulas, Alejandro (2004). ‘Adaptable architecture : a computational exploration into responsive design systems’ (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) <http://dspace.mit.edu/handle/1721.1/27033> [Accessed on 18 September 2013]

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552306_AlexandraFaure_ABPL30048  

Final Submission, Studio Air

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